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Masters of Marketing and Communications Dissertation MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY BUSINESS SC !!

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VIR)INIE BERN"D M%%%*+,-%

)REEN .!RLD !R )REEN D!LL"RS# " CUST!MER BE "VI!UR "//R!"C !0 )REEN C!NSUMERISM

Su1er2isor# Mr 3o4n Egan 5ord count# -, &&No2em6er $%%(

/ro7ect su6mitted in 1artia8 fu8fi8ment of t4e Degree of Masters of Marketing and Communications

EXECUTIVE SUMM"RY

The report examines the profitability of the green and ethical food market by investigating customer behaviour. This study focuses on the food market as they are the major retailers in the UK and more likely to establish a standard business model. It shows that customers are willing to express their concern for social and environmental issues through their shopping habits. Firstly it explores food retailers! opportunity in adopting green marketing strategy. "econdly it provides a picture on how customers perceive food retailer strategy ethics and communication. To finish this project assesses the characteristics of an effective green communication for food retailers.

In order to achieve these objectives a #uantitative market research was carried out. $ #uestionnaire was administered to %& people aged from '( to )% years old. The survey was conducted among random shoppers in an attempt to understand barriers and levers of green consumerism and communication. It was designed to figure out whether or not a difference between customer attitude and customer behaviour exists. In addition the #uestionnaire involved an analysis of the efficiency of communication channels and tools to provide information about food products.

The study reveals that the green and ethical market is gaining momentum. It shows a major difference of concern for environmental issues among genders that partly reflects level of involvement in green consumerism. It confirms that customer behaviour is driven by self* interest rather than ethics. The findings also show that many barriers to green consumerism remain in terms of environmental image and product. The research confirmed that more focus

is needed to educate consumers. It sets out consumer needs for transparent and objective information on food retailers! environmental strategy and communication.

The results can also apply to external bodies. In terms of implications for governmental bodies the research shows that citi+ens are highly judgmental and expect governmental actions to be taken. ,anufacturers too need to be aware of customer want for further information on green products. Initiatives coming from manufacturers to help customers make an informed choice are welcome. To finish suppliers need to be aware that they are fully part of the logistic chain of food retailers therefore confronted with the same threats and opportunities in the market.

"C9N!.LED)EMENTS

First of all I would like to give a warm thank you to my supervisor -ohn .gan for his continuous encouragement and advice. I would particularly like to express my gratitude to /livier 0revot who was of precious help through his advice suggestions and1or criticisms. I am deeply thankful for his support. I am also very grateful of all my student colleagues especially 2asher -aber and Karima Ibironke /nitri who I wish all the best in starting their careers. I also wish to thank all those who contributed in any manner to the accomplishment of my dissertation and their willingness to encourage me.

T"BLE !0 C!NTENTS

List of Ta68es

:i;

Introduction and o67ecti2es3333333...3333333333333......... p.4 -: Literature Re2ie5 -:-: T4e green and et4ica8 market333333333333333333... 4.4.'. ,arket si+e33333333333333333333333... p.( p. ( p.<

4.4.4. ,arket definition333333333...33333333333... p.( 4.4.). ,arket share333333333333..3333333333... p.= -:$: T4e actors of t4e green and et4ica8 market3333333333333. 4.'.4. The green shopper33333.333333333333333... 4.'.'. 5etailers333333333333333333333333... p.& p.& p.44

-:;: T4e 6arriers to green communication3333333333333.......... p.4( 4.).4. 6ustomer!s scepticism and confusion 3333333333333. p.4( 4.).'. 7reenwash333333333333333333........................ p.4< $: Market Researc4 $:-: Met4odo8og<3333..333333333...33333333333.. p.4> p.4>

'.4.4. 5esearch design...333333333...33333333333.. p.4> '.4.'. "ampling3333..3...333333...33333333333.. p.'4 '.4.). 8uestionnaire design33...33333...33333333333.. p.'' '.4.(. 9ata collection1process3...33333...33333333333.. p.'( $:$: Limitations3333333..333333...333333333333. p.'<

;: 0indings ).4. ).4.4. ).4.'. ).4.). ).4.(. Resu8ts33333333...33333... 3333333333333... First research #uestion33...33333... 3333333333... "econd 333333333... Third 3333333333.. Fourth 3333333333 research research research

p.'& p.'& p.'& p.)( p.)& #uestion33...33333... p.(4 #uestion33...33333... p.(& p.(> #uestion33...33333... p.%' p.%&

).'. ).'.4. ).'.'.

Discussion33333333333333... 333333333333. First objective3333333333333333333333... "econd objective333333333333333333333.. p.<4 p.%& p.%& p.%> p.<?

;: (.4.

0uture Im18ications and recommendations333... 333333333333.. (.4.4. (.4.'. (.4.). Implications for retailers333333333333333333.. Implications for suppliers1manufacturers333333333333. Implication for governmental bodies3333333333333... (.'. 0urt4er researc433333333333333...3.. 33333333

p.<' p.<) p.<( p.<< p.<& p.4 p.' p.( p.= p.& p.4?

(.'.4. (.'.'. (.'.).

/ther segments1markets333333333333333333... .nvironmental labels33333333333333333333 "hape of the discourse33333333333333333...

Conc8usion33333333333333... 3333333333333.......... "11endices# ta68e of contents3333333...333333...3333333... "11endice "# #uotations3333333333333...33333333........ "11endice B# notes3333333333333...3333333333........ "11endice C# references333333333..3333333333333........ "11endice D# bibliography33333333...333333333333........ "11endice E# external links33333333..333333333333........ "11endice 0 # #uestionnaire3333333.....333333333333........

LIST !0 T"BLES

Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6

UK 7rocery ,arket "hare @ 4' weeks ending '< ,arch '??<33..333 7ender and age of the respondents3333333333...333333 6oncern for environmental issues and climate change333...3333..3 Involvement in green products purchase by gender33333333.....3 .ngagement in helping preserve the environment33333333...3.3 5elation between environmental concern and purchasing of green products3333333333333333333333333.33

p.= p.'& p.'> p.'> p.)?

p.)? p.)4

Table 7 Table 8

0roportion of people who buy green products for environmental reasons3 Aillingness to pay more for environmentally friendly products3333..3333333333333333333333...

p.)' p.)' p.))

Table 9 Table 10 Table 11

The reasons why respondents buy green food products333333...33 ,ost important aspects of food products333333333333..33 Ahat the respondents to whom ethics matters look at first when purchasing a food product333333333333333333333333..

p.)) p.)(

Table 12 Table 13

The type of green products purchased by respondents3333333...3.. Aomen are more likely than men to purchase cosmetics that have environmental benefits333333333333333333...33...

p.)% p.)%

Table 14 Table 15

2odies responsible for causing environmental damage333333333 Aillingness to stop buying from companies who might damage the

environment33333333333333333333333...33 p.)< Table 16 Aillingness to stop stopped buying from companies who might act unethically333333333333333333333333..3... p.)<

Table 17 Table 18 Table 19 Table 20 Table 21 Table 22 Table 23 Table 24 Table 25 Table 26 Table 27 Table 28

2odies responsible for tackling environmental damage33333333... Becessity of laws and regulations on green products333333333... "cepticism towards environmental claims of companies3333333.....

p.)= p.)= p.)&

Aillingness to punish companies that exaggerate their green claims333... p.)> 5easons why companies promote their green credentials33333333. p.)> .thic rates of the most common service providers3333333333... 2arriers to green product consumption333333333333333. Cow respondents would like to receive information on food products333 Dack of knowledge for finding independent information on products33.. "cepticism towards advertising claims333333333333..33... p.(? p.(4 p.(' p.() p.()

Devel of interest in information displayed on product packaging33..33... p.(( Devel of effectiveness of information on packaging in making purchase decisions333333333333333333333333.33... p.((

Table 29

Type of information needed about green food products and involvement in green products purchasing33333333333333333333. p.(%

Table 30 Table 31 Table 32

5eferees for recommendations on food products3333333333..... The most important aspect of a successful environmental campaign333...

p.(< p.(=

Devel of trust of the most common bodies33333333333333 p.(&

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INTR!DUCTI!N There is an unspoken law in businesses that Eyou should always be faster than regulation! in order to protect a business from attacks environmental change and competition. This has again been proved with the recent obesity epidemic. In response to growing concerns on the part of the UK population and the UK government companies have anticipated the need for regulations and become pro*active. $ll food retailers have initiated their own labelling system regarding fat1salt1sugar content :e.g. Tesco road light systems with red1green1yellow to indicate level of toxicity of such products; educating the consumer who is now able to make an informed choice. The same is now happening with in the green and ethical market4.

5ecent years have seen a huge rise in concern related to environmental issues particularly with global warming'. 2usinesses are witnessing the green wave and setting reaction plans. 6ustomers are jumping on the opportunity to shop Fairtrade ) and /rganic( products or to use their own bags when purchasing goods. This behaviour comes along with growing ethical and environmental views and concerns. In such a context green consumerism has emerged as a solution. .thical and green issues are the next biggest challenge that food retailers must con#uer.

,arketing strategists are therefore making a shift towards sustainability by becoming green and ethical. They are driven by the desire to remain competitive and to maintain profitability. This paper offers a picture of the relation between green consumerism and business ethics in environmental context. It first investigates why companies should become green themselves and the reasons why customers choose to become green.

6ommunicating green issues is also challenging. In the mind of the customer companies are seeking profitability rather than sustainability. Food retailers have to challenge themselves and genuinely communicate their green credentials or they will fail. ,ore than just becoming green itself they have to consider barriers such as scepticism%. The second aim of this paper is to find ways for food retailers to improve their environmental communication and build up a better environmental image.

This paper also has implications for governments aiming to design laws for green products and1or set*up a communication plan. Bational governments and ministers are seen by citi+ens as at fault and need to justify their actions in front of the electorate. There is a strong level of expectation from consumers to see the government tackling environmental damages. The findings might help governmental and independent bodies to communicate environmental issues effectively.

!B3ECTIVES "ND RESE"RC

=UESTI!NS

!67ecti2e -# Identif<ing t4e reasons 6e4ind consumers> c4oice for green food consum1tion 54F Ahat are customers! attitudes and behaviours towards environmental issues and green product habitsG 5'F Ahat are the reasons why food retailers should adopt a green marketing strategyG

'

!67ecti2e $# Identif<ing t4e 6arriers and incenti2es to food retai8ers communicating green food to consumers 5)F Cow customers currently perceive food retailers strategy ethics and communication in the current environmental and ethical contextG 5(F Cow can food retailers increase consumer trust of their environmental image and green productsG

-: -:-:

LITER"TURE REVIE.

T E )REEN "ND ET IC"L M"R9ET

-:-:-: M"R9ET DE0INITI!N

)reen Marketing

$ whole range of terms describe the relationship between the marketing activity of a company and its natural environment such as environmental marketing ecological marketing societal marketing sustainable marketing :Fuller 4>>>; greener marketing and green marketing :0eattie 4>>';. .ven if the definitions slightly vary from one concept to another they all represent a form of marketing that seeks progress towards sustainability.

$ccording to 0eattie sustainability involves only using resources at a rate which allows them to be replenished to ensure their long*term survival and not exceeding the environment!s ability to absorb pollution :0eattie 4>>' p.=<;. $s defined by Fuller :4>>> p.(; the main element of sustainable marketing is the planning of the marketing mix in a manner that is compatible with ecosystems.

7reen marketing as defined by the 6hartered Institute of ,arketing a definition largely recognised by marketers is the management process responsible for identifying anticipating and satisfying the re#uirements of customers and society in a profitable and sustainable way :The 6hartered Institute of ,arketing '??=;. There are several levels at which a firm can act to be sustainable. First by modifying the attributes of a product by eitherF repairing (

reconditioning reusing and1or remanufacturing it when entering the decline stage. $t another level a firm can adopt green marketing by improving and greening systems processes and1or policies in an attempt to reduce the negative effects of its activity on the environment.

Business Et4ics

2usiness ethics is a vital element of a business and is placed at the centre of the purpose of an organisation. It determines how an organisation sets itself out and behaves morally both internally and externally. It takes the view that businesses exist within society and that society allows them to existH therefore they should respond to society!s needs and demands :0eattie '??' p.<';. It stresses the moral and ethical responsibilities of businesses to build a better society and their obligation to give back to the community.

2usiness ethics is met through corporate social responsibility :6"5; schemes. 2oth concepts are closely related as while business ethics stresses the moral and theoretical corporate social responsibility puts the words into practice through initiatives such as fundraising and1or sponsorship of charitable events. 6"5 is the demonstration of a business commitment to social human and environmental issues. It is born from the expectation of stakeholders to see organi+ations demonstrate congruence with some social and environmental values and participate towards the overall wellbeing of the society. 2usiness ethics and 6"5 are now a must for any business wanting to survive in the mainstream. This has encouraged new business models especially the social enterprise model that seeks social and environmental issues as the main purpose of a company :examples of companies are 6afedirect The 2ig Issue 9ivine chocolate etc3;.

-:-:$: M"R9ET SI?E

In '??% money spent in ethical consumerism in the UK was worth I'>.) billion more than the retail tobacco and alcohol :The 6o*operative 2ank '??=;. This figure includes financial products and investments community projects as well as providing greener food and products for the home :,intel '??= ethical and green issues;. 6onsidering ethical food only the market has increased by 4)J since '??( to reach I% (?< million :,intel '??= ethical and green issues;.

,ore money was spent in the UK in '??% on ethical consumerism than on retail tobacco and alcohol according to the 6o*operative 2ank!s annual .thical 6onsumerism 5eport. The report has tracked 2ritish consumers! ethical spending in the UK annually since 4>>>.

$ huge rise in terms of value of the retail concerning the organic food market has also been witnessed. The market has increased by %?J between '??' and '??< to be worth I4 '>% million :,intel '??= ethical and green issues;. The same increase has happened with Fairtrade products with the value of the retail market reaching I')? million in '??< :,intel '??= ethical and green issues;. 0roducts with Fairtrade certification reached a total of 4 %?? products in ,arch '??< compared to &%? the previous year. $ survey published in the ,arketing Aeek :'??< p.)4*)'; shows that ethical brands such as Fairtrade have seen a <??J increase in sales since '???.

