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CIGRE SC B2 B2-07 (JWG17) 39

Conseil International des Grands Rseaux Electriques International Council on Large Electric Systems


Study Committee B2 "Overhead Lines" JWG B2.17: Impacts of HVDC Lines on the Economics of HVDC Projects ACTIVITY REPORT AUG 2006 JUNE 2007

Convenor Joo F. Nolasco Brazil

Secretary John F. Graham

CIGRE SC B2 B2-07 (JWG17) 39

JWG B2.17 "Impacts of HVDC Lines on the Economics of HVDC Projects" Activity Report Sep 2005 Aug 2006
Convenor : Joo Felix Nolasco Secretary: John F. Graham
1. Highlights The Joint Working Group JWG-B2.17 was created at the occasion of 2004 Cigr Biennial Session and had its approval by Study Committee Chairmen of B2 and B4 at the dates August 31st and September 2nd, 2004, respectively. Later on Study Committee C1 joined the Group and nominated participants. The following meetings having been organized during JWG-B2.17 existence, namely: - An introductory audio-conference held on May 18th 2005, just for triggering the JWG Activities; - First direct meeting was held in Rio, on September 9th and 10th , 2006; - In Erlangen, Germany, on May 29th and 30th ,2006; - In Paris, on August 26th , 2006; - Audio-conference on March 12th, 2007; - Sub-group meeting, on May 9th , 2007 On May 9th, 2007, a sub-group of JWG-B2.17 met in Florianpolis, Brazil, to push activities of Task Forces TF01, this one ending its work, accelerating TF02 works, which by unavoidable reasons has some delay, and launching the first works of TF03. This meeting could not count with the presence of foreign members but they were informed about everything treated therein, and their comments and suggestions have been requested. It has been and still it is a common sense among JWG-B2.17 members that the time is pressing us for concluding JWG-B2.17 activities within the prescribed term. Regarding members and documents issued, see the attached files, the last versions of which have been loaded into SC B2 Web-site, as follows: - List of JWG B2.17 members Version March 31st - 2007ID611VER42.pdf List of members May 2007; - List of JWG B2 17 Documents Version March 31st 2007ID611VER42.pdf List of documents May 2007 2. JWG B2.17 Progress of Works and Action Plan The Schedule of activities of JWG-B2.17 is shown in Table 2 on page 6 of this document. The present Terms of Reference of JWG-B2.17/B4/C1 are as follows: Evaluate the cost of HVDC typical lines and associated Converter Stations, and establish economical global evaluation with intermediate substations to supply AC systems (+ cost of losses, interest rate,) Due to the increased spectrum that turned out to be the works to be carried out, it was decided that the scope of JWG-B2.17 would focus predominantly on the economics of a point-to-point HVDC project, which is determined by two major components, namely: a) The DC bipolar Lines

CIGRE SC B2 B2-07 (JWG17) 39

b) The Converter Stations Other DC line types, as monopolar lines and lines with metallic return will be just dealt with at a general way, their highlights being described. The supply of intermediate loads was agreed to be considered as a separate topic. The three Task Forces created since the start-up of the activities aimed at studying the economics of DC Projects, as a whole , have accomplished their scope relatively inside the scheduled times, so that the first two TFs are ending their activities. The third and last TF, namely TF03, has been launched at the end of 2006 but just recently took over the relevant activities. This means the way is traced to end JWG-B2.17 work next year, at the occasion of Paris Biennal Session in August/September 2008. The next meetings planned for JWG-B2.17 are: - On July 3rd 2007, in Helsinki at the occasion of SC B2 meeting. - On November 2007: an audio-conference; - On April 2008: Spring meeting, at venue not yet defined.

