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THE GENERAL

. . . a losing venture published bi-monthly, pretty


close to the first day of January, March, May, July, September and November. The General is edited and published by The Avalon Hill Con~panyalmost solely for the cultural edification of adult gamjng. (It also helps to sell Avalon Hill products, tool) Articles from subscribers are considered for publication on a gratis contributory basis. Such articles must be typewritten and not exceed 700 words. Examples and diagrams that accompany such articles must be drawn in black ink, ready for reproduction. N o notice can be given regarding acceptance of articles for publication. All back issues, except Vol. 1, Nos. 1 & 4, which are out of stock, are available at $1.00 per issue. Full-year subscriptions e $4.98.

PAGE 2

Realism vs Abstraction
R e c e n t s u r v e y s a d m i n i s t e r e d both by The G e n e r a l and p u r i s t s among the w a r g a m i n g cult have produced a r a t h e r s h a r p division between a d h e r e n t s t o r e a l i s m and a d h e r e n t s to playability. Under the a s s u m p t i o n that a g a m e cannot be both r e a l i s t i c and playable, cons e n s e e s f a v o r playability 60-40. While i t i s possible, and the battle g a m e s s e e m to prove it, to produce g a m e s that a r e both r e a l i s t i c and playable the only r e a l l y s u c c e s s f u l g a m e s have been a b s t r a c t i o n s . We only have t o look t o Monopoly to prove t h i s point. While t h e g a m e - m a k e r s o v e r in o u r r e s e a r c h d e p a r t m e n t a r e l o a t h to a d m i t it. AH'S b a t t l e s e r i e s cannot be considered successes from a mass-market standpoint. However, the t r u e h i s t o r y buffs and r e a l i s m n u t s a r e g r e a t enough in number to guarantee a certain deg r e e of s u c c e s s f o r a n y battle g a m e t h a t i s produced. A s a m a t t e r of fact. o t h e r g a m e p r o d u c e r s who have published battle g a m e s of a n a b s t r a c t type have failed i n t h e i r q u e s t t o move such g a m e s off the s t o r e s h e l v e s i n profitable n u m bers. However, even with the d e s i g n staff a t A H o r i e n t e d toward " r e a l i s m , 'I t h e r e i s a l i m i t t o how f a r one can c a r r y t h i s 1914 a r e c l a s philosophy. Jutland and sic e x a m p l e s of r e a l i s m - t o - t h e - T . M o r e detailed r e s e a r c h h a s gone into t h e i r design than into a l l o t h e r battle g a m e s combined. The r e s e a r c h t e a m of J a m e s F. Dunnigan A s s o c i a t e s , with t h e i r never-exhausting supply of inside dope, h a s been a b l e t o t r a n s c e n d the m o s t minute battle d e t a i l into excitingly r e a l i s t i c battle g a m e s . P a r d o n , we m e a n simulations. B e c a u s e t h a t ' s ex19 14; a c t l y what we have i n Jutland and g a m e s so r e a l i s t i c t h a t they a r e s i m u l a t i o n s of t h e r e a l thing. In fact, i t is being brought t o o u r attention that t h e s e g a m e s a r e too r e a l i s t i c . . s o r e a l i s t i c a s to b e c o m e b o r i n g a f t e r s e v e r a l playings. With Jutland and 1914, we have finally satisfied the appetite of the h a r d c o r e h i s t o r i c a l buff. But i n the m e a n t i m e , the h a r d - c o r e g a m e - g a m e fanat i c s have had to "give up" on t h e s e t i t l e s b e c a u s e they f e e l t h a t the i n t r a c a i e s of r e a l i s m slow the a c t i o n down to a walk. In s h o r t , t h e r e ' s too much complex detail f o r what competitive fun can be had. Thus, the g a m e - m a k e r s have c o m e t o t h e conclusion that a wedding between r e a l i s m and playability r e s u l t s i n a r a t h e r quick d i v o r c e . playability. While r e c a p t u r i n g e s s e n t ually the s a m e o v e r a l l conditions a s they a c t u a l l y existed, Stalingrad i s not o v e r - e n c u m b e r e d with a m y r i a d of det a i l s . With a l l of i t s units, t h i s game can b e played r a t h e r quickly. Action abounds on e v e r y t u r n . S m a l l wonder t h a t Stalingrad i s s t i l l a f a v o r i t e among many of the h a r d - c o r e p l a y e r s even though i t i s a n "old" g a m e . Another g a m e continuing t o be a favorite i s Afrika K o r p s . Again, complex-simplicity i s t h e keynote. In both Staling r a d and A f r i k a K o r p s , a high d e g r e e of a b s t r a c t i o n h a s been built into their design. They have proved to be the panacea f o r a l l concerned. Outside the a r e a of battle games. we have found t h a t i t i s not possible to produce a r e a l i s t i c g a m e that i s fun to play. And a f t e r a l l , i s n ' t the important thing about a g a m e how much fun it i s t o play? A c a s e in point i s a stock m a r k e t g a m e we have been t e s t i n g f o r o v e r a y e a r . We designed i t too r e a l i s tically. It l a c k e d i n t e r - p l a F r competition. Although i t had r e - captured the action of the stock m a r k e t in i t s t r u i s t f o r m , i t simply w a s n ' t any fun to play. We s c r a p p e d the whole idea. T h e next s t e p down, then, w a s to inject s o m e a b s t r a c t i o n t o get play moving q u i c k e r . Also, a r e a s of i n t e r player competition w e r e injected. As we l e a n e d m o r e and m o r e in t h i s d i r e c tion, t h e g a m e b e c a m e l e s s and l e s s r e a l i s t i c f r o m a r e a l i s t i c standpoint. T.he stock m a r k e t , itself, i s no game, a t l e a s t not f r o m the standpoint of one player attempting t o o u t s c o r e h i s opponent. Unlike the stock m a r k e t , war l e n d s itself much m o r e r e a d i l y to i n t e r player competition b e c a u s e t h a t ' s what the p a r t i c i p a n t s b a s i c a l l y a r e trying to do - t o b e a t the o t h e r guy. At this point i t i s s a f e to conclude that the deg r e e of r e a l i s m and a b s t r a c t i o n i s det e r m i n e d by the subject m a t t e r of that a r e a of life we a r e attempting t o port r a y i n game f o r m a t . We a r e t h e r e f o r e willing t o s a c r i f i c e absolute r e a l i s m i n f a v o r of a design that i s , f i r s t and f o r m o s t , fun to play. Jutland and 19 14 a r e fine g a m e s . ooops. . w e m e a n simulations. Their publication h a s done much t o enhance the quality of the AH image. T h e i r publication h a s done much t o broaden o u r distributional b a s e thus making the r e s t of o u r l i n e m o r e r e a d i l y available to the public. Within this f r a m e w o r k , we a r e proud of t h e s e two t i t l e s . But we a r e even "prouder" of what w e ' l l be introducing next Spring.