<

-:-:;: M"R9ET S "RE

To understand how the ethical and green food market is structured a first look at the UK grocery market is needed. The grocery market is worth I4'?bn and is divided between alternative channels :negligible share; traditional retailing :=J; convenience retailing :'?J; and supermarkets and superstores :=)J; :9.F5$ '??< .conomic note in UK grocery retailing;. In terms of sales food and drink account for <%J of the total sales :9.F5$ '??< .conomic note in UK grocery retailing;.

$s supermarkets and superstores are largely dominated by multiple supermarket chains they are in a position to influence and shape new trends in the food market. $lso this paper focuses on the role played by the largest retailers in the ethical and green food market. The big four :the four biggest retailers in the UK; are Tesco $sda "ainsbury!s and ,orrisons. 2elow is a representation of the largest retailers ranked by percentage of market shareF

Ta68e -: U9 )rocer< Market S4are ' -$ 5eeks ending $& marc4@ $%%&
Independents 6o*ops /ther ,ultiples Aaitrose "omerfield ,orrisons "ainsburyKs $sda Tesco

0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

"ourceF TB" Aorldpanel ,arch '??<.

-:$: T E "CT!RS !0 T E )REEN "ND ET IC"L M"R9ET

$s the leading supermarkets and superstores account for a predominant part of all retail sales in the UK they must show their active participation to the establishment of a sustainable society. The actual context of environmental deprivation has made it the first matter of corporate social responsibility :The 7uardian '??= p.'>H p4>;. 7reen practices and ethics must be at the top of food retailers! agenda in order to remain profitable as stakeholders are pressurising supermarkets and their social responsibility scheme. Food retailers who will fail to answer stakeholders increasing expectations will be unlikely to prosper :9.F5$ '??< .conomic note in UK grocery retailing;. 2ecause food retailers are in a highly influential position that empowers them to frame the response they are closely scrutini+ed by the whole stakeholders! spectrum. Aith the situation given it is crucial for supermarkets to recognise that their overall profitability and brand image is shaped by green and ethical issues.

-:$:-: T E )REEN S !//ER

The figures mentioned above translate to an impressive rise in the green and ethical market and demonstrates the great opportunities that it may provide. This is due to a change in customers mindsets as a result of rising awareness of environmental issues. "ome other ethical and trend factors are driving a change in attitudes as well though as we shall see barriers remain.

6ustomers are more knowledgeable of the intensifying environmental problems and more willing to tackle them :0eattie '??4;. 7lobal warming is now under the limelight influencing customers to respond positively towards reducing its impact :,arketing Aeek '??< p.)4*

&

)';. 6ustomers feel that green consumerism is one way to convert attitudes into behaviours. They are jumping on the opportunity to avert environmental catastrophes :The 7uardian '??= p.)4; by making purchasing decisions conscientiously :Bewell et al 4>>&;.

"imilarly they expect retailers to show the same commitment to tackling environmental damages. 6ustomers are aware of the pressure they can put on retailers and suppliers via their shopping habit. In addition to becoming green customers buy certain products thereby pressurising food retailers and suppliers. They buy green products< to send a message all the way through the production chain to persuade retailers and suppliers to act in an environmentally friendly and fair manner.

"hopping today is the new politics the ballot box has been replaced by the shopping trolley :The .conomist '??< p.4';. "hopping now appears to be as fun as it is political for shoppers who want to express political and environmental opinion each time they purchase a product :The .conomist '??< n.p.;. The motivations vary depending on the type of purchased product and the interest of each shopper in a particular issue. "ome shoppers buy Fairtrade products in order to participate in the reduction of the gap between Borth and "outh some others buy organic food because they are concerned with global warming and still another category buys local products to raise their voice against globalisation. This tendency has been observed in the green and ethical market which represented I4 '>% million in '??<.

"ome other market professionals and environmentalists claim that customers want to be seen as green because it is trendy. The best example of this trend is the launching of * EI am not a plastic bag! * by "ainsbury!s. 0eople living in Dondon were #ueuing in front of stores for many hours during the night to make sure that they will get their hands on this new bag. The

>

bu++ created around this item was initiated by many famous people seen carrying the bag in many popular newspapers and maga+ines. EBow you can be green and gorgeous eco* conscious and highly fashionable simply by buying the latest climate*friendly consumer products! :Dynas '??=;.

.ven though shoppers are demonstrating an involvement in green and ethical issues barriers remain due to cost and time constraints. ,any people who are not involved in recycling for instance are blaming a lack of time. 2ecoming environmentally conscious is perceived as dedicating time to achieve the knowledge to transform current habits into sustainable ones. The need to maintain current lifestyles is somehow very much higher than the perceived satisfaction of participating to build a sustainable and1or fair society. Bot all shoppers are prepared to make this sacrifice even though they care for the environment and1or the poor.

"hoppers express their concern for the environment but do not necessarily behave consistently green argue 0edersen et al. :'??<;. $ customer does not act in favour of the preservation of the environment as long as the perceived cost appears higher than the perceived benefit :0eattie '??4;. The customer wants it both waysF the benefit of a cleaner environment :from which they cannot be excluded; without paying any cost in terms of price :0rakash '??' and "ririam and Forman 4>>); extra time effort :9ehab et al. 4>>%; and1or #uality :"ririam and Forman 4>>);.

$ casual shopper will pay more attention to price and #uality rather than the environmental records of the product or company. 0eattie :'??4; supports this idea mentioning that the most successful products on the market are still the ones that offer good technical performance while saving money. ,any customers also assume that green products are of lower #uality as

4?

well as more expensive compared to casual products :9K"ou+a et al. '??<;. $ccording to ,eyer :'??4; customers purchase green products only if it is perceived as superior to competitor!s offerings. Thus the environmental friendly& aspect of a product remains marginal in the purchase making decision. .ven when eight out of ten people say they take into account the company!s environmental reputation in their purchase decision making less than ' out of ten actually practice environmental shopping :The 7uardian '??= p.4>;. "imilarly only a small part of the population boycott products because of a company!s negative environmental record :The 7uardian '??= p.4>;. These figures demonstrate a lack of engagement in responsible purchase behaviour.

-:$:$: RET"ILERS

There is an obligation for businesses to demonstrate a commitment and concern for environmental issues. "hoppers expect retailers to adopt their views and concerns for environmental and ethical issues. In response retailers are jumping on the opportunity to develop green products and green communication campaigns that empower customers to clean the air purify the water or help save endangered forests and species :/ttman '??(;. This is crucial in terms of profitability competitiveness and brand image. $ll food retailers must go green says the market and the customer.

$ tremendous opportunity exists for businesses to develop green products and environmental messages to establish themselves as environmental leaders :/ttman '??);. "takeholders are #uestioning companies on their environmental performance and impact. From the customer who prefers dealing with brands that are environmentally and socially responsible to the

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community who wants to understand what local industrial plants expose residents to through to employees who are demanding environmental actions within the company businesses are becoming highly pressured. Cowever they are no longer approaching the environment as a threat but as an opportunity not to be missed. 6ompanies start understanding they can benefit from the fact that their brand stands for hope and thus enhance brand image.

Food retailers can also see profitability in the development of new systems and processes. The shift to green marketing has created a growing interest in alternatives to existing and polluting systems and processes. 2y becoming more sustainable food retailers will benefit from a reduction of costs. Implementing green technologies is often more efficient and cheaper. The impressive price of petrol and its inevitable disappearance are forcing businesses to rethink their energy consumption and look at alternatives such as renewable energy. For instance Tesco has launched a I%??m programme to become more energy efficient and reduce greenhouse44 gas emissions. Its initiative focuses on the development of renewable energy :wind turbines biomass; the combination of heat and power and gasification to turn food waste into power :Tesco 0D6 '??=;.

Food retailers that adopt cleaner processes can also benefit earlier than others from upcoming regulations. Daws and regulations on the green and ethical market are likely to happen because customer groups and lobbies are putting pressure on the UK government and local authorities. $t the time this paper is written a new regulation is about to hit DondonF thirty three councils agreed on a ban on plastic bags in all shops in the capital :The Independent '??= p.';. /ther coming regulations might concern carbon dioxide 44 constraints recycling environmental communication and1or green products. Food retailers have an interest in anticipating environmental policies in order to participate in the design of new regulations

4'

and1or influence governmental policy makers :0rakash '??'H "ahlin*$ndersson '??<;. They also might benefit from first*mover advantages :0rakash '??';. Food retailer!s lobbyists must watch the market and anticipate government regulations in an attempt to preserve their interests.

The way the world is set to change will also place a limit on market opportunitiesH environmental actions and initiatives can therefore provide solutions. In some places around the world for instance access to water is difficult a situation which is likely to worsen with the anticipated rise in global temperatures due to climate change. "imilarly inefficiency in production has repercussion on the price of the raw materials. $s a result the development of water initiatives through 6"5 schemes can be profitable to food manufacturers. This has been witnessed with 6oca 6ola and 9ivine 6hocolate who both launched water initiatives to facilitate access.

In the context given above businesses will better perform in the marketplace and be seen as more responsible. This is assured by a positive corporate image and reputation. Cowever barriers still remain.

/ne of the main barriers to such changes is the investment that a changing of strategy re#uires. Bot all companies necessarily have the cash to invest. ,oving from one strategy to another is very costly. It involves every aspect from the management style to the organisational structure to the production processes of a company. $s the result of change management can face resistance from employees losses due to investment in new product development and1or suffer from technical barriers and lack of knowledge. It might conse#uently be considered highly ha+ardous to focus on green and1or ethical strategies.

4)

$nother reason is that some marketers do not consider environmental issues worthy because they see them as fashionable. ,arketers are aware that fashion goes on and off and is by definition transitory. 0aul Cawken an environmental author supports this claim and mentions that fashion by definition is a matter of time :The 7uardian '??= n.p.;. 6limate change in this context can be perceived as a fad that the next trend will soon replace.

-:;: T E B"RRIERS T! )REEN C!MMUNIC"TI!N

6ommunicating green and ethical issues is as challenging and crucial as establishing a related strategy. Deading corporations are closely scrutinised by the media who can be very cynical towards their environmental actions. $s a result some companies with an effective and sincere involvement in green and ethical activities might decide not to engage themselves in any promotion. Cowever absence of published information on green and ethical implications of a company and stakeholders invites scepticism. It appears that balancing communication around green and ethical issues is highly complex and needs to consider the barriers to green communication.

-:;:-: CUST!MER>S SCE/TISCISM "ND C!N0USI!N

There are three levels at which customers are sceptical of the environmental claims of businessesF environmental strategy environmental product claims and environmental

communication. $s the number of environmental claims increases the level of customer scepticism seems to rise accordingly :0rakash '??';. ,any companies have put out

4(

ambiguous misleading or false environmental product claims while they have in reality had little to do with the preservation of the environment :Bewell et al. 4>>&;.

/n one hand the scepticism around environmental claims from companies has been growing among the customers. 6ustomers are aware that by adopting an environmental strategy companies obtain more legitimacy and appear more attractive. "ome market research has shown that customers distrust companys environmental claims :0rakash '??'; making it harder for communicators to promote green strategy. 5ecent market research also added that a company is negatively perceived when greater importance is dedicated to the profitability of a green product rather than pollution reduction for example :9!"ou+a et al. '??<;.

/n the other hand customers are also highly sceptical of the positive environmental effect of manufacturer!s products :0rakash@ '??'H 5ios et al. '??<;. $ny products that companies argue are environmentally safe and useful are not readily accepted among customers. This may be due to the fact that customers are suspicious. In order to win trust food retailers need to provide ade#uate and verifiable information that is often analysed and published by governmental bodies and1or B7/s4(. To avoid a backlash companies need to be as transparent as possible and have verifiable environmental claims. In a survey published in the 7uardian :'??= p.4>; and conducted by Ipsos ,ori on corporate responsibility &'J of respondents re#uested more transparency and information on company policy in regards to customers employees communities and the environment.

2arriers remain to green consumerism mainly due to a lack of environmental knowledge. /nly one out of three people can name a company with active social environmental practices without someone prompting the respondent :The 7uardian '??= p.4>;. Furthermore

4%

customers can feel very confused in regards to the green products claims because they do not fully understand the implications in terms of environmental respect :Bewell et al. 4>>&; ,orh et al 4>>&H 5ios et al. '??<;. This leads to a limited use of the environmental message of a product. This stems from a misunderstanding or exaggeration of the message due to a lack of environmental knowledge :5ios et al. '??<;. 6oncerning labels customers attest that they are not easily understandable :0edersen L Beergaard '??<H 9!"ou+a '??<;. $spects such as product labels packaging and product ingredients did not appear to influence customersK perception but confuse them and encourage defiance :9K"ou+a et al. '??<;. 6ustomers might also be confused regarding the information provided because of a lack of clarity or the density of information :0rakash@ '??'H 5ios et al. '??<H 9K"ou+a et al. '??<;.

Furthermore customers are unclear of what the green market is and what being green involves :,elillo L ,iller '??<;. Terms such as environmentally friendly biodegradable organic do not have a clear meaning to customers :,elillo and ,iller '??<;. For example twenty four surveys on environmental issues show that the customer is familiar with the term * recyclable @ although ignore its proper meaning and implication in the content of the product :,ohr et al. 4>>&;. ,arketers are therefore challenged with developing effective

environmental communication.

-:;:$: )REEN."S

6ompanies with bad environmental records are under criticism and stakeholder!s pressure. In an article issued in the Independent :'??= n.p.; $pple is pointed out for its catastrophic recycling policy and its use of harmful chemicals in its computers. 7reen 0eace in its Eguide for a responsible high*tech! ranked the company first for environmental irresponsibility.