3. Task Forces of JWG-B2.17 3.1. Task Force BWG-B2.17 - TF01: Economics of DC Lines TF Leader: Jos A. Jardini - Brazil TF01 has already carried out the optimisation of DC lines according to the agreed criteria, as per Table 1 below, which was selected by the participants as being representative of what exists and is being planned for HVDC lines around the World. For evaluating the costs of DC line alternatives, Task Force TF01 has either improved existing models or created new specific models. The Economics of every alternative has been pursued and attained, except for a couple of specific cases already under evaluation: it is the case of the inclusion of ice loads for covering the relevant areas. Probably such options will be ready until the date of the Technical Meeting of SC B2, to be held in Helsinki. Thus, the set of DC bipolar transmission line options shown in Table 1 is either ready or in conditions to be finished soon. Table 1: Set of bipolar HVDC Lines and the respective Converter Stations taken into account Bipolar power 800 km 1500 km 3000 km 750 MW 300 kV 300 kV 500 kV 1500 MW 300 kV 500 kV 500 kV 3000 MW 500 kV 500 kV 800 kV 500 kV 600 kV 800 kV 6000 MW 600 kV 600 kV 800 kV 600 kV 800 kV

Notes: a) The alternative 600 kV for 6000 MW will be considered by using parallel-connected converters; b) The alternative 800 kV for 6000 MW will be considered for both series and parallel-connected converters; c) For transmitting 700 MW at 300 kV, two alternatives will be additionally taken into account, namely thyristor converters with 6 poles in one bipolar unit, and VSC (IGBT) converters in one bipolar unit.

CIGRE SC B2 B2-07 (JWG17) 39

The work of TF01 can be considered as finished, and the respective reports were already issued and some of them are already loaded in the Web-site of SC B2, namely: - 2b B2-06 _JWG17_ 33 Selection Corona calculation resultsID611VER42.pdf Corona calculations; - 2a B2-06 _JWG17_ 32 Economic Impact of Conductor Selection Corona Considerations.gys ID611VER42.pdf general concepts; - 1 B2-06 _JWG17_ 23 Overvoltages and insulation coordination ID611VER35.pdf DC Lines Insulation; - 2 B2-06 _JWG17_ 24 Corona Effects and Fields ID611VER42.pdf Corona effects & fields; - 3_0 B2-06 (JWG17) 25 Tower and Foundation and annexes ID611VER41.zip Tower & - Foundation designs. - 4 B2-06 (JWG17) 26 line economics - 5 B2-06 (JWG17) 27 system economics - 6 B2-06 (JWG17) 38 Electrode, Electrode Line and Metallic Return. Two pending points are still under consideration, namely: - Regarding the maximum acceptable electric field, by using EPRI or BPA calculation method, lead to different results. As regarded to criteria to limit electrical field, recent Russian report includes also the consideration of exposure time to fields, what is quite stringent and the basis for the criteria is not known. Criteria so far adopted did not take such time into account. Many HVDC lines in operation (BPA, Itaipu, India, China), perhaps even Russian lines do not comply with such criteria. A compromise criteria is probably the best solution for JWG-B2.17; - Design criteria of towers taking ice loads into account: to be carried out soon.

3.2. Task Force BWG-B2.17 - TF02: Economics of Converter stations TF02 Leader : Mr. Bruske Gnther (helped by John Graham) This Task Force has performed the basic work through the activities carried out simultaneously and well tuned by members Mr. John Graham (Secretary), Gnter Bruske and Alf Persson, with the help and comments from others, especially Mr. Carlos Peixoto and Jos A. Jardini. 3.2.1 Base costs for Converter Stations TF-02 aims at designing converter stations and establishing costs for a certain range of powers and voltages. Task Force works have progressed with the determination of the prices for the Basic Alternative and the establishment of criteria for pricing other alternatives, when new market prices are not available. After having such costs, a cost equation has been deduced for use in the economic calculations. That equation also takes into account the costs shown on [1] CIGRE Brochure 186, and other published values duly adjusted. Table 2 shows some costs obtained. The selection of typical converter station types and the respective costs for the alternatives will be carried out for all DC voltages, distances and powers indicated on Table 1.

CIGRE SC B2 B2-07 (JWG17) 39

Some configurations include two converters per pole. It was agreed that preference would be given to series connected converters, but that parallel connected converters could be used in case of high currents above rating of one thyristor and in cases where a staged project may have a sufficiently long time to make the saving in losses cover the extra capital cost. Table 2: Converter Station Cost
Voltage ( ) 500 500 600 500 500 600 800 Total cost Million U$ 170 290 450 420 680 465 510

Power (MW) 1000 2000 3000 3000 4000 3000 3000

cost U$/kW) 170 145 150

Source [1] CIGRE Brochure 186 [1] CIGRE Brochure 186 [1] CIGRE Brochure 186 [2] Bahrman [2] Bahrman [2] Bahrman [2] Bahrman

