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CHAPTER - I

INTRODUCTION
The importance of attitudes in human life is universally recoganised. Our attitudes which determine our favourable or un-favourable reactions to environmental stimuli to which we are exposed. Attitudes are simply expressions of how much we like or dislike various things. By knowing the attitude of a person, we come to know what in life is significant for him and what is not. Attitude determines the actions of human beings. They powerfully influence their behaviour towards diverse occupation or profession and also such areas of life as teaching in the religion, capital punishment and other ways of life styles of life adopted by different communities etc. ndeed there is hardly any ob!ect or activity or procedure or idea or occupation to wards which we don"t have any attitudes. Attitudes are the product of experience. #ence there is close connection between attitudes and education. Our attitudes are always open to revision. Our lives are filled with opportunities for attitude change. Attitude supply the code by which the behaviour of the individual and of the other is !udged. Attitudes also supply principles on the basis of which choices are made and determine our attractions or repulsions for most ob!ects in life. They represent our evaluations, preferences towards a variety of attitude ob!ects. Our attitudes are based on information. Our lives are filled with opportunities for attitude change. $e are bombarded with advertisements intended to increase our favourableness towards various products. The formation of attitudes is a result of long process of accumulation into which has gone many a complicated factors as such attitude cannot be read as a writing on a wall, but has to be deciphered with careful codes of psychology attitude is not a factor in human personality but is intextricable mixed up with the other areas of personality. %uccess adds to human personality. Attitude is therefore, basic to many educational activities. Attitude is also the product of education that we get at home and school. Attitudes are dynamic, they change with time and experience. They are not innate but they are ac&uired. They differ in directions, as they are favourable and unfavourable.

1.1

ATTITUDE An attitude is a learned orientation or disposition towards an ob!ect or

situation which provides a tendency to respond favourably or unfavourably to the ob!ect or situation. Allport '()*+, defined attitude as a, -mental or neural state of readiness, organised through experiences, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual"s response to all the ob!ects to which it is related.Thurstone '()./, defines, an attitude as the degree of positive or negative effect associated with some psychological ob!ect. By psychological ob!ect, he means any symbol, phrase, slogan, person, institution, ideal or idea towards which people can differ with respect to positive or negative effect. 0retch and curtchfield '().1, have defined attitude as an enduring organisation of motivational, emotional, perceptual and cognitive process with respect to some aspect of the individual"s world. Attitude has also been defined as the meaning that one associates which certain ob!ect or idea and which influences his acceptance of it. '()+2, 3as 4 4unnallg define attitude as predisposition to react negatively or positively in some degree towards the class of ob!ects, ideas, institution or people.'()/(, 5uilford defines attitude,- as the tendency to favour or not to favour some type of ob!ects or situations.Oppenheim '()16, -an attitude is a construct, an obstruction which cannot be directly apprehended. t is an inner component of mental life which expresses itself, directly or indirectly, though such more obvious processes as the stereotypes and belief, herbal statements or reactions, ideas or opinions, selective recall, anger or satisfaction or some other emotions, and in various other aspects of behaviors. Anastasi '()/(, defined attitude as a tendency to react favourably or unfavourably towards a designated class of stimuli such as a national or racial group, a custom or an institution.According to #ilgard '()+2,,-an attitude represents an orientation

towards or away from some ob!ect, concept or situation, and a readiness to respond in predetermined manner to related ob!ects, concepts or situations. Both orientation or readiness to respond have emotional, motivational and intellectual aspect.7nglish and 7nglish '()+1, attitude is one of many terms that refers to an aspect of personality inferred to account for persistent and consistent behaviour towards a family of related situations or ob!ects. According to 4ew 8omb, 9. Theodore, -Attitude gives meaning to man"s daily perception and activities, they serve in his attempted achievements of various goals.According to chamber"s dictionary attitude mean, -Any conditions of things or relation of person viewed as expressing some thought, feeling etc.According to 7ncyclopedia Britannica, -Attitudes are predispositions to classify sets of ob!ects or events and to react to them with some degree of evaluative consistency, while attitudes logically are hypothetical constructs. They are manifested in conscious experience, verbal reports, gross behaviour and psychological symptoms.Analysis of attitude reveals that they have also four dimensions: direction, intensity, extension and duration. 1.2 ;irection of attitude is positive or negative. The intensity of a positive or negative attitude is the degree to which it motivates the person"s behaviour towards the activity component. The extension of an attitude is the degree to which it is generali<ed or the number of cases it covers. The duration of an attitude is a length of time it endures. CREATIVE TEACHING 8reative teaching"s main aim is to develop the creative potential that the students possess. A creative teacher may not do much teaching in conventional sense. An individual works best when he is faced with a challenge and decides to meet it. n such a situation he tries to make use of his abilities and resources to cope up with the challenge. f the teacher is able to arouse the enthuses of the students in challenging task. #e may rightly be considered to be engaged in creative teaching. The teaching is creative which helps in learning problem-solving and

idea-generation skills of those abilities and personality traits that make the students more creative. n creative teaching, principles of learning are applied at every stage of education. 8reative teaching also demands the field trips are arranged to provide opportunities for students to link classroom experiences with real world happenings, to observe factory operations and people associated with them, at work on a real product to know the practical, application of a theoretical concept or principles and together data relating to a problem. 8reative teaching is always constructive. 7fforts are made to ensure the students do not remain passive listeners only. On the other hand, they are encouraged to ac&uire knowledge actively. 4atra!an '()1/, has the following to say on the sub!ect-a creative teacher is one who has a thorough knowledge of sub!ect he teaches and who is able to dispense knowledge and develop skills in the students by the proper integration of ob!ectives, teaching techni&ues and instructional material within the framework of teaching-learning principles. t is method oriented process in which emphasis is not so much on the sub!ect as on how to learn it. n fact principles of learning are applied at every stage of education. 3oshi '()2., observes that in a creative teaching, learning the sub!ect itself is not that important as is learning, how to learn. There is much less emphasis on the fixed syllabus, fixed set of text books and routine system of examination. Teachers engaged in and dedicated to creative teaching encourage students to think of wild ideas and also to &uestion the accuracy of statements made in the text books or reference books. 8reative teaching includes field trips that are arranged to provide opportunities for students to link class-room experience with real world happenings, to know the practical application of a theoretical concept or principle. ;utt and =al '()22,, a creative teacher possess abilities included in creativity syndrome in abundance and make use of them in various teaching-learning situations. 8reative teaching does not involve drill and memorisation, it is not

examination oriented, it does not aim to encourage competition among the students, it does not aim to make everything simple and easy for students, it does not expect students to passively accept everything that is told to them in the class or what is given in text books, it is not restricted by the prescribed syllabus, it does not demand rigid discipline. The creative teacher seeks to re-awaken natural curiosity by reestablishing the right relationship between >student,? >teacher? and the world. Torrance '()2@, become convinced that we could best respect creative needs and same the purposes of creative growth in the classroom by respecting the &uestion that children ask, by respecting the ideas, have value, by encouraging and giving credit for self initiated learning and thinking. t was believed in the past that only artists like painters, poets, musicians etc. are creative persons, where psychological researchers of present times have shown that creativity can demonstrate its pleasant influence in any sphere of human life. A woman furnishing and decorating her house at a low cost, a shopkeeper inventing some novel device to attract maximum number of customers, a teacher continuously trying to protect and develop the creativity of children are all creative beings. 8reative expression is very essential for leading a happy life. n creative teaching all the students are provided opportunities for creative expression. %o that they turned into contented, balanced and happy citi<ens. Torrance collected responses of (*+ students who recalled an incident in which creative teaching has made difference. behaviour. from non-reader to average or superior readers. from vandalism, destructiveness and lack of school

achievement to constructive and improved achievement. from social isolation and re!ection to social acceptance and productive group membership. from bitter, hostile sacarm to kindly, courteous throughout

from apathy and dislike of school to enthusiasm about learning. from lack of self confidence and self expression to ade&uate self confidence and creative expression. from diagnosis of mental retardation to diagnosis of normal or superior mental functioning. The teacher who would encourage creative learning and original work must be

sensitive to individual differences in feeling spirit and capacities. The creative teacher does not encourage "copy cat" procedures. #e encourages originality. $hat to strive for in creative teaching: Creative attitude: The attitude of mind that is sensitive to the possibilities of change is the creative attitude. Creative thought: 8reative learning and teaching get inspiration through creative thinking be contrasted with non-creative or non-critical acceptance of what others think, we must be able to think independently. Creative doi g: 8reative teaching seeks to stimulate in each individual, as to 8reative teaching seeks to foster and to strengthen strengthen in him, the god given inner urge to express himself creative. E !o"#e t through $reatio : of accomplishment. Ada%ta&i'it": t is believed that creative learning helps to make person adaptable to changing re&uirements. Re(our$e)u' e((: 8reative teaching seeks to impart resourcefulness that is needed 8reative learning is a mean of attaining that confidence in in a complex and fast changing world. Co )ide $e a d )aith: 1.* self, in others, and in ultimate achievement of what is best and most worth while. CREATIVE +EARNING 8reative learning process is defined as one of becoming sensitive to or aware of problems, deficiencies, gaps in knowledge, missing elements disharmonies, and so onA bringing together available information, defining the difficulty, formulating hypotheses, searching for solutions testing and retesting these hypotheses and modifying them, perfecting them and finally communicate the results. in learner the driving power of satisfaction and en!oyment that is the natural outgrew