4<

7reen 0eace!s initiative was followed by the launch of a fake apple website to raise awareness around the negative impacts of the brand on the environment. ,any companies have been criticised for their environmental claims and lack of effective results. 2y pretending to be greener without effective results marketers could damage the brand image of their business. 0ast market research findings have showed that false unsubstantiated or exaggerated environmental claims can backfire :6arlson et al. 4>>);.

Tesco the premier .nglish food retailer is one illustration of the backfire of an environmental strategy. "ir Terry Deahy chief executive of Tesco announced last year that Tesco will reduce its carbon footprint by %? per cent from '??? levels by '?4? and to set*up a 4??m fund to pay for renewable energy sources. Cowever Friends of the .arth has demonstrated that even if Tesco achieves this target any expansion will undermine the emissions cuts :The /bserver '??= n.p.;. $nother aspect that Tesco has been criticised for is its lack of transparency and objectivity in the calculation of its carbon footprint. Tesco has been accused of underestimaing its contribution to climate change by excluding the emissions that shoppers and suppliers make while driving to their store :The /bserver '??= n.p.;. .ven if such criticisms have emerged many times the way Tesco communicates its marketing strategy remains successful thanks to a genuine 6"5.

The term greenwash has coincided with the description of this form of disinformation that portrays an environmental friendly image of companies. It describes advertising in which the environmental claims are trivial misleading or deceptive :6arlson et al. 4>>);. 5ecent research on misleading advertising found that <?J of environmentally based advertisements

4=

featured unacceptable claims ranging from the ambiguous to the downright false :6arlson e t al. 4>>);.

$itken :'??<; argues that there is an opportunity in advertising to promote green products as long as it is a genuine message and not greenwash. This also appears to be critical for advertisers because the green consumer is an opinion leader who actively exchanges product information :"hrum et al 4>>%;. $ny negative experience with a product and the shopper will develop negative attitudes and lower purchase intentions :Bewell et al. 4>>&H 9K"ou+a et al. '??<;. ,orh :4>>&; argues that communicating on any aspects of green products is wasteful :#uoted from 5ios et al. '??<;.

0romoting green products is conse#uently very difficult. 6ustomer!s scepticism towards environmental communication has made many tools ineffective or unmanageable. $dvertising one of the major and most effective communication channels has had negative results on the promotion of green and ethical products >. ,any market researches investigating customer!s attitude confirm that they are very sceptical of advertising campaigns based on environmental issues :"hrum et al. 4>>%;.

4&

$: M"R9ET RESE"RC $:-: MET !D!L!)Y

This chapter will aim to cover the different steps undertaken during market research. The collection of secondary data will be discussed and the primary data fully described. The primary data the research design the sampling method and the data collection will be justified. Following this further insights on the #uantitative method will be provided as well as methodological limitations.

$:-:- RESE"RC

DESI)N

To begin an overview of secondary data collection is essential. $s green marketing is a fairly old topic and green products appeared a while ago on the market background literature is profuse. The secondary data mainly used in the literature section comes from journal articles news paper articles and business books. 0articular attention has been given to recent insights on environmental population awareness and climate change. Cence this dissertation has focused on rising issues despite green consumerism being an old phenomenon.

The secondary research has helped draw a picture of the actual marketing strategy of food retailers as well as understanding customer behaviour. Investigation of customer attitudes and behaviour has been undertaken during the secondary data collection. This has been very helpful in determining the type of primary research to be undertaken. .xploratory research appears to be the most relevant for the purpose of this paper as it stresses the understanding of a marketing phenomenon and offers related insights :,alhotra L 2irks '??< p.<';. 4>

/n the type of exploratory design #uantitative research has been chosen rather than #ualitative research. This is justified by the fact that many attitudes and behaviours have already been brought up by the secondary data collection.

The situation given tends to justify the use of a #uestionnaire :cf. $ppendix F; rather than any #ualitative research such as a focus group. The #uestionnaire allows the interviewer to ask the right #uestions to the most appropriate sample expecting the most relevant answers and comprehensive results. $ #uestionnaire will be more efficient in providing the precise data that is re#uired to meet the research #uestions and reach the objectives because of its specific structure. $s a #uestionnaire is a structured techni#ue for data collection consisting of a series of #uestions written or verbal that a respondent answers :,alhotra L 2irks '??< p.=)); it will provide the respondents opinions in a way that the interviewer will be able to direct.

$ focus group would have provided insights that are not necessarily the ones that need to be investigated here. The unstructured nature of the focus group techni#ue was not appropriate to this market research. Cowever a #ualitative research techni#ue such as a focus group or depth*interview could be undertaken in the near future in order to interpret the results and1or complete the findings. $lso such a techni#ue could provide further insights on behaviour and attitudes that are unpredictable. 9epth*interviews also can provide deeper information on customer!s motivations beliefs attitudes and feelings towards green and ethical issues :,alhotra L 2irks '??< p.='<;.

'?

$:-:$: S"M/LIN)

8uantitative research is justified here because the findings are expected to be representative of the target population. The larger the sample is the more likely the results will be representative of a larger population :5ose et al '??%H "aunders et al '??? p.4%%;. The target population chosen in the context of this study is any 2ritish person who regularly shops at the major supermarket chains. The green consumers and the non*green consumers have been e#ually considered as both sides are investigated as well as both genders and any racial background.

Following this first step defining the sample and the profile of the respondents is possible. $ focus on a particular sub*group of the 2ritish population was decided upon in order to obtain more accurate and representative results. 2ecause of time and financial restrictions a representative sample of the 2ritish population would not have been possible. "uch a focus allows a smaller sampling error and some better insights. $nother constraint was conducting the study upon Dondoners only because of a lack of time and financial resources. 7ender too had to be taken into consideration. The fact that the 2ritish population between '( and to )% years old covers %?J of women and %?J of men :/ffice for Bational "tatistics '??= 0opulation estimates; this proportion has been considered in the data collection.

The types of sampling used for this study are convenience sampling and judgmental sampling. They are justified by the chosen sample the method of data collection the time re#uirements and the financial limitations. The main discerning element of the #uestionnaire is the fact that respondents must be between '( and )% years old making the sampling method judgmental as well. -udgemental sampling is a form of convenience sampling based on the judgement of the

'4

research in the selection of a relevant respondent to the study :,alhotra L 2irks '??< p.)<(;. 2oth methods have also been chosen based on their small cost and time re#uirements :"aunders et al '??? p.4==;.

5esources constraints have been the major limiting factor in conducting this research. %& #uestionnaires were filled in with respondents from various demographic backgrounds in terms of race income and occupation. Cowever respondents were mainly Ahite*2ritish from working class backgrounds with a minimum of secondary school education level. $ number of other elements could have been considered to determine the si+e of the sample such as the nature of the research the sample si+e used in similar studies and the incident rates. $lthough the current limitations left no room for these to be considered. These major limitations will be considered further in the proceeding chapters.

$:-:;: =UESTI!NN"IRE DESI)N

The design of the #uestionnaire was mainly focused on customer attitude customer behaviour and customers perception of food retailers! environmental communication. Filters were used in order to test the difference between attitudeF what customer says and behaviourF what he actually does. The environment is indeed a sensitive topic and people tend to pretend to be more concerned than they really are because of social pressures.

The #uestionnaire was made up of '? #uestions and structured in a logical manner to encourage the respondents willingness to answer. They were kept as short as possible and four #uestions were used per page to ensure respondents were likely to continue. The layout was also considered carefully to make sure that it looked clear professional and attractive. "uch

''

considerations were undertaken to make the #uestionnaire easy to complete and encourage a high response rate.

The #uestion related to the age of the respondent was asked first as a mean to eliminate respondents with criteria that did not match with the re#uired sample. $ couple of other demographic #uestions regarding gender and level of education follow. Then the #uestionnaire investigated the level of environmental concern of the respondent and their shopping habits narrowing down on her1his purchasing habits of environmental products. 8uestions related to scepticism and trust was asked to find out how customers perceive food retailers! communication and what marketers should do to improve their brand image.

6ompleting the form did not take more than 4? minutes for time consumption and data analysis purposes. 6onse#uently many #uestions were close*ended as it is #uicker and easier to answer and analyse. $ll #uestions and answers were also attributed a number for analysis purposes and codes were given on how to answer the #uestions. The #uestion order was very important here to investigate the difference between attitude and behaviour.

The #uestionnaire being drawn up a pilot*test was conducted. "everal comments from respondents enabled improvements. "ome #uestions were ambiguous and unclear. $ focus on the main objective of this paper was needed to overcome an inappropriate length. $s a result #uestions relative to demographics were deleted because they did not provide much insight. The #uestion order was re*arranged and some open #uestions became close*ended #uestions. 6oding also changed as many of the respondents tested did not apply preferential order as re#uested for one of the close*ended #uestions. It also appeared that some respondents needed

')

information on environmental vocabulary such as food miles 4? and1or environmentally friendly products. Foot notes were added to the #uestionnaire with the definition of the terms.

Ahen the pilot*test was thoroughly re*evaluated the #uestionnaire was launched and completed for %& peopleF '> women and '> men.

$:-:+: D"T" C!LLECTI!N A /R!CESS

Two techni#ues were used for the data collection and #uestionnaire completion was conducted in several locations. &> #uestionnaires were distributed and %& went through the analysis process.

.mails and delivery1collection techni#ues were used. 8uestionnaires delivered via email are easy to administer and to return. It also is cost advantageous. .mail also guarantees that the respondent is representative of the target population. This techni#ue also has the advantage of being more secure in terms of control access and response :Aitmer et al. 4>>> #uoted from "aunders et al. '??? p.)?>;. The other techni#ue used is the delivery1collection of #uestionnaires. 8uestionnaires were administered in cafes in Cackney for convenience purposes. The permission for conducting market research in the premises was previously sought from the cafM!s owner. The respondents were fairly enthusiastic as a result of the relaxed atmosphere which increased their confidence. The location was justified by the presence of three different supermarket chains in the neighbourhoodF "omerfield Tesco and ,arks L "pencer.

'(

$s an introduction to the #uestionnaire the respondent was given a brief verbal explanation of the purpose of the research. $ clear explanation was added on the #uestionnaire itself. To eliminate respondents that did not match with the sample the researcher asked whether or not their age was similar to hers. Then the respondent was asked to fill in the #uestionnaire anytime during the day. 6ollection was held later on during the day. This self@administration techni#ue was used because it allowed more time for the researcher to find other respondents. Cowever the precision with which the #uestionnaire was filled in could not be ensured. The respondent could also be someone different the coding could be misunderstood #uestions skipped or the #uestionnaire answered flippantly causing a higher rate of unreliable #uestionnaires.

To process of analysing the #uestionnaires was conducted using "0"" software. Bumerous softwares have been designed to analyse #uantitative data. 6onsidering the practical knowledge of the researcher regarding statistical analysis software the #uantitative data were interpreted using "0"". "everal steps have been considered before the results of this study were formed. The first step after designing the #uestionnaire was to create a matrix into "0"" and to code data for analysis purposes. $fter preparing data by typing it into the table the analysis was conducted.

9ata was coded considering the type of layout the time consumption and the missing values. /nce the data was entered a check for errors was conducted to identify any mistyping that could interfere in the analysis and cause a misinterpretation of the results. Bone were found.

'%

$:$: LIMIT"TI!NS

The major limitation of this study is the methodology used for the sample the research design #uestionnaire design and the data collection.

The sample can be seen as one key limitation for this paper in terms of representation and si+e. .ven though a sub*group of the 2ritish population was chosen to limit the irrelevance of the findings other demographics should have been considered. 9emographics such as gender income social status and profession should have been applied. This would have allowed the results to be more representative of a broader scale of consumers. In addition the small si+e of the sample makes conclusions on consumer behaviour open to criti#ue.

$ large sample would have been tougher to get while including participants from different backgrounds and demographics though it might have increased the relevance of the findings and the overall credibility of the research. Cowever this study aimed to provide insights and axes of research rather than an exhaustive representation of consumer!s behaviour. For example all respondents are from Dondon while the wider 2ritish population has been ignored. $ representative sample of the 2ritish population must have considered the proportion of people living in .ngland :&) &J; in Aales :( >J; in "cotland :& (J; and Borthern Ireland :' >J; :/ffice for Bational "tatistics '??=;. "ome people from Dondon might not have the same behaviour as someone from rural "cotland. Cowever this limitation is justifiable by the type of sampling which is convenient. $ focus on women could also have narrow down the impreciseness of the findings as they are typical green consumer :/ttman 4>>); and are more likely to go shopping :5ios et al. '??<;.

'<

6onducting #uantitative research alone can be seen as a limitation as well. The validity of the results from the #uestionnaires would be better supported with the addition of a focus group or depth*interview. The #uestionnaire should have been undertaken earlier on during the process to allow some spare time to organise a focus group. In the end it did not take place because of time constraints and participant availability. The #uestionnaire itself could have been improved in that its length did not allow much choice in the data collection process while a shorter #uestionnaire could have been run in the presence of the researcher. $gain this would have increased the validity of the findings.

$lso rather than disseminating the #uestionnaire in a random location close to major supermarkets standing in front of these supermarkets may have been better. It can be assumed that the shopper from Tesco is not the shopper from $sda or "ainsbury!s and is not only motivated by convenience. Cowever the way the #uestionnaire was structured and the way it was administrated did not make it possible to gain great insights dependent upon on the type of supermarket :up and low market; or chain :Tesco "ainsbury!s $sda ,arks L "pencer etc3;.

'=

;: 0INDIN)S ;:-: RESULTS

$s demonstrated previously in the methodology chapter the gender and age of respondents were two important criteria to consider. The age group the study was focusing on and within this age group an e#ual proportion of men and women.

Table 2. Gender and age of the respondents what is your gender? male female I am between 25 and 34 years old total count % count % 29 50% 29 50% 29 50% 29 50% total 58 100% 58 100%

This paper decided on two objectives within two related research #uestions. The first objective here is to identify the reasons behind consumers! choice for green products and within this objective the first research #uestion is as followsF

;:-:-: . "T "RE CUST!MERS> "TTITUDE "ND CUST!MER>S BE "VI!UR T!."RDS ENVIR!NMENT"L ISSUES "ND )REEN /R!DUCTSB

In order to answer this #uestion the level of environmental concern of the respondents needs to be analysed.

