Você está na página 1de 37

CHAPTER - I

INTRODUCTION
Life is not always smooth sailing, but a haphazard process. The most obvious question then at hand is what is the goal of life ? Philosophers, educationists and people in every walk of life are pondering over this question. very one wants to

e!cel others and has become a victim of passion, "ealousy and arrogance. The feeling of emptiness, tension and meaninglessness in life prevails everywhere and in all walks of life. Life is mostly seen from quantitative rather than qualititative point of view. The materialistic attitude is prevalent globally and in all spheres. The craving for more has become the way of life. Persons desire more and more. #any want a motor car to pursue

happiness and there happens to be no speed limit in this pursuit. $ome want more money while others crave for a good "ob and so on and so forth. %learly the growth of prosperity and march of consumers has not generated the hoped for satisfaction in life. &hat was once a lu!ury has become a common e!pectation. This makes its absence a source of dissatisfaction. '() 'T *'+,- in his book, .Lu!ury *ever, why #oney fails to satisfy in an era of e!cess/, claims that decades of rapidly increasing affluence and lavish spending in +merica has not made any one happier. +nother factor for dissatisfaction is the spread of

godlessness. + lot of people have no longer faith in 0od. +nother e!planation is that many people are now without work. &hen you are busy in the work you have less time

to feel unhappy. $ome even plam T.2. as a contributory factor in abetting unhappiness. T2 is essentially a solitary activity that cuts into one3s socializing and face to face conversation. People stay glued to T2 instead of visiting friends or talking to

neighbours. +nother possibility is that e!posure to the wider world via the net makes the users less satisfied with their lives. 4n modern life there are so many scientific developments and so much progress all ground. Those people who lack these things feel dissatisfied with life. )ut life satisfaction is very important in our life. + person who is satisfied is happy and leads a comfortable life and is not "ealous of other and has the peace of mind. Life is a mi!ture of necessity and freedom, chance and choice. &e may not change the events but we have to change our approach to events. Life is not so simple, rather it is very comple!. %omple!ity in life is due to the fast and recent developments and competitions in each and every field. (ne is losing or winning according to one3s own capacity and preparation for its trails. Life is full of struggles. Troubles are natural and they do not spare the strong and the weak, the rich and the poor. $o each individual has to encounter them. Life is state of an organized being in which it maintains or is capable of maintaining, its structural integrity by the constant interchange of elements with the surrounding medias. +ccording to &ebster3s ncyclopedic unabridged 5ictionary of the

nglish Language, .Life is the sum of distinguish phenomena of plants and animals reproduction and adaptation to environment./
6

$ri +urbindo holds that, life is not an ine!plicable dream, nor is it an incorrigible evil but a mighty pulsation of the divine e!istence./ )arlett is of the view that, .life is what our thinking makes it, one makes it heaven or hell through one3s thinking./ 7ohn %ray defines, .Life is an ob"ect to which the effort or ambition is directed. 4n fact no life can be without a goal./ $atisfaction represents an individual3s sub"ective evaluation. $everal terms are used almost interchangeably with satisfaction. + highly satisfied person has a high morale and has life satisfaction or favourable life attitudes. 4f it is necessary to specify what satisfaction is, most researchers define it as the "udgement of a sub"ective state of feelings or evaluation. 4t can be most directly measured by asking the person to answer such a question as .8ow satisfied are you ? +re you satisfied with yourself and others ? +re you satisfied with society ?/ The satisfaction in life is defined as fulfilment or gratification of desires, feelings or e!pressing pleasures, contentment, happiness and optimism. $atisfaction is not about what happens to us, it is how we perceive what happens to us. 4t is the knack of finding a positive for every negative. 4t is not wishing for what we do not have, but en"oying what we have, still it is an abstract idea difficult to define and we cannot pin 9 point a particular thing by which we can derive satisfaction : +ccording to

Psychological 5ictionary, .$atisfaction is the simple feeling or state accompanying the attainment by an impulse of its ob"ective./ +ccording to international &ebster3s 5ictionary ;1<=>? .$atisfaction
@

means the fulfilment of a need or desire some pleasantness or contentment./ Porter and Lawler ;1<>A? opine, satisfaction is the e!tent to which rewards actually received meet or e!ceed the perceived equitable levels of rewards. The greater the failure of actual reward to meet or e!ceed perceiving equitable rewards, the more dissatisfied a person is considered to be in a given situation./ #aslow ;1<=B? strongly believes that human being is a wanting animal, as he never reaches a state of satisfaction. +ccording to him, .when certain needs and desires are satisfied at once, others and higher needs emerge and when these inturn are satisfied again new ;and still higher? needs emerge and so on and so forth./ +ccording to 7ames ;1<=6?, satisfaction is the degree to which the members of a social members system have a positive affective orientation towards other

in the system.

