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NS Os vrtices da geodsica, tambm chamados de ns, so os pontos mais vulnerveis do sistema. No caso de uma geodsica formada por barras, nos ns que se encontraro os conectores dos elementos. Existem diversos tipos de conectores. Podemos citar alguns:

Sistema Mero

Sistema Triodetic

Sistema Unistrut

Os ns podem apresentar alguns problemas no caso de freqncias muito elevadas. O mais comum deles o "flop", que ocorre quando o n inverte sua posio, ficando para dentro da esfera. Isso acontece porque os vrtices da geodsica so como vrtices de pequenas pirmides, logo, quanto maior a freqncia utlizada, menor sero os comprimentos das barras, assim como a altura de tais pirmides, o que facilita a acorrncia do flop.

Os ns tambm podem sofrer um pequeno giro, caso as barras no se encontrem exatamente num mesmo ponto. Tal efeito ocorre, tambm, em geodsicas com maior freqncia. Isso se d porque o n tende a girar at encontrar a posio de equilbrio. Se as barras no estiverem perfeitamente ligadas, a estrutura formada j no ser mais um tringulo, mas uma figura de seis lados, o que pode tornar a geodsica instvel.

Steel Pipe and PVC Hub Connectors


This is the classic way to connect geodesic struts together. A hole is drilled in the flattened ends then bolted together.To accommodate a drilled hole into your struts, the length of the strut needs to be longer.For example a 36 inch pipe/conduit strut will need to be extended at both ends to drill holes. A rule of thumb is to add 2 X 3/4 inch = 1.5 inches (or about 8cm) more to all struts. That means the center of the holes would need to be drilled 3/4 from each strut end.

This hub, designed and maufactured by Lotus Domes in the UK has proved successful for medium sized domes (around 8-15m diameter). Powder coated steel poles fix simply into the hub with stainless steel pins. This allows construction of a 10m dome by one person and a ladder, in around 3 hours, from the back of an estate car. This generates considerable savings on the commodities of time, energy and equipment.The design combines the simplicity and strength of geodesics, along with rapid mobility and elegance. The poles used are steel, with solid machined plastic hubs. Each hub is also centered with a lock nut, allowing M12 bolts to be used to fly equipment around the dome.You can view a time lapse assembly of a 3v dome using this gerodesic hub on YouTube. This is a sophisticated and versatile universal geodesic hub connector invented by Leith Aitchison of Dome Dimensions in Australia. For more information (pictures, diagrams, specifications), click here.

Someone sent Domerama this hub design, made for square steel tubing. Click on the images below to enlarge them.

This is a novel approach to connect PVC or EMT conduit struts together. It was developed by Geoff Maritz in Cape Town, South Africa. He used fence post caps and drilled them. Theres more detailed information on his blog.

This is another way to attach geodesic struts together to form a hub. Inexpensive and something you can do yourself, this hub has 5 bolts instead of just one, so very solid. Keep in mind you need to cut your struts accordingly: since connections are vertex to vertex, the total length between centers of the round tube needs to be the length of your strut that was calculated. In other words, your real length will need to be longer because ends are bent. This is a clever idea, from www.gardendome.com: pre-bent hubs. The best part is that you slide your struts into the ends without having to flatten or bend struts. Some of the strut materials that might be used:-round wood dowels, square wood with rounded ends -round, square, hexagonal (and other aluminum extrusion) metal tubes -fiberglass poles or carbon/composite poles -pvc or other plastic, hollow tube or solid rod -bamboo Tasha Barry Hartman from www.yourowndome.com: offers a great ABS hub solution for multiple types of domes. If you thought geodesic domes were too complicated to have any utility for ordinary uses, you should look again.You can build a dome or a sphere and the joints are interchangeable at any connection in the assembly.The advantage is simplicity. The connectors fit anywhere and the straight sections are all the same length. Domes up to 14 dia. will carry 35 lbs/sq.ft. and 100 mph sideloads. Engineering report by Lopez/Smolens Structural Engineers. all you need is ABS cement and a saw to cut the 2 ABS.

This is an example of a geodesic dome cover with a stretched suspended skin. As you can see in the image the cover is made of multiple parts sewn together.

This is one of the geodesic strut hubs on the geodesic dome outside of the U.S. Patent Office in Pensylvania.

This is a prototype of a geodesic hub, Each movable tube is made to self-adjust.

This hub is made to attach flat bars. Each bar is bent to the correct angle then bolts or rivets are inserted.

The image on the left is an aluminum geodesic hub from Temcor, a leader in industrial dome construction.This may seem complex, but the engineering is impressive. This hub will not only connect struts together but also serve as a method to hold a metallic covering.

These are called Air Hubs, used to connect metal tubing into a hub.

These are some renderings of a project Jeffrey Easter is working on to makea full sized kit geodesic dome that a class of about 30 middle school kids would assemble in an hour at the National Building Museum. Its an icosahedron alternate 1, meaning that as a 1/2 sphere dome it will have 26 hubs and 65 rods 6 5 way hubs, 20 6 way hubs, 30 46 inch rods, and 35 52.5 inch rods. Make sure to visit him!