'&

Table 3. Concern for environmental issues and climate change what is your gender? male female
I am concerned with en ironmental issues and climate change total any agree any disagree count % count % count % 2! 89"#% 3 10"3% 29 100% 29 100% 0 0% 29 100%

total
55 94"8% 3 5"2% 58 100%

Dooking at the results in table ) >( &J of all respondents say they are concerned with environmental issues and climate change whereas % 'J are not. 7ender is influential as there is a differential concern between women and men. Three men say they are not concerned with environmental issues but no women.

Table 4. nvolvement in green products purchase b! gender what is your gender? male female
$o you %urchase green %roducts? yes no count % count % count % 21 #2"4% 8 2#"!% 29 100% 2! 89"#% 3 10"3% 28 100%

total
4# 81"0% 11 19"0% 58 100%

total

Following the previous comment regarding the difference between genders a deeper analysis of the level of engagement in green products purchasing dependent upon gender is re#uired. Figures in table ( show that &>.=J of women buy green products compared to ='.(J of men. It is also interesting to consider that '=.<J of male respondents do not buy green products at all compared to 4?.)J of women.

Table % also helps understand customer behaviour regarding the preservation of the environmentF

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Table 5. "ngagement in helping preserve the environment what is your gender? male female
any agree I am %roacti e in hel%ing %reser e the en ironment neither any disagree count % count % count % count % 18 !2"1% 5 1#"2% ! 20"#% 29 100% 21 #5"0% 4 14"3% 3 10"#% 28 100%

total
39 !8"4% 9 15"8% 9 15"8% 5# 100%

total

Aithin all respondents <&.(J say they are proactive in helping preserve the environment whereas 4%.&J say they are not. 7ender again shows a difference of involvement in environmental actions as =%J of women say they are proactive versus <'.4J of men. Dinking both tables among the %% respondents who care for the environment 4 out of ) also is proactive. It can be argued that environmental issues matter and respondents want to act on their concern.

Further analysis re#uires an investigation of whether or not an environmental concern influences green products purchasing.

Table #. $elation bet%een the environmental concern and purchasing of green products
do you %urchase green %roducts? 'es I am concerned with en ironmental issues and climate change any agree any disagree count % count % count % 4# 85"5% 0 0% 4# 81"0% (o 8 14"5% 3 100% 11 19"0% 55 100"0% 3 100% 58 100"0% &otal

total

Table &. 'roportion of people %ho bu! green products for environmental reasons

)?

any agree I buy green %roducts because I care for the en ironment neither any disagree total

count % count % count % count %

$o you %urchase green %roducts? yes no total 2# 0 2# !9"2% 0"0% !0"0% 8 2 10 20"5% 33"3% 22"2% 4 4 8 10"3% !!"#% 1#"8% 39 ! 45 100% 100% 100%

Figures displayed in table < show that &%.%J of people who are concerned with environmental issues buy green products. Table = confirms this tendency as almost <>.'J of respondents purchase green products because they care for the environment. Cowever table < demonstrates that 4(.%J of the respondents are concerned with the environment but are not environmentally friendly shoppers.

$mong the whole sample &4J of the respondents are regular or occasional green products shoppers as shown in table <. This result confirms a tremendous market opportunity for retailers to provide customers with products that are environmental friendly.

Table & below provides insight on retailers! pricing strategy of environmentally friendly products. It shows that &4J of respondents are prepared to pay more for green products. ,en are more likely than women to accept higher pricing.

Table (. )illingness to pa! more for environmental friendl! products what is your gender? male female

total

)4

any agree I am %re%ared to %ay more for en ironmental friendly %roducts total neither any disagree

count % count % count % count %

24 82"8 5 1#"2 0 0"0 29 100

23 #9"3 5 1#"2 1 3"4 29 100

4# 81"0 10 1#"2 1 1"# 58 100

Investigating difference between attitude and behaviour re#uires an examination of the reasons why respondents choose to buy green products.

Table *. The reasons %h! respondents bu! green food products yes ethics )uality sustainability I buy green food %roducts because of %olitics con enience fashion other none of these count % count % count % count % count % count % count % count % 29 58% 25 50% 24 48% # 14% 5 10% 3 !% 3 !% 1 2% no 21 42% 25 50% 2! 52 43 8!% 45 90% 4# 94% 4# 94% 49 98% total 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100%

It appears that ethics #uality and sustainability are the main reasons for buying green products. .thics is ranked first with %&J response rate #uality ranked second with %?J response rate and sustainability is third with (&J response rate. It is interesting to note that fashion is not considered as a relevant reason with only <J of the respondents agreeing.

Cowever a paradox lies between the figures from this table and the ones from table 4? below because Erespect for the environment! is ranked third. /nly ).=J of respondents consider the

)'

environmental aspect of a food product. 8uality and price remain the two most important aspects of a food product with &'.4J of people considering #uality first and 4?.=J price.

Table 10. +ost important aspects of food products fre)uency )uality %rice res%ect for the en ironment country of origin other total 4! ! 2 1 1 58 %ercent 82"1% 10"#% 3"!% 1"8% 1"8% 100"0%

6onse#uently people might buy green products for #uality reasons rather than ethical ones.

Table 11. )hat the respondents for %hom ethics matters are loo,ing at first %hen purchasing a food product I buy green %roducts because of ethics )uality *hat do you thin+ is the most im%ortant as%ect of a food %roduct? %rice country of origin res%ect for the en ironment other total count % count % count % count % count % count % 25 8!"2% 1 3"4% 1 3"4% 1 3"4% 1 3"4% 29 100%

Table 44 confirms the above statement. /nly 4 out of the '> respondents who buy green products for ethical reasons say environmental impact is the most important aspect of a food product. ;:-:$: . "T "RE T E RE"S!NS . Y 0!!D RET"ILERS S !ULD "D!/T " )REEN M"R9ETIN) STR"TE)YB ))

$s illustrated previously in table < green consumerism offers market opportunities particularly for food retailers. They are at the centre of this market as the most popular green products purchased are food.

Table 12. The t!pe of green products purchased b! respondents yes food toiletries and cosmetics drin+s and be erages clothing %harma and health tra el electronics auto,moto other none of these count % count % count % count % count % count % count % count % count % count % 40 80% 23 4!% 20 40% 9 18% 4 8% 4 8% 3 !% 2 4% 2 4% 0 0% not mentioned 10 20% 2# 54% 30 !0% 41 82% 4! 92% 4! 92% 4# 94% 48 9!% 48 9!% 50 100% total 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% 50 100%

Table 4' demonstrates that green food products are regularly purchased by &?J of the respondents and (?J of the respondents buy drinks and beverages that are environmentally friendly. Toiletries and cosmetics are also very popular with (<J of response rate. Aomen are more likely to purchase toiletries and cosmetics.

Table 13. )omen are more li,el! than men to purchase cosmetics that have environmental benefits what is your gender? male female 9 14

I buy toiletries and

yes

count

total 23

)(

cosmetics with en ironmental benefits total

not mentioned

% count % count %

39% 14 52% 23 4!%

!1% 13 48% 2# 54%

100% 2# 100% 50 100

"ixty one percent of women buy toiletries and cosmetics which could explain the success of companies such as the 2ody "hop. )>J of men buy environmental toiletries and cosmetics which is still an attractive market. .nvironmentally friendly men toiletries might be a profitable market.

In addition to market opportunities food retailers need to develop green strategies to build up their brand image.
Table 14. -odies responsible for causing environmental damages fre)uency industries , com%anies indi iduals go ernment international bodies and agreements total no answer total 29 15 8 2 54 4 58 100% %ercent 53"#% 2#"8% 14"8% 3"#%

Table 4( attests that industries and companies are very much seen as responsible for environmental damages. They are slightly at risk as 4 respondent out of ' blames companies for environmental damages far ahead of individuals and government.

"uch a threat needs further investigation to assess whether or not individuals take action against companies who are not environmentally responsible or ethical.

)%

Table 15. )illingness to stop bu!ing from companies %ho might damage the environment what is your gender? male female total 8 9 1# 34"8% 3!"0% 35"4% ! 8 14 2!"1% 32"0% 29"2% 9 8 1# 39"1% 32"0% 35"4% 23 25 48 100% 100% 100%

I recently sto%%ed buying from com%anies who might damage the en ironment total

any agree neither any disagree

count % count % count % count %

Table 1#. )illingness to stop stopped bu!ing from companies %ho might act unethicall! what is your gender? male female total 11 14 25 44"0% 53"8% 49"0% 5 5 10 20"0% 19"2% 19"!% 9 # 1! 3!"0% 2!"9% 31"4% 25 2! 51 100% 100% 100%

I recently sto%%ed buying from com%anies who might act unethically total

any agree neither any disagree

count % count % count % count %

2oth tables above prove that respondents! willingness to punish companies who do not act responsibly is high. $mong all respondents )%.(J recently stopped buying from companies who might damage the environment and (>J recently stopped buying from companies who might act unethically.

Furthermore food retailers! must develop environmental actions and green products to meet customer!s demands for action. Food retailers should feel particularly concerned as they are well positioned to provide solutions.
Table 1&. -odies responsible for tac,ling environmental damage fre)uency %ercent

)<

indi iduals go ernment Industries , -om%anies international bodies and agreements (./0s total no answer total

1! 15 14 5 3 53 5 58

30"2% 28"3% 2!"4% 9"4% 5"#%

100%

$sking who people think are the most responsible for tackling climate change )?.'J of the respondents replied that it was individuals whereas the government gets '&.)J and companies '<.(J. Food retailers need to design solutions for customers to preserve the environment. Table > shows that among all the respondents who buy green products %&J declare that they make such a choice for ethical reasons and (&J for sustainability purposes.

6ustomers are also demanding laws and regulations from the UK government to regulate the market.
Table 1(. .ecessit! of la%s and regulations on green products what is your gender? male female total 24 2# 51 82"8% 9!"4% 89"5% 5 0 5 1#"2% 0"0% 8"8% 0 1 1 0"0% 3"!% 1"8% 29 28 5# 100% 100% 100%

any agree laws and regulations are necessary on green %roducts neither any disagree total

count % count % count % count %

$mong all respondents &>.%J say laws and regulations are necessary on the green products market. This can be considered as an upcoming threat for food retailers which they need to anticipate.

)=

Aith the first objective met the two research #uestions related to the second objective is considered. The second objective is to identify the barriers and incentives to food retailer!s communication of green products to consumers.

;:-:;:

!.

CUST!MERS ET ICS

CURRENTLY

/ERCEIVE

0!!D IN T E

RET"ILERS "CTU"L

STR"TE)Y@

"ND

C!MMUNIC"TI!N

ENVIR!NMENT"L "ND ET IC"L C!NTEXTB

6ustomer!s perception of food retailer!s environmental claims can help in planning genuine communication. For the purpose of this #uestion we first look at customer!s scepticism.
Table 1*. /cepticism to%ards environmental claims of companies what is your gender? male female 23 2# #9"3% 93"1% ! 2 20"#% !"9% 0 0 0"0% 0"0% 29 29 100% 100%

total 50 8!"2% 8 13"8% 0 0"0% 58 100%

any agree I am ery sce%tical of en ironmental claims of com%anies neither any disagree total

count % count % count % count %

Table 4> indicates that &<.'J of respondents are sceptical of companies! environmental claims. Aomen are particularly sceptical as >).4J agree with the statement compared to a lower percentage of men. "cepticism is evidently high as none of the respondents disagree.
Table 20. )illingness to punish companies that e0aggerate their green claims what is your gender? male female total 15 1# 32 51"#% !0"#% 5!"1% 13 10 23 4"8% 35"#% 40"4%

I %unish com%anies that e1aggerate their green claims

any agree neither

count % count %

)&

any disagree total

count % count %

1 3"4% 29 100%

1 3"!% 28 100%

2 3"5% 5# 100%

Table '? reveals that 4 out of ' respondents penali+e companies that exaggerate their green claims. This is terrible result for marketers who would like to position themselves as environmentally responsible. This result confirms that environmental communication might backfire.

Table 21. $easons %h! companies promote their green credentials male yes to build u% their re%utation to gain in %rofitability to remain com%etiti e to %rotect from attac+s com%anies are actually green to gi e bac+ to en ironment other none of these count % count % count % count % count % count % count % count % 21 ##"8% 20 #4"1% 11 40"#% ! 22"2% 4 14"8% 1 3"#% 1 3"#% 0 0"0% not mentioned ! 22"2% # 25"9% 1! 59"3% 21 ##"8% 23 85"2% 2! 9!"3% 2! 9!"3% 2# 100"0% yes 22 #5"9% 1# 58"!% 1# 58"!% # 24"1% # 24"1% 3 10"3% 0 0"0% 0 0"0% female not mentioned # 24"1% 12 41"4% 12 41"4% 22 #5"9% 22 #5"9% 2! 89"#% 29 100"0% 29 100"0% yes 43 #!"8% 3# !!"1% 28 50"0% 13 23"2% 11 19"!% 4 #"1% 1 1"8% 0 0"0% total not mentioned 13 23"2% 19 33"9% 28 50"0% 43 #!"8% 45 80"4% 52 92"9% 55 98"2% 5! 100"0%

Table '4 is a representative illustration of customer!s scepticism. /nly 4>.<J of the respondents think companies promote their green credentials because they are effectively green. $mong all respondents =.4J think this is because they give back to the environment. Cowever =<.&J of the respondents see companies! environmental strategy as a means to build up their reputation <<.4J see it as a means to gain in profitability and %?J a means to remain competitive. This result highlights the fact that promoting environmental actions can harm a company!s brand image.

)>

The next focus is on how respondents perceive their food retailers! ethics.