It was agreed as well that VSC converters would be considered in the alternative for 700 MW, 300 kV. A more detailed budget price for the Basic Alternative (1500 MW, 1500 km, 500 kV) will be developed and presented, because it will be used as reference for the alternative ratings and suppliers estimative turn-key converter station costs;

3.2.2 Suggestion of preliminary converter station arrangements for the selected HVDC station ratings Evaluation and considerations around Intermediate Stations in new or existing HVDC lines for supplying intermediate AC Projects or loads:. Alternatives for small loads will be studied in more detail and others will be simply mentioned. For the case of relatively large powers at the intermediate point, it was agreed that this becomes a technically feasible multi-terminal system, the use or not being an economical question. A document on HVDC transmission configuration and basic intermediate station schemes was produced and loaded in SC B2 Web-site with the following designation: Converter configurations - Intermediate stations See [3]. It was noted that WG B4-45(Technological Assessment of 800 kV HVDC Applications) also terminates in 2008 and so coordination is required to ensure that the two WGs produce reports which are complementary and not conflicting. The Secretary John Graham, member of that group as well, will take care of this activity. Reports issued: Converter Station Cost Equation - B2-06 (JWG17) 40 Converter configurations - Intermediate stations 3.3 Task Force BWG-B2.17 - TF03: Optimization of HVDC Project Options TF Leader : JFNolasco Acting Leader: Jos A. Jardini

CIGRE SC B2 B2-07 (JWG17) 39

Task Force TF03 (Optimization of HVDC Project Options) started its activities with the preparation of the structure of the Final Report (Annex A). An internal version of the Final Report in the Group will be first issued; then the official Cigr documents - a Technical Brochure and an Electra Report will be produced at the closing of the Joint Working Group JWG-B2.17. The aim is to produce the draft of this Report until the Spring Meeting of JWG-B2.17, to be held on March-April 2008. It should be reminded that the terms of reference set for JWG-B2.17 provide an end date of September 2008, meaning the end of the Group at the 2008 Paris meeting. The main items of the Final Report are indicated in Annex A. The above-mentioned points are posed to SC-B2 in this Helsinki meeting for discussion and comments. Designation of members for comments are still required.

4. Relations with other groups or organisations The relation of JWG-B2.17 with other entities or groups is planned to be only with counterparts of the three involved committees (B4 and C1), especially WG-B4.45, through the Secretary John Graham.

5. Tutorials 5.1 DC Line Considerations The basic studies and the optimization carried out to define the DC line alternatives will be shown, such as overvoltages and insulation coordination, corona and field effects, definition of tower and foundation criteria, economics, conductor selection etc. Main hints on Line Economics will be shown, such as: the selection of the most suited conductors for an overhead line (optimization), independently of being an AC or a DC line, based on several electric, mechanical and economic parameters; sensitivity studies of the optimised sets of DC Lines + Converter Stations will be shown as well, the most important of which being the powers to be transported along line life, cost of losses and number of years of analysis. The influence of the reliability and availability aspects will complement the presentation.

5.2 Economics of Converter stations Basic converter station options will be shown, constituted by sets combining voltage, length and power, the basic set being ( 500 kV, 1500 km, 1500 MW). Highlights of Power Electronics and the philosophy of present converter stations, bipolar, monopolar and metallic return lines, designed with the most modern and high-technology equipment, and the relevant transmission configurations as the possible alternatives for supplying intermediate stations, will be provided as well.

6. List of WG B2.17 members with address and e-mail See document List of JWG-B2.17 members, in Annex B

CIGRE SC B2 B2-07 (JWG17) 39

7. List of WG B2.17 documents See document List of JWG B2.17documents, in Annex C Table 3: JWG-B2.17: Schedule of activities
JWG B2.17 TECHNICAL ACTION PLAN : 2005-2008 Type of action & Title TF01 TF02 TF03 Updated Schedule 2005-2007 ER and/or TB 2005-2007 ER and/or TB 2006 to 2008 TB + ER Links with SC C1 SC B4 SC C1 SC B4 SC C1 SC B4

TF Leader Jos.A. Jardini (Leader TF01) Gnter Bruske (TF02 Leader) Joao F. Nolasco (TF03 Leader)

Economics of DC Lines Economics of Converter stations Optimization of HVDC Project Options

Prepared by : Joo Felix Nolasco Convenor JWG B2.17 May 18th , 2007.