8reative learning process involves the production of information or development of skills that are now to the learner and are to some extent original. Torrance '()/(,- creative learning takes place in the process of sensing difficulties, problems, missing elements, gaps in knowledge, making guesses, formulating hypotheses about these deficiencies, testing hypotheses, possibly revising retesting and communicating results.0noll '()16, -creative learning is a way of thinking, feeling and doing through a process of en&uiry and exploration, a looking for relationships and implications. t is a way of appraising and dealing with new situations on the basis of their uni&ue characteristics and re&uirements.n creative learning, the process of thinking, reasoning and imaging are in the full play in relation to the problems of learning. %ensitivity, open-mindness, curiosity and a daring and positive attitude to the material or activities to be learnt are among the essential elements of creative learning. 8reativity means the production of something new, uni&ue, original not learner could never have ac&uired by anyone else, hence it is created. Besearch in the field of creativity is based on the fact that everybody possesses the possibilities of creative learning and can be deemed to have engaged himself in creative activities in so far he establishes associations and relation between ideas and experiences that have not been previously linked. n this way, creative learning becomes an act of finding one"s identity, leading eventually to one"s recognition, as a uni&ue person. There is now a general recognition that possibilities and potentialities of creative learning can be tried out in the school and still more intensively and extensively in the post school education of the young pupil. There is a close relationship between attitude and creative approach to learn. This approach does not depend only on its ability for creative learning but on appropriate attitude towards it. I di$ator( o) $reative 'ear i g Torrance listed indicators or signs which shows that creative learning is occurring or other classroom situation. These are: A&(or%tio : There is absorbed listening, absorbed watching, absorbed thinking or

absorbed doing, sometimes irritating but searching for the truth. A$hieve#e t: There is feeling of moving forward towards goal, getting thing done. A$$e%ta $e: of individual differences in preferred ways of learning, different in learning rates, faults etc. Ad#i((io : of errors, mistake and failure. A'ert: =istening and observation, intense awareness of the environment. A'o e e(( re(%e$ted: There are times when the best learning can be done outside of the group but with the purpose. A i#atio : There is movement, aliveness a spirit in whatever is done. A a'ogi,i g: There is a play with various kinds of analogies as a way of stating and solving problems. Argu#e t(: ;ifferences are permitted and used to correct mistakes, ideas and finality more creative and productive solutions. Art media are used to develop and elaborate ideas and to give them concertness. Atmosphere is tingling with excitement and communication of ideas. Behaviour problems rare. Bells fre&uently unheard or unnoted. Bodily involvement in writing, speaking, thinking etc. Boldness of ideas, drawings, stories etc. Brain storming possible. Bulletin boards contain pupil"s ideas. Busy hum of activity. 8hange of pace and approaches to learning or problem-solving. 8hallenging of ideas. 8hange in atmosphere. 8hanges in plans to permit one thing to lead to another. 8hecking many sources of information and idea. 8hoice making. 8lose observation possible. 8olourful bold artwork. 8omparisons and contrasts are made for community use. 8olourfur bold artwork.

8ommunication of ideas and feelings. 8omparisons and contrasts are made for community use. 8ombination activities cutting across the curriculum. composing own songs. 8ontinuation of activities, after the bell. 8ontinuity of activities, one thing leading to another. 8uriosity evident in &uestions, experimenting manipulating reading to find out. 1.CREATIVE TEACHING AND +EARNING Csually education is regarded as the art of providing the knowledge of past to each available generation. t is regarded as the process of ac&uisition of knowledge. t is the sum total of all the processes by means of which a person develop abilities, attitudes and other forms of positive values in the society in which he lives. 7ducation seeks to cultivate a cluster of attitudes and abilities. Ability to think clearly and independently is of primary importance. 7ducation helps the pupil in developing appropriate attitudes and abilities which helps in doing something creative in diverse area of life. 7ducation should itself be creative to achieve above said goal. 1.. /TATE0ENT O1 THE PRO2+E0 The problem may be stated as: A 8O9DABAT E7 %TC;F OG ATT TC;7 OG B.7d. A4; 7.T.T. DB7-%7BE 87 1.3 (. 6. *. .. T7A8#7B% TO$AB;% 8B7AT E7 =7AB4 45 A4; T7A8# 45 4 B7=AT O4 TO $7==-B7 45. O24ECTIVE/ The study was conducted keeping the following ob!ectives in view: To compare the attitude towards creative learning and teaching of B.7d. preservice teachers and 7.T.T pre-service teachers. To discover whether attitude towards creative learning and teaching of preservice teachers is gender-biased. To investigate the differences if any in attitude towards creative learning and teaching of pre-service teachers belonging to science and arts group. To discover whether well-being of pre-service teacher effects attitude towards creative learning and teaching.

1.5

/IGNI1ICANCE O1 THE /TUD6 Teachers are the builders of nation. The destiny of the country depends

upon the role played by them. %tudents are endowed with many potentialities, capabilities, abilities and inner powers by the nature. t depends upon the environment which is provided by the society, especially the school, what type of persons they are going to be emerged. Their personality development depends upon the opportunity and learning environment, provided by the school. t is the way of teaching of the teachers i.e. teaching behaviour which determines the learning of the students. n the present age of science and technology, it is important to develop creative potential of the students. $e need divergent thinking which give rise to new discoveries and inventions. $e can not progress with convergent thinking. Dresent study is a humble attempt to see whether way of learning and teaching effects attitude towards creative teaching and learning of pre-service teachers. 1.7 (. 6. DE+I0ITATION O1 THE /TUD6 This study is carried over with the following limitations: 6@@ pre-service teachers were taken from 1 institutes of pre-service teacher education located in 2 districts of Dun!ab. 5ender, Academic discipline and well-being were taken as the classifying variables.

CHAPTER - II

REVIE8 O1 RE+ATED +ITERATURE


Gor any research work, it is important to review previous studies, survey of the related literature is an important pre-re&uisite for actual planning and the execution of any research work. The study of literature relating to the area of which the problem of research belongs, not only helps in its selection but is also of indispensable help in tackling the research problem meaningfully and in the scientifically correct interpretation of findings. Best and 0ahn '()21, reported that all human knowledge could be found in books and libraries unlike other animals that must start a new with each generation, man build upon the accumulated and recorded. %urvey of the related literature e&uips the researcher with ade&uate and upto date information regarding the field in general and problem in particular. t serves as a guide post not only to work done in the field but also to pre-service the gap and lacuna in the related sphere of research. The study of the related research helps the researcher to be sensitive to the problem, practices and need close at hand. Based on this fact, the investigator felt that important to make review of literature related to the present investigation, in respect of well-being, Academic discipline, 5ender and nstitute. A review of the related literature is presented below according to the classifying variables as under: (. 6. *. .. 5ender and attitude towards creative learning and teaching. Academic discipline and attitude towards creative learning and teaching. nstitute and attitude towards creative learning and teaching. $ell-being and attitude towards creative learning and teaching. TEACHING

2.1 GENDER AND ATTITUDE TO8ARD/ CREATIVE +EARNING AND

Torrance '()/+,, Darkash '()//,, Dassi '()2(, and ;hir '()2*, found that boys were significantly superior and more creative than the girls. %harma '()22, also supported these findings and further found that: 9ales were superior in creativity to females. #igh and low creative males were significantly differentiated on intelligent, scholastic achievement scores. 9ishra '()22,, Bawat and Aggarwal '()22, and sharma '()16, also found that male students were significantly superior than female students in creativity. 0aur '()1+, and Bharadwa! '()11, found that there were sex differences in the attitude towards teaching profession. 9ale teacher score significantly higher than female teachers and have favourable attitude towards teaching profession. %harma '()16, conducted a study on -factors related to creativity.- #e found that boys were more creative as compared to girls. 4aik '()11, found that male students were significantly superior to female students in creativity. Bowere and 0anneth '()2(, in their studies conducted that women had higher score on creativity than men. 3arial '()1(, reported that females were higher on creativity than the males. Bedi '()2.,. %ingh '()2+, and Bawat and 5arg '()22, investigated that female students were significantly superior than male students. Dandit '()2/, and %ingh '()21, reported that females were significantly superior to males on fluency, flexibility and originality dimensions of creativity. 8haisrisook '()16, conducted a research on,- A study of the attitude of secondary teachers of Thailand region towards their teaching profession,The ma!or finding was that the female teachers had more favourable attitude than male. Tripathy '()1*,, %om '()1., found that females were higher on creativity than males in their attitude towards teaching. 0aur '()1*,, %undara!an, %ukhival and Donnalagappan '())(,, 0aur '())6, and 0aur '()1/, also supported the above findings and reported that women teachers have more favorable attitude towards teaching than the male teachers.

0rishanan '())/, investigated that male students were significantly superior than male students in creativity. 0umaran '())2, found that teachers of both sexes have high attitudes towards teaching but female had more favorable attitude than male teachers towards teaching profession. Dal '6@@(, found that gender did not determine attitude towards creative learning and teaching. %ingh '()22, and =al '()22, found that gender did not effect high and low creativity among student-teachers. %ingh '()21, also found male and female teachers did not differ significantly in creativity. %harma '()1(, reported that boys and girls did not differ significantly. 5upta and %hamsheri '()1*, and Bhardwa! '()11, investigated that there was no significant difference between the attitude of male and female teachers. 9athur '()11, conducted a study on -Attitude of teachers towards creative learning and teaching.- %he found that teachers have favourable attitude towards creative learning and unfavourable attitude towards creative teaching. 5ender did not effect their attitude. 3anna 0anali, '())), conducted a study on,- Attitude of %econdary grade teachers towards teaching profession- and found that there is no significant difference in attitude of male and female secondary grade teachers towards their profession. Danda '())), in a study entitled, -Attitude towards classroom teaching in relation to educational &ualifications, sex, teaching experience and types of schoolfound that male and female teachers do not differ significantly in their attitude towards classroom teaching.Annamalai, '6@@@, studied, -Attitude of teachers towards teaching- and found that the attitude of the total sample of teachers towards teaching is favourable. 9en and women teachers do not differ in their attitude towards teaching. 0aur '6@@*, studied, H7ffect of training on attitude towards creative learning and creative teaching of pre-service teachers in relation to intelligence.I and

found that the attitude to-wards creative learning and teaching of pre-service teachers are not gender biased. 9ale as well as female pre-service teachers both have same attitude towards creative learning and teaching. 2.2 ACADE0IC DI/CIP+INE AND ATTITUDE TO8ARD/ CREATIVE +EARNING AND TEACHING %rivastva '()21, reported that the science students were superior to arts students as their achievement in creativity is concerned. Awasthy '()2), found that science students were significantly higher than arts students in fluency and flexibility components of creativity. 3arial '()1(, %tudied science students were superior to arts students in non verbal creativity. Bawat and 5arg '()22, found no significant difference in verbal creativity between the groups of arts and science students. %araswat '()2/, studied that there was significant differences between the male and female and the science and arts teachers and the female students were bitter critics of the teacher than the male students. 5upta and shamsheri '()1*, concluded that there is no significant difference of teaching profession of science and arts student-teachers. 9athur '()11, studied that academic discipline did not tend to affect the attitudes of teachers towards creative learning and teaching. 0aur, '())1, and 0aur, '6@@*, found that science and arts pre-service teachers did not significantly differ on the basis of attitude towards creative learning and teaching. 2.* IN/TITUTE AND ATTITUDE TO8ARD/ CREATIVE +EARNING AND TEACHING: 5upta '()1@, conducted a research on ,-A study of !ob satisfaction at three levels of teaching.- the result showed that primary school teachers were significantly less satisfied than secondary school teachers and college teachers. 0aur, '()1*, conducted a study on - A comparative study of primary and secondary teachers towards teaching profession.- %he found that primary teachers have more favourable attitude towards the teaching profession than secondary