o 1968 The Avalon Hill Con~pany, Baltimore, Maryland. printed in U.S.A.

COVER STORY:

If Ever There Was an Unsung Hero. . .


If they e v e r hand out unsung h e r o a w a r d s i n wargaming, R u s s e l l Powell should win hands-down. With expeditious h e l p f r o m wife Donna, R u s s e l l Powell h a s taken the s p a r k of a n idea t h a t f l a m e d b a c k i n 9 1966 and kindled i t into the m o s t d e m o c r a t i c wargaming "league" existing today - - the S p a r t a n W a r g a m e r s . Although b e s e t with growing pains, financial c r i s e s , and petty b i c k e r i n g typical of many such w a r g a m i n g o r g a n i zations, the S p a r t a n W a r g a m e r s have f l o u r i s h e d while many o t h e r s have e i t h e r floundered, r e o r g a n i z e d , o r been consumed by t h e f i r e s of p e r s o n a l a n i m o s i t i e s . H a r d l y a w a r g a m e club today i s the s a m e organization i t w a s two y e a r s ago. Even such e a r l y s t a l l w a r t s a s R e d Lions and A g g r e s s o r Homeland have switched n a m e s a n d e x p e r i e n c e d d r a s t i c organizational and p e r s o n n e l changes. Not s o with the S p a r t a n s . They have e x p e r i e n c e d a s t e a d y growth p a t t e r n t h a t puts a l l o t h e r s to s h a m e . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s R u s s e l l Powell; who h a s b e e n a b l e t o s t a n d up above the power-plays and i n t r i g u e s that often u n d e r m i n e the l e a d e r s h i p of even the m o s t uptight o r g a n i z a t i o n s . R u s s e l l h a s had t o w e a t h e r such s t o r m s by groups of d i s s i d e n t s bent on t a k i n g o v e r club l e a d e r s h i p . A l a s , the coups have failed m a i n l y on the s t r e n g t h of R u s s e l l ' s loyal f r i e n d s who r e a l i z e how much t i m e , effort and money.. . o v e r (Contirued on Page