#embers who have a positive affective orientation are

satisfied, whereas members who have a negative affective orientation are dissatisfied./ +ccording to &olman ;1<=@?, .4t is the attainment of the desires and the fulfilment of an essential condition./ The feeling of satisfaction itself, however is a state of consciousness which occurs when the organism is given opportunities to carry out responses which it is ready to carry out. $atisfaction wholly upon the individual3s environment, calibre, behaviour and proper understanding of man and nature. 4t is mainly concerned with mind than with material things. + person who is satisfied is happy and leads a comfortable life and he is not "ealous of others and has the peace of mind. Life satisfaction is the e!tent to which an individual3s needs
C

are

satisfied and the e!tent to which the individual perceives the satisfaction as stemming from his total life situations. &e can say that life satisfaction can be defined in terms of the specific life situation and not as a generalized trait in the individual. 4t can also be defined in terms of human needs and the environmental sources of satisfaction of these needs. Life satisfaction is a comple! concept relating to psychological and environmental life conditions. Thus life satisfaction has been defined as D The e!tent to which a person is pleased or satisfied by the content and environment or is displeased or frustrated by inadequate life conditions and environmental situations./ Life satisfaction could be intrinsic as well as e!trinsic. The criterion of life satisfaction of a person is the amount of happiness the individual obtains through his work in life. 4t is accepted that the happy person is he who is fully satisfied with his E her life. 4n general, word F$atisfaction3 is defined as the fulfilment or gratification of desires. $atisfaction is not about what happens to us. 4t is how we perceive what happens to us. 4t plays an important role in human life. 4t has two aspects D Positive and ,egative. (n one side, it is necessary for man3s progress but on the other side , it prevents a man from making healthy progress. 4f we want more and more things and never feel satisfied with what we have, then our life will be hell but if we are satisfied with what we have then our life will be heaven. Theodore Parker summarized the comple! meaning of life satisfaction in
G

a very simple quote, .The earnestness of life is the only passport to the satisfaction of life./ 0uion ;1<GA? says, .The e!tent to which the individual needs are

satisfied and the e!tent to which the individual perceives that satisfaction as stemming from the total life satisfaction./ Life satisfactin is a comple! concept relating to the psychological and environmental life conditions. 4t has been defined as the e!tent to which a person is pleased or satisfied by the content and environment or is displeased or frustrated by inadequate life conditions and environment situations. 4t could be intrinsic as well as e!trinsic. The criterion of life satisfaction of a person is the amount of happiness the individual obtains through his work in life. Life satisfaction is a state of pleasure in an organism when it has achieved the goal of dominant motivating tendencies. +ccording to &olman ;1<=@? 4t is the attainment of the desires and the

fulfilment of an essential conditions. The dictionary of life considers it to be a dynamic process which goes on throughout one3s life. ;)rown, 1<A>?. Life satisfaction is a wide term and has received prime importance from all learned and enlightened saints in almost all religious scriptures. $harma ;1<<=? in a poetic nglish version of $ikh scriptures writes that life satisfaction can be attained by hearing .&aheguru/ which is equal to visiting >A places of pilgrimage. Proverbs @.1@ and 1= of the 8oly )ible e!press the state of satisfied man as D .8appy is the man who finds wisdom 9 8is ways are the ways of
>

pleasantness and his paths are peace./ Timothy >.> quotes that there is a great gain in godliness with contentment ;)rown 1<A>? 4n 8arpers )ible dictionary long life is considered to be most satisfying gift of 0od ;#iller and #iller, 1<GA?. 4n 4ndian philosophy satisfaction with life is thought to be a state of mind. Life satisfaction is a broader concept and varies with the type of relationship established. Life satisfaction includes capacity for en"oyment. The more we can en"oy what we have, the happier we are. (n the other hand people sometimes feel dissatisfied with material things in their lives. #oney and material things are no guarantors of happiness. 5ue to these people get disturbed and upset in their lives. Life satisfaction refers to positive thinking that can help us to lead a happy life and overcome our problems and difficulties with ease. .Life presents a continuous chain of struggle for e!istence and survival./ $ay 5arwin. The observation is very correct as we find in our day to day life. very

one is struggling to achieve something. 4f one finds that results are not satisfactory, one does not have the satisfaction and one changes one3s goal or the procedure. *or e!ample, if one works hard to get goods marks in the H6 class and P.#.T. test but is not able to get admission due to one3s low percentage. (ne may change one3s goal and feel inclined or aspiring to "oin ).$c. course for medical representative3s "ob. $haffer3s definition lays stress on needs and their satisfaction. (ne feels ad"usted to the e!tent one3s needs are gratified are in the way of being gratified. The individual tries to bring changes in his circumstances in order to overcame the

difficulties in the realization of his needs. $ometimes he reduces the quantum of his
=

needs so that he may feel satisfied within the limited resources of needs and in this way, he tries to keep a balance between his needs and the capacity of scaling these needs. The importance and necessity of life satisfaction has been widely acclaimed by intellectuals. +ccording to %ervantes, .+ll those who are contented with life pass like a shadow and dream,/ thereby meaning that so smooth does the life become for a satisfied man that it moves stealthily, along with the man like his shadow, the man

unmindful of its presence and the shadow not tormenting him in any way ;*lesch 1<G<?. #ichel nquem 5% #ontaingne views life satisfaction in terms of &ill Power. 8e quotes .2alue of life does not lie in the length of days, but in the use we make of them, a man may live long yet get little from life. &hether you find