teachers. 0aur, '()1+, conducted a study on,- A comparative study of attitude towards teaching profession working in degree colleges and colleges of education.%he found that teachers of colleges of education have favourable attitude towards teaching profession than degree college teachers. ;as '()1/, applied the test developed by torrance and phillips to assess the attitudes of /@ pre-higher secondary, /@ higher secondary and /@ post higher secondary teachers of Agra city towards creative learning and teaching. #e found that Dost-higher secondary teachers have the most favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching. Bhardwa!, '()11, conducted a research work on,- comparative study of attitude of government and non-government high school headmasters and teachers towards teaching profession.- #e found that there is no difference in both institutions towards teaching profession. 0aur '())(, studied the, - A comparative study of !ob satisfaction among government and private college teachers.- 5overnment college teachers were more satisfied than private college teachers. Danda, '())), conducted a study on -Attitude towards classroom teaching in relation to educational &ualifications, sex, teaching experiences and types of schools- and found that non-government school teachers are found to have significantly superior attitude towards classroom teaching in comparison to the government school teachers. Annamalai, '6@@@, conducted a research work on -Attitude of teachers towards teaching.- found that high school and higher school teachers do not differ in their attitude towards teaching. 2.8E++ - 2EING AND ATTITUDE TO8ARD/ CREATIVE +EARNING AND TEACHING Dal, '6@@(, concluded that mental health did not significantly contributed in the prediction of attitude of school teachers, college teachers, male teachers and female teachers towards creative learning and teaching. 0aur '()1), found that a positive correlation between !ob satisfaction

and attitude of teachers of government high schools. Bala '())2, conducted a study on, -A study of !ob-satisfaction of 4avodaya school teachers in relation to attitude towards teaching profession.- %he found that there is a positive correlation between the !ob satisfaction and attitude towards teaching. After going through the literature related with the present research problem, the investigator found that the attitude towards creative learning and teaching is a less explored field. This situation motivated the investigator to conduct research in said field, as creative learning and creative teaching leads to the development of the society in different fields. 2.. (. 6. H6POTHE/E/ There is no significant difference between the attitude towards creative learning and teaching of B.7d. Dre-service teachers and 7.T.T preserves teachers. 'a, B.7d. preservice teachers with low level of wellbeing do not differ significantly from 7.T.T. preservice teachers with average level of well-being towards creative learning and teaching. 'b, B.7d. Dreservice teachers with low level of well-being do not differ significantly from B.7d preservice teachers with high level of well-being in respect of attitude towards creative learning and teaching. 'c, There is no significant difference in attitude towards creative learning and teaching of B.7d. preservice teachers with low level of well-being and 7.T.T. preservice teachers with low level of well-being. 'd, B.7d. Dreservice teachers with low level of well-being do not differ significantly in attitude of creative learning and teaching from 7.T.T. preservice teachers with average level of well-being. 'e, There is no difference in attitude towards creative learning and teaching of B.7d. preservice teachers with low level of well-being from 7.T.T preservice teachers with high level of well-being. 'f, B.7d. preservice teachers having average level of well-being do not differ significantly from high level of well-being B.7d. preservice teachers towards creative learning and teaching.

'g, B.7d. preservice teachers with average level of well-being do not differ significantly from 7.T.T preservice teachers with low level of well-being towards creative learning and teaching. 'h, There is no significant diference between B.7d. preservice teachers with average level of well-being and 7.T.T preservice teachers with average level of well-beinng towards creative learning and teaching. 'i, Dresevice teachers of B.7d. having average level of well-being do not significantly differ from preservice teachers of 7.T.T having low level of wellbeing towards creative learning and teaching. '!, B.7d. preservice teachers with high level of well-being do not differ significantly from 7.T.T. preservice teachers with low level of well-being towards creative learning and teaching. 'k, B.7d. preservice teachers having high level of well-being do not differ significantly from 7.T.T. preservece teachers having average level of wellbeing towards creative learning and teaching. 'l, There is no significant difference in attitude towards creative learning and teaching between B.7d. pre-service teachers with high level of well-beinng and 7.T.T. preservice teachers with high level of well-being. 'm, 7.T.T presesvice teachers with low level of well-being do not differ significantly from 7.T.T pre-service teachers with average level of well-being towards creative learning and teaching. 'n, There is no significant difference between 7.T.T preservice teachers with low level of well-being and 7.T.T preservice teachers with high level of wellbeing towards creative learning and teaching. *. 'a, There is no significant difference between preservice teachers having low level of well-being and preservice teachers having average level of well-being towards creative learning and teaching. 'b, Dreservice teachers with average level of well-being do not differ significantly in attitude towards creative learning and teaching from preservice teachers with high level of well-being. 'c, Dreservice teachers with low level of well J being do not differ significantly

from preservice teachers with high level of well J being towards creative learning and teaching. . 'a, 9ale B.7d. pre-service teachers do not differ significantly from female B.7d. pre-service teachers in respect of attitude towards creative learning and teaching. 'b, 9ale B.7d. pre-service teachers do not differ significantly from male 7.T.T. pre-service teachers towards creative learning and teaching. 'c, There is no significant difference between male B.7d. per service teachers from female 7.T.T pre-service teachers towards creative learning and teaching. 'd, Gemale B.7d pre-service teachers do not differ significantly from male 7.T.T pre-service teachers towards creative learning and teaching. 'e, There is no significant difference between female B.7d. pre-service teachers and female 7.T.T. pre-service teachers w.r.t their attitude towards creative learning and teaching. 'f, 9ale 7.T.T. pre service teachers do not significantly differ between attitude towards creative learning and teaching from female 7.T.T. pre service teachers. + 'a, There is no significant difference between B.7d. pre-service teachers of science group and B.7d. preservice teachers of arts group towards creative learning and teaching. 'b, B.7d. pre-service teachers of science group do not differ signigicantly from 7.T.T. pre-service teachers of science group in attitude towards creative learning and teaching. 'c, There is no significant difference between B.7d. science pre-service teachers from 7.T.T. pre-service teachers having arts towards creative learning and teaching. 'd, B.7d. pre-service teachers of arts group do not differ significantly from 7.T.T. pre-service teachers of science group towards creative learning and teaching. 'e, There is no significant difference in attitude towards creative learning and teaching between B.7d. pre-service teachers of arts group and 7.T.T. pre-service teachers of arts group.

'f, 7.T.T. pre-service teachers of science group do not differ significantly from 7.T.T pre-service teachers of arts group towards creative learning and teaching. CHAPTER 9 III

0ETHOD AND PROCEDURE


After selecting, stating the problem and reviewing the related literature, the taste which the research worker has to decide about the method, procedure and techni&ues to be used for collection data needed for investigation. 9ethodology makes of the most important contribution towards the environment of any study. n a research there are numerous methods and procedure to be applied. . 5enerally more than one method is used when one conducts research in education. The selection of method or methods depends upon data necessary for it?s solution. The successful completion of a research problem upon the therefore, data collected must be relevant and collected from all available sources. *.1 VARIA2+E/ De%e de t varia&'e Attitude towards creative teaching and learning in present study independent variable . I de%e de t varia&'e nstitute, 5ender, Academic discipline and well-being are independent variables or classifying variable in this investigation. *.2 0ETHOD ;escriptive method of research is employed in the present study. *.* /A0P+E 9ultistage randomi<ation techni&ue of sampling was used to raise the sample for the study. At first stage, four colleges of education and e&ual numbers of ; 7T% were selected randomly from the state of Dun!ab. A second stage of sampling, 6+ pre-service teachers were randomly taken from each institute. %ample was balanced on the basis of gender and teaching sub!ects.

1ig. *.1

The &rea: u% o) (a#%'e ge der ;i(e a d A$ade#i$ di($i%'i e i( give &e'o;: 2<< Pre-/ervi$e Tea$her(

B.7d. Dre-%ervice Teachers'(@@,

7.TT. Dre-%ervice Teachers '(@@,

9ale '+@,

Gemale '+@,

9ale '+@,

Gemale '+@,

%cience Arts (@ .@ *.'i, 'ii, 1.

%cience Arts () *(

%cience Arts %cience Arts 6@ *@ 6( 6)

TOO+/ U/ED HOpinion on creative learning and teachingI %cale developed by 7.D. Torrance and Dhillips '()26,. D5 5eneral well-being scale by Eerma and Eerma '()1),. O%i io ( o $reative tea$hi g a d 'ear i g HOpinion an creative learning and teachingI developed by 7. Daul

*.-.1 DE/CRIPTION O1 TOO+/

Torrance and Dhillips '()26, ;epartment of 7ducational Dsychology, Cniversity of 5eorgia 'C%A, was used to measure the attitude of teachers towards creative learning and teaching. The above stated scale contains only +@ items, 6+ items on creative learning and 6+ on creative teaching. tems numbers 6, ., 2, ), (6, (*, (+, (2, 6@, 66, 6+, 6/, 61, *@, *6, **, *+, *2, *1, *), .@, .*, .+, .2 and .) are pertaining to creative learning and item numbers (, *, +, /, 1, (@, ((, (., (/, (1, (), 6(, 6*, 6., 62, 6), *(, *., */, .(, .6, .., ./, .1 and +@ are concerning to creative teaching.