References: [1] Parametric studies of overhead transmission costs, Electra n 136 - June 1991 [2] Cigr Technical Brochure 186 Economic Assessment of HVDC Lines [3] HVDC Transmission Systems Configurations and Intermediate Stations

CIGRE SC B2 B2-07 (JWG17) 39

Annex A: Final Report Contents: 1st Draft (TF03) JWG B2.17/B4/C1, Final report

1. Introduction 2. Objective 3. Configurations a. summarise cases studied 4. 4.Transmission Line Considerations,

Nolasco, rev John Nolasco, rev John John, rev Alf

Jardini, rev Nolasco

a. Overvoltages and insulation coordination b. Corona effects, AN and RI c. Electrical Field effects d. Current carrying e. Ground clearance and RoW f. Mechanical Design g. Line Costs and losses

5. Converter Station Considerations a. Two terminal systems with Thyristors, Hans-Peter rev Alf

i. base budget price 1500 MW, +/- 500 kV ii. estimate complete power/voltage range iii. losses iv. series / parallel, limits on ratings b. Multiterminal systems with Thyristors, i. dc switchgear c. Use of Voltage Source Converters (VSC), Alf, rev Hans-Peter, John i. +/- 300 kV, 700 MW for IGBTs John rev Alf, Hans-Peter

CIGRE SC B2 B2-07 (JWG17) 39

Annex B IMPACTS OF HVDC LINES ON THE ECONOMICS OF HVDC PROJECTS List of JWG-B2.17 Members Version May 10th, 2007 Regular members (EM Effective Member; CM Corresponding Member)
Name / Position Kees Koreman Mr. Address/Member category SC and Member Category (EM) or (CM) Phone/Fax/E-mail Phone: +44-1-14 83 53 66 51 Mobile: +44 7939 62 63 54 Fax:+44-1-14 83 53 66 51 E-mail:k.koreman@tennet.org Phone: +55 21 22042958 Fax: +55 21 22042958 E-mail:cpeixoto@antares.com.br Jos Antonio Jardini Full Professor R dos Jardineiros 57; Chacara S Luiz; So Paulo; SP - CEP 04716-080 - Brazil; B4 (EM) Phone: +55-11-30915768 +55-11-51813123 Mobile:+55-11-81179750 E-mail:jardini@pea.usp.br Carlos Gama Manager - Power Systems Joo Felix Nolasco Consultant Systems SQSW 302 - Bloco A - apto 603 CEP: 70673 201 - Sudoeste - Brasilia DF B4 (EM) Phone: + 55-61-32086695 Mobile:+ 55-11-81126470 E-mail: gama.pss@terra.com.br Phone:+ 55-48-3233.2869 Mobile:+ 55-48-8412.7412 E-mail: jfnolasco@globo.com Phone: +55-11-8354-5339 Fax:+ 55E-mail: john.graham@br.abb.com Phone:+1 213-367-0650 Fax:+1 213-367-3829 E-mail:chuan-hsier.wu@ladwp.com Phone: + 55 21 2539-2073 E-mail:mszchetman@gmail.com

P.O. Box 718 NL - 6800 AS Arnhem Consultant Power Netherlands Transformers & Reactors B4 (EM) Carlos A. Peixoto Independent Consultant Av.Heitor Beltro, 6-102 Tijuca - Rio de Janeiro - CEP 20550 000 Brazil (EM)

R das Cerejeiras, 186 Casa 7 Carvoeira; Transmission CEP: 88.040-510 Florianpolis Brazil B2 (EM)

John Francis Graham

Av Monteiro Lobato 3285, Guarulhos, Sao ABB, Transmission Paulo, CEP: 07190-904 Brazil Systems Latin America B4 (EM) Tim Wu 111 North Hope Road, Suite 1246, Los Angeles, CA 90051 United States (CM)

Los Angeles Dept of Water and Power/Manager of B4 Transmission Planning Mrcio Szchetman Independent Consultant (Chairman of SC B4) Dzevad Muftig