satisfaction in life or not depends not on your tale of years but on your will./ ;)artlett 1<<=?. )ut a line has to be drawn some where, otherwise displeasures and discontentment may crupt in one3s life. The person who is not satisfied with what he has, would not be contented with what he would like to have in future. 7ohn $chindler quotes, .4t is easier to be satisfied than dissatisfied and much healthier too. 4t is easy and much pleasurable to find elements of satisfaction instead of dissatisfaction in the daily run of events. very human being looks forward for a day, when he is supremely

satisfied at the end./ ;#ontepart 1<=B?. Locus of control 4t is assumed that the individuals develop a general e!pectancy regarding
A

their ability to control their lives. Locus:of:control is a psychological construct in which two type of persons come. *irstly the internally oriented who

attribute the responsibility of what happens to them on themselves and the second ones are the e!ternally oriented who contrary to the internals fi! the responsibility of the events in their life on others and e!ternal forces like chance and luck etc. ,ot everyone reacts to noise pollution or a catastrophic illness with the same sense of powerlessness. Then, too, some people march through life reacting to nearly every situation as if they were handcuffed by fate. 4n contrast others persistently strive to grab those same situations by the tail and twist them to their own purpose. 4t is as if certain people feel that the outcomes of their efforts are controlled by factors or events e!ternal to themselves while others are convinced that control is an internal matter which is related to their own efforts or attributes. This is the internal e!ternal locus:of:control of reinforcement notion which first emerged from 'otter3s $ocial Learning Theory in the mid 9 1<GB ;Phares, 1<AC?. +s defined by 'otter ;1<>>? the construct of Locus:of:control refers to a generalized e!pectancy individuals have concerning the e!tent to which they themselves play a causative role in specified life events. They tend to believe that a given outcome ;success or failure? depends on their behaviour, skill and resourcesI e!ternals believe that controls reside outside of themselves in the form of chance or powerful others. 'otter ;1<>>? further defined internal e!ternal control of reinforcement ;4. ? as follows D
<

&hen reinforcement is perceived by the sub"ect as following some action of his own but not being entirely contingent upon his actions, then it is typically perceived as the result of luck, chance, fate as under the control of powerful others or as unpredictable because of the great comple!ity of the forces surrounding him. &e have labelled this a belief in e!ternal control. 4f the person perceives that the event is contingent upon his own behaviour or his own relative permanent characteristics, we have termed this a belief in internal control./ The construct of Locus:of:control has been the focus of considerable research interest in recent years and has been the sub"ect of a large number of recent investigations. ;Lefcourt 1<>>? Tandall et al 1<>6, 1<>G, #cghee et al 1<>A, 7oe 1<=1, (llendick and (llendick ;1<=>? etc. 4n the recent report on quality of ducational (pportunity,/ it was demonstrated that Locus:of:%ontrol was a better predictor of behaviour than any other attitudinal, familiar, school and teacher variable studied. ;%oloman et al 1<>>? Lefcourt 1<>> defined the internal9e!ternal control construct as follows D .+s a general principle internal control refers to the perception of positive and E or negative events as being a consequence of one3s own actions and thereby under personal control. !ternal control refers to the perception of positive and E or

negative events as being unrelated to one3s own behaviours in certain situations and therefore beyond personal control./ .&ith the Locus:of:%ontrol construct we are dealing with a person as he views himself in connection with the things that befall him and the meaning that he makes of these interactions between his self and his e!pectancies/ ;Lefcourt 1<=>?.
1B

.Loc is a measure of person3s perception of the determinats of the reinforcement he receives. 4t is a generalized e!pectancy as apposed to specific

e!pectancy being an abstraction developed froma host of e!periences./ Personality theorists have long been concerned with the willingness of the individuals to accept responsibility for the consequence of his behaviour. &hite3s ;1<><? %onstructs of %ompetency/ and . ffectance/, +dler3s concept of $triving for superiority as a basic motive, the .inner/ and .others/ directed man of 'eisman ;1<GB?, +ngyal3s trends towards autonomy, Piaget3s notions of causality and other concepts such as self 9 confidence, ego, strength, mastery etc. have been used to donate the degree to which man is able and believes himself to be capable of controlling the important events in his life space./ ;Lefcourt 1<>>?. Lefcourt said, .Locus:of:control is not to be regarded as an amnibus trait similar to Fcompetence3 and intelligence which pertains to each and every facet of human endeavour. 'ather it can more fruitfully be defined as a circumscribed self 9 appraisal pertaining to the degree to which individuals view themselves as having some causal role in determining specific events. Locus:of:control refers to the e!tent to which a person believes that he has control over the reinforcement he e!periences./ 2eblen3s ;1A<<? statement that a belief in luck or chance represented a barbarian approach to life and was generally characteristic of an inefficient society. ;'otter 1<>>? reflects that as far back as 1A<< the social scientists were interested in the concept of Locus:of:control. #erton ;1<C>? has discussed belief in luck more or less as a defence
11