This booklet contains +@ fairly common statements concerning creative learning and teaching. Bespondents indicate their reactions to each statement by ticking ', using the following key. (. 6. *. .. +. %trongly Agree Agree Cndecided ;isagree %trongly ;isagree 7ach item was scored with the help of scoring key prepared by the author on five point scale on the basis of the strength of the response from strongly agree with five '+, score for positive items and one '(, for negative items to strongly disagree. The items favouring and unfavouring promotions of creativity were respectively considered as positive and negative. 2. 8e''-&ei g /$a'e =Ver#a> 1?7?@ t may be defined as the sub!ective feeling of contentment, happiness and of one?s role in the world of work, sense of achievement utility, belongingness, and no distress, dissatisfaction or worry etc. These things are difficult to evaluate ob!ectively. #owever, the emphasis on the term H%ub!ective well-beingI $as laid. t may well be maintained in adverse circumstances and conversely may be last in favourable situation. Thus, defined and conceptuali<ed the general well-being may show some degree of positive correlation with &uality of life, 3ob-%atisfaction general %atisfaction level, sense of achievement etc. and negatively related with neurtroticism, Dsychoticism and other such variables. This scale was considered to be useful in a variety of research and applied setting such as a &uality of life index, a mental health status appraised, a measure of psychotherapy, out-come evaluation and a social indicator of measuring population changes in sense of well-being over time. 'Ga<io, ()22,. Re'ia&i'it" o) the /$a'e t was found to be @.)1 'pK.@(, 5upta '()1*,. t correlates 'i, positive L

/$ori g

@.+* 'ii, negative %core-@.(+. 'iii, modified score L @.+/ with Bradburn well-being %cale 'Eerma, ()1),. *.. PROCEDURE Opinion on creative learning and teaching and well-being scale was given to 6@@ pre-service teachers taken in the sample. nformation regarding institute, gender and teaching sub!ects is also taken from the teachers. *.3 OPERATIONA+ DE1INITION/ /$ie $e Pre-/ervi$e tea$her( Dre-service teachers having teaching sub!ect as science and mathematics were taken in science group. Art( Pre-/ervi$e tea$her( Dre-%ervice teachers having teaching sub!ect as social studies and language were taken in arts group. +o; ;e''-&ei g %re-(ervi$e tea$her( Dre-%ervice teachers were arranged according to their score on wellbeing scale. =ower 62M teachers of the %ample were called low well-being preservice teachers. High ;e''-&ei g %re-(ervi$e tea$her( Dre-%ervice teachers were arranged according to their score on wellbeing scale. Cpper 62M teachers are called high well-being pre-service teachers. Average ;e''-&ei g %re-(ervi$e tea$her( Bemaining teachers are called average well-being pre-service teachers. *.5 (. /TATI/TICA+ ANA+6/I/ ;escriptive %tatistics %uch as mean, median, mode, %.;A %kewness, 0urtosis will be calculated to provide description of the sample. fre&uency polygon will also be drawn. 6. To find the significance between different mean scores, t-test will be employed.

CHAPTER 9 IV

ANA+6/I/ O1 DATA INTERPRETATION AND DI/CU//ION O1 RE/U+T/


-.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter deals with the analysis, interpretation of data and discussion of results of the problem involving the relationship between the variables. An attempt has been made to link the outcomes of the analysis of data to the hypotheses so as to arrive at meaningful conclusion. -.2 /CHE0ATIC PRE/ENTATION O1 THE RE/U+T/ The hypotheses were tested separately using means, %.;. and t-ratios. The schematic presentation of the results in this chapter deals with the nature of the variables. -.* DE/CRIPTIVE ANA+6/I/ ;escriptive analysis was carried out to assess the nature of variables and their distribution along the normality curve. To !ustify whether the condition of basic assumptions implicit in some of the statistical techni&ues employed. The description of scores in respect of pre-service teachers '4N6@@, is presented in the Table ..@. 9ean, median, mode, %.;., skewness and kurtosis were worked out to ascertain the nature of distribution of the scores on the attitude towards creative learning and teaching.
Varia&'e Attitude towards creative learning and teaching N 6@@ 0ea (.2.*2 0edia (.2.6* 0ode (./.)+ /D (6.* /:e;( e(( /: -@.*. Aurto(i( Au @.6+1

Table ..@

9ean 'O,, 9edian '9d,, 9ode '9O,, %tandard

;eviation '%;,, %kewness 'sk, and 0urtosis 'ku, of pre-service teachers in respect of attitude towards creative learning and teaching.

-.*.1 Di($u((io &a(ed o #ea > #edia a d #ode The values of mean, median and mode for the variable of attitude towards creative learning and teaching are (.2.*2, (.2.6* and (./.)+ respectively. 'Table ..@,. All the three values approximately coincide therefore, the distribution may be taken as nearly as normal. -.*.2 Di($u((io &a(ed o (:e; e(( Table ..@ represents the value of skewness of attitude towards creative learning and teaching. The value of skewness '%0, is J@.*. in case of attitude towards creative learning and teaching. This value is within the acceptable limits of normality. This distribution is negatively skewed. -.*.* Di($u((io &a(ed o Aurto(i( The value of kurtosis '0C, in respect of attitude towards creative learning and teaching is @.6+1 'Table ..@,. t indicates that the distribution is leptokurtic. f the value of 0u is greater than @.6/*, then the distribution is said to be platykurtic and if the value of 0u is less than @.6/* then distribution is called leptokurtic. '5arrett, ()2*,.
Fig. No. 4.0 Frequency polygon of score of attitude towards creative learning and teaching.
40 No. of preservice teachers (Frequency) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
112.5 117.5 122.5 127.5 132.5 137.5 142.5 147.5 152.5 157.5 162.5 167.5 172.5 177.5 182.5 187.5

(Mid values )

Attitude towards creative learning and teaching

This figure ..@ also supports our above discussion about the distribution of the scores of attitude towards creative learning and teaching of the total sample.

-.-

DI11ERENTIA+ ANA+6/I/ n this section efforts have been made to compare the attitude towards

creative learning and teaching of B.7d. and 7T.T. pre-service teachers, male and female pre-service teachers and science P maths and social studies teachers. The hypotheses were tested with the help of t-ratios. -.-.1 IN/TITUTE AND ATTITUDE TO8ARD/ CREATIVE +EARNING AND TEACHING 1ig. -.1 Diagra##ati$ re%re(e tatio o) t-ratio A =I (titute@ Pre-/ervi$e tea$her( =N B 2<<@ pre-services

A1 2.Ed. Pre (ervi$e tea$her( =N B 1<<@ Ta&'e -.1

A2 E.T.T. Pre-(ervi$e tea$her( =NB1<<@

0ea > /D/ a d t- va'ue )or the #ea(ure o) attitude to;ard( $reative 'ear i g a d tea$hi g o) %re-(ervi$e tea$her(. /.D. ((.(+ (6.*( /.ED. @..1 t-ratio ).@/QQ

Co#. C A( (.1.2* A6 (...2* D %ignificant at @.+ level QQ %ignificant at @.@( level

-.-.1 Di($u((io &a(ed o $o#%ari(o &et;ee 2.Ed %re-(ervi$e tea$her( a d E.T.T. %re-(ervi$e tea$her( o the &a(i( o) tota' ($ore( o) attitude to;ard( $reative 'ear i g a d tea$hi g The mean values of attitudes of creative learning and teaching of preservice teachers are (.1.21 and (...2* respectively. significant at @.@( level. service teachers. t indicates that B.7d. The t J values of attitude pre-service teachers differ towards creative learning and teaching of pre-service teachers is ').@/, which is significantly in attitude towards creative learning and teaching from 7.T.T. pre-

Therefore, hypothesis ' , Hthere is no significant difference between the attitude of creative learning and teaching and 7.T.T. pre-service teachersI is not accepted. The mean value shows that B.7d. pre-service teachers have high attitude towards creative learning and teaching than 7.T.T. pre-service teachers. -.-.2 IN/TITUTE AND +EVE+/ O1 8E++-2EING AND ATTITUDE TO8ARD/ CREATIVE +EARNING AND TEACHING

1ig. -.2

Diagra##ati$ re%re(e tatio o) t-ratio I (titute =A@ a d 'eve'( o) ;e'' 9 &ei g =2@. Pre-(ervi$e tea$her( =N B 2<<@

A( B.7d. Dre service teachers '4 N (@@,

A6 7.T.T. Dre-service teachers '4N(@@,

B( =ow well J being '*+,

B6 Average well-being '.),

B* #igh wellbeing '(/,

B( =ow well J being '62,

B6 Average $ell being '.1,

B* #igh wellbeing '6+,

Ta&'e -.2

0ea > /D a d t-va'ue )or the #ea(ure o) attitude o) 2.Ed. a d

E.T.T. %re-(ervi$e tea$her( to;ard( $reative 'ear i g a d tea$hi g o the &a(i( o) ;e'' 9 &ei g. /.No. Co#. A(B( A(B6 6. A(B( A(B* *. A(B( A6B( .. A(B( A6B6 +. A(B( A6B* /. A(B6 A(B* 2. A(B6 A6B( 1. A(B6 A6B6 ). A(B6 A6B* (@. A(B* A6B( ((. A(B* A6B6 (6. A(B* A6B* (*. A6B( A6B6 (.. A6B( A6B* (+. A6B6 A6B* D %ignificant at @.+ level QQ %ignificant at @.@(level -.-.2 Di($u((io &a(ed o $o#%ari(o &et;ee attitude o) 2.Ed. a d E.T.T. %re(ervi$e tea$her( o the &a(i( o) ;e'' 9 &ei g. (. Table ..6 shows that there are no significant difference between attitude towards creative learning and teaching of B.7d. pre-service teachers with low (. C (.1.1* (.1.+2 (.1.1* (.).*( (.1.1* (./.(( (.1.1* (.6.(@ (.1.1* (.2.@1 (.1.+2 (.).*( (.1.+2 (./.(( (.1.+2 (.6.(@ (.1.+2 (.2.@1 (.).*( (./.(( (.).*( (.6.(@ (.).*( (.2.@1 (./.(( (.6.(@ (./.(( (.2.@1 (.6.(@ (.2.@1 /.D. (@.2* ((.2* (@.2* (@.6( (@.2* (*.1) (@.2* ((..@ (@.2* ((.*( ((.2* (@.6( ((.2* (*.1) ((.2* ((..@ ((.2* ((.*( (@.6( (*.1) (@.6( ((.*( (@.6( ((.*( (*.1) ((..@ (*.1) ((.*( ((..@ ((.*( /.ED. @.2. @.)2 @.)( @.2. @.12 @.). @.12 @./) @.1* (.@2 @.). (.@. @.12 @.)1 @.1* t-ratio @.*+ @..) 6.))QQ ).@)QQ 6.@(Q @.2) 6.1*QQ ).*2QQ (.2) 6.))QQ 2./2QQ 6.(.Q ../(QQ @.)) /QQ