..

3)

StalThe a l t e r n a t i v e i s a b s t r a c t i o n . i n g r a d i s a n excellent example of the p r o p e r combination between r e a l i s m and

PAGE 3

THE GENERAL

Success Thru Patience


by J a r e d Johnson What c a u s e s the downfall of m a n y good w a r g a m e r s ? They a r e i n a h u r r y ! Granted that t i m e i s of the e s s e n c e i n many instances. However, not always. In his f e r v e n t d e s i r e to annihilate h i s opponent, a p l a y e r often m a k e s r a s h decisions, and d e c i d e s m o s t often in f a v o r of the plan which will allow h i m to a c t the s o o n e s t , usually without weighing o t h e r m e r i t s . C o n s i d e r the game of B i s m a r c k . In the long r u n i t i s r a r e l y w i s e f o r the B i s m a r c k to s t a y and fight a battle which he c a n withdraw f r o m , even when i t i s a n e a s y victory. However, he is o v e r w h e l m e d a t the m o m e n t of conflict by the d e s i r e to sink the B r i t i s h BB. Likewise, not a l o t of g a m e s a r e played to the t i m e l i m i t , although i t would be to one s i d e ' s advantage to do so. The B i s m a r c k i s always anxious to pop into p o r t , when he might f a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y b e t t e r i n leading the B r i t i s h navy a r o u n d the Atlantic f o r a few days, C o n s i d e r A f r i k a Korps. How often does the G e r m a n c o m m a n d e r conduct a r e c k l e s s 2-1 a t t a c k a g a i n s t T o b r u c h which w a s n ' t r e a l l y n e c e s s a r y . y e t ? Suicide c h a r g e s a r e fine a s a v e r y l a s t r e s o r t , but m a n y p l a y e r s j u s t don't r e a l i z e what s u i c i d a l t a c t i c s they a r e employing too e a r l y i n the game. Many p l a y e r s f a c e d w i t h a tough situation w i l l m a k e a bad decision in favor of a plan that will " b r e a k the ice" the s o o n e s t ; usually, a. s e r i e s of suicide attacks. How tempting i t i s i n Bulge f o r the U.S. to s u r r o u n d one of those m i s e r able G e r m a n 10-5 p a n z e r units a t 1 - 2 odds hoping f o r a D back 2. What happens when h i s units a r e r e t r e a t e d and a gaping hole l e f t in h i s l i n e s ? In Stalingrad, how e a s y i t is to go o v e r b o a r d with those 1 - 2 and 1 - 1 a t t a c k s a g a i n s t r i v e r positions r i g h t a f t e r you have had a s h o r t r u n of good luck.

The s u c c e s s of such a s t r a t e g y r e s t s upon the continuance of your luck and not upon the m e r i t s of your tactics. I n Midway, how tempting i t i s to launch a "devastatingl,l a t t a c k before the t i m e i s r i p e . (In the long run, p e r h a p s not devastating to the enemy.