Brazil Chaiman of B4

2 Bond Street Grand Central Ext 1 P.O.Box 6583 Halfway House Midrand 1685 SOUTH AFRICA - B2 (EM) (EM)

Tel: +27 11 205 9404 Fax: + 27 11 205 9442 Email : dzevad@taprojects.co.za

Rob Stephen


Email : stepherg@eskom.co.za

Bernard Dalle EDF (Chairman of SC B2)

France Chaiman of B2

Phone: 33 (1) 47 65 42 74 Mob : 33 (1) 60 32 97 74 Fax : 33 (0) 1 47 65 42 74 E-mail: bernard-michel.dalle@edf.fr Phone: +46 240 782167 Fax:+46 240 782177

Alf Persson ABB

Lyviksvgen 12 77180 Ludvika Sweden

CIGRE SC B2 B2-07 (JWG17) 39

B4 Diarmid Loudon Statnett Pat Naidoo Eskom Jos Henrique Fernandes ELETRONORTE Jutta Hanson (Dr) ABB Utilities GmbH ABB Utilities GmbH DEUTD/USB - Power Systems Consulting Kallstadter Strasse 1 D-68309 Mannheim B4 Riaz Amod Vajeth (CM) Mobile: +27-82-801-4540 Fax:+27-11-205-9442 E-mail: riazv@taprojects.co.za Tel: +55-11 30919928 Mobile:+55-11-98024400 E-mail: Tel: Mobile: E-mail:angus.ketley@hydro.com.au Luis Carlos Bertola Argentine B2 (CM) Tel: 00 54 11 4854 0638 Mobile: 00 54 11 15 5809 6932 E-mail: lbertola@arnet.com.ar Rogerio Guimaraes Peixoto Estrada de acesso ABB, s/n. Barreiro de Cima . 32501-970 Betim MG Brazill B2 P. Sarma Maruvada (CM) Tel: 55 31 3399 2760 Mobile:55 31 9185 7639 E-mail: rogerio.guimaraes@br.abb.com Tel: +450-655-4979 Mobile: +450-655-3955 E-mail:sarma.maruvada@sypatico.ca masuda@pea.usp.br P.O.Boc 986, Sunninghill, 2157, South Manager Transmission Africa and Distribution B2 (EM) Mario Masuda So Paulo University Polytecnic School MsC student B2 Angus Ketley B2 (EM) (CM) Phone: +49 621 381 95 2927 Fax:+49 621 381 95 2753 E-mail:jutta.hanson@de.abb.com M. B4 (CM) Phone: + 55 61 4295303 E-mail: jhmf@eln.gov.br (CM) E-mail:alf.persson@se.abb.com Phone: +47 22527251 Fax:+47 22527045 E-mail: diarmid.loudon@statnett.no E-mail:pat.naidoo@eskom.co.za

Statnett, Norevn. 24, N-0379 Oslo Post: Statnett, Pb. 5192 Maj., N-0302 Oslo Norway B2 (EM) C1 (EM)

817 de Serigny Boucherville, Quebec CANADA, J4B 5C5 B4 (CM) Gomes & Guerra Engenharia Rua Teixeira de Freitas, 478, sala 603

telefax- (031) 3297 8103 mobile- (031) 9942 0135 jigomes@terra.com.br Phone: +49 9131 7 42183 (?) Fax:+49 9131 7 32620 E-mail: bruske@siemens.com

Jos Incio Gomes

Belo Horizonte- MG B2 (CM) P.O. Box 3220 - D-91052 Erlangen Germany B4 (EM)

Gnter Bruske

CIGRE SC B2 B2-07 (JWG17) 39

Annex C

Impacts of HVDC Lines in the Economics of HVDC Projects
Annex C: List of JWG B2.17 Documents Version May 10th , 2007

Doc. Number B2-05 (JWG17) 01 B2-05 (JWG17) 02 B2-05 (JWG17) 03 B2-05 (JWG17) 04 B2-05 (JWG17) 05 B2-05 (JWG17) 06 B2-05 (JWG17) 07 B2-05 (JWG17) 08

Date May 2005 May 2005 May 2005 June 2005 2005-06-25 2005-06-25 2005-06-25 2005-07-21