level of well J being and average level of well Jbeing B. 7d. Dre J service teachers with low level of well - being and high level of well J being of well J being and high level of well being, B.7d. pre-service teachers with average level of well - being and high level of well-being, B.7d. Dre-service teachers with average level of well J being and 7.T.T. pre-service teachers with high level of well-being, 7.T.T. pre-service teachers with low level of well being and high level of well being. #ence the hypotheses 6'a, , 6'b, 6'f,, 6'i,, 6'n, are accepted. 6. Table ..6 shows there are significant differences in attitude towards creative learning and teaching between B.7d. pre-service teachers with low level of well being and 7.T.T. pre-service teachers with low level of well J being, B.7d. Dre J service teachers with low level of well J being and 7.T.T. pre J service teachers with average level of well- being, B.7d. pre J service teachers with low level of well J being and 7.T.T. pre J service teachers with high level of well being, B.7d. pre-service teachers with average level of well J being and 7.T.T. pre-service teachers with low level of well - being, B.7d. pre J service teachers with average level of well-being and 7.T.T. pre-service teachers with average level of well- being, B.7d. pre-service teachers with high level of well-being and 7.T.T. pre-service teachers with low level of wellbeing, B.7d. pre-service teachers with high level of well-being and 7.T.T. preservice teachers with average level of well-being, B.7d. Dre-service teachers with high level of well J being and 7.T.T. pre service teachers with high level of well J being, 7.T.T. pre-service teachers with low level of well J being and average level of well being, 7.T.T. pre J service teachers with average level of well - being and high level of well J being. #ence the hypotheses 6'c,, 6'd,, 6'e, , 6'g,, 6'h,, 6'!,, 6'k,, 6'l,, 6'm,, 6'o, are not accepted. *. i, By comparing the mean score of pairs given in table ..6 conclusions are drawn : B.7d. pre-service teachers with low level of well J being have more favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching than B.7d.pre-service teachers with average level of well J being, 7.T.T. pre-service teachers with low level the following

of well being, average and high levels of well being. ii, B.7d. pre-service teachers with average level of well J being have more favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching than 7.T.T. preservice teachers with low,average and high level of well J being. iii, B.7d. pre-service teachers having high level of well J being are more favourable in attitude towards creative learning and teaching than 7.T.T. preservice teachers with low, average and high level of well J being. iv, 7.T.T. pre-service teachers having low level of well-being have more favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching from 7.T.T. preservice with average level of well-being. v, 7.T.T. pre-service teachers with high level of well J being have more favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching from 7.T.T. teachers with average level of well J being. -.-.* +EVE+/ O1 8E++ 92EING AND ATTITUDE TO8ARD/ CREATIVE +EARNING AND TEACHING 1ig. -.* Diagra##ati$ re%re(e tatio o) t-ratio 'eve'( o) ;e''-&ei g =2@ Dre-service teachers '4N6@@,

B( '/6, =ow well J being Ta&'e -.* /.No. (.

B6 ')2, Average well J being

B* '.(, #igh well J being

0ea > /D a d t-va'ue )or the #ea(ure o) attitude to;ard( $reative C (.2./+ (.+.*2 (.+.*2 (.2.)+ (.2./+ (.2.)+ /.D. (6.61 (6.@( (6.@( (@.)+ (6.61 (@.)+ /.ED. @.+/ @./6 @./1 t-ratio ..@2QQ ..(/QQ @...

'ear i g a d tea$hi g o the &a(i( o) ;e'' 9 &ei g. Co#. B( B6 6. B6 B* *. B( B* Q %ignificant at @.+ level QQ %ignificant at @.@( level

-.-.* DI/CU//ION 2A/ED ON CO0PARI/ON 2ET8EEN +O8 8E++2EING> AVERAGE 8E++-2EING AND HIGH 8E++-2EING PRE/ERVICE TEACHER/. (. Table ..* shows that there is no significant difference in attitude towards creative learning and teaching between pre- service teachers with low level of well being and pre-service teachers with high level of well-being. %o, the hypothesis *'c, is accepted. 6. Table ..* shows there are significant difference in attitude towards creative learning and teaching of pre-service teachers with low level of well-being and average level of well-being, pre service teacher with average level of well-being and high level of well-being. %o, the hypothesis *'a,, *'b, are not accepted. *. a, b, By comparing the mean scares of pairs given in the table ..* following conclusion are drawn. Dre-service teacher with low level of well-being are more favourable in attitude towards creative learning and teaching than average level of well-being. Dre-service teachers with high level of well-being more favourable in attitude towards creative learning and teaching than average level of well-being. -.-.- IN/TITUTE> GENDER AND ATTITUDE TO8ARD/ CREATIVE +EARNING AND TEACHING: 1ig -.-. Diagra##ati$ re%re(e tatio o) t-ratio i (titute =A@ a d ge der =$@. Dre-%ervice Teachers '4N6@@,

A( 'B.7d. Dre%ervice teachers,

'4N(@@,

A6 '7.T.T Dre%ervice teachers,

'4N(@@,

9ale 8( '+@,

Gemale 86 '+@,

9ale 8( '+@,

Gemale 86 '+@,

Ta&'e -.-

0EAN1 /.D AND t-VA+UE 1OR THE 0EA/URE O1 ATTITUDE TO8ARD/ CREATIVE +EARNING AND TEACHING O1 0A+E AND 1E0A+E TEACHER. Co# A( 8 ( A( 8 6 A( 8 ( A6 8 ( A( 8 ( A6 8 6 A( 8 6 A6 8 ( C (.+.16 (+(.2. (.+.16 (...+ (.+.16 (...*/ (+(.2. (...+ (+(.2. (...*/ (...+ /.D. ).*1 ((.)2 ).*1 (@.21 ).*1 (*./2 ((.)2 (@.21 ((.)2 (*./2 (@.21 (*./2 /.ED. @.// @./. @./1 @./1 @.2( @.2@ T-ratio 1.)2QQ 6.@/Q 6.(+Q (@./+QQ (@.*)QQ @.6

(. 6. *. ..

+. A( 86 A6 8 6 /. A6 8(

A6 8 6 (...*/ Q %ignificant at @.+ level QQ %ignificant at @.@( level

-.-.- DI/CU//ION 2A/ED ON CO0PARI/ON 2ET8EEN 0A+E AND 1E0A+E PRE-/ERVICE TEACHER (. Table ... shows that there is no significant difference between attitude towards creative learning and teaching between male 7.T.T. pre-service teachers and female pre-service teachers. #ence hypothesis .'f, is accepted. 6. Grom the above table, there is significant difference between 9ale B.7d. preservice teachers and female B.7d. pre-service teachers, 9ale 7.T.T. pre-service teachers 9ale B.7d. pre-service teachers and female 7.T.T. pre-service teachers, female B.7d. pre-service teachers and male 7.T.T. pre-service teachers, female B.7d. pre-service teachers and 7.T.T. female pre-service teachers. #ence hypotheses .'a,, .'b,, .'c,, .'d,, .'e, are not accepted. *. i, By 8omparing the mean scores of pairs given in the table ... following conclusions are drawn. 9ale B.7d pre-service teachers have more favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching than male and female 7.T.T. pre-service teachers.

ii,

The mean score indicate that female B.7d. pre-service teachers are more favourable in attitude towards creative learning and teaching from male and female 7.T.T. pre-service teachers.

iii,

Gemale B.7d. pre-service teachers have more favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching than male B.7d. pre-service teachers..

-.-.. IN/TITUTE> ACADE0IC DI/CIP+INE AND ATTITUE TO8ARD/ CREATIVE +EARNING AND TEACHING 1ig.-.. DIAGRA00ATIC REPRE/ENTATION O1 t-RATIO>

IN/TITUTE =A@ AND ACADE0IC DI/CIP+INE =D@. Pre-/ervi$e Tea$her( =NB2<<@

A( 'B.7d. Dre%ervice teachers,

'4N(@@,

A6 '7.T.T Dre%ervice teachers,

'4N(@@,

;( %cience '62,

;6 Arts '2*,

;( %cience '.*,

;6 Arts '+2,

Ta&'e -..

0EAN> /D AND t-VA+UE 1OR THE 0EA/URE O1 ATTITUDE TO8ARD/ CREATIVE +EARNING AND TEACHING ON THE

2A/I/ O1 ACADE0IC DI/CIP+INE Co# (. A( ; ( A( ; 6 6. A( ; ( A6 ; ( *. A( ; ( A6 ; 6 .. A( ; 6 A6 ; ( +. A( ; 6 A6 ; 6 /. A6 ; ( A6 ; 6 Q %ignificant at @.+ level QQ %ignificant at @.@( level. C (+@.@* (.1.*6 (+@.@* (...*@ (+@.@* (...+* (.1.*6 (...*@ (.1.*6 (...+* (...*@ (...+* /.D. (*.6( (@.6+ (*.6@ (6.2( (*.6( (6.@( (@.6+ (6.2( (@.6+ (6.@( (6.2( (6.@( /.ED. @.2) @.11 @.1. @.// @.+) @.2( T-ratio 6.(/Q /.+(QQ /.++QQ /.@)QQ /..6QQ @.*6