T h i s is a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m w i t h m a n y w a r g a m e r s . They a r e over-anxious, too e a g e r to r u s h i n and s l a u g h t e r the opponent. H i s m e a n s a r e contradicting his d e s i r e d ends. A c o m p e t e n t g e n e r a l knows when to l e t his opponent a t t e m p t the bravado tactics. A competent gene r a l knows when he should be content plodding along a t a s n a i l ' s pace. Take heed: All of you power-happy g e n e r a l s who want to c r o s s the Meuse by the 25th turn, who want to take B a s togne by the 17th, who want to s i n k the Atago the minute i t c o m e s onto the board, and who want to pop into p o r t the f i r s t hour of May 26th. You m a y be b e t t e r off taking i t slow but s u r e , b e c a u s e "haste m a k e s waste.'' P a t i e n c e i s often the g r e a t e s t v i r t u e of a s u c c e s s f u l general. J a r e d Johnson, 1548 Rochelle Drive, Chamblee. G e o r g i a 30005.

COVER STORY
$100 a month. . . t h e P o w e l l ' s have put into the league. To fully u n d e r s t a n d the r e a s o n f o r t h e S p a r t a n ' s growth, l e t ' s go b a c k t o t h a t day i n May. 1966 when the Powell's invited a group of neighborhood boys t o s e e w a r g a m e s f o r the f i r s t t i m e . "My husband and I. " r e l a t e s Donna Powell, " w e r e standing a r o u n d a f t e r c h u r c h one Sunday d i s c u s s i n g the topic of hobbies. R u s s and I had been playing AH g a m e s f o r o v e r two y e a r s so we i m m e d i a t e l y s t a r t e d talking about w a r gaming. Well, the topic d r i f t e d and bounced and suddenly R u s s found h i m self sponsoring t h i s club. "We had no intentions of going nationwide a t that t i m e . R u s s bought e v e r y A . H. game on the m a r k e t and s o m e not on the m a r k e t . He s t a r t e d giving t h e m a s p r i z e s i n t o u r n a m e n t s and I knew r i g h t then t h a t something w a s growing inside of h i m but I couldn't put m y f i n g e r on it. "Before we w e r e m a r r i e d R u s s e l l had played a l o t of C h e s s a n d h a d played i n a few t o u r n a m e n t s . He had a l w a y s wondered why w a r g a m i n g had not been brought t o that level. "On July 4th a t a picnic when we w e r e talking about the club R u s s told m e what he w a s planning. He had decided that he would l i k e t o s e e w a r g a m i n g organized like M a s t e r s C h e s s . A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g t h i s i n depth I a g r e e d with h i m and a f t e r t h a t he w a s no l o n g e r the s a m e . "He planned out the b a s i s f o r h i s club, the s y s t e m i t would be r u n by and p r e s e n t e d i t t o the m e m b e r s i n t h e middle of July. "It w a s a c c e p t e d by a 100% m a j o r i t y and then we s t a r t e d r e c r u i t i n g . "In S e p t e m b e r of 1966 R u s s e l l and I s t a r t e d the n e u t r a l competition League which h a s existed f r o m then until now. His League w a s not r e a d i l y accepted due to the u n t r u s t i n g n a t u r e of the clubs a l r e a d y organized. "The R e i c h s h u t z e r s . S c a r f , and Lanc e r s w e r e the f i r s t t o join t h e League. It w a s n ' t until a r o u n d the month of Dec e m b e r t h a t t h i n g s r e a l l y looked up. F O E , t h e M a r a u d e r s , the R a i d e r s , and the A r m y of California joined t h e League, along with s e g m e n t s of Win Incorporated. Around June of 1967 A g g r e s s o r Homeland, and OKW I1 joined t h e League. They w e r e followed i n D e c e m b e r o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h a t t i m e by S p e c t r e 11, the newly f o r m e d I m p e r i a l G u a r d s , United W a r g a m e r s of A m e r i c a , and a few l o c a l clubs that w e r e n o t a d v e r t i s e d . "That had brought t h e League up t o a l m o s t 140 people. R e c r u i t m e n t got heavy in a l l clubs and s h o r t l y a f t e r International T a s k F o r c e joined this month, a n d the c r e a t i o n of t h e S e a b e e s ( a SPARTAN club) o u r League h a s 185 registered members. "Our League (which i s 100% d e m o c r a t i c ) h a s o v e r 35 t o u r n a m e n t s running with m o r e than 12 additional about t o s t a r t . We f u r n i s h t r o p h i e s , c a s h a w a r d s . f r e e Avalon Hill g a m e s (with o v e r 30 having b e e n given out i n 2 3 months). and s o m e f r e e G a m e s c i e n c e g a m e s i n the p r o c e s s of going on the p r i z e l i s t s . "We have through t h i s League f u r nished t h e s e s e r v i c e s f o r o v e r a y e a r now: A monthly r e p o r t t o i n f o r m a l l League m e m b e r s of what i s going on i n the League. It a v e r a g e s a r o u n d 30-40 pages a month. An a r b i t r a t i o n s e r v i c e f o r t r e a t i e s , disputes. League t e r r i t o r i a l p r o c e d u r e s , d e c i s i o n s on AH g a m e s , a n d v a r i a n t s taken f r o m AH g a m e s , etc. A u n i f o r m code of e t h i c s , protocols, and l a w s t h a t governed a l l clubs f a i r l y and d e m o c r a t i c a l l y since the League h a s been f o r m e d . "We k e e p complete f i l e s on a l l l e t t e r s w r i t t e n a n d r e c e i v e d and provide t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s f o r League clubs r e f e r e n c e s . "All in a l l I f e e l that in bringing good honest, worthwhile, competition to the w a r g a m e r s we a r e promoting the hobby t o a l e v e l n e v e r b e f o r e attained. We f e e l o u r t e r r i t o r i a l w a r f a r e s y s t e m (done with m a p s , f o r m s , and by c e r t a i n l a w s ) i s unmatched by anyone. "In s h o r t m a y I s a y t h a t my husband and I only wish t o b r i n g this hobby up t o w h e r e it belongs. Equal t o o r above Masters Chess. "To u s wargaming i s s e r i o u s . A lot of young m e n want t o have fun i n t h e i r hobby. We want t o give t h e m the b e s t chance they e v e r had to have it. Anyone know w h e r e we can find about 20 m o r e R u s s e l l P o w e l l s ? ? ?