Subject Notes on Teleconference of JWG B2.17/B4/C1 Evaluation of Cigre Technical Brochure 186 Optimization studies of DC Lines Action plan of JWG B2.17/B4/C1 List of JWG-B2.17 Members Rev 1 Activity Report for 2005 January to June List of JWG B2.17 Documents issued Version Aug 2005 DC transmission systems economics TF01 - tasks and sub-tasks cap comments Conductor Current Carrying Capability, Corona Effects, and Fields JWG B2.17 ACTIVITY REPORT FOR 2005 September Proposed preliminary agenda for JWGB2.17 meeting HVDC Transmission Lines Overvoltages and insulation Coordination

Author John F. Graham Carlos A. Peixoto J.F. Nolasco J.F. Nolasco J.F. Nolasco J.F. Nolasco J.F. Nolasco J. A. Jardini

B2-05 (JWG17) 09 B2-05 (JWG17) 10 B2-05 (JWG17) 11 B2-05 (JWG17) 12

2005-08-12 2005-08-17 2005-08-29 2005-08-12

J.A.Jardini J.F. Nolasco J.F. Nolasco J.A.Jardini

B2-05 (JWG17) 13


HVDC Transmission Lines Economic Evaluation


CIGRE SC B2 B2-07 (JWG17) 39

Doc. Number B2-05 (JWG17) 14

Date 2005-10-21

Subject HVDC Transmission Lines Tower and Foundation Calculation


B2-05 (JWG17) 15


Minutes of meeting Rio Sep 9th and 10th Power Point Presentation in Meeting of Brazilian B2 in Rio

B2-05 (JWG17) 16


B2-06 (JWG17) 17 B2-06 (JWG17) 18 B2-06 (JWG17) 19 B2-06 (JWG17) 20 B2-06 (JWG7) 21

2006-04-15 2006-05-25 2006-06-20 2006-06-19 2006-06-27

Agenda for Erlangen meeting Power Point Presentation in Meeting of JWG-B2.17 in Erlangen Minutes of meeting Erlangen May 29th and 30th List of JWG B2.17 Documents issued Version June 2006 Activity Report Sep 2005 Aug 2006

Nolasco/Oswald Nolasco John Graham J.F. Nolasco J.F. Nolasco

B2-06 (JWG17) 22 B2-06 (JWG17) 23 B2-06 (JWG17) 24 B2-06 (JWG17) 25 B2-06 (JWG17) 26 B2-06 (JWG17) 27 B2-06 (JWG17) 28 B2-06 (JWG17) 29 B2-06 (JWG17) 30

2006-06-29 2006-06-29 2006-06-23 2006-06-23 2006-07-08 2006-072006-072006-08-16 2006-11-30

HVDC Transmission Systems Configurations and Intermediate Stations HVDC Transmission Systems Configurations and Intermediate Stations Overvoltages and insulation coordination Rev 2 Corona Effects and Fields Rev 4 Line Economics Rev 1 Final Report preliminary System Economics Agenda for Paris Aug 26th, 2006 Meeting List of Documents, Version Nov 30, 2006

John Graham John Graham J. A. Jardini J. A. Jardini J. A. Jardini J. A. Jardini J. A. Jardini Nolasco Nolasco

CIGRE SC B2 B2-07 (JWG17) 39

Doc. Number B2-06 (JWG17) 31 B2-06 (JWG17) 32 B2-06 (JWG17) 33

Date 2006-11-30 2006-12-21 2007-01-17

Subject List of Members, Version Nov 30, 2006 Economic Impact of Conductor Selection: Corona Considerations Corona Considerations, Calculations and Results

Author Nolasco P S Maruvada J A Jardini

B2-07 (JWG17) 34


JWG-B2.17 and Task Force Descriptions


B2-07 (JWG17) 35 B2-07 (JWG17) 36

2007-03-12 2007-03-15

Agenda for JWG-B2.17 Audio-conference on March 13th, 2007 Final Report Transmission Line Considerations List of JWG-B2.17 Documents List of Members, Version March 31, 2007 Activity Report Sep Aug 2006 June 2007 Converter Station Cost Equation Comparison Between Corona and Fields Calculation Methods

Nolasco J A Jardini

B2-07 (JWG17) 37 B2-07 (JWG17) 38 B2-07 (JWG17) 39 B2-07 (JWG17) 40 B2-07 (JWG17) 41

2007-03-15 2007-03-31 2007- 05 - 16 2007- 05 - 16 2007- 05 - 16

Nolasco Nolasco Nolasco Jardini Jardini