behaviour, as an attempt to serve the psychological function of enabling people to preserve their self esteem in the face of failure. ;'otter 1<>>?. arly empirical investigation of this .belief in personal control/ has stemmed primarily from 'otter3s ;1<>>? construct of perceived Locus 9 of 9 %ontrol./ This concept grew out of 'otter3s $ocial Learning theory ;1<GC?. 4n the words of 5ucetic and &olf ;1<=6? an internal person perceives that he is in control of his fate and that effort and reward wil be correlated. )ut an e!ternal person perceives that powerful others or the systems determine how well he can do

and that rewards are distributed by such powerful others in a random fashion./ The first such device was likert type scale developed by Phares ;1<GG?. This was followed by 7ame3s ;1<G=? revision of the Phares scale. (ther measures followed shortly thereafter e.g. scales by )ialer and %rom &ell ;1<>1? 5ean ;1<>1? )attle and 'otter ;1<>@? -atovsky and %randall ;1<>G? Lefcourt ;1<>>? 'otter ;1<>>? and ;1<=@? etc. Today even a casual glance at the research literature reveals a considerable amount of interest in the construct. 'eported research findings indicate that L(% has been studied in relation to a number of things like need achievement, ego, control, skill versus chance, learning mental defect etc. and it has proved to be

e!tremely useful in the prediction of variety of behaviours and it is this usefulness that has undoubtedly contributed to its present popularity as a research variable. The researcher also though hence the present study that Locus 9 of %ontrol may be a strong predictor of Life $atisfaction.
16

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM A STUDY OF LIFE SATISFACTION IN RELATION TO LOCUS-OF-CONTROL NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Today3s modern age of science and technology has increased the comple!ities of life. #an has become a victim of passions like "ealousy and arrogance. )ecause of rapid individualization, urbanization, technical advancement and desire for more success, individual3s life has become chaotic and full of stress and strain. Thus, satisfaction with one3s self and one3s environment is very important. This will lead to a happy and comfortable life for the person and he will feel fully confident in dealing with the struggles of life. 4t is felt that satisfaction is a matter of attitude. 4f we look for satisfaction outside, we are likely to suffer. )ut if

satisfaction is sought within, it might yield positive results. 8ence, the need for the present study. OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS The operational definitions of the variables are given below D Lif S!tisf!ction .+ man would be completely happy if he is satisfied in all respects of life. + life that involves the satisfaction of very many simple desires gives us many pleasures. These desires arise due to a number of behavioural actions that are related to overt or covert behaviour of the concerned individual or these may be environmental

1@

i.e. related to social, mental and physical environment./ ;&ilson 1<>A?. Locus-of-Control 4t has been defined by 'otter as .when a reinforcement is perceived by the sub"ect as following some action of his own but not being entirely contingent upon his actions, then it is typically perceived as the result of luck, chance, fate as under the control of powerful others or as unpredictable because of the forces surrounding him. &e have labelLed this a belief in e!ternal control. 4f the person perceives that the event is contingent upon his own relatively permanent characteristics, we have termed this a belief in internal control./ OB"ECTI#ES OF THE STUDY The study will be conducted keeping in ob"ectives. 1. 6. @. To study the Locus:of:%ontrol of the teachers of Ludhiana district. To study Life $atisfaction of the teachers of Ludhiana district. To find out the relationship between Life $atisfaction and Locus 9 of 9 %ontrol the view the following

of teachers of Ludhiana district. DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY 4. 44. The study was delimited to 1BB teachers of govt. and non govt. schools. (nly the teachers from the schools of Ludhiana district were taken up.

1C

CHAPTER $ II

RE#IE% OF RELATED STUDIES


4t is only by familiarizing oneself thoroughly and critically with the works already accomplished in an area of life that can find oneself in a position to cut out a problem of search from it. ach problem of research, among other things, has

necessary to be new or different from the problems already e!ecuted. This addition obviously cannot be fulfilled without first valiantly undergoing the ordeal of mastering what already e!ists in the form of e!plored, accepted, verified and corroborated

knowledge. The mastering of this knowledge leads to the necessary insight into the new possibilities of e!ploring and advancing the frontiers of knowledge. This mastery also acquaints us with the research strategies, techniques and tools used by the earlier investigators and with the merits and limitations of their works. +ll this puts the new researcher in a position from which she can walk out a line of action for accomplishing her research work sans the mistakes that might have been committed by the earlier investigators. 4n other words the mastery of the related works, enables the new

investigator to begin her "ourney of research and to conduct her "ourney so as to reach the destination with the minimum of trial and error. STUDIES Stu&i s r '!r&in' lif s!tisf!ction )ind ;1<AG? discussed three foundations of meaningful and satisfactory life based on the assumption that a meaningful life involves both sub"ective satisfaction

