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"AbouL Lhe Crlsls | Cuban Mlsslle Crlsls." Cuban Mlsslle Crlsls.

8elfer CenLer for Sclence and


lnLernauonal Aalrs, 2012. Web. 14 !an. 2014.

1hls ls a secondary onllne source. 1hls webslLe showed me plcLures of Lhe consLrucuon golng on
when Lhey bullL Lhese mlsslles. lL also Lells me Lhe arrangemenLs Lhey had. Says LhaL kennedy
and nlklLa came face Lo face.

1he 8ay of lgs." ! #$%& '( )*&&*+, -.*/0+*&123 405.2., 6 78/*89( !CPn l. kLnnLu?
8LSluLn1lAL Ll88A8? Anu MuSLuM, n.d. Web. 14 !an. 2014

Cuban exlles launched whaL was called Lhe lnvaslon of Lhe 8ay of lgs. resldenL Llsenhower
had approved Lhe program of Lhe Lralnlng of Lhe Cuban exlles 1he plan was Lo sLroke wlLh Lwo
alr cras ln Cuba. 1hey dldn'L because Lhey wanLed Lo creaLe a surprlse auack. 1he u.S dlsgulsed
Lhelr plans llke Lhe Cuban planes buL when Lhey Lrled Lo drop Lhe bombs on Lhe Cuban alr cras,
Lhey mlssed Lhelr LargeL. CasLro laLer on, found ouL abouL Lhe auack and senL hls Lroops Lo Lhe
beach where Lhe u.S was comlng from u.S soldlers were prlsoners for 20 monLhs. kennedy,
Lhen, made a deal wlLh CasLro. CasLro seuled for $33 Mllllon worLh of baby food and medlclne
ln exchange for Lhe prlsoners.

"1he 8ay of lgs." ! #$%& '( )*&&*+, -.*/0+*&123 405.2., 6 78/*89. n.p., n.d. Web. 26 !an.
2014.

1hls webslLe helped me Lo fully undersLand Lhe 8ay of lgs. lL wenL lnLo deLall abouL why
kennedy planned on lnvadlng/auacklng Cuba. lL also lnformed me abouL how Lhe Lroops were
Lralned and also how kennedy planned on auacklng ln general.

1he 8ay of lgs lnvaslon 8eglns." %0/:$.,(;$9( A&L 1elevlslon neLworks, 1996-2013. Web. 14
!an. 2014.

1he 8ay of lgs lnvaslon was when Lhe u.S found ouL LhaL Cuba was a LhreaL Lo Lhem. 1he u.S
wanLed Lo overpower CasLro, Lhe Cuban leader. kennedy gave Lhe order Lo auack and Lhe
mlllLary was senL Lo Cuba. 1he u.S mlllLary conslsLed of ClA-nanced and Lralned group of Cuban
refugees. When Lhe u.S arrlved, Lhey'd falled. 1here were more Cuban soldlers Lhan expecLed.

"8ay of lgs lnvaslon." <0/:$.,(;$9. A&L 1elevlslon neLworks, 1996-2014. Web. 17 !an. 2014.