Sonostar hardcore geodesic hubs eliminate the tedious task of crafting connectors to build geodesic domes. By using these hubs, you will reduce the time it takes to build a dome from days to just a few hours.The hubs themselves are made of tough, durable polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and they are solid in the centers, adding strength and functionality.When you go to cover your dome, you can attach it directly to the hubs themselves by screwing into them, without compromising the strength of the hub. They are engineered specifically for building geodesic domes designed with a 10 degree curvature to naturally shape the dome as you build it. Domekit.cc is a project looking to make dome building simple and fun. They developed a hub connector featuring a robust ball-and-socket joint and an integrated thumbscrew that securely locks the strut to the node.These 3D-printed connectors are made in small batches in workshops and garages across the USA by fabricators with opensource 3D printers like the Makerbot. The principal fabricator for the 3D-printed connectors is Mark Cohen, who operates five 3D printers

out of his garage in Brooklyn:

Wood hub connectors

One of the simplest and best wooden dome hub system, the pipe-section hubs and stainless steel strap tightened with a banding device. This was developed by Fletcher Pence the Virgin Islands in the early 60s and was strong and elegant. Used by architect Jeffery Lindsay in L. A. and Pacific High School for 10 wood-framed domes in the early 70s.In Domebook 2, on page 40, you can read about the Aspen Dome for which this geodesic hub is used. The description on how to make and use this hub technique for a 70-foot elliptical geodesic dome is as follows: 2 X 10 construction Douglas grade fir, ripped down to 2 X 5. Construction grade is adequate structurally if the knots are tight struts were cut with a radial arm saw and 3/4 holes drilled 3from each end. The steel pipe was cut into 4 pieces. I picked up a 5/8 steel band-it strap and strappers Our first test failed. We then used the experience of Jeff Morse (Domebook 2 page 51), and added 1/8 steel plates on the end to prevent the wood from being crushed by the pipe (we did not cope the ends of the wood. And 3/4 steel half round to prevent the strap from compressing the wood at the drilled holes. With these additions the connection was extremely

rigid and strong and gave us a great deal of confidence the dome would work T-blocking hub method. This is an improvement of the strap method by connecting all struts together. As you can see from the image, this solution is elegant and simple, in addition to requiring only basic skills to reinforce hubs.

It is the hub design by , or Andrei Saveliev. He is a design engineer from Moscow and an major participant on the domesworld.ru forums. For more information and images, click here.

This hub design being produced in Russia is going through some serious tests in the summer of 2012. Its designer is Pavel Brayvo ( -geosota.ru) is the designer of the domesworld.ru forum.The results of these tests will be available to the public on the domesworld.ru forum.As many pointed out, It is really extraordinary what people on that forum are achieving, like this design, an idea born on the forum that ends up in production.It is a good example for every geodesic community in the world..The hub is produced by geosota.ru. Click on the images below for larger images.

Marko Pejovi and Branislav olovim have been developing very smart and simple to use hub designs.You can view a video on a universal hub that can be asembled and disassembled quickly at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxTAcFfF9 9Y .You can also view their first attempt showing that universal connector is possible: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EdlHfOXx Y7E .As they also pointed out, take the time to visit http://forum.domesworld.ru/ for innovative designs and ideas for geodesic domes. The website can be easily translated with Google Translate. This type of hub is often seen in building bamboo domes. A star-shaped hub with its ends inserted into a bamboo strut. Then a bolt is inserted through the bamboo and the metal hub. Notice how the bamboo tips are protected with a metal cap. For more information on this specific hub, a detailed profile of the Mechai Patana Secondary School can be viewed on their website at http://mechaifoundation.org/school.asp.

This original hub design is from a Japanese designer. For more information, pictures and videos, click here.

Sergio Cohen Arazi contributed this hub design. He is a geodesic home and structure builder in South America (see his website links below).You just need to do a metal U, could be a bent bar, a square tube cut into slices or stamped in metal. With those U shapes you can use them on any frequency dome and hub, simply by combining them and welding them together.

For those who want quick practical solutions for their project, look at the picture on the left. Its a simple disc with holes drilled into it to insert screws in each strut. Note that any hub will be angled differently at each hub, so some flexibility with the disc is needed so it flattens against the strut when you screw.

The classic way to connect geodesic wood struts together is to cut the angles directly on each piece. But because any strut requires 2 angles cut at each end you need to make what is called a compound angle cut. Use a radial arm saw, a miter saw with the stops removed or a worm drive saw. If possible, angle cut precision should be to a tenth of a degree.

Very straightforward design of a geodesic hub made of metal. In most dome constructions you will require a combination of 4-way, 5-way and 6way connector hubs and you will need to cut each strut end to the correct angle.

This is the Starplate system offered by Strombergs. Starplates are steel plates, with channels to hold 22s, 23s or 24s. You simply drill holes in each end of 25 struts of equal length and bolt them into the 11 star plates to build a solid, mini-dome framework in a couple of hours. Another prototype drawing of a geodesic dome connector. Very good idea though the tabs holding each strut would need to be wider for larger domes.

DynaDome connector hub. this system developed by Bill Woods of Dyna Domes in Phoenix, Arizona in the mid-60s.

This is the Simpsons steel gazebo connector. It will reinforce timber hubs, though for larger geodesic domes you should still screw hubs together. These are corrosion-resistant connectors ideal for small projects. they are available at most hardware stores but often you will need to order them.

This is a hub designed by Roman from the Ukraine (known as kotiara82 on domesworld.ru), an experienced designer and major contributor on the Russian website . This hub is designed to be simple yet sturdy. Click on the image to enlarge.

TAFF GOCHs suggestion of a geodesic dome hub connector.

This hub design connects square tubes together with a plate on top and below.

Another highly engineered geodesic hub system is offered by Natural Spaces Domes.Each double tab is held to a ring by slipping a bolt. Then each wood/timber strut is slipped into the double tab and bolted. The angle of each strut is defined by using a template.The main benefit is that you dont need compound angle cuts in the beams and the system is engineered to withstand great stress. Another plus is that you can pre-bolt each strut before connecting them together.

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