1G

and ob"ective moral component. The foundation includes D ;1? establishment of depth relationship ;6? The commitment to pro"ects and goals, ;@? The use of stories that please life in a genuinely ultimate conte!t. %rohan et al ;1<A<? indicted that "ob satisfaction is positively correlated to life satisfaction and happiness. The status of an individual in his occupation is also positively related to life satisfaction. 7ay $hree and 'ao ;1<<1? studied personal ad"ustment and life satisfactin of re:employed retirees ;' '? and non: employed retirees ;, '? and found that social ad"ustment was significantly higher in ' ' compared with , '. )ut no significant was found between life satisfaction scores of two group. 5orfman ;1<<6? investigated life satisfaction in professor and found that perceived financial adequacy before retirement and even after retirement was positively related to life satisfaction. %oke ;1<<6? found studied that the correlates of life satisfaction vary among elderly males and females. 4n males and females, +mong males, self perceived adequency of income, actual household income and educational level were significantly related to life satisfaction. 'ichardson and )urke ;1<<@? found, satisfaction of life is related to attitude. *avourable attitudes are significantly related to life satisfaction does not have any significant impact on personality pattern. 7oshi ;1<<C? conducted a study, . life satisfaction among college students and its found that life satisfaction does not have any significant impact on personality
1>

pattern. -aur ;1<<G? studied, .'igidity in relation to life satisfaction/ and found that there e!ists a significant relationship between rigidity and life satisfaction and further found that these e!ists a significant relationship between rigidity and life satisfaction of male and female teachers. $a!ena ;1<<>? in her study, .life satisfaction and perceived happiness as function of family structure and employment women/ found that the non:working women e!perienced greater life satisfaction than working women and happiness was greater among non:working women. (rpan ;1<<>? made a study on The #easurement of student satisfaction with their universityI + consumer behaviour perspective/ he computed product moment correlation to find out relationship between disconfirmation and student satisfaction. +ll the disconfirmation satisfaction correlation were significantly positive ;pJB.BG?. )ut %ontrast to this very few correlations were found significant between e!pectations and satisfaction and between certainty and satisfaction ;pKB.BG?. 8e also supported these findings by multiple regression analysis, which shows that the amount of variance in satisfaction attributable to disconfirmations is much higher than that attributable to either e!pectations. 'achmandeep ;6BBB? resultant of teachers attitude/. .conducted a study on life satisfaction as a

+nd found that there e!ist no significant difference

between life satisfaction of teachers of different colleges. $harma, ' ;6BBB? in his study, .Teacher ffectiveness as related to life
1=

satisfaction and attitude towards teaching profession of secondary school teachers/ found that life satisfaction and attitudes towards teaching profession of secondary school teachers were related significantly with higher level of teacher effectiveness. Thus, life satisfaction and attitude towards teaching profession were significant determiners to teacher effectiveness. -akkar ;6BB1? conducted a study on .social intelligence as a determinant of life satisfaction and found that there e!ist a significant relationship between life satisfaction and social intelligence in case of girls. $hivani ;6BB1? .conducted a study on life satisfaction as related to found no significant relationship between

personality structure of teachers/ and

personality traits and life satisfaction of teachers. $harma, $ ;6BB1? studied, .Life satisfaction in working couples/ and found that working husbans of working wives were more satisfied than working husband of house wives, housewives are found to be significantly more satisfied than working wives. housewives. Stu&( R '!r&in' Locus-of-Control The studies in this direction have been initiated by the research scholars as 0urmeet ;1<AG? in her study, .Life satisfaction as a correlate of Teacher ffectiveness/ concluded that most effective teachers do not differ significantly in their life satisfaction. &orking husbands were more satisfied than working wives and

1A

-ohan ;1<AG? e!amined the interaction between "oint vocational school superintendent3s leader behaviour and vocational teachers locus:of:control on vocational teacher3s "ob satisfaction. Total sample drawn was of 61B vocational

teachers. The findings indicated that the internally controlled vocational teachers had the highest "ob satisfaction under a superintendent who they perceived as being high in both consideration and initiating structure. )innie ;1<AG? studied the relationship of variables and locus 9 of 9

control with teacher3s "ob satisfaction. CBG teachers in hills borough country *lorida were chosen as sample from CB schols. + significant positive correlation e!isted between "ob satisfaction and internal locus:of:control. #c4ntire ;1<AG? studied "ob satisfaction among registered nurses

employed in hospitals in the area of ,orth caroline to e!amine the relationship between hospital nurses. 7ob satisfaction and selected demographic and situational variables. The study revealed that "ob satisfaction was positively correlated with marital status and internal lucus:of:control. 'ohman ;1<AG? studied the interaction of high school principal3s leader behaviour and locus:of:control and role ambiguity of teachers in determining their "ob satisfaction. CA6 teachers from 6= public high school in ,ew 7ersey were studied. 4t was found that Lucus:of:%ontrol of teachers was significantly related to their "ob and satisfaction. -elvadi ,.'. ;1<<1? took study of relationship between )urn (ut and Locus:of:%ontrol among athletes. The researcher found that the sportsman,
1<

e!perienced burn out but when the individual and the team playing sportsman were compared the difference was not statistically significant. #ale sportsmen e!perienced more burn out than their female counterparts, especially on emotional e!haustion. 4ndividual and team sportsmen did not differ on their Locus:of 9%ontrol orientation. #ale and female sportsmen have no difference in their Locus:of:%ontrol but have more e!ternal orientation.