THE GENERAL

PAGE 4

Belgium?-Never

How to 'F1im"the Russians in 1914


by Geoff K. Burkman cision the G e r m a n player m u s t make i s whether t o add t o t h i s n u m b e r , inc r e a s i n g h i s chances a g a i n s t t h e R u s s i a n a r m i e s but lowering h i s s t r e n g t h f o r u s e a g a i n s t the A l l i e s , o r by dec r e a s i n g h i s f o r c e s on t h e E a s t e r n F r o n t , adding bulk t o h i s W e s t e r n A r m y but l e s s e n i n g h i s chances f o r s u c c e s s a g a i n s t t h e R u s s i a n . The G e r m a n m u s t weigh the possible r e s u l t s with t h e poss i b l e r i s k s and then make h i s c o m m i t ment. One of t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s t h e G e r m a n player h a s i n a n advanced*g a m e of 1914 i s what t o do about t h e R u s s i a n s on the E a s t e r n F r o n t . He m u s t send a f o r c e that c a n defeat the R u s s i a n s o r a t l e a s t hold t h e i r own, without n e c e s sitating the withdrawal of additional forces f r o m the Western Front before the F r e n c h , B r i t i s h , a n d Belgians have been bumped off. The B a s i c game h a s the G e r m a n sending 61 points t o engage the advancing R u s s i a n a r m y . The d e -