-.-.. DI/CU//ION 2A/ED ON CO0PARI/ON 2ET8EEN /CIENCE PRE/ERVICE TEACHER/ AND ART/ PRE-/ERVICE TEACHER/ (. Table ..+ indicate that there is no significant difference in attitude towards creative learning and teaching between 7TT. %cience pre-service teachers and 7.T.T arts pre-service teachers. #ence +'f, hypothesis is accepted. 6. Table ..+ depicts significantly differ in attitude towards creative learning and teaching of B.7d pre-service teachers of science group from B.7d pre-service teachers of arts group( 7.T.T pre-service teachers of science group and 7.T.T. pre-service teachers of arts group. Table ..+ shows difference in teaching towards creative learning and teaching between Arts B.7d pre-service teachers from 7.T.T. pre-service teachers of science group and arts group. #ence hypothesis +'a,, +'b,, +'c,, +'d,, +'e, are not accepted. *. i, By comparing the mean score of pairs given in the table ..+ following conclusions have bean drawn:B.7d pre-service teachers of science group have more favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching than B.7d pre-service teachers of arts group, 7.T.T. pre-service teachers of science and arts group. ii, B.7d. pre-service teachers of arts group have more favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching from 7.T.T pre-service teachers of science group

and arts group. -.. (. 6. CONC+U/ION B.7d. pre-service teachers have more favourale attitude towards creative learning and teaching than 7.T.T. pre-service teachers. B.7d. pre-service teachers with low level of well- being are more favourable in attitude towards creative learning *. and teaching than 7.T.T. pre service teachers with low, average and high level of well J being. B.7d. pre service teachers with average level of well being have favourable in attitude towards .. creative learning and teaching from 7.T.T. pre-service teachers with low and average level of well being. B.7d. pre J service teachers with high level of well being are favourable than 7.T.T. pre-service teachers with low, average and high level of well-being in attitude towards creative learning and teaching. +. 7.T.T. pre-service teachers with high level of well-being are more favourable in attitude towards creative learning and teaching than 7.T.T. pre J service teachers with average level of well-being. /. =ow level of well-being pre-service teachers are favourable in attitude towards creative learning and teaching than average level of well-being pre-service teachers. 2. Dre-service teachers with high level of well-being are favourable in attitude towards creative learning and teaching from pre-service teachers with average levels of well-being. 1. 9ale B.7d. pre-service teachers have favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching than male 7.T.T. pre-service teachers and female 7.T.T. pre-service teachers. ). Gemale B.7d. Dre-service teachers are more favourable in attitude towards creative than male B.7d. pre-service teachers and male and female 7.T.T. pre service teachers. (@. %cience B.7d. pre-service teachers have more favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching than science B.7d. pre-service teachers, 7.T.T. pre-service teachers of science group and Arts group.

((.

Arts B.7d. pre Jservice teachers have more favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching than 7.T.T. pre J service teachers of science and arts group.

(6.

7.T.T. pre-service teachers having science have more favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching than arts 7.T.T. pre J service teachers.

CHAPTER 9 V

/U00AR6

..1

INTRODUCTION The importance of attitude in human life is universally recogni<ed. Our

attitude determine our favouable or unfavourable reactions to environmental %timuli to which we are exposed. Attitudes are simply expressions of how much we like or dislike various things. By knowing the attitude of a person, we come to know what in life is significant for him and what is not. Attitude determines the actions of human being. Our attitude is based on information. $e can never know all information available on any particular attitude ob!ects. Our attitude are always open to revision. Allport '()*+, defined attitude as a Hmental or neural state of readiness, organi<ed through experiences, experting directive or dynamic influence upon the individual?s response to all the ob!ects with which it is related.I 0ertch and 8rutchfied '()1., of motivational, emotional, perceptual and cognitive processes with respect of some aspect of individual?s world. n our institutions of formal education, students are exposed to such sub!ect matter and methods of teaching which do not develop logic, reasoning reflective and divergent thinking, they encourages rote memory. Teaching is one field where creativity is %adly missing though greatly re&uired. t we desire the teaching should lead to real growth and development, we should make teaching creative. 8reative teaching is that which provides environment for self- learning original, flexible and fre&uent thinking. t is always constructive. t includes the teachers new idea, for self evaluation, self-reliance new opinions, new experimentation and teacher?s willings to advance new ideas which are based to creativeness. 8reative teaching stems from being dissatisfied procedures, form the feeling that perfection is something never attained but constantly sought from having new ideas and from willing to try the new ideas and evaluate the results obtained. 8reativeness is infact a constant state of experimentation. Teaching '%truck, ()+/, is creative if it arouses a Real for learning. A creative teacher possesses &ualities like originality, curiosity, %ensitivity to &uestion and power of imagination. #e tries to promote these &ualities in other individuals. 8reative teaching produce creative learning. 8reative learning

process is defined as one of becoming sensitive to or aware of problems, deficiencies, gap in knowledge, missing elements, disharmonies and so onA bringing together available information, defining the difficulties or identifying the missing elementsA searching for solutions, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses and modifying and retesting themA perfecting them and finally communicating the results. Attitude towards creative learning and creative teaching depends upon the information regarding these variables and way to thinking we are trained for. $e can change attitude towards creative learning and teaching by exposing the individual to his process. According to knoll '()16, Hcreative learning is a way of thinking, feeling and doing through a process of en&uiry and explorations, a looking for relationships and implications. t is a way of appraising and dealing with new situation on the basis of their uni&ue characteristics and re&uirements. Torrance '()26, and 9ehdi '()2+, found that there was significant change in attitude of participants towards creative learning and teaching %ingh '()1+, found unfavourable and indifferent attitude respectively towards creative learning and teaching. Dal, '6@@(,, 0aur, '()/1,, 3anna 0avali, '())),, Danda, '())), Annamalai, '6@@@, found that there was no significant difference between attitude towards creative learning and teaching of male pre-service teachers and female pre-service teachers. 5upta, %hamsheri '()1*, and 9athur '()11, found that academic discipline did not tend to affect the attitude of teachers towards creative learning and teaching. Ba!agopalan, '()11, and Brar '()12, found that there was no significant relationship between intelligence and creativity. 0umari, '()2+, found that there was no significant relationship between intelligence and creativity. ..2 /TATE0ENT O1 THE PRO2+E0 -A 8O9DABAT E7 %TC;F OG ATT TC;7 OG B.7;. A4; 7.T.T. DB7%7BE 87 T7A8#7B% TO$AB;% 8B7AT E7 =7AB4 45 A4; T7A8# 45 4 B7=AT O4 TO $7==-B7 45...* O24ECTIVE/

The study will be conducted keeping the following ob!ective in view: (. 6. *. .. ..(. To compare the attitude towards creative learning and teaching of B.7d. pre-service teachers and 7.T.T. pre-service teachers. To discover whether attitude towards creative learning and teaching of pre-service teachers is gender Jbiased. To investigate the differences if any in attitude towards creative learning and teaching of pre-service teachers belonging to science and arts group. To discover whether well-being of pre-service teacher effects attitude towards creative learning and teaching. H6POTHE/E/ The study will be conducted to test the following hypotheses: B.7d. pre-service teachers and 7.T.T pre-service teachers do not differ significantly with regard to their attitude towards creative learning and teaching. 6. *. .. ... ..3 There is no significant difference between the attitude of male and female preservice teachers towards creative learning and teaching. There is no significant difference in attitude towards creative learning and teaching of pre-service teachers belonging to different levels of well-being. Teachers belonging to arts and science groups do not differ significantly with respect to their attitude towards creative learning and teaching. DE/IGN ;escriptive method of research is employed in the present study. /A0P+E 9ultistage randomi<ation techni&ue of %ampling was used to raise the sample for the study. At first stage, four 8olleges of 7ducation and e&ual number if ; 7Ts were selected randomly from the state of Dun!ab. At second stage of sampling, 6+ pre-service teachers were randomly taken from each institute. %ample is balanced on the basis of gender and teaching sub!ects. ..5 (. TOO+/ U/ED -Opinion on creative learning and teaching.- scale developed by 7.D.

Torrance and Dhillips '()26,. 6. ..7 D5 general well- being scale by Eerma and Eerma '()1),. PROCEDURE Opinion on creative learning and teaching and well-being scale was given to 6@@ pre-service teachers taken in the sample. nformation regarding institute, gender and teaching sub!ects was also taken from the teachers. ..? OPERATIONA+ DE1INITION/ /$ie $e %re-(ervi$e tea$her(: Art( %re-(ervi$e tea$her(: Dre-service teachers who have Dre-service teachers who have

sciencePmaths as teaching %ub!ects are called %cience pre-service teachers. s.stPlanguage as teaching sub!ects are called Arts pre-service teachers. +o; ;e''-&ei g tea$her(: =ower 62M teachers are called low wellbeing teachers. High ;e''-&ei g tea$her(: Cpper 62M teachers are called high wellbeing teachers. Average ;e''-&ei g tea$her(: average well-being teachers. ..1< (. /TATI/TICA+ ANA+6/I/ ;escriptive statistics such as mean, median, mode, %.;., %kewness, 0urtosis are calculated to provide description of the sample. Gre&uency polygon is also drawn. 6.
0ea (.2.*2

The remaining teachers were called

To find the significance between mean scores, t-test are employed. Ta&'e ..1 De($ri%tive (tati(ti$( o) (a#%'e
0edia (.2.6* 0ode (./.)+ /.D. (6.* /:e; e(( -@.*. Aurto(i( @.6+1 N 6@@

Ta&'e ..2

0ea > /D( a d t-va'ue )or the #ea(ure o) attitude to;ard( $reative 'ear i g a d tea$hi g o) %re-(ervi$e tea$her(.

Co# A( A6 Ta&'e ..*

C (.1.2* (....*

A ((.(+ (6.*(

/.ED. @..1

t-ratio ).@/QQ

0ea > /D( a d t-va'ue )or the #ea(ure o) attitude o) 2.Ed. a d E.T.T. %re-(ervi$e tea$her( to;ard( $reative 'ear i g a d tea$hi g o the &a(i( o) the 'eve'( o) ;e''-&ei g a d I (titute.