6B

CHAPTER - III

METHOD AND PROCEDURE


(ne of the most important elements in the methodology of educational research is the selection and adoption of the proper method of research. )efore the research worker places his final choice on the method he has to make himself clear about the field or area in which the problem of his research occurs. +s a general rule, the method of research depends upon the purpose for which the investigation is to be carried on. *or a research worker, the purpose may be historical or survey e!perimental or clinical, developmental or statistical. 8e is also to take into consideration the time factor during which the proposed investigation is to be completed. The methodology makes the most important contribution towards the enrichment of any study. +ccording to Professor 84LL&+L if one cannot describe his approach, the chances ore that workerMs understanding of what he is doing will be rendered ineffective. 8e has further pointed out that there is a need for a thorough understanding of research method in terms of the strengths and weaknesses of each method, because one method is likely to pass into the territory of others as and when the problem demands its. This is desired because an inappropriate decision about methods can lead to unsatisfactory results and disillusionment sometimes the two terms, the method and procedure are used interchangeably. (ne can say that procedure refers to steps and steps are common to all methods. The present investigation N+ study of life satisfaction in relation to locus:of

61

controlN is a survey and is descriptive in nature. This chapter deals with the procedure and techniques used in this study. Proc &ur For coll ction of &!t! )I* 44? $election of the sample + selection of the data collection instruments ;for measuring life satisfaction and locus:of:control? 444? 42? +dministration of the date collecting instruments $coring of the responses obtained for the administration of the test.

S l ction of t+ s!,-l $ampling is both advantageous and necessary in every research pro"ect. 4t is not only difficult but also impossible to include the whole population. $o a research worker has to resort to sampling technique which is representive of population. The conclusion are drawn and generalization are made about the whole population. -eeping in new the limited resources of time, money and test materials a representative and limited sample was picked up incidentally for the purpose of study have been taken up with incidental sampling technique but the school students are organized into classes or a section, as a unit is convenient and practicable. 8ence for the selection of schools, incidental method of sampling has been used as it happened to be the most convenient method of data collection. The term incidental sampling is called accidental sampling as it is applied to those groups which are useful chiefly because they are so readily and easily obtainable. )ut the teachers were selected randomly. 4n this way for the purpose of this investigation 1BB teachers both from government and
66

non:government schools from Ludhiana district were invaded. Tools E,-lo( &)*or collecting new and unknown data required for the study of any problem one may use various tools. The selection of suitable tools or instruments is of vital importance for successful research. 4n the present study the following tools were used. ./ Lif S!tisf!ction Sc!l )y O.0. +lam and 5rD 'an"i $hrivastava 6. 'otterMs internal !ternal scale )y 7.) 'otter

DESCRIPTION OF THE TOOLS Life satisfaction scale. This scale has been developed by O.0. alamand 'am"i srivastava in order to measure life satisfaction and is considerateness effective tool for younger, immature as well as aged people. Scorin' ) The scale has >B items. very item is to be responded either in MyesM or MnoM. There is no other alternative very MyesM response is assigned 1 mark. The sum of marks is obtained for the entire scale. 'aw scores are converted into t:scores from the table given in the manual. RELIABILITY )- The test retest reliability was computed after a lapse of > weeks. The obtained Ouotient was .AC. #ALIDITY) The validity of the scale was obtained by correlating it with sarenaMs inventory and srivastava ad"ustment inventory. The quotient obtained was. =C and A6 respectively. *urther the scale has face validity as all the items are closely related to the
6@

covered areas. The items were 7udged by e!perts. Thus, the scale is beyond doubt. 4t also possesses content validity. items the scale was considered a reliable tool for the purpose of present investigation. 'otterMs internal !ternal $cale ;1<>>? This scale measures generalised beliefs in internal versus e!ternal control of events. 4t is a forced choice questionnaire that requires sub"ects to indicate whether they think that the different outcomes have internal or e!ternal causes. %oncerning the overall validity of the internal !ternal scale, 'otter states, +

series of studies provide strong support for the hypotheses that individuals who has a strong belief that he can control his destiny is likely to D: a? be more alert to those aspects of the environment which provide useful information for his further behaviour. b? take steps to improve his environmental conditions. c? Place greater value on skill or achievement reinforcements and be generally more concerned with his ability. d? be resistive to subtle attempts to influence him correlations with social desirability are also moderate and construct validation e!tensive both in laboratory and field situations. ;'otter, 1<=GI Lefcourt 1<=>I Phares 1<=>I strickling 1<==? 4t is a 6< items scale with > filers and is used to measure the internal:e!ternal control items are scored towards e!ternality so that a huger score on the scale indicated a more e!ternal direction. ach item has two statements, one representing the internal direction and the other
6C