by Andrew P. E n g e b r e t s o n Lt. C a r l F. Knabe h a s with h i s usual i n c i s i v e n e s s l a i d h i s finger on the key to G e r m a n s u c c e s s i n 1914 in just one word; attrition. (The G e n e r a l , J u l y 1968) F o r once, Lt. Knabe m a y not have gone f a r enough - - he s u g g e s t s an allout a t t a c k with 314 of the G e r m a n a r m y along the F r a n c e - G e r m a n b o r d e r , while readying about 114 f o r a s t r i k e through Belgium. Delaying the t h r u s t of the r i g h t wing i s r e c o m m e n d e d bec a u s e , among o t h e r things, a c o r r e sponding delay in the e n t r y of the British results. Butwhy not go a l l the way--ignoring Belgium and bringing the e n t i r e weight of the G e r m a n a r m y to b e a r o n the line Longwy-Belfort? Obviously t h i s a p p r o a c h avoids spotting the A l l i e s the 30 points which they gain through a G e r m a n invasion of Belgium and j u s t a s obviously the B r i t i s h e n t r y i s delayed until a t l e a s t move 10. L e s s obvious, however, is the f a c t t h a t the Allies a r e not bound by the r u l e s to e m u l a t e t h e i r r e a l - l i f e c o u n t e r p a r t s in committing the bulk of the F r e n c h a r m y to a bloodily futile t h r u s t into A l s a c e - L o r r a i n e . Instead, s u b j e c t to the v a g a r i e s of g a m e v a r i a tion, the A l l i e s a r e usually f r e e to adopt a plan along the l i n e s of " P l a n Michel" ( a s they did i n 1940 without calculating the effect of a r m o r o n the value of the A r d e n n e s a s a defensive b a r r i e r . ) ; if f o r c e d to a n offensive stance by g a m e v a r i a t i o n , they can quickly enough shift units to the Northw e s t to c o r r e c t m a t t e r s . In s h o r t , by a s s u m i n g the s t r a t e g i c defensive and r e l y i n g on fortifications t o hold a weak G e r m a n l e f t wing, the A l l i e s a p p e a r t o be fully capable of f r u s t r a t i n g the whole p u r p o s e of the Schlieffen plan, which w a s t o t u r n the Allied l e f t flank. The G e r m a n ' s f a i l u r e i n t h i s r e g a r d l e a v e s h i m a t deadlock with equal o r slightly s u p e r i o r allied f o r c e s , a s happened i n the a c t u a l event. Dead lock i s no u s e t o the German; "tactical victory" likewise only l e a d s t o u l t i m a t e defeat i n the w a r . Decisive v i c t o r y i s t h e only a n s w e r f o r the G e r m a n and piling up v i c t o r y points by seizing i r o n m i n e s d o e s not suffice. (Invading Belgium and Luxemburg gives the A l l i e s 35 points, which obliges the G e r m a n t o a m a s s 175 points t o win dec i s i v e l y by t h a t m e a n s , a m o s t doubtful venture. ) The G e r m a n a l t e r n a t i v e i s Lt. K n a b e ' s insight pushed t o i t s logical conclusion- - a n a l l - o u t a s s a u l t along the Longwy-Belfort line, while ignoring totally Belgium and possibly luxemburg.

The following table p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s of e a c h option column i n p e r c e n t a g e f o r m a t (with f i g u r e s rounded off to the n e a r e s t whole unit): F a c t o r s s e n t to E a s t : doubled l o s s e s - - - - - - - - 'normal' losses-------s t a t i c situation 25 14% 25 11 45 1170 33 22 75 870 31 22 110 --19%
36

175 --3% 25

245

325 -

----1470

---

--11%

--------

pass 1 turn-----------pass 2 turns-----------

33 17

17 17

-17

--17

- -17

17 17

--17

pass 4 turns- - - - - - - - - - -

--

--

--

---

---

17

---

S o m e of the r e s u l t s a r e s u r p r i s i n g ; f o r i n s t a n c e , you have a b e t t e r chance t o get 75 Victory P o i n t s by sending 175 f a c t o r s t o t h e E a s t than you have if you send 245 f a c t o r s . Even m o r e astounding--you c a n send 75 f a c t o r s t o the E a s t and the odds a r e t h a t you will s u s t a i n no m o r e 10s s e s than if you had sent only 25, and you have a chance to obtain 50 Victory P o i n t s . It i s m y opinion that if you a r e the type who d e a l s with a l l things i n moderation, t h i s would b e the logical choice. But then t h e r e a r e o t h e r s t r a t e g i e s , too. You could send the b a r e m i n i m u m t o the E a s t e r n F r o n t . 25 f a c t o r s . This. however, i s a l i t t l e too foolhardy--you r u n the r i s k of even m o r e l o s s e s to t h e R u s s i a n s and you will have l i t t l e t o d o with the e x t r a u n i t s anyway; the f r o n t can b e c o m e e x t r e m e l y crowded. On the o t h e r hand, you could send n e a r l y your e n t i r e a r m e d f o r c e s t o fgght t h e