Co# A( B ( A( B 6 A(B( A( B* A(B( A6B( A(B( A6B6 A( B ( A6 B * A( B 6 A( B * A( B 6 A6 B ( A( B 6 A6 B 6 A( B 6 A6 B * A( B * A6 B ( A( B * A6 B 6 A( B * A6 B * A6 B ( A6 B 6 A6 B ( A6 B * A6 B 6 A6 B *

C (.1.1* (.1.+2 (.1.1* (.).*( (.1.1* (./.(( (.1.1* (.6.(@ (.1.1* (.2.@1 (.1.+2 (.).*( (.1.+2 (./.(( (.1.+2 (.6.(@ (.1.+2 (.2.@1 (.).*( (./.(( (.).*( (.6.(@ (.).*( (.2.@1 (./.(( (.6.(@ (./.(( (.2.@1 (.6.(@ (.2.@1

/.D. (@.2* ((.2* (@.2* (@.6( (@.2* (*.1) (@.2* ((..@ (@.2* ((.*( ((.2* (@.6( ((.2* (*.1) ((.2* ((..@ ((.2* ((.*( (@.6( (*.1) (@.6( ((..@ (@.6( ((.*( (*.1) ((..@ (*.1) ((.*( ((..@ ((.*(

/.ED. @.2. @.)2 @.)( @.2. @.12 @.). @.12 @./) @.1* (.@2 @.). (.@. @.12 @.)1 @.1*

t-ratio @.*+ @..) 6.))QQ ).@)QQ 6.@(Q @.2) 6.1*QQ ).*2QQ (.2) 6.))QQ 2./2QQ 6.(.Q ../(QQ @.)) /QQ

Ta&'e ..-

0ea > /D a d t-va'ue )or the #ea(ure o) attitude to;ard( $reative

'ear i g a d tea$hi g o the &a(i( o) 'eve'( o) ;e'' &ei g. Co# B( B6 B6 B* B( B* C (.2./+ (.+.*2 (.+.*2 (.2.)+ (.2./+ (.2.)/ /.D. (6.61 (6.@( (6.@( (@.)+ (6.61 (@.)+ /.ED. @.+2 ..(/QQ @./6 @./1 @... t-ratio ..@2QQ

Ta&'e ... Co# A( 8 ( A( 8 6 A( 8 ( A68( A( 8 ( A686 A( 8 6 A68( A( 8 6 A68( A686 A686

0ea > /D a d t-va'ue )or the #ea(ure o) %re-(ervi$e tea$herE( attitude to;ard( $reative 'ear i g a d tea$hi g o Ge der &a(i(. C (.+.16 (+(.2. (.+.16 (...+ (.+.16 (...*/ (+(.2. (...+ (+(.2. (...*/ (...+ (...*/ /.D. ).*1 ((.)2 ).*1 (@.21 ).*1 (*./2 ((.)2 (@.21 ((.)2 (*./2 (@.21 (*./2 /.ED. @.// @./. @./1 @./1 @.2( @.2@ t-ratio 1.)2QQ 6.@/Q 6.(+Q (@./+QQ (@.*)QQ @.6

Ta&'e ..3 Co# A( ;(

0ea > /D a d t-va'ue )or #ea(uri g the attitude to;ard( $reative 'ear i g a d tea$hi g o the &a(i( o) A$ade#i$ di($i%'i e. C (+@.@* /.D. (*.6( /.ED. t-ratio

A( ;6 A( ;( A6;( A( ;( A6;6 A( ;6 A6;( A( ;6 A6;6 A6;( A6;6

(.1.*6 (+@.@* (...*@ (+@.@* (...+* (.1.*6 (...*@ (.1.*6 (...+* (...*@ (...+*

(@.6+ (*.6( (6.2( (*.6( (6.@( (@.6+ (6.2( (@.6+ (6.A@( (6.2( (6.@(

@.2) @.11 @.1. @.// @.+) @.2(

6.(/Q /.+(QQ /.++QQ /.@)QQ /..6QQ @.*6

Q %ignificant at @.+ level. QQ %ignificant at @.@( level. ..11 DE+I0ITATION O1 THE /TUD6 The field of research is very vast. t is like a limitless ocean of

knowledge. As we go deep and wide in it, we find so many things to explore yet. But due to the an experimental study. t is carried over with the following limitations. (. 6. ..12 (. 6. 6@ pre-service teachers were take from 1 institutes of pre-service teacher education located in 2 districts of Dun!ab. 5ender, Academic discipline and well-being were taken as the classifying variables. CONC+U/ION B.7d. pre-service teachers have more favourale attitude towards creative learning and teaching than 7.T.T. pre-service teachers. B.7d. pre-service teachers with low level of well- being are more favourable in attitude towards creative learning *. and teaching than 7.T.T. pre service teachers with low, average and high level of well J being. B.7d. pre service teachers with average level of well being have favourable in attitude towards .. creative learning and teaching from 7.T.T. pre-service teachers with low and average level of well being. B.7d. pre J service teachers with high level of well being are favourable than

7.T.T. pre-service teachers with low, average and high level of well-being in attitude towards creative learning and teaching. +. 7.T.T. pre-service teachers with high level of well-being are more favourable in attitude towards creative learning and teaching than 7.T.T. pre J service teachers with average level of well-being. /. =ow level of well-being pre-service teachers are favourable in attitude towards creative learning and teaching than average level of well-being pre-service teachers. 2. Dre-service teachers with high level of well-being are favourable in attitude towards creative learning and teaching from pre-service teachers with average levels of well-being. 1. 9ale B.7d. pre-service teachers have favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching than male 7.T.T. pre-service teachers and female 7.T.T. pre-service teachers. ). Gemale B.7d. Dre-service teachers are more favourable in attitude towards creative than male B.7d. pre-service teachers and male and female 7.T.T. pre service teachers. (@. %cience B.7d. pre-service teachers have more favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching than science B.7d. pre-service teachers, 7.T.T. pre-service teachers of science group and Arts group. ((. Arts B.7d. pre Jservice teachers have more favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching than 7.T.T. pre J service teachers of science and arts group. (6. ..1* (. 6. *. 7.T.T. pre-service teachers having science have more favourable attitude towards creative learning and teaching than arts 7.T.T. pre J service teachers. /UGGE/TION/ 1OR 1URTHER RE/EARCH The attitude towards creative learning and teaching of 7.T.T. and B.7d. in service teachers may be compared. 7lementary '7.T.T., teachers and college teachers may be compared on the basis of attitude towards creative learning and teaching. 7xperimental study may be conducted on elementary or high school teachers.

.. +. ..1(. 6. *. .. +.

Attitude towards creative learning and teaching of 7.T.T. P B.7d. P 8ollege teachers may be studied in relation to psychological variables. 7ffect of organi<ational climate on attitude towards creative learning and teaching may be find out. I0P+ICATION/ O1 THE /TUD6 The study may be helpful for the policy-maker and curriculum-development experts. %tudy may change the attitude of 7.T.T. P B.7d. pre J service teachers towards creative learning and teaching. The study is helpful to change the attitude of parents towards their children. %tudy may be helpful for guidance workers. %tudy may change the attitude of the head of the institute towards creative learning and teaching

2I2+IOGRAPH6

Allport, 5.$. Attitude. n: 8. 9urehi '7d, #andbook of social Dsychology, worcestore 9assi clark university Dress, ()*+. Anastasi, Dsychological Testing. 4ew Fork: 9acmillan. DD. +2/. ()/(. Annamalai. A.B. -Attitude of teachers towards teaching.- 7xperiments in education,

OO E

'*, April 6@@@.

Bedi, B.0. -7xperimantal attitude and creativity.- unpublished 9.7d. ;issertation, ndore Cniversity, ()2.. Bhardwa!, 0. - 8omparative study of attitude of government and non-government high school headmasters and teachers towards teaching profession.- 9.7d. ;issertation, 5.#.5. 0halsa 8ollege of 7ducation, 5urusar %adhar, ()1+. Bowere, 0enneth, %. -%ex and susceptibility as moderator variables in the relationship of creativity and hypnotic suggestibility.- 3ournal of Abnormal psychology, ()2('(, )*-(@@. ;ass, 9.3. -A study of the mental health of teachers survey in the primary schools of Duri Town.- 9.Dhil, 7ducation Bavenshow-8ollege, 8uttack, ()1/. 7ncyclo Daedia of Britannica. $illiam Benton Dublisher, Eol.(+, D. (2(, ()/1. 5uilford, 3.D. Gundamental statistics in Dsychology and education. 4ew Fork 'Toronto, =ondon,, ()+/. 5upta, y. and %hamshari, 0. - Drediction of teaching efficiency through teacher attitude towards Drofessional training.- 7ducation, /*'b,,()1*. #ilgard, 7.B. ntroduction to Dsychology. #arcourt Brace and 8o, 4ewFork, nc., ()+2. 3anakavalli, 8. -Attitude of secondary grade teachers towards teaching profession.The Drogress of 7ducation, =OO E'*,: DD. +@-+6, October, ())). 3arial, 5.%. - %ex roles in verbal creativity thinking abilities.- Dsycho lingua, (('i,, ()1( D. (+-(1. 3oshi, 4avinchandra,- n higher education &uarterly, *6'(,, DD.1-((,()1@. 0aur, 8. - A study of student teacher attitude towards teaching profession in relation to sex, sub!ect and %.7.%., 9.7d. ;issertation, 5.#.5. 0halsa college, 5urusar %adhar '())6,. 0aur, #. - Attitude towards creative teaching and learning of pre-service teachers in relation to %ex, %ocio-economic status and academic discipline,- 9.7d. ;issertation, 5urusar %adhar '())2-)1,. 0aur, . -A study of Dre-service and in-service teachers attitude towards teaching profession in relation to sex and place of residence.- 9.7d. ;essertation, D.C.

()1/. 0aur, 9. -3ob satisfaction among the teachers working in single teacher schools.9.7d. ;issertation, 9alwa 8entral college of education for women in =udhiana, ()1*. 0aur, 4. HA 8omparative study of attitude of teachers towards teaching profession working in degree colleges and colleges of education.I 9.7d. ;issertation, 5.#.5. 0halsa 8ollege of 7ducation, 5urusar %adha, ()1+. 0aur,D. -7ffect of training on attitude towards creative learning and teaching of Dreservice teachers in relation to intelligence.- 9.7d. ;issertation, 5urusar %adhar '6@@6-@*., 0noll, #. 3ochim, - creative learning.- 3ournal of education, 6+D.+@-+., ()16. 0rishnan, %. - A study of creative thinking in relation to sex and locale.- The educational review, 8 '+S/,, D, (@/, ())/. 0umaran, ;. -A study of teaching attitude of B.7d. students of institute of correspondence 7ducation, Cniversity of 9adras.- 7xperiments in education,OOOE,(+,DD.(@/, ())2. 9athur, %. -Attitude of teachers towards creative learning and teaching.- Dh.;. thesis, Agra university, Agra '()12, 9ehdi, 8reativity in Teaching and =earning, 9ysore: Begional 8ollege of 7ducation, ()22. 9ishra, 5. -A study of the attitude of teachers working on government aided conventional sanskrit vidalayas of varanasi towards teaching Drofession.Dh.;.7du., %amp., C., Beproduced from third survey of Beaearch in 7ducation by 9.B. Buch. DD. 16(-166, ()22. 4aik, A. -A comperative study on creativity of rural and urban students of secondary school in %urat district.- the progress of education, =OO '1,, D. (22, ())1. 4athawat, %.%. H8reativity in relation to mental health.I Dh.;. Dsy., 0ur. Cniversity, Beproduced from Third survey of research in 7ducation, by 9.B. Buch. D. *1/, ()22. 4atra!an, 0.E -The making of successful Teacher.- 3ournal on ndian education, (6'(,, DD.66-6+, ()1/-12. Oppenheim, B. An exercise in Attitude measurements n: Breakwell, 5.9.,Goot, #. and Bilmour, B. %ocial Dsychology: A practical mannual, 9acmillan, ()16.