1he 8ay of lgs was Amerlca's reacuon Lo Lhe dlcLorlal resldenL lulgenclo 8arusLa belng
overLhrown by lldel CasLro. Many Cubans accepLed CasLro's Lakeover buL because 8ausLa was
pro-Amerlcan and CasLro was agalnsL Amerlcan Lhls was a problem. CasLro Look conLrol over Lhe
Amerlcan companles so Lhere would be no Amerlcan lnuences ln Cuba. 1hen ln 1960 Lhe ClA
gaLhered 1,400 Cuban exlles who llved ln Mlaml so Lhey could be Lralned and Lhen over Lhrow
CasLro. 1hen when Amerlca sLopped buylng sugar from Cuba, whlch made up 80 of Lhe Cuban
economy, on May of 1960 CasLro made an alllance wlLh Lhe SovleL unlon so Lhey could buy
Lhere sugar. A year laLer on !an. of 1961 Cuba and Amerlcan had a dlplomauc problem and aer
LhaL Amerlca sLepped up lLs game for Lhe lnvaslon of Cuba. AL Lhls polnL !ohn l. kennedy was
resldenL and lnsLead of calllng o Lhe lnvaslon, because CasLro was no real LhreaL , he
conunued wlLh lL because he LhoughL lL would show oLher counLrles LhaL Amerlca was serlous
abouL wlnnlng Lhe Cold War. 1he lnvaslon lasLed from Aprll 13, 1961 (when Lhey le Amerlca) Lo
Aprll 17, 1961 where Lhe Leam surrendered aer less Lhan 24 hours ghung wlLh 114 dead and
1,100 Laken as prlsoners. 1he reason why Lhe lnvaslon falled was because Lhe Cubans had
known abouL Lhe lnvaslon plans as lL was broadcasLed Lo all of Cuba vla Lhe radlo. kennedy
could've senL ln Lhe mlllLary buL dld noL wanL Lo sLarL someLhlng LhaL would end ln World War
lll.

8elfer CenLer for Sclence and lnLernauonal Aalrs. AbouL Lhe Crlsls | Cuabn Mlsslle Crlsls."
=852& 70//03* =.0/0/( Parvard kennedy School, 2012. Wed. 14 !an. 2014.

kennedy was lnformed of Lhe u-2 spy-plane's dlscovery of Lhe Cuban mlsslles belng puL up ln
Cuba. kennedy and nlklLa confronLed each oLher eyeball Lo eyeball". 1hey boLh had Lhe power
of deLracuon. nelLher slde backed down aer a few weeks. kennedy made a publlc deal whlch
sald LhaL Lhe u.S wasn'L golng Lo lnvade Cuba. 1he mlsslles ln 1urkey were removed.

Chang, Lawrence, eLer kornbluh, and 8oberL S. Mcnamara. "1he Cuban Mlsslle Crlsls, 1962:
1he hoLographs." >%* =852& 70//03* =.0/0/? @ABCD >%* -%$:$E.2F%/. 1he new ?ork ress, n.d.
Web. uec. 2013.

l learned from Lhls webslLe LhaL Lhe crlsls lasLed 13 days, from Lhe announcemenL Lo Lhe
dlsmanLllng of Lhe mlsslle. l also learned LhaL Lhere were 3 posslble courses of acuon, ollucal
course-confronL CasLro, khrushchev and uS allles dlrecLly. ueclarauon of open survelllance- a
blockade agalnsL Cuba Lo block weapons from gemng ln and ouL of Cuba. MlllLary acuon- alr
auack and mlsslles.1he nal Lhlng LhaL l learned was LhaL kennedy chose Lo enforce Lhe
blockade and sLopped Lhe LhreaL of war beLween Lhe uS and SovleL unlon.

"1he Cuban Mlsslle Crlsls, 1962: 1he hoLographs." Pup://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchlv/nsa/
cuba_mls_crl/6.[pg. 1he Ceorge WashlngLon unlverslLy, n.d. Web. 17 !an. 2014.
<ww2.gwu.edu>.

1hls plcLure ls a map of Cuba wlLh polnLs on Lhe map LhaL marked where mlsslles were locaLed.
1he Lypes of Lhlngs marked on Lhe map are unldenued mlsslles, surface Lo alr mlsslles slLe, [eL
ghLer eld, naval operaung bases, naval porLs, mlllLary lnsLallauon, speclal areas, beaches,
unldenued lnsLallauons, and crulse mlsslle slLes.

"1he Cuban Mlsslle Crlsls." Coldwar.org. 1he Cold War Musuem, n.d. Web.

1hls ls a secondary onllne source. 1hls source helped me undersLand Lhe whole conlcL. l
learned aloL on Lhe Lhlngs kennedy and nlklLa dld. nlklLa wanLed Lo bulld Lhese mlsslles Lo
proLecL Cuba from any u.S lnvaslons. 1hls source Lold me abouL Lhese plcLures LhaL kennedy
saw of Lhe mlsslles.