R u s s i a n s . The object of t h i s would b e t o get a l a r g e n u m b e r of Victory P o i n t s i n the E a s t and hope you c a n hold what you've got i n the West. T h i s e x t r e m e . a s i s the o t h e r one, involves too much r i s k and chance--the odds a r e that you will get no m o r e than 50 Victory P o i n t s and possibly will get nothing. Not only that, i t might r e s u l t i n the l o s s of Metz, something t h a t would s c r a p a n y f u r t h e r hopes f o r v i c t o r y . Thus t h e b e s t a n s w e r l i e s i n moderation, using 75 o r possibly 110 f a c t o r s i n your R u s s i a n campaign. P l e a s e do not get t h e i m p r e s s i o n that I r e j e c t the possibility of using the ext r e m e m e t h o d s - - t h e r e will a l w a y s b e the t i m e i t will pay off--and t h e G e r m a n will b e v i c t o r i o u s , p e r h a p s without even advancing into Belgium. I t ' s a n i n t e r hmmm. . e s t i n g thought. Geoff K. B u r k m a n 7 15 Myrtle Avenue T e r r a c e P a r k , Ohio 45174

..

. ...

THE GENERAL
Consider t h e following: 1. It i s p o s s i b l e f o r the G e r m a n t o mobilize 41 c o r p s (25 a c t i v e and 16 r e s e r v e ) together with 4 8-0-2 a r t i l l e r y b r i g a d e s along the mentioned l i n e , which c o n s i s t s of 18 s q u a r e s , by sending the minimum of u n i t s totaling 25 value points to the e a s t . The w o r s t p o s s i b l e r e s u l t i n the e a s t would eventually l e a d to a reduction of only 7 c o r p s , which could b e badly i m p a i r e d , s i n c e a r e q u i r e m e n t of 12 c o r p s going e a s t c a n b e s a t i s f i e d by 5 c o r p s of 2 c a v a l r y divisions e a c h and the balance i n infant r y . The odds a g a i n s t t h i s w o r s t poss i b l e r e s u l t a r e r e m o t e ; something l i k e 47 to 1. 2. With 41 c o r p s , plus a r t i l l e r y , the G e r m a n s a r e a b l e t o a t t a c k e v e r y s q u a r e on a f r o n t of up t o 20 s q u a r e s with battle g r o u p s of 2 c o r p s each, which ideally should c o n s i s t of one active and one r e s e r v e c o r p s . L o s s e s on the a t t a c k should b e c h a r g e d t o the r e s e r v e c o r p s , a s they d r o p only one attack factor for each step lost.
3 . If on l o s i n g a step, t h e A l l i e s r e t r e a t a b i t , wherever possible the G e r m a n should advance h i s u n i m p a i r e d active c o r p s into t h e v a c a t e d a l l i e d s q u a r e . In t h i s way, the a l l i e s a r e prevented f r o m r e i n f o r c i n g t h e unit without pulling i t out of the line, while a t the s a m e t i m e t h e G e r m a n can r e inforce h i s depleted c o r p s on t h e next t u r n without making f u r t h e r a d j u s t m e n t s . 4. While defensively a F r e n c h a c t i v e c o r p s goes t o a h i g h e r r a t e of a t t r i t i o n with the l o s s of just one step, a G e r m a n battle group can l o s e t h r e e s t e p s b e f o r e i t s combat effectiveness a g a i n s t 6-103's diminishes. One could s a y m o r e , but s u r e l y t h e r e a d e r g e t s the p i c t u r e . It a l l a d d s up to one word- - a t t r i t i o n . It m u s t be r e m e m b e r e d t h a t the G e r m a n need not wipe out t h e e n t i r e F r e n c h a r m y i n toe-to-toe slugging. It will be enough t o continue the p r e s s u r e until t h e a l l i e s c o m e t o the end of a t u r n and a r e unable t o f i l l a l l of the gaps i n the . l i n e . At t h a t point, the Allies a r e l e f t with t h e choice of submitting t o a chewing up of t h e l i n e by s u c c e s s i v e flanking of t h e s e g m e n t s o r pulling t h e line t o g e t h e r and allowing a final d e c i s i v e flanking of the e n t i r e f r o n t . In the l a t t e r c a s e , the G e r m a n p r o c e e d s t o d r i v e f o r the r a i l l i n e s (which a r e ALWAYS h i s operational o b j e c t i v e s ) well behind t h e existing f r o n t in o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a d e c i s i v e e n c i r c l e ment. All this might be moot but f o r the one technological advantage held by e i t h e r side, the G e r m a n s e i g e a r t i l l e r y . The g r e a t m o r t a r s m a k e i t possible f o r the G e r m a n to g r i n d t h e i r way through a l l , of t h e F r e n c h f o r t r e s s s y s t e m . Generally, the G e r m a n should begin a t the wings and w o r k t o w a r d t h e c e n t e r .