Table 22. "thic rates of the most common service providers engaged su%ermar+et internet %ro ider electricity %ro ider mobile %hone %ro ider ban+ count % count % count % count % count % 21 43"8% 11 23"4% 8 1#"4% 5 10"!% 9 18"8% neither engaged or not engaged 1# 35"4% 1# 3!"2% 20 43"5% 19 40"4% 1# 35"4% not engaged 10 20"8% 19 40"4% 18 39"1% 23 48"9% 22 45"8% &otal 48 100% 4# 100% 4! 100% 4# 100% 48 100%

$mong the five most common service providers supermarkets appear to be the best rated in terms of ethics. ().&J of the respondents rate supermarket as being engaged ahead of the internet electric companies mobile phone providers and banks though a considerable proportion of respondents do not have an opinion.

To reduce the level of customer!s scepticism and improve their business ethics answering the second research #uestion is essential. ;:-:+: !. C"N 0!!D RET"ILERS INCRE"SE T E C!NSUMER>S TRUST IN

T EIR ENVIR!NMENT"L IM")E "ND )REEN /R!DUCTSB

$s a starting point to understand what the barriers to green food consumerism are we look at the reasons why people do not buy green products.
Table 23. -arriers to green products consumption I buy green %roducts

(?

yes I can0t afford them lac+ of information lac+ of choice they are difficult to find lac+ of trust in )uality lac+ of good ad ice and referee en ironmental im%lications are often difficult to understand I can0t be bothered I don0t thin+ it0s worthwile none of these total count % count % count % count % count % count % count % count % count % count % count 34 #3"9% 1! 34"8% 14 30"4% 11 23"9% 12 2!"1% 11 23"9% # 15"2% 3 !"5% 3 !"5% 3 !"5% 4!

no 5 50"0% ! !0"0% 4 40"0% 4 40"0% 2 20"0% 1 10"0% 4 40"0% ! !0"0% 3 30"0% 0 0"0% 10

total 39 !9"!% 22 39"3% 18 32"1% 15 2!"8% 14 25"0% 12 21"4% 11 19"!% 9 1!"1% ! 10"#% 3 5"4% 5!

Table ') signals that <>.<J of respondents consider green products too expensive. $ lack of information obtains )>.)J response rate and is the primary reason among respondents who do not buy green products at all. $mong the whole sample <?J of the respondents mentioned that they cannot be bothered. $ lack of choice was mentioned by )'.4J of the respondents the difficulty in finding green products obtained '< &J of response rate and doubtful #uality '%J. The last three results also need to be further attention. The results from table ') provide insights on food retailer!s communication to overcome the barriers to green consumerism. In addition we assess customer!s expectation of food retailers! communication.
Table 24. 1o% respondents %ould li,e to receive information on food products what is your gender? male tele ision internet count % count 1! 59"3% 10 female 14 50"0% 10 total 30 54"5% 20

(4

% news %a%er maga2ines radio other face to face none of these %ost tele%hone count % count % count % count % count % count % count % count %

3#"0% 8 29"!% ! 22"2% 5 18"5% 8 29"!% 4 14"8% 0 0"0% 2 #"4% 0 0"0%

35"#% 9 32"1% 11 39"3% 5 1#"9% 2 #"1% 2 #"1% 5 1#"9% 1 3"!% 0 0"0%

3!"4% 1# 30"9% 1# 30"9% 10 18"2% 10 18"2% ! 10"9% 5 9"1% 3 5"5% 0 0"0%

Taken from table '( more than 4 out of ' respondents would like to receive information on food products from television followed by )<.(J response rate for the internet. Bewspapers and maga+ines tend to be very popular with almost 4 out of ) respondents saying they wish to receive information through these channels. Face to face is also well perceived and 4&.'J of respondents consider other means of obtaining information. 9ifference between genders must be considered in the communication efficiency of channels such as television maga+ines and Eother!.

Cowever advertising and internet might not be such effective channels based on the analysis of the two tables below.

Table 25. 2ac, of ,no%ledge for finding independent information on products what is your gender? male female 9 13

I don0t +now where

any agree

count

total 22

('

to find inde%endent information on %roducts total

neither any disagree

% count % count % count %

3!"0% 5 20"0% 11 44"0% 25 100%

48"1% 8 29"!% ! 22"2% 2# 100%

42% 13 25% 1# 33% 52 100%

Table 2#. /cepticism to%ards advertising claims what is your gender? male female total 1! 1# 33 !1"5% !3"0% !2"3% # 9 1! 2!"9% 33"3% 30"2% 3 1 4 11"5% 3"#% #"5% 2! 2# 53 100% 100% 100%

any agree I don0t belie e in ad ertising claims neither any disagree total

count % count % count % count %

Tables '% and '< show the limitations to advertising and internet communication campaigns. Television might not be effective due to a lack of trust in advertising claims as <'.)J of respondents mentioned this as a source of disbelief. Internet is also a doubtful channel as ('J of the respondents do not know where to find independent information on products. It shows a lack of internet use in gathering information on green products.

5egarding the fact that 4&.'J of respondents want to receive information through other channels it is relevant to evaluate packaging and environmental labels.

Table 2&. 2evel of interest in information displa!ed on product pac,aging what is your gender? male female total 12 18 30 50"0% !!"#% 58"8% 3 5 8 12"5% 18"5% 15"#% 9 4 13 3#"5% 14"8% 25"5% 24 2# 51 100% 100% 100%

I always read the information dis%lay on %roducts %ac+aging total

any agree neither any disagree

count % count % count % count %

()

Table 2(. 2evel of effectiveness of information on pac,aging in ma,ing purchase decision what is your gender? male female total 14 21 35 58"3% ##"8% !8"!% 2 2 4 8"3% #"4% #"8% 8 4 12 33"3% 14"8% 23"5% 24 2# 51 100% 100% 100%

information on %ac+aging hel% myself in ma+ing %urchase decision total

any agree neither any disagree

count % count % count % count %

Figures assert that almost < out of 4? shoppers always look at the information displayed on packaging and almost = out of 4? consider information displayed when purchasing goods. It is therefore arguable that packaging is an appropriate communication tool.

Bow we consider the type of information that customers would like to know about green food products

Table 2*. T!pe of information needed about green food products and involvement in green products purchasing do you %urchase green %roducts? yes no its im%act on the en ironment its chemical content food miles none of these its technical %erformances other count % count % count % count % count % count % 2# !2"8% ! 14"0% 4 9"3% 1 2"3% 2 4"#% 2 4"#% 5 50"0% 1 10"0% 1 10"0% 3 30"0% 0 0"0% 0 0"0%

total 32 !0"4% # 13"2% 5 9"4% 4 #"5% 2 3"8% 2 3"8%

((

its country of origin total

count % count %

1 2"3% 43 100%

0 0"0% 10 100%

1 1"9% 53 100%

$mong all respondents <?.(J rely on information relating to the impact on the environment of a green food product far ahead of chemical content with 4).'J response rate. $n important figure is the fact that the food miles system is ranked only third which could signify that it is not a fully effective system of environmental information. $mong the respondents who do not buy green products almost a third do not demand any of the information listed above.

Table 30. $eferees for recommendations on food products what is your gender? male %artner,friends,family,colleagues news%a%er or maga2ine (./0s,inde%endent bodies internet website go ernmental organisations other total count % count % count % count % count % count % count % 1# !8"0% 3 12"0% 3 12"0% 0 0"0% 0 0"0% 2 8"0% 25 100% female 14 58"3% 5 20"8% 2 8"3% 2 8"3% 0 0"0% 1 4"2% 24 100% total 31 !3"3% 8 1!"3% 5 10"2% 2 4"1% 0 0"0% 3 !"1% 49 100%

(%

The table )? highlights that <).)J of respondents rely on relatives for recommendations on food products rather than any other organisation. $nalysis also shows a conse#uent difference among genders. ,ales rely more on relatives more than women whereas women pay more attention to newspapers and maga+ines than men.

Table 31. The most important aspect of a successful environmental campaign what is your gender? male &3 ad ertising cam%aign -redited by relati es,friends,co4wor+ers Information %ro ided -redited in the medias 5essage (one of these /ther 6ngagement of brand &otal count % count % count % count % count % count % count % count % count % # 25"9% 3 11"1% ! 22"2% 2 #"4% 3 11"1% 4 14"8 1 3"#% 1 3"#% 2# 100 female 3 12"5% # 29"2% 4 1!"#% # 29"2% 2 8"3% 0 0 1 4"2% 0 0"0% 24 100

total 10 19"!% 10 19"!% 10 19"!% 9 1#"!% 5 9"8% 4 #"8 2 3"9% 1 2"0% 51 100

(<

Table )4 shows that TN advertising remains one of the most important aspects of a successful environmental campaign for 4>.<J of respondents. Cowever 4>.<J of respondents also feel that an environmental campaign credited by relatives or with good informational content are successful. 6redited by the media is also well ranked with 4=.<J of the total of respondents answers.

The last table displayed below tests respondents! trust of the principal bodies.

Table 32. 2evel of trust of the most common bodies what is your gender? male (./7s , (8/7s none of these go ernment local authorities industries , com%anies other total count % count % count % count % count % count % count % 20 #4"1% 5 18"5% 1 3"#% 1 3"#% 0 0"0% 0 0"0% 2# 100% female 15 53"!% 3 10"#% 4 14"3% 2 #"1% 2 #"1% 2 #"1% 28 100%

total 35 !3"!% 8 14"5% 5 9"1% 3 5"5% 2 3"!% 2 3"!% 55 100%

(=

B7/s are the most trusted organisations whereas industries and companies are the most mistrusted ones. This is disappointing for companies and demonstrates customer scepticism. Cowever if companies succeed in gaining trust they might reach a very high level of trust that aligns with the one from B7/s. Then they will gain support among a large population.

;:$: DISCUSSI!N

Findings have provided many highlights on the ethical and green market. Insights from the survey will help meet the objectives this dissertation addresses.

;:$:-: T E RE"S!NS BE IND C!NSUMER>S C !ICES IN )REEN 0!!D C!NSUM/TI!N

6onsumers are very receptive to issues that concern the environment :table ); and want to get involved in order to make the world a better place :table %14(;. They are moving forward to tackle climate change and environmental degradation. They are aware of environmental issues and say they are prepared to act positively :=>.'J of the respondents report being prepared to change their behaviour for environmental purposes;. In response to this interest they buy ethical food :table <1=1>; recycle their cans and bottles :&(.>J of the respondents say they are prepared to recycle more; and cycle as much as they can :%=.4J of the respondents say they avoid using their car;. 2y adopting this type of attitude customers feel they are doing their bit for the environment :table <1=;.

(&

6ustomers want to be committed to the cause providing that companies help them. Therefore they expect food retailers to reflect their involvement in tackling environmental damages by designing new products and services. The situation given above demonstrates that food retailers can expect favourable responses to any green consumerism orientated initiative. $ report on ethical and green retailing from ,intel :'??=; supports the finding claiming that customers choose a food retailer according to its involvement in managing low environmental impact. They also want food retailers to offer them ethical products to transpose their views into actions. This tendency has been well reflected in the rise of market si+e of Fairtrade and organic food products which proves that profitability is not incompatible with ethical and green issues.

5esults show a significant difference of attitude influencing decision making purchase depending on the gender. /n one hand women are more receptive to environmental issues :table )1%1<1=; and more sceptical of food retailer!s communication :table 4>;. /n the other hand men are less concerned with the environment and are more likely to pay a higher price for environmental products than women.

These tendencies are justifiable because women are responsible for their children!s lifestyle. They might project themselves more into the future thinking of the wellbeing of their children. This is particularly verifiable as the research focuses on women aged from '( to )% years old who often are about to have children or likely to have young ones. It is also justifiable because women are more responsible for shopping and therefore more experienced with food claims and green products. They also have the appropriate income to absorb price premiums :,intel '??= .thical and green retailing;.

(>

Bevertheless the reality is far more ambiguous. 6ustomers act very differently to what they say. The paradox between EI want to do something! and EI am actually not doing anything! is very well perceivable. 6ustomers argue that they are buying green products for ethical reasons but findings suggest otherwise. /nly %.(J of the respondents consider business ethics as the most important reason to choose a supermarket which implies a lack of environmental engagement whereas <&.(J of respondents consider themselves as proactive in preserving the environment.

The truth is that they like clearing their conscience thinking that they are doing well buying food products for ethical reasons. They like reassuring themselves thinking that they are acting towards a better environment. The clear benefit from customers is the facility they have to re#uire a change in the food industry rather than accepting their own responsibility :,intel '??= ethical catering;. It is particularly popular behaviour as it involves little cost and little investment. This feel good attitude allows them to get away from their obligation to adopt a more sustainable lifestyle.

$nother finding shows that customers buy green food products for #uality purposes rather than ethical concerns. This result signifies that consumers are more interested in what they can benefit from green products compare to what they can give in return. 7reen products are the assurance of #uality food with positive healthy and tasty characteristics. $ ,intel report on .thical catering :'??=; supports this claim saying that healthy eaters purchase more green products which implies an involvement of the consumer for personal matters rather than environmental matters.

%?

$s table & illustrates &4J of respondents are prepared to pay more for environmentally friendly products although table ') shows that people consider green products too expensive. The #uestion remains whether or not respondents are ready to pay more for green products as the respondents! sincerity is open to discussion. Two conclusions are si+eable. First customers are effectively ready to pay more for green food products as long as they are #uality products and improve the environmental condition. "econdly customers buy products for which they feel price is right without any environmental consideration. This distinction could be a justification for food retailers to segment green consumers upon environmental and #uality aspects in one hand price in the other.

Dooking at pricing strategy it is essential to look at the barriers to green consumerism

;:$:$:

T E

B"RRIERS

"ND

INCENTIVES

T!

0!!D

RET"ILERS

C!MMUNIC"TIN) )REEN 0!!D T! C!NSUMERS

Bon green consumers remain :table (; and not all green consumers purchase green products on a regular basis. The market opportunity for food retailers is to convince a wider spectrum of shoppers to buy green products or more green products in order for marketers to aid people in overcoming green consumerism barriers.