Dal,9. -A comparative study of attitude of school and college teachers towards creative learning and teaching in relation to mental health,- Dh.;. ;issertation, D.C. '6@@(,. Danda, 9. - Attitude towards classroom teaching in relation to educational &ualification, sex and teaching experience and types of schools.- The progress of education, =OOO E '+,, DD: (@1-((@, ;ecember-())). Dandit, B. - A study of creativity in relation to ad!ustment, %ocio-economic states and scholastic achievement of the students.- unpublished 9.7d. ;issertation, ndore university, ()2/. Bawat, 9.%. and Aggarwal, -A study of creative thinking with reference to intelligence, %ex, communities and income groups.- ndian Dsychological Beview, (.'6,, DD. */-.@, ()22. %araswat, B.9. - A study of attitude of trained high school teachers of Aligarh towards their professional training and the students preception of their teachers.- 7ducation, Agra ., survey, D. 1*2, ()2/. %harma, 0. Gactors related to creativity. Dh.;. %oc.%ci, , ;elhi. Beproduced from fourth survey of research in education by 9.B. Buch, D. +@), ()22. %ingh, A. -A study of creativity in school teachers as measured by 9ehdi"s tests of creativity in relation to their self-concept, attitude towards teaching and classroom verbal interaction.- Dh.;. 7du., 9eerut university, reproduction by 9.B. Buch, DD. 221-22), ()21. %ingh, B.D., -Attitude of high school teachers towards creative learning and teaching,Drachi !ournal of psychocultural dimensions, ( 'i,, DD. 2-(6, ()1+. %om, D. - Teachers personality Dattern and their attitude towards teaching and related areas. Dh.;.7du., 8al., Cniversity, Beproduced from fourth survey of Besearch in education by 9.B. Buch, DD. ))*-))., ()1.. %rivastava, B. - creativity as a function of birth order, %7% and Dersonality types.3ournal of 7ducation and Dsychology, .('*,. D. ((*-((2, ()21. %undarara!an, %. et al. -The attitude towards teaching of the B.7d. student teachers in the formal and distance education programmes experiment in education.I ;epartment of 7ducation, Annamalai Cniversity, ())(. Thurstone, =.=. HThe 9easurement of Attitude.I 8hicago, The Cniversity of 8hicago press, ()./.

Torrance, 7. Daul and Dhillips, HOpinions on creative learning and teaching.I Cniversity of 5eorgia 'C%A,, ()26. Torrance, 7. Daul and Dhillips, Eictor, 0. preliminary norms-technical manual for opinion on creative learning and teaching. %tudies of creative behaviour, Athens, 5eorgia, ()2@. Torrance, 7.D. HTorrance test of creative thinking directions.I 9anual and scoring guide verbal test booklet, a research edu., Drinuton n.!. Dersonal Dress inc. ()/+. Torrance, 7.D. and staff. Bewarding creative thinking minnepolis, 9innesota, ()/(. Tripathi, E.0.;. A study of Dersonality traits as related to creativity among male and female teacher-trainees of high, middle and low socio-economic status. Dh.;. 7du., Auadh Cniv., Beproduced from Gourth %urvey of Besearch in 7ducation by 9.B. Buch, pp. 62(-626,()16 Eerma, %.0. and Ederma, A. '()1),. D5 psychological Agency. general well-being scale-Ankur

$era, 8hairsrisook. A study of the attitude of secondary teachers of Thailand region(@ towards their teaching profession. Dh.;. 7du., Beproduced from Gourth %urvey of Besearch in 7ducation by 9.B. Buch, pp. 62(-626, ()16.

APPENDIC 9 IV
C.I. ((@-((+ ((+-(6@ (6@-(6+ 1 ( ( . # =#id va'ue(@ ((6.+ ((2.+ (6.+

(6+-(*@ (*@-(*+ (*+-(.@ (.@-(.+ (.+-(+@ (+@-(++ (++-(/@ (/@-(/+ (/+-(2@ (2@-(2+ (2+-(1@ (1@-(1+ (1+-()@

1 (/ 6. 6) *1 61 6+ (* + * @ ( *

(62.+ (*6.+ (*2.+ (.6.+ (.2.+ (+6.+ (+2.+ (/6.+ (/2.+ (26.+ (22.+ (16.+ (12.+

A CO0PARATIVE /TUD6 O1 ATTITUDE O1 2.Ed. AND E.T.T. PRE-/ERVICE TEACHER/ TO8ARD/ CREATIVE +EARNING AND TEACHING IN RE+ATION TO 8E++-2EING

DI//ERTATION
/u&#itted to Pa !a& U iver(it"> Cha digarh

i %artia' )u')i''#e t o) the reFuire#e t( )or the degree o) 0A/TER O1 EDUCATION =2<<*- 2<<-@

I ve(tigator

RA48INDER AAUR 0.A.> 2.ED> 0.ED.=/tude t@ Ro'' No .22?

G.H.G. AHA+/A CO++EGE O1 EDUCATION GURU/AR /ADHAR> +UDHIANA


CERTI1ICATE
8ertified that Ba!winder 0aur, 9.7d. student 'Cniversity Boll. 4o. 66), has completed her dissertation entitled GA CO0PARATIVE /TUD6 O1 ATTITUDE O1 2.Ed. AND E.T.T PRE-/ERVICE TEACHER/ TO8ARD/ CREATIVE +EARNING AND TEACHING IN RE+ATION TO 8E++-2EING.G for the degree of 9aster of 7ducation under my supervision.

Dr. Har#i der /i gh /idhu 9.A.'78O.,, 9.7d., Dh.;. 5.#.5. 0halsa 8ollege of 7ducation, 5urusar %adhar, ;istt. =udhiana.

ACANO8+EDGE0ENT/

Words are often too weak to express one's inner feelings of indebtedness to one's benefactors. The same difficulty haunts the investigator in penning down the deep sense of gratitude. To try to think on any positive and constructive lines, we need an enlightened guidance that I received from my worthy and respected guide Dr. arminder !ingh !idhu with deep feelings of immense gratitude. I thank my

guide for his valuable and excellent guidance, his readiness to help and guide me at every step of investigation and above all for his nice behaviour. e devoted his valuable time to this study in generous manner. I am greatful to Dr. ".!. #rar and all staff members for providing all sort of facilities. I am also grateful to head of all institutions teachers and students of the DI$Ts % &olleges of $ducation for their generous co'operation, which has enable me to finish this research work. (ast, but not the least, I am thankful to all my family members and my friends for their co'operation in the work.

(RAJWINDER KAUR)

+I/T O1 CONTENT/ CHAPTER


1. (.( (.6 (.* (.. (.+ (./ (.2 (.1 II. 6.( TOPIC

PAGE NO
1-1<

INTRODUCTION Attitude 8reative teaching 8reative learning 8reative teaching and learning %tate of the problem Ob!ectives %ignificance of the study. ;elimitation of the study. REVIE8 O1 RE+ATED /TUDIE/ 5ender and attitude towards creative learning and

11-17

teaching. 6.6 Academic discipline and attitude towards creative learning and teaching 6.* nstitute and attitude towards creative learning and teaching 6.. $ell-being and attitude towards creative learning and teaching. 6.+ #ypotheses. III. *.( *.6 *.* *.. *...( *.+ *./ *.2 IV. ..( ..6 ..* ..*.( ..*.6 ..*.* ... ....(

0ETHOD AND PROCEDURE Eariables


;esign %ample Tools used ;escription of Tools Drocedure Operational definitions %tatistical analysis ANA+6/I/ AND DATA INTERPRETATION AND DI/CU//ION O1 RE/U+T/ ntroduction %chematic presentation of the results ;escriptive analysis ;iscussion based on mean, median and mode ;iscussion based on skewness ;iscussion based on kurtosis ;ifferential analysis nstitute and attitude towards creative learning and

1?-22

2*-*.

teaching. ....6 nstitute and levels of well Jbeing and attitude towards creative learning and teachings ....* =evels of well-being and attitude towards creative ..... ....+ learning and teaching nstitute, gender and attitude towards creative learning and teaching nstitute, academic discipline and attitude towards

creative learning and teaching ..+ 8onclusion V. +.( +.6 +.* +.. +.+

/U00AR6 ntroduction %tatement of the problem Ob!ectives #ypotheses ;esign

*3---

+./ +.2 +.1 +.) +.(@ +.(( +.(6 +.(* +.(.

%ample Tools used Drocedure Operational definitions %tatistical analysis ;elimitation of the study 8onclusion %uggestions for further research mplications of the study 2I2+IOGRAPH6 APPENDICE/

-.--7

+I/T O1 TA2+E/

TA2+E NO. ..@ ..( ..6 ..* ... ..+

TA2+E %0 and 0u of attitude towards creative learning and teaching 9ean, %; and t-value for the measure of attitude towards creative learning and teaching of institute 9ean, %; and t-value for the measure of attitude towards creative learning and teaching of institute and levels of well-being 9ean, %; and t-value for the measure of attitude towards creative learning and teaching of levels of well-being 9ean, %; and t-value for the measure of attitude towards creative learning and teaching of institute and gender 9ean, %; and t-value for the measure of attitude towards creative learning and teaching of institute and academic discipline

PAGE NO. 6* 6+ 62 6) *( **

+I/T O1 1IGURE/

1IGURE NO. 1IGURE ..@ Gre&uency polygon of scores of attitude towards creative learning and teaching of pre J service ..( ..6 ..* ... ..+ teachers. Bepresentation of institute in attitude towards

PAGE NO. 6.

6+ creative learning and teaching Bepresentation of institute and levels of well-being Bepresentation of levels of well-being of pre-service teachers Bepresentation of gender and institute Bepresentation of institute and academic discipline 6/ 6) *@ *6