representing the e!ternal direction. The sub"ect is required to tick one of the two statements according to his own beliefs. there is no time limit. Scorin' ) $coring range is from B:1 for each item. The fillers ;1,A,1C,1<,6C,6=? are not to be scored. The possible range of scores in the scale is B:6@ 'esponses 6;a?,@;b?, C;b?,G;b?, >;b?, =;a?, <;a?, 1B;b?, 11;b?, 16;b?,1@;b?, 1G;b?,1G;b?, 6A;b? and 6<;a? as directed towards e!ternality and carry a scare of one each. whereas the responses 6;b?, @;a?, C;a?, G;a?, >;a?, =;b?, <;b?, 1B;a?, 11;a?, 16;a?, 1@;a?, 1G;a?, 1>;a?, 1=;b?, 1A;b?, 6B;b?, 61;b?, 66;a?, 6@;b?, 6G;b?, 6>;a?, 6A;a?, and 6<;b? are directed towards internality and carry a score of zero each. Total score obtained by an individual on 6@ significant items in this scale represents his locus:of:control. The split half reliability of the scale is between B.>G. an B.=<. The Pun"abi version of the scale was taken for use in the present study. stimates for reliability v 1< the split half method correlated by spearman.

)rown formula are equal to B.=@ and test:re:test. samples si! weeks apart are equal to B.>=. St!tistic!l T c+ni0u s)The statistical techniques were employed to give concise picture of the whole data so that it can be easily comprehended. They were employed to test the hypotheses. 4n the study, the following techniques were used.

6G

FRE1UENCY DISTRIBUTION) *requency distribution of life satisfaction and locus of control scores were prepared to show the trend of the scores and also for comparison of the score on account of different variables. +fter determining the size of class intervals, tallies were marked and frequencies prepared to facilitate the further calculation. #ean, #edian, #ode standard deviation. $kewness kurtosis of different scores of both the variables i.e life satisfaction and locus:of:control were calculated to get the concise picture and description. M !n #ean is a number indicating the central value of a group of observation or of individuals. 4t was found with the help of given formula as under M &i!n it is the value of variables which divides the total distribution into two equal halves. Mo& #ode is the frequently occurring score. The crude mode is unstable measures of central tendency it is usually employed as a simple inspectional average that indicates in a rough way the centre of consideration in the distributions. + formula for appro!imating the true mode when the frequency distribution is symmetrical is D: S/ DE#IATION $.5. is the measure of the variability commonly employed in research studies. 4t is square root of the sum of square of differences of raw scores from their mean divided by their number. 4t is used for finding out the dispersion of scores.

6>

S2E% NESS $kewness was used to measure divergence from normality in the life: satisfaction and locus:of:control. + distribution is said to be skewed when the mean and median falls at different points in the distribution and the balance is shifted to one side or the other to the left or regent which is called positively skewed or negatively skewed. 2urtosis ) The term -urtosis refers to the MPeakednessM or flatness of frequency distribution, which is more beaked than the normal is said to be leptokurtic and the one which is more flatten than the normal is said to be platykurtic. Corr l!tion %orrelation the coefficient of correlation may be thought of ersentially as that ratio which e!presses the e!tent to which changes in value of one variable are accompanied by or are dependent upon changes in the values of second variable. The coefficient of correlation varils between H1 and :1 it is independent of the units. 4t is designated by the lather r. in the present study Pearson product moment is as follow applied which is as follow.

6=

CHAPTER - I#

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

+ research worker is not completely satisfied with collecting and classifying data. (ne has to go through the facts more deeply to find the causes of the occurrence of the phenomenon concerned with the problem. 4n educational research the step that comes ne!t to the collectioin of data is that of its analysis. +nalysis of data means studying the tabulated material in order to make it meaningful. 4t involves breaking down the e!isting comple! factors into simple facts and putting the parts together making new arrangement for the purpose of interpretation to draw conclusions. +ccording to (liver, Nwhen data has been obtained, it is necessary to organise it for interpretation and presentation.N 2arious advantages of statistical analysis of the data as enumerated by cluilford are that they permit the most e!act in our thinking, enable us to analyses some of casual factors out of comple! and otherwise bewildered events. The present study is based on the investigation sacking relationship between life satisfaction and locus:of:control of school teachers of Ludhiana district. The data required for the purpose of investigation was colled with help of dimensions of life satisfaction scale by O.0 +lam and 5r. 'am"i srivastava and locus:of:control 'otterMs internal :e!ternal scale by 7.). 'otter. 5escription of the distribution of scores has been presented in terms of frequencies, mean median, mode, skewness and kurtosis. $tandard deviations were drawn on the basis of original scores of different variables. The correlation was found
6A

between life satisfaction and locus:of:control of school teachers. %odes used for the description of different terms are shown belowD $r. ,o 1 6 @ C G > = A 5escription of the term *requencies %lass intervals #ean #edian $tandard aviation $kewness -urtosis %orrelation %ode * %1 # #d $.5 $-u '

PRESENTATION OF RESULTS The result are given in different sections $ection 4 deals with results of frequency distribution, mean median, mode, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. $ection 44 deals with the correlation to find out the inter relationship between life satisfaction and locus:of:control of the teachers.