Table ') shows the principal barriers to green consumerism. For the majority of the respondents the price is the principal barrier. 6ommunicating on the savings that being greener implicates is the right move for food retailers. /ffering green products that aligns with the price of products from the general market and the demand will increase strongly. It

%4

seems that narrowing the price down is the best strategy for a higher acceptance of green products among the most reluctant consumers.

Dack of information is the second main barrier to green consumerism :table '%1'>;. This implies that consumers are not aware of the benefits of green products. "hoppers might not even understand the vocabulary related to green consumerism. Cere food retailers are re#uested to provide clear information to help customers in making a desirable and assumed choice. $n Ipsos study on corporate responsibility argues that customers are in need of more information on the implications of a product to build a better society and respect the environment :The 7uardian '??= p.4>;. The idea of educating the consumer is very important here to instigate an informed and rational decision from the shopper. ,ore accurate information and awareness will lead to a higher involvement in green products purchasing. $nother brake to green consumerism is the lack of choice and the difficulty in finding green products. In terms of communication those two limitations are related. 6onsumers are sending the signal that green products need to gain more visibility. In fact =<J of respondents in a recent survey mentioned that it is difficult to distinguish green products among standardised ones :The 7uardian '??= p.4>;. "till according to the same survey &(J of respondents argue that they won!t buy green products unless retailers make the purchasing process of green products easy :The 7uardian '??= p.4>;. In terms of communication marketers can bring green products to the limelight by in*store and point of purchase communication. $nother implication for food retailers is the underestimation of the demand for those specific products. In terms of product developments food retailers need to offer a larger choice of green products if they want to witness market si+e growth.

%'

$ particular occurrence in this table needs to be underlined. $mong people who do not buy green products <?J are honest enough to say that they can!t be bothered and the same percentage accuses a lack of information. This is very interesting for food retailers as it confirms customer!s feeling that any involvement in green products purchasing re#uires environmental knowledge. /bviously some customers are not prepared to take the initiative to look for information. Food retailers can fulfil this lack of information by taking the lead on educating and informing the consumer.

Cowever table '> shows that among the same segment almost a third of the respondents are not demanding any information. It implicitly means that any strategy to target this segment is wasteful as they just refuse to change their behaviour. They might perceive that it involves too much effort or cost. $s a result the two strategies developed above might be ineffective.

$nother aspect tested through the research relates to food retailer!s image. /ne of the barriers that customers are experiencing does not relate to green products themselves but food retailer!s strategy. 6ustomers are aware that nowadays taking a position for the defence of the environment is a must for companies. $s a result customers are very sceptical of food retailers! involvement in environmental actions. $ccording to the respondents it essentially illustrates a desire to build up their reputation gain in profitability and remain competitive :table '4;. /nly a low percentage see companies as truly green :table '4;.

The findings send a strong warning to marketers :table 4%14<; that would take advantage of environmental and ethical issues. "trategists must fully integrate ethics into the making of their business but be very much careful in terms of communication. $dvertisers must not use ethical and environmental initiatives as an obvious appeal to establish a competitive

%)

advantage. $ttempts to do so will backfire :table '?;. The awkwardness lies in the balance between customer!s desire to see their food retailers giving back to the environment and customer!s ability to punish companies that do not do enough or for the wrong reasons.

Cence framing a message and planning a communication is double edged. /n the one hand food retailers must communicate their green credential to reassure the customer that buying from them is ethically correct and can make a difference. /n the other such initiatives must not appear to be legitimised by an obvious direct or immediate financial gain. 7iven the subtlety of the situation the best communication for food retailers is to grow customer!s trust which will bring favourable word of mouth. $ccording to "hrum et al :4>>%; the green customer is an opinion leader and a careful shopper who has an interest and seeks information on new or regular products. The green consumer talks with others about products and provides word of mouth information that other customers respect :"hrum et al. 4>>%;. If supermarkets can convince respondents that they effectively behave ethically the percentage of people who trust the supermarket could increase significantly :table '';. $mong all respondents )<.%J admit that behaving ethically is the single most important thing that food retailers could do to increase their level of trust. 5ios et al :'??<; have shown that customers who believed in the brandKs environmental performance had a positive attitude towards the brand with a correlation between level of belief and level of attitude. 5esults show such objectives can be reached by communicating explicit clear and transparent information about company and products to convince customers they are moving forward. Improving trust implies publishing performance via transparent and unambiguous data and setting clear targets.

%(

Findings support this statement as 4>.<J of the respondents consider the information provided as an element of a successful campaign :table )4;. "uch a strategy can establish a more trusted relation with customers and decrease the high level of scepticism. ,intel :'??= ethical and green retailing; approves this claim and goes further saying that if retailers have verifiable and viable ethical sourcing policies then they should publici+e them or they will leave themselves open to criticism for not doing enough or hiding something. In a world overloaded with information people are especially keen on giving trust to independent bodies :B7/s;. To gain even more trust as long as they are certain of their claims and sources food retailers can get independent bodies to confirm their claims as they are far most trusted organisations :table '';.

Bow that findings have provided highlights on the type of message the results are focused on the appropriate tools and channels. The four most popular ways among the respondents to receive information on food products are by order television internet newspapers and maga+ines. 6onsidering that respondents are very sceptical of advertising claims :table '<; and television is the less trusted channel :"hrum et al 4>>%; advertising on television is not recommended. It could also backfire as customers would easily identify it as greenwash communication.

.ven if respondents are very much sceptical of advertising claims :table '<; they still rely on the media :table '>1)?1)4; to seek information particularly newspapers maga+ines and the internet. The fact that newspapers and maga+ines are successful channels is good news for advertisers as they can portray more information to customers in need of meaningful and clear facts. 5esults from "hrum et al. :4>>%; also claim that green consumers both women and men are not adverse to print advertising. 6oncerning the internet food retailers can use this

%%

channel to overcome customer!s lack of information and referees towards green products :table ')1'%1'>;. "hoppers make decisions on information they gather from the media including the internet :,intel '??= ethical and green retailing;. Findings claim that media coverage is a favourable factor as 4=.<J of the respondents say that an environmental campaign credited in the media is a proof of success particularly among women :table )4;.

This result tends to encourage marketers and advertisers to differentiate between genders for segmentation and communication purposes. 5esults show that men and women seek information and purchase green products differently. They also recognise a successful campaign based on different variables. ,en rely more on relatives :table )?; which implies that word of mouth is a successful communication channel although almost impossible to control. In table '( 4(.&J of men agree that they would like to receive information on food products face to face which confirms the previous finding. $s well as relatives :table '%; women are also very much influenced by the media and particularly maga+ines :table )?1)4;. Table )4 shows that '>.'J of women consider a successful environmental campaign when it is credited in the media. It can be argued that media coverage has a major impact on what customers think and upon women in particular :,intel '??= ethical and green retailing;.

$nother communication tool that marketers need to consider carefully is packaging. Tables '= and '& show that packaging is often read and influences purchasing decisions. The context given that customers are in demand of information relating to the impact of a green food product on the environment :table '>; means that displaying information on packaging is probably the right move. In table '( 4&.'J of the respondents consider other means to receive information on food productsH it is assumed that packaging is one of those. 0ackaging can play the role of providing the information needed to the customer to make informed

%<

purchase decisions and build up trust. In*store and point of purchase communications can also be another means to relay information. Those communication tools can provide satisfying results as they will attract green consumers who already have absorbed the gain of being greener from external media and alerting others consumers :,intel '??= ethical and green retailing;.

%=

+: 0UTURE +:-: IM/LIC"TI!NS "ND REC!MMEND"TI!NS

The findings of this research contribute to a higher knowledge of the current ethical and green food market. This study provides clear and in*depth insights of customer behaviour and food retailers! communication. It also offers valuable information to practitioners suppliers and manufacturers and policy makers.

+:-:$: IM/LIC"TI!NS 0!R RET"ILERS

It is easy to argue that being green and ethical is a must although it re#uires determined investment and change. It might also be more difficult for some retailers than others to become green for reasons such as knowledge leadership structure and1or cash investment. $s an example it might be easier for some food retailers to develop green strategies compared to some others. "ome retailers have a greater experience of sustainability because they already have invested on this aspect of their strategy for a long time. It is for some of them one main source of competitive advantage whereas others are mainly focused on price competition.

"ome food retailers might be good at recycling packaging whereas others are good at taking supplies off the road and find greener transport alternatives. $sda for example in a survey published in the 7uardian :'??= p.4'; has been recognised as the greenest food retailer for its level of recycled packaging. In the same period Tesco has decided to ship its wine in order to cut its carbon emissions :The 7uardian '??= p.'?;. This means for strategists to focus and promote the aspect of their green strategy they are the most effective at rather than the strategy as a whole. %&

+:-:;: IM/LIC"TI!NS 0!R SU//LIERSAM"NU0"CTURERS

$nother implication of this survey concerns suppliers. There are opportunities and threats for food retailers to audit the ethic of their supply chain as both retailers and customers are becoming powerful and aware of environmental degradation :9.F5$ '??< .conomic note in UK grocery retailing;. $ study by Ipsos published in the 7uardian :'??= p.4>; shows that &=J of the respondents consider retailers responsible for their supply chain and must control their behaviour. ,ultiple retailers are now strong enough to influence suppliers thanks to their dominant market share and buying power. $s a result suppliers can play a fundamental role in greening food retailer!s processes. Food retailer can take advantage of the greenness of its suppliers as it is part of its activities and an impact on the environment. For instance the food miles system considers the level of carbon dioxide emitted in the transport of a product from the supplier to the retailer.

There are opportunities for retailers and suppliers to improve their distribution and logistic efficiency by looking at modes of transport distance travelled local sources and1or energy efficiency3 Food retailer!s corporate image can benefit from suppliers who implement a green marketing strategy within their business. Tesco has recently reduced the miles a good travels and the fuel it consumes by using lorries returning from stores to collect goods from suppliers and recycling waste :9.F5$ '??< .conomic note in UK grocery retailing;. The same approach can be developed by the manufacturer. $n initiative launched by Uniliver aims to improve the supply chain and reduce the environmental impact of the business. In cooperation with the 6arbon 9isclosure 0roject Uniliver is tracking the greenhouse gas emission of its suppliers to seek overall reduction of carbon dioxide. This is an attempt to simultaneously make cost savings and environmental improvements.

%>

This study also has implications for manufacturers who can take the initiative to raise customer!s awareness on the product impact on the environment. For example in ,ay '??= Aalkers initiated a label to measure the level of carbon footprint of a packet of crisps. The 6arbon Trust on their behalf has calculated that a standard packet of Aalkers 6heese L /nion 6risps produces =%g of carbon footprint :The 7uardian '??= n.p.;. This initiative is aimed to offer shoppers the right to choose a product depending on its impact on the environment. Bestle has raised the interest on fat1salt1sugar of its main brand KitKat by placing this information on the packaging. "imilarly manufacturers can appeal to customers attention to their carbon footprints by placing the food miles label on their packaging or any other environmental information. This kind of initiative may be welcomed by the consumer as long as he1she is able to understand the environmental information displayed on the packaging.

+:-:; IM/LIC"TI!NS 0!R )!VERNMENT"L B!DIES

Findings show that citi+ens distrust the UK government and do not think it can tackle environmental degradation. "uch distrust does not come as a surprise when anyone can witness the desire of the UK government to fight climate change and expand Ceathrow airport at the same time. 0aul 9ickinson chief executive of the 6arbon 9isclosure 0roject argues that citi+ens are demanding action though the political process is failing :The 7uardian '??= p.)4;. 6iti+ens are blaming governments for underperforming and slowly answering customer!s demand in laws and regulations on the green and ethical market.

<?

In response customers are pressuring the government and organisations lobbying it to settle an agenda for laws and regulations on green and environmentally friendly products. The government might react soon as the pressure increases. 5egulation might affect green products content and environmental advertising as they both need to be monitored. This has already been seen with the obesity epidemic and the law regarding the advertising ban on TN dedicated to children. The market seems to be driving the change more than any governmental intervention. Ahile the political pressure is rising the lack of involvement and intervention witnessed in the green and ethical market portrays a negative image of the UK government in the fight against global warming.

For this reason retailers need to watch the market carefully to anticipate change and avoid the threat of a late or slow reaction. ,arketers might also need to take the lead to educate the consumer through their own communication :labels advertising the internet; as it has been seen with the fat1salt1sugar system. Food retailers have two advantages in adopting new standards. First they secure themselves and protect from attacks while both political and consumer pressures are gaining momentum. "econdly customers scepticism will decrease with positive repercussions on the volume of sales.

$nother implication for governmental purposes concerns the discourse around environmental issues and their understanding. $ survey on the discourse about climate change in the medias shows that it is Econfusing contradictory and chaotic! :.reaut et al '??<; and the excuses getting great coverage :Cillman '??( p.%%;. ,oreover environmental issues are surrounded by a specific vocabulary that it is not easily accessible. The actual environmental challenge makes awareness and understanding of the situation the basis of any governmental communication campaign. Cowever barriers remain because of how environmental matters

<4

are exposed to the citi+ens. In order to stimulate environmentally friendly behaviour among the UK population the government must take a step forward in the organisation the shape and the regulation of the discourse.

+:$: 0URT ER RESE"RC

$lthough this study is valuable to the body of knowledge it brings into light issues that need to be investigated in further research.

+:$:-: !T ER SE)MENTSAM"R9ETS

Further research on green products should be undertaken on other age groups within the UK population. $s the limitation chapter has demonstrated demographics are important and lead to different types of behaviour. Devel of involvement in green consumerism is very much likely to vary depending on the age the income the level of education3 For instance a student might not have the necessary income to purchase premium food products whereas he1she will show deeper concerned for environmental and social issues than the typical worker.