"Cuban Mlsslle Crlsls." PlsLory.com. A&L 1elevlslon neLworks, n.d. Web. 14 !an. 2014.

1hls ls a secondary onllne source. Cn Lhls source l found vldeo dlary recordlngs and plcLures of
Lhe Cuban Mlsslle Crlsls. lL gave me a shorL summary on Lhe conlcL. 1he plcLures showed how
and where Lhye bullL Lhese mlsslles.

1he Cuban Mlsslle Crlsls, CcLober 1962 - 1961-1968." 1he Cuban Mlsslle Crlsls, CcLober 1962 -
1961-1968 - MllesLones - Cmce of Lhe PlsLorlan. Cmce ueparLmenL of SLaLe, 3 uec. 2010. Web.
14 !an. 2014.

1he Cuban mlsslle crlsls was a confronLauon beLween Lhe u.S and he SovleL unlon. Aer Lhe u.S
falled Lo overLhrow CasLro ln Cuba wlLh Lhe 8ay of lgs lnvaslon, nlklLa khrushchev had a secreL
meeung wlLh Lhe Cuban premler lldel CasLro Lo puL Lhe mlsslles ln Cuba. 1he u.S found ouL
abouL Lhe mlsslles ln Cuba. 1he SovleL unlon and Cuba were semng up Lhe mlsslles. 1he u.S
were gurlng ouL Lhelr opuons. khrushchev was sendlng Lhe u.S messages. 1he u.S was
plannlng Lo remove Lhe mlsslles ln 1ukey. 1he mlsslle crlsls was over.

"1he Cuban Mlsslle Crlsls, CcLober 1962 - 1961-1968 - MllesLones - Cmce of Lhe PlsLorlan." 1he
Cuban Mlsslle Crlsls, CcLober 1962 - 1961-1968 - MllesLones - Cmce of Lhe PlsLorlan. n.p., 3
uec. 2010. Web. 14 !an. 2014.

1hls ls secondary onllne source. 1hls was a very descrlpuve and speclc arucle of whaL
happened. 1hls explalned whaL kennedy and khrushchev dld Lo solve Lhls problem. lL Lells me
abouL kennedy's publlc announcemenL on Lhe weapons Lhey had on Cuba.

uorn, WalLer, and 8oberL auk. "1PL Cu8An MlSSlLL C8lSlS 8LSCLvLu:." Cuban Mlsslle Crlsls
8esolved: unLold SLory of an unsung Pero. n.p., n.d. Web. 17 !an. 2014.

Cn CcLober 22, 1962 !ohn l. kennedy Lold Lhe publlcof Amerlca LhaL Lhe SovleLs had placed
nuclear mlsslles ln Cuba LhaL were almed aL Amerlca. kennedy had ordered LhaL Lhe naval
quaranune around Cuba so Lhe SovleLs couldn'L place more mlsslles. 1o Lhe world lL seemed llke
Lhe sLarL of noLher war buL Lhankfully Lhere was a peaceful ouLcome. uS SecreLary of SLaLe uean
8usk sald We wenL eyeball Lo eyeball wlLh Lhe 8usslans, and Lhe oLher guy bllnked," 1hls
sLaLemenL was when khrushchev declded Lo Lake back hls mlsslles. 8uL along wlLh kennedy's
eorLs, Lhe uS mlllLary LhreaLs, and Lhe SovleLs colorauon Lhere was anoLher reason why Lhe
Cuban mlsslle crlsls ended peacefully. 1hls reason ls because of Lhe works of a unassumlng un
SecreLary- Ceneral, u 1hanL. 1hanL's medlauon was very lmporLanL ln helplng resolve kennedy
and krushchev's sLando. 1hanL dld many Lhlngs llke when a naval conlcL was abouL Lo Lake
place he peacefully found a way Lo sLop lL. 1hanL Lhen when Lo convlnce khrushchev Lo keep hls
shlps away from Cuba. 1hanL also helped wlLh Lhe maln lssue of Lhe mlsslles ln Cuba and Cuba's
securlLy concerns. When kennedy was lnformed LhaL shorL-range mlsslles ln Cuba were gemng
ready Lo be red he was belng pressured Lo auack Cuba. uurlng Lhls 1hanL suggesLed LhaL Lhe
SovleLs Lake down Lhere mlsslles and Amerlca wouldn'L lnvade Cuba. kennedy Lhen , Lo show he
really menL peace, Look back Lhe mlsslles LhaL were sLauoned ln Cuba ln 1urkey and also dldn'L
auack Lhe gunners LhaL shoL down a uS u-2 plane. kennedy dld recognlze 1hanL's work and
eorLs ln a small sLaLemenL saylng, u 1hanL has puL Lhe world deeply ln hls debL."