SECTION I T!3l / 4/. S+o5in' fr 0u nc( &istri3ution !lon' 5it+ t+ 6!lu s of , !n7 , &i!n7

6<

,o& 7 S/D7 s8 5n ss7 2urtosis 3!s & on t+ 'o6 rn, nt Sc+ool t !c+ rs/

scor s of lif

s!tisf!ction of 9:

Cl!ss Int r6!ls 6=:@B @1:@C @G:@A @<:C1 C6:CG C>:C<

Fr 0u nc( @ 1= > 16 11 1 GB #ode @6.>A $.5 G.6C> $B.B> -P B.@6

#ean @=.>6

#edian @=.G

The results entered in Table C.1 show that values of mean median and mode of life satisfaction of $chool teachers are @=.>=, @=.G and @6.>A respectively which are quite pro!imate to each other with slight difference. The value of skewness is B.B> which is well within the limit B.> H1 The value of kurtosis is B.@6 this means that the curve is platykrstic because calculated value is more than the normal distribution value which is 6>@ as shown in figure C.1 )ut the deviation is so minor that it can be ignored.

FIG/4/./

Fr 0u nc( -ol('on s+o5in' t+


@B

l(

s!tisf!ction scor

of 9:

'o6 rn, nt sc+ool t !c+ rs/

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 27-30

Frequency

31-34

35-38

39-41

42-45

46-49

Class Interval

CLASS INTER#ALS T!3l 4/;


S+o5in' fr 0u nc( &istri3ution !lon' 5it+ t+ 6!lu s of , !n7 , &i!n7 scor s of lif S!tisf!ction of 9: Non-

,o& 7 S/O S8 5n ss 2urtosis 3!s & on t+ 'o6 rn, nt sc+ool t !c+ rs

@1

Cl!ss Int r6!ls 6<:@6 @@:@> @=:CB C1:CC CG:CA C<:G6

Fr 0u nc( 6 1> C 16 1C 6 GB #ode @G.>6 $.5 G.<@ $-. B.G< -urtosis B.@<16

#ean CB.GA

#edian C1.=G

The result entered in Table C.6 show that the values of mean median and mode of lye satisfaction of ,on:government school teachers are CB.GA, C1.=G, @G.>6 respectively. The values are quite pro!imate to each other. The values of skewness is B.G< which is within the acceptable limits of normality. i.e H 1. The value of kurtosis is B.@<16means that the curve is platykurtic because the value is more then the normal distribution value.i.e 6>@ as shown in figure C.6.

Fi'/ 4/; Fr 0u nc( -ol('on s+o5in' t+ lif s!tisf!ction of 9: non-'o6 rn, nt sc+ool t !c+ rs

@6

18 16 14 Frequency 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 29-32 33-36 37-40 41-44 45-48 49-52

Class Interval

CLASS INTER#ALS T!3l -4/< S+o5in' fr 0u nc( &istri3ution !lon' 5it+ 6!lu s of , !n7 M &i!n7

Mo& 7 S/D/ S8 5n ss7 2urtosis 3!s & on scor of locus of control of 'o6t 9: Sc+ool t !c+ rs/ Cl!ss Int r6!ls @:C
@@

Fr 0u nc( 6

C:G G:> >:= =:A A:< <:1B

6 1= A A = > 9: #ode G.>6G $.5 1>B.<= $B.BBCA -& B.@11

#ean >.=>

#edian >.G

The results entered in Table C.@ show that the values of mean, median, mode locus:of:control school teachers are >.=>, >.G, G.>6G respectively which are quite pro!imate to each other. The value of skewness is B.BBCA which is within the acceptable limits of normal value i.eH1. The value of kurtosis is B.@11 this mean that the curve is kurtosis because calculated value is more than the normal distribution value which is 6>@ as fig.C.@.

Fi'/ 4/< Fr 0u nc( -ol('on s+o5in' t+ locus-of -control scor s of 9: 'o6t/ sc+ool

@C

18 16 14 Frequency 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 4-Mar 5-Apr 6-May 7-Jun Class Interval 8-Jul 9-Aug 10-Sep

CLASS-INTER#ALS T!3l 4/4 S+o5in' fr 0u nc( &istri3ution !lon' 5it+ 6!lu of M !n7 M &i!n7

Mo& 7 S/D/ S8 5n ss7 2urtos s 3!s & on scor s of Locus-of-control of 9:

@G

Non Go6t/ Sc+ool t !c+ s Cl!ss Int r6!ls @:C C:G G:> >:= =:A A:< Fr 0u nc( 6 1 1A 1< > C 9: #ode >.B= $.5 6.B<C $6.CA6 -u 6.CC

#ean C.C=A

#edian >.61B

The results entered C.C show that the value of mean median mode of locus:of:control scores of ,on:government school teachers are C.C=A, >.61B, >.B=, 6.B<C which are quite pro!imate to each other. The value of skewness is 6.CA6 which is within the acceptable limit of normality i.eH 1. The value of kurtosis is 6.CC. which is more than the normal distribution value i.e 6>@ so the curve is platyfustic as shown in figure C.C locus:B1

Fi'ur 4/4/ Fr 0u nc( -ol('on s+o5in' t+ control scor s of non-'o6t/ sc+ool t !c+ rs/

@>

25 20 15 Frequency 10 5 0 4-Mar -5 Class Interval

5-Apr

6-May

7-Jun

8-Jul

9-Aug

@=