In addition some other sectors such as toiletries and cosmetics clothing retailing and even car manufacturing need to be investigated. Ahile Ford!s profitability has been very much harmed by negative environmental records Toyota made record earning last year of almost I4) billion thanks to a major environmental focus and its hybrid range :The 7uardian '??= p.'>;. This will provide more understanding of customer!s behaviour and determine whether or not he1she is influenced by the same aspects :ethics price #uality; in regards to other green

<'

products. Through this research insights can be gained on whether or not green products are entering the mainstream on the basis that they are fashionable accessories. Unfortunately this study could not obtain a response to whether or not the success of green products is due to fashion trends. Further research is indeed essential to help businesses setting up their agenda determining a strategy and planning communication. Furthermore an investigation on the launch of a wider range of green food products or new green products that are absent from the market at present can be very constructive.

+:$:$: ENVIR!NMENT"L L"BELS

/ne additional research considers the efficiency and understanding of environmental labels :0edersen et al. '??<;. 5esults demonstrate that environmental labels are unclear and misunderstood. The food miles system for example seems to receive #ualified support as it has been poorly ranked as an informative system. 6ustomers have implicitly during this research re#uired that actions were taken to set up an accurate and efficient label1system. 6ustomers need to be educated and guided in their purchase decision. The lack of knowledge and information makes the environmental system1label a great solution to overcome this barrier. 6ustomers will also be pleased to assess the environmental attributes of a product by themselves because they demand the ability to make informal decisions about the products they buy :,intel '??= .thical and green retailing;.

<)

+:$:;: S "/E !0 T E DISC!URSE

$nother study of deep importance must be considered. This future research concerns how the media shapes the discourse around environmental issues and its conse#uences in the mind of the receiver. "aying that the media is very powerful and influence public opinion is to act uncritically :Dadle et al. '??%;. This study confirms that people are very much influenced by what they read from maga+ines and newspapers and what they see on television. The type of discourse used to describe global warming particularly is shaping the understanding and the attention that people are willing to concede. In a research on the type of discourse Dadle et al. :'??%; argue that the translation of scientific information into the popular discourse has the perverse effect of increasing anti*environmentalist and sceptical movements because of the exaggerated use of sound*bite sensationalism. This dangerous aspect of environmental communication might end up in a global population awareness of global warming with a sceptical attitude that could be dangerously costly for the earth!s well being :Cillman '??( p.'%;.

In addition to this perverse effect the tendency of the most popular newspapers and maga+ines to promote holiday tickets from Dondon to 2angkok or to relate of the latest study disclaiming global warming again increases the denial. The Aorld 9evelopment ,ovement on behalf of 7eorge ,onbiot :'??=; conducted across 4? days in -uly a survey among the five #uality dailies newspaper on the space given to adverts for cars air travel holidays re#uiring air travel and oil companies. The Financial Times carried out the least adverts with ?.&J of the total space followed by The 7uardian :'.%J; The Independent :).4J; The Times :(.(J; and the Telegraph :=.)J; :,onbiot '??=;. Furthermore among some of the most popular newspaper and maga+ines a tendency to relate the latest news disclaiming

<(

global warming is very popular. $lso it might be very interesting to conduct an investigation on how the media discourse and content reflects the general environmental awareness and concern among the population. The repercussions on the citi+en!s mind and actions around environmental issues and global warming might be considerable. The latest aspect considers the level of concern of the reader to environmental issues depending on the type of press. It seems interesting to categorise the influence of the media depending on the type of media and the readership1audience. For example readers of the 7uardian which publishes news about global warming every day might be more aware of environmental issues than someone reading The "un.

<%

C!NCLUSI!N The findings establish the actual status of the ethical and green market. This paper offers practitioners recommendations guidelines and insights for properly managing their

environmentally orientated marketing strategy. It is important to stress that the ethical and green market is expanding although it is still underestimated. There should no longer be remaining professionals with doubt on the profitability of this market.

This paper has tried to demonstrate that adopting a green and ethical marketing strategy is the way to go for decision makers unless they want to see their profitability harmed. "econdary data has provided information that shows the profitability of such markets in terms of cost reduction new product development regulations and brand image.

$ll industries should be aware that the customer has a high demand for businesses to participate in the wellbeing of the society. 6orporate social responsibilities appear as a must to answer this need while behaving ethically should be the basis of any current marketing strategy. The actual context of environmental concern pressures practitioners to go along the environmental route.

Food retailers are particularly concerned as they are well positioned to offer solutions to customers. 6ustomers who want to act ethically are pushing food retailers to offer them products that are environmentally friendly. The respect of a product for the environment is an appealing message that customers wish to hear. Food retailers should inject heavier investment in developing products and communication. .thical and green issues are at a stage where they are entering the mainstream sphere. <<

"ome key points to environmental communication have been learnt through this paper. Food retailers need to consider them to be successful. They have to consider decreasing the level of customer scepticism and increasing the level of trust. This study also stresses the need to segment the market within which different messages apply better than others depending principally on gender. The marketing mix of green products will need to consider these last recommendations.

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"//ENDICES# T"BLE !0 C!NTENTS

Appendice A Appendice B Appendice C Appendice D Appendice E Appendice F

8uotations333333333333333333333333...

p.4

Botes333333333333333333333333333 p.' 5eferences333333333333333333333333... p.(

2ibliography333333333333333333333333 p.= .xternal links33333333333333333333333... p.& 8uestionnaire33333333333333333333333... p.4?

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"//ENDICE "# =U!T"TI!NS EBow you can be green and gorgeous eco*conscious and highly fashionable simply by buying the latest climate*friendly consumer products! :Dynas '??=;. Dynas ,. 6an shopping save the planetG. :'??= "eptember 4=;. The 7uardian. n.p

"//ENDICE B# N!TES 4. T4e green and et4ica8 market takes its root in concepts such as business ethics and green marketing. 6ustomers expect businesses to act ethically which means in the actual environmental growing concern for environmental and social issues. The green market is made of customers businesses products and services with environmental and social respect. '. $s climate change g8o6a8 5arming refers to a change in the earth!s atmosphere but it exclusively means the rise in the earth!s temperature caused by the greenhouse effect and responsible for changes in global climate patterns. The rise in the temperature that we are witnessing at present can potentially result in a significant increase in storm fre#uency drought and sea level rise that can be experienced at a regional or global scale. It can be the result of both factorsF natural changes or human activities. Cumans are responsible for climate change because of the burning of fossil fuels or other emissions of certain pollutants :particularly 6/'; that are causing the sunKs heat to be trapped rather than emitted to space causing a global average increase in temperature. This term has recently exclusively been used to describe the result of human activity and specifically the burning of fossil fuels. It has also been used as a synonym to the term global warming. ). The term 0airtrade refers to the system of independent product certification against internationally agreed fair trade standards :,intel '??= .thical 6atering;. The Fairtrade trademark is an independent consumer label which appears on products as an independent guarantee that disadvantaged producers in the developing world are getting a better deal :Fairtrade '??=;. (. The term organic is defined strictly by the law and re#uires production to meet high standards that put principles of health and environmental sustainability first. /rganic farming encompasses a total approach to food production and involves the development of management practices that aim to avoid the use of agrochemical inputs and to minimise damage to the environment and wildlife. /rganic standards are updated continually and are enforced by a number of approved certification bodies. 6ertification bodies are responsible for inspecting land and production processes to ensure that production follows prescribed standards and principles :,intel '??= .thical 6atering;. %. The sce1tic has not reached a conclusion yet and is still looking for the truth :,onbiot '??=;. The sceptic often doubts the substance of communication or claims that he is exposed to. <. $ green 1roduct is a product that possesses both environmental and socially positive attributes. These products are respectful of the environment places and people that provide and use them. The three most popular green products are fair trade labelling products organic products and local products. $ green product is mainly identified as a food product although many other types of environmentally friendly non*food products exist under other appellations :energy efficient appliances micro*wind

'

turbines energy efficient light bulbs;. In this dissertation green product and ethical products are used as interchangeable. =. The term c8imate c4ange refers to a change that affects the global atmosphere by either an increase or decrease of the earth!s temperature. &. $n en2ironmenta88< friend8< 1roduct is a product that has low negative impact on the natural world. 2iodegradable products green products and ethical products for example are environmental friendly products. >. $n et4ica8 1roduct is along the same line as a green product. In this dissertation green products and ethical products are interchangeably. 4?. 0ood mi8es is a term which refers to the distance food travels from the time of its production until it reaches the consumer or end*user. It is one dimension used in assessing the environmental impact of a food product :Aikipedia '??=;. 44. The green4ouse effect is a natural phenomenon that is globally recognised whereby certain gases in the atmosphere. It maintains the earthKs temperature at a level that allows life on earth. This phenomenon can lead to global warming and other changes to the climate. It is due to human activity by the emissions of gases that trap the heat of the sun in the .arthKs atmosphere. 4'. Car6on dioCide DC!$E is a product of burning fossil fuels and the main greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. /ther greenhouse gases also include methane :from agricultural sources; and nitrous oxide :from industrial sources;. 4). Denia8 can be defined by the fact that people cannot accept the implications of what they know. This behaviour involves the fundamental paradox of knowing about something and recognising its existence but refusing to know it and to accept its moral implications :,arshall '??4;. 4(. $ nonFgo2ernmenta8 organiGation :N)!; is any non*profit voluntary citi+ensK group which is organi+ed on a local national or international level. Task*oriented and driven by people with a common interest B7/s perform a variety of services and humanitarian functions bring citi+en!s concerns to 7overnments advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information. "ome are organi+ed around specific issues such as human rights environment or health. They provide analysis and expertise serve as early warning mechanisms and help monitor and implement international agreements. Their relationship with offices and agencies of the United Bations system differs depending on their goals their venue and the mandate of a particular institution. :B7/ '??=;

"//ENDICE C# RE0ERENCES 3!URN"L "RTICLES 2rown -.9. L Aahlers 5.7. 4>>&. The environmentally concerned consumerF $n exploratory study. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice. . Nol. < Iss. ' p. )>* (= :> pp.; 6arlson D. "tephen -. 7. L Kangun B. 4>>). $ 6ontent $nalysis of .nvironmental $dvertising 6laimsF $ ,atrix ,ethod $pproach. J !"nal # Ad$e"ti%in&. p.'=*)>. 9ehab 9.-. 7entry -.A. "u A. 4>>%. Bew ways to reach non*recyclersF an extension of the model of reasoned action to recyling behaviour. Ad$ance% in C n%!'e"(e%ea"c). '' p.4%4@4%<. 9K"ou+a 6. Damb 0. and 0eretiatkos 5. '??<. 7reen products and corporate strategyF an empirical investigation. 2radfordF'??<. Nol. 4 Iss. ' p. 4((*4%= Fuller $. 4>>>. "ustainable ,arketingF ,anagerial*.cological Issues. Thousand /aks 6$F "age Dadle 5.-. -epson 0. and Ahittaker 5.-. '??%. "cientists and the mediaF the struggle for legitimacy in climate change and conservation science. *nte"di%ciplina"+ ,cience (e$ie-%. Nol. )? no. ) ,eyer $. '??4. AhatKs in it for the customersG successfully marketing green clothes. Business Strategy and the Environment. Nol. 4? Iss. % p. )4= ,ohr D.$. .roglu 9. and .llen 0.". 4>>&. The development and testing of a measure of skepticism toward environmental claims in marketersK communications. T)e J !"nal # C n%!'e" A##ai"%. Nol. )' Iss. 4 p. )?*%% :'< pp.; Bewell ".-. 7oldsmith 5... and 2an+haf ..-. :4>>&;. The effect of misleading environmental claims on consumer perceptions of advertisements. J !"nal # .a"/etin& T)e "+ 0 1"actice Nol. < Bo. ' pp. (&*<?. 0eattie K. '??4. 7olden goose or wild gooseG The hunt for the green consumer. B!%ine%% ,t"ate&+ and t)e En$i" n'ent. 4? p.4&=*4>>. 0edersen .. 5. L Beergaard 0. :'??<;. 6aveat emptor @ let the buyer bewareO environmental labelling and the limitations of Egreen! consumerism. C pen)a&en B!%ine%% ,c) l. 0rakash $. '??'. 7reen marketing public policy and managerial strategies. B!%ine%% ,t"ate&+ and t)e En$i" n'ent. p.'&%@'>=.

5ios -.,. ,artine+ T.D. ,oreno F.F. "oriano 0.6. '??<. Improving attitudes toward brands with environmental associationsF an experimental approach. T)e J !"nal # C n%!'e" .a"/etin&. Nol. ') Iss. 4 p. '<*)) :& pp.; "ahlin*$ndersson K. '??<. 6orporate social responsibilityF a trend and a movement but of what and for whatG 6orporate 7overnance. Nol. < Iss. % p. %>%*<?& "hrum et al D.-. 4>>%. 2uyer characteristics of the green consumer and their implications for advertising strategy. Journal of Advertising. Nol. '( Iss. ' p. =4 :4' pp.;. "ririam N. Forman $.,. 4>>). The relative importance of products! environmental attributesF a cross cultural comparison. *nte"nati nal .a"/etin& (e$ie- 4?:); p. %4@=?. /RESS S/ECI"LISED "RTICLES $itken D. '??<. 7reen Aorks. Ca'pai&n. -ul 4( '??<. p. '< '= :' pp.; $nonymous. 6limate changeF green and pleasant brands. :'??< 9ecember =;. ,arketing Aeek. pp.)4*)'. $nonymous. 6orporate social responsibilityF green is the way to go for marketers. :'??< ,ay 44;. ,arketing Aeek. pp.(?. $nonymous. 7ood foodG. :'??< 9ecember =;. The .conomist. p.4'. ,elillo A. and ,iller ". '??<. It!s not easy being green. Ad-ee/. Nol. (= Iss. '> p. 4?* 44 :' pp.;. /ttman -.$. '??(. .mpower to the people. *nB!%ine%%. /ttman -.$. '??). Cey corporate $merica it!s time to think about products. *nB!%ine%%. /RESS "RTICLES $pple condemned for consigning toxic computers to 6hina. :'??= Bovember 4%;. The Independent n.p. 6arbon labels to help shoppers save planet. :'??= )4 ,ay;. The 7uardian. n.p. 6are to comment. :'??= Bovember %;. The 7uardian supplement EThe 7reen Dist!. pp.4>. 7reen store says Ebring your own bag!. :'??= & Bovember;. The .vening "tandard. n. p. Dondon joins national campaign to banish the curse of the plastic bags. :'??= 4( Bovember '??=;. The Independent pp.'.