L|denmu||er, M|chae| L. "Amer|can khetor|c: Iohn I. kennedy - Cuban M|ss||e Cr|s|s Address to
the Nanon." Amer|can khetor|c: Iohn I. kennedy - Cuban M|ss||e Cr|s|s Address to the Nanon.
Amer|can khetor|c, n.d. Web. 16 Ian. 2014.

1h|s |s a pr|mary source | found on||ne. It's vo|ce record|ng of Iohn I. kennedy's speech he
de||vered to the amer|cans about the con|ct go|ng on. ne de||vered th|s speech Cctober 22,
1962. I hear]read about what he sa|d to the nanon and how he sa|d they were go|ng to get
through th|s.

"!ohn l. kennedy Llbrary and Museum." #$%& '( )*&&*+, -.*/0+*&123 405.2., 6 78/*89. !ohn l.
kennedy resldenual Llbrary and Museum, n.d. Web. uec. 2013.

l learned from Lhls webslLe LhaL Lhe crlsls Look place ln CcLober of 1962. l learned LhaL Lhe
acLual crlsls was LhaL mlsslle slLes were belng bullL by Lhe SovleL unlon ln Cuba and LhaL Lhey
were LhreaLenlng Lhe uS. l also learned LhaL Lhe sovleL leader was nlklLa khrushchev.

kennedy, !ohn l. "8adlo and 1elevlslon 8emarks on Lhe ulsmanLllng of SovleL Mlsslle 8ases ln
Cuba, november 2, 1962." ! #$%& '( )*&&*+, -.*/0+*&123 405.2., 6 78/*89. !lk Llbrary, n.d.
Web. uec. 2013.

l learned from Lhls speech LhaL Lhls was Lhe rsL ume Lhe publlc was learnlng abouL Lhe LhreaL
of Lhe mlsslle. l also learned LhaL Lhls speech was glven one day aer kennedy found ouL hlmself
abouL Lhe LhreaL from Cuba. llnally l learned LhaL aL Lhls polnL ln ume Cuba was already
dlsmanLllng Lhe mlsslle and Lhe uS was safe.

"Cperauon Mongoose." GF*.21$& 7$&E$$/*. Mary lerrell loundauon, n.d. Web. 17 !an. 2014.

When kennedy's 8ay of lgs falled, LhaL dldn'L sLop kennedy and hls admlnlsLrauon from ndlng
oLher ways of Laklng CasLro ouL of power. Cperauon Mongoose was creaLed on nov. 1961 Lo
focus on collecung daLa, saboLage operauons, and looklng for leaders ln Cuba LhaL would be
wllllng Lo help. 1he norLhwoods operauon was also puL ln place Lo help Cp. Mongoose by
creaung real and fake LerrorlsL evenLs whlch would be blamed on CasLro. 1hls was so Amerlca
would have a reason Lo lnvade Cuba. 1o Lhls day lL ls unknown lf assasslnaung CasLro was parL of
Lhe operauon.

"Saturday, Cctober 27, 10:00 .M., Cva| Cmce and Cab|net koom, the Wh|te nouse.
"!""#$%"&$'(&$Gwu, n.d. Web. 17 Ian. 2014.

1h|s aud|o c||p was recorder at the Cva| Cmce and Cab|net koom at the Wh|te nouse. It was
on Cctober 27 at 10:00 .M. kennedy had |nstructed h|s brother to secure Sov|et Ambassador
Anato|y Dobryn|n pr|vate|y that the m|ss||es |n 1urkey are go|ng to be removed but that th|s
dec|s|on |s for h|s ears on|y. 8efore kennedy (kobert) had the meenng w|th Dobryn|n,
kennedy (kobert) had an exchange w|th McNamara. 1hey were ta|k|ng about p|ans that'|| be
made aher certa|n events. D||||on [o|ns the conversanon and McNamara suggests that th|s w|||
be an eye for and eye s|tuanon.

SLern, Sheldon M. "PlsLory." >%* =852& 70//03* =.0/0/. n.p., n.d. Web. uec. 2013.

l learned from Lhls source LhaL Lhe base of Lhe mlsslle was only 90 mlles o Lhe coasL of llorlda.
l also learned LhaL kennedy had orlglnally planned on lnvadlng Cuba buL he wanLed Lo Lake a
less dangerous approach. llnally and mosL lmporLanLly l learned Lhe daLes for almosL every
evenL LhaL Look place durlng Lhls crlsls.

"1hlnkCuesL : Llbrary." >%0&HI8*/: D 405.2.,. n.p., n.d. Web. uec. 2013.

l learned from Lhls source LhaL Lhe Cuban mlsslle crlsls was Lhe closesL LhaL Lhe world ever came
Lo nuclear war. l learned LhaL Lhe reason Cuba allled wlLh Lhe SovleL unlon was because Lhey
belleved LhaL Lhe uS was golng Lo sLrlke agalnsL Lhem. llnally, l learned LhaL khrushchev
announced LhaL he would dlsmanLle Lhe mlsslle on CcLober 28Lh.

1rueman, Chrls. "WhaL Was Lhe Cold War." WhaL Was Lhe Cold War. n.p., 2000-2013. Web. 17
!an. 2014.

1he Cold War was dlspuLe beLween Lhe u.S. and Lhe u.S.S.8. ln Lhe Cold War no ghung acLually
happened. MosL people would Lhlnk LhaL 8ussla and Lhe u.S. were frlends buL Lhey weren'L. 1he
only reason why Lhey foughL LogeLher ln WWll was because Lhey had a common enemy, whlch
was nazl Cermany. 8ecause Lhe SovleL unlon was communlsL, Amerlca saw Lhem as evll and Lhe
SovleLs saw Amerlca Lhe same way. 1he haLe and dlsLrusL was presenL before, durlng, and aer
Lhe war and even more so aer Lhe SovleL leader found ouL abouL Amerlca dropplng Lhe A-
8omb on Plroshlma. Aer Lhe war was over ln 1943 Lhere were Lwo ma[or leaders ln Lhe world,
Lhe SovleLs wlLh Lhe huge army called Lhe 8ed Amy and Amerlca wlLh Lhe aLomlc bomb. 1he
Cold War was [usL baslcally Lhe u.S. and Lhe SovleLs ghung (noL physlcally) for whaL Lhey
belleved ln and who had more power. Some ma[or reasons of why Lhe u.S and SovleLs
dlsLrusLed each oLher was because Amerlca was uemocrauc and Lhe SovleL unlon was
AuLocrauc/ulcLaLorshlp, Amerlca had free elecuons and Lhe SovleLs had no elecuons or lL was
xed, Amerlca was CaplLallsL and Lhe SovleLs were CommunlsL, ln Amerlca you had personal
freedom and ln Lhe SovleL unlon socleLy was conLrolled by Lhe nkvu (secreL pollce), and lasLly
Amerlca has freedom of Lhe press whlle Lhe SovleLs had LoLal censorshlp.