Dynas ,. 6an shopping save the planetG. :'??= "eptember 4=;. The 7uardian. n.p. ,L" gets the lowest green rating in packaging survey. :'??= ') /ctober;. The 7uardian. pp.4'. 0olitics has failed. :'??= % Bovember;. The 7uardian supplement EThe 7reen Dist!. pp.)4 5ide the wave of go under. :'??= % Bovember;. The 7uardian supplement EThe 7reen Dist!. pp.'> TescoF named shamed and an unstoppable success. :'??= $ugust '<;. The /bserver. n.p. Tesco faces attack over carbon footprint. :'??= "eptember >;. The /bserver. n.p. Noting with your trolley. :'??< "eptember 4';. The .conomist. pp.=)*=%. Aine on the water as Tesco turns to barges to cut emissions. :'??= /ctober 4>;. The 7uardian. pp.'?

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"//ENDICE D# BIBLI!)R"/ Y 6arson 9. 7ilmore $. 0erry 6. and 7ronhaug K. '??4. 8ualitative marketing research. 4st ed. "age 0ublications Dtd. Cillman ,. '??(. Cow we can save the planet G. 4st ed. 0enguin 2ooks. ,alhotra B.K. L 2irks 9.F. '??<. ,arketing researchF an applied approach. 'nd .uropean .dition. 0rentice Call Financial Times. ,onbiot 7. '??<. Ceat how to stop the planet burning G /ttman -.$. 4>>). 2"een .a"/etin&F C)allen&e% and 3pp "t!nitie%. BT6F Dincolnwood. 0eattie K. 4>>'. 2"een 'a"/etin&. 4st ed. Dongman 7roup UK Dtd. "aunders ,. Dewis 0. and Thornhill $. '???. 5esearch methods for business students. 'nd ed. 0earson .ducation 0rentice Call Financial times.

"//ENDICE E# EXTERN"L LIN9S The 6ooperative 2ank .thical consumerism report '??<. $vailable atF httpF11www.co* operativebank.co.uk1servlet1"atelliteGcP0ageLcidP44=?=(&(=%))4LpagenameP62J'F0age J'Ftpl"tandard. Q$ccessed '' Bovember '??=R. 9.F5$ food and drink economics branch '??<. .conomic note on UK 7rocery retailing. Q/nlineR. $vailable atF httpF11statistics.defra.gov.uk1esg1reports17roceriesJ'?paperJ'?,ay J'?'??<.pdf Q$ccessed 4( Bovember '??=R. .reaut 7. and "egnit B. '??<. Aarm words how are we telling the climate story and can we tell it betterG. Institute for 0ublic 0olicy 5esearch. Q/nlineR. $vailable atF httpF11www.ippr.org1publicationsandreports1publication.aspGidP(&% Q$ccessed 4) -une '??=R. Fairtrade '??=. Ahat is Fairtrade. Q/nlineR. $vailable atF httpF11www.fairtrade.org.uk1aboutSwhatSisSfairtrade.htm Q$ccessed 4& Bovember '??=R. ,arshall 7. '??4. The psychology of denialF our failure to act against climate change. The .cologist. Q/nlineR. $vailable atF httpF11www.ecoglobe.ch1motivation1e1clim'>''.htm Q$ccessed 4' -une '??=R. ,intel. '??=. .thical and green retailing. Q/nlineR. $vailable from the 2ritish Dibrary. Q$ssessed on the ' Bovember '??=R. ,intel. '??=. .thical catering. Q/nlineR. $vailable from the 2ritish Dibrary. Q$ssessed on the ' Bovember '??=R. ,onbiot 7. '??=. "elling ecocide. Q/nlineR. $vailable atF httpF11www.monbiot.com1archives1'??=1?&14(1selling*ecocide. B7/ '??=. 9efinition of B7/. Q/nlineR. $vailable at htpF11www.ngo.org1ngoinfo1define.html Q$ssessed 4> Bovember '??=R. /ffice for Bational "tatistics. '??=. 1 p!lati n e%ti'ate%. Q/nlineR. 0ublished on '' $ugust '??=. $vailable atF httpF11www.statistics.gov.uk1cci1nugget.aspGidP< Q$ccessed '% "eptember '??=R. 5ose 6. 9ade 0. 7allie B. and "cott -. '??%. 6limate 6hange 6ommunications @ 9ipping $ Toe Into 0ublic ,otivation. Q/nlineR. 6ultural 9ynamics "trategy and ,arketing 5eport. $vailable at httpF11www.campaignstrategy.org1valuesvoters1climatechangecommunications.pdf Q$ssessed 4) -uly '??=R. Tesco 0D6 '??=. .nergy .fficiency. Q/nlineR. $vailable atF httpF11www.tescocorporate.com1page.aspxG pointeridP464%((?4')'?(?)>2%.?.&<6=''?2('4. Q$ccessed 4= Bovember '??=R.

&

The 6hartered Institute of ,arketing :'??=;. T)e C)a"te"ed *n%tit!te # .a"/etin& &l %%a"+. :online;. $vailable atF httpF11www.cim.co.uk1KnowledgeCub1,arketing7lossary17lossaryCome.aspx Q$ccessed ?= -ulyR. Aikipedia '??=. Food miles. Q/nlineR. $vailable atF httpF11en.wikipedia.org1wiki1FoodSmiles Q$ccessed 4= -uly '??=R.

>

"//ENDICE 0# =UESTI!NN"IRE
&he )uestionnaire is %art of the dissertation of a 5aster student in 5ar+eting -ommunications9 It has been made to in estigate how food retailers should communicate their green credentials to customers9 &his )uestionnaire is anonymous9 &han+s in for your time and coo%eration9 '1. )hat is !our gender3 5ale '2. 1o% old are !ou3 19 ;nder 18 years old 29 <etween 18 and 24 years old 39 <etween 25 and 34 years old 49 <etween 35 and 44 years old 59 <etween 45 and 54 years old !9 5ore than 55 years old :emale

'3. )hat is the higher level of education !ou achieved3 (Select one) 8319 =econdary school >gcse0s,0 le els,cse0s,n ) le els 1 ? 2 or similar 8329 =econdary school> a le els,a4s le els,scottish highers,irish lea ing certificate,n ) le els 3 or 4 or similar 8339 ;ni ersity,college 8349 8ost graduate di%loma,masters,doctorate 8359 &rade or technical )ualification 83!9 8rofessional )ualification @e9g9 AccountancyB 83#9 =till studying 8999 (one of these

41.

)hich of the follo%ing supermar,ets do !ou currentl! shop food from3 (select one) !9 5orrisons #9 =omerfield 89 5ar+s and =%encer 989 /ther 999 (one of these

19 &esco 29 Asda 39 =ainsburys 49 Iceland 59 *aitrose 42.

)hat is the most important reason %h! !ou choose this supermar,et3 (select one)

4?

19 8ro ide a high customer ser ice 2 -on enient location and,or access 39 8ro ide %roducts with )uality guarantees 49 8ro ide better alue for money

59 <eha e ethically and fairly !9 Acti ely %reser e the en ironment 989 /ther 999 (one of these

43. 'lease indicate the e0tent to %hich !ou agree or disagree %ith each of the follo%ing statements. (Check one alternative per row) Agree Agree (either $isagree$isagree $on7t $oes not strongly slightly agree slightly strongly +now a%%ly nor disagree C319 I am concerned with en ironmental issues and climate change C329 I am %roacti e in hel%ing %reser e the en ironment C339 I thin+ I ha e a good en ironmental +nowledge C349 I am ery sce%tical of en ironmental claims of com%anies C359 I %unish com%anies that e1aggerate their green claims C3!9 I recently sto%%ed buying from com%anies who might damage the en ironment C3#9 I recently sto%%ed buying from com%anies who might act unethically C389 I am %re%ared to %ay more for en ironmental friendly %roducts2 C399 Daws and regulations are necessary on green %roducts

44.

5o !ou purchase green products1 3 29 (o @go to C9#B 39 /ccasionally

19 'es

45.

)hat sort of green products1 do !ou purchase3 (Check all that apply)

44

19 :ood 29 $rin+s and be erages 39 &oiletries and cosmetics 49 8harma and health 59 -lothing

!9 &ra el #9 6lectronics 89 Auto,5oto 989 /ther 999 (one of these

4#.

)hat are the reasons %h! !ou bu! green products1 3 (Check all that apply) 59 =ustainability !9 :ashion 989 /ther 999 (one of these

19 6thics 29 -on enience 39 8olitics 49 Cuality

=(: .4ic4 of t4e fo88o5ing sto1 <ou from not 6u<ing or 6u<ing more green 1roducts B 4C)ec/ all t)at appl+5
19 Dac+ of trust in )uality 29 Dac+ of information 39 Dac+ of good ad ice and referee 49 Dac+ of choice 59 I can0t afford them !9 6n ironmental im%lications are often difficult to understand #9 &hey are difficult to find 89 I don7t +now who to see+ ad ice from 99 -an7t be bothered 109 I don7t thin+ its worthwhile 999 (one of these

4'

4(. Thin,ing of the environment and climate change6 %ho do !ou thin, is the most responsible for7 (select one) Indi iduals C819 -ausing damages C829 &ac+ling en ironmental damage Industries -om%anies .o ernment (./s (8/s International bodies and agreements

4*. )h! do !ou thin, companies promote their green credentials3 (check all that apply and assign a preferential order) 19 &hey actually are green 29 &o gain in %rofitability 39 &o %rotect from attac+s 49 &o remain com%etiti e 59 &o gi e bac+ to en ironment !9 &o build u% their re%utation 989 /ther 999 (one of these

410. 8f the follo%ing list6 %ho do !ou most rel! on for recommendations on food products3 (select one) 19 8artner 29 :amily 39 :riends 49 -olleagues, co4wor+ers 59 (on go ernmental organisations 109 Ea e not sought ad ice !9 .o ernmental bodies #9 Inde%endent bodies 89 (ews%a%er or maga2ine 99 Internet website 989 /ther

411.

)hat do !ou thin, is the most important aspect of a food product3 (select one) 59 Fes%ect for the en ironment !9 <rand 989 /ther 999 (one of these

19 Cuality 29 8rice 39 &echnical %erformances 49 -ountry of origin

4)

412. 1o% %ould !ou prefer to receive information on food products3 (check all that apply and assign a preferential order) 19 &ele ision 29 Fadio 39 Internet 49 (ews %a%er 59 5aga2ines !9 8ost #9 &ele%hone 89 :ace to face 989 /ther 999 (one of these

413. 'lease indicate the e0tent to %hich !ou agree or disagree %ith each of the follo%ing statements9 (Check one alternative per row) Agree Agree (either $isagree$isagree $on7t $oes not strongly slightly agree slightly strongly +now a%%ly nor disagree C1319 I don7t really understand en ironmental labels C1329 I always read the information dis%lay on %roducts %ac+aging C1339 Information on %ac+aging hel% myself in ma+ing %urchase decision C1349 I don7t +now where to find inde%endent information on com%anies7 ethic C1359 I don7t +now where to find inde%endent information on %roducts C13!9 I don7t belie e in ad ertising claims C13#9 I am %re%ared to change my beha iour to %reser e the en ironment

414.

)hich one of the follo%ing %ould !ou be the most li,el! to trust3 (select one) 49 Inde%endent bodies @(./sB 989 /ther 999 (one of these

19 Industries , com%anies 29 .o ernment 39 Docal authorities

415. 9rom this list6 %hich is the single most important thing that food retailers could do to increase !our level of trust3 (select one)

4(

19 Im%ro e customer ser ice 29 /ffer %roducts that are easier to understand 39 /ffer %roducts with )uality guarantees 49 /ffer %roducts that %ro ide better alue for money 59 $o what they will say they do" +ee% their %romises !9 <eha e ethically #9 5a+e me feel that they care for me 89 5a+e me feel that they treat me fairly 989 /ther 999 (one of these

41#. one)

)hat t!pe of information do !ou need to ,no% about a green food product 1 3 (select

19 Its im%act on the en ironment 29 Its technical %erformances 39 Its chemical content 49 food miles 3

59 Its use of carbon dio1ide !9 Its country of origin 989 /ther 999 (one of these

41&.

)hat ,ind of green products1 %ould !ou be the most li,el! to purchase3 (select one) !9 &ra el #9 6lectronics 89 Auto,5oto 989 /ther 999 (one of these

19 :ood 29 $rin+s and be erages 39 &oiletries and cosmetics 49 8harma and health 59 -lothing

41(. Thin,ing about a compan! that successfull! communicated their green credential6 %hat %as the most important3 (select one) 19 &3 ad ertising cam%aign 29 5essage 59 Information %ro ided !9 6ngagement of brand

4%

39 -redited by relati es,friends,co4wor+ers 49 -redited in the medias

989 /ther 999 (one of these

41*. 8n a scale from 1 being the lo%est to 10 being the highest6 ho% %ould in terms of ethics rate !our7 (circle where it applies) C1919 6lectricity %ro ider C1929 Internet %ro ider C1939 5obile %hone %ro ider C1949 =u%ermar+et C1959 <an+ 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 ! ! ! ! ! # # # # # 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10

420. 'lease indicate the e0tent to %hich !ou agree or disagree %ith each of the follo%ing statements. (Check one alternative per row) Agree Agree strongly slightly C2019 I feel myself being ery trendy C2029 I feel myself being %olitically engaged C2039 I cycle e ery time I can not to use my car C2049 I buy green food %roducts1 because I care for the en ironment C2059 I olunteer in charity to gi e bac+ to the community C20!9 I donate money to charity regularly C20#9 I discuss en ironmental issues with the %eo%le surrounding me C2089 I li+e e1%ressing my %ersonal o%inions and discuss them with others C2099 I am %re%ared to recycle more (either $isagree$isagree $on7t $oes not agree slightly strongly +now a%%ly nor disagree

4<