Fast-Play Jutland
By R i c h a r d C . G i b e r s o n Some B a r b will probably s a y "play t h e b a s i c game", but no t r u e nut plays the b a s i c g a m e of anything do t h e y ? T h e r e f o r e , what follows i s c o n s i d e r e d a n advanced t o u r n a m e n t g a m e with a l l the optionals. My f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e with JUTLAND w a s played in s c a l e t i m e , the s i x maneuv e r and f i r e t u r n s took s i x h o u r s ( r e a l t i m e ) f o r the one hour to be m a r k e d on the r e c o r d c a r d . Even Jellicoe did not have i t s o bad. The question i s - - what slows you down? T h e a n s w e r s : 1. Knowing which group of s h i p s h a s been moved. 2. Knowing which s h i p s have f i r e d o n a p a r t i c u l a r t u r n . 3 . Looking b a c k and f o r t h between the ocean and your s h e e t t o d e t e r m i n e movement f a c t o r s and combat f a c t o r s f o r individual ships. Solution - - u s e a lot of l i t t l e 112 inch s q u a r e c o u n t e r s . The Table d e s c r i b e s the c o u n t e r s and how they a r e used. With t h i s s y s t e m you c a n tell a t a glance the situation on the b o a r d . T h a t r e m i n d s u s of the r e a l t i m e k i l l e r - - l a c k of a b o a r d . Avalon Hill s a y s the g a m e i s too big f o r a b o a r d . What they m e a n i s they couldn't put a big enough b o a r d i n the box. All you need i s a b a s e m e n t floor a t l e a s t 13 f e e t by 13 f e e t ( p r e f e r a b l y b i g g e r ) . You then c o v e r i t with a checkboard linoleum. One p r o b l e m of c o u r s e i s that the s i z e of s q u a r e s m u s t b e exactly the s i z e of thk movement f a c t o r . I a m s u r e f o r about $200 you can get such a board. Now the next thing you need i s a big e l e c t r o n i c s c o r e b o a r d which c o v e r s one wall of t h e b a s e m e n t ( f o r t h o s e p i k e r s who want t o s a v e money a l a r g e blackb o a r d will d o ) . T h i s s c o r e b o a r d m u s t contain e v e r y ship, i t s c u r r e n t movem e n t f a c t o r and combat f a c t o r . Finally, you need a s e c r e t a r y t o keep the s c o r e b o a r d up t o date. Now if you grow w e a r y of the g a m e you can t a k e the s e c r e t a r y t o t h e show--unless your m a r r i e d of course! COUNTERCODE TOP Numbers l t o 15 BOTTOM 0 N u m b e r s give c u r r e n t movement fact o r . When the 0 i s up ship h a s been moved that t u r n . N u m b e r s give c u r r e n t battle f a c t o r . When the x i s t u r n ed up ship h a s f i r ed on that t u r n .

Game v a r i a t i o n might e n t i r e l y d e p r i v e the G e r m a n of t h i s advantage but the odds a g a i n s t t h i s a r e 19 t o 1. The c a r d s hold equal if not g r e a t e r d i s a s t e r s f o r the A l l i e s . H i s t o r i c a l l y , the Schlieffen plan originated i n Count Schlieffen's conviction d u r i n g h i s incumbency a s Chief of Staff. which ended i n 1906. t h a t e x i s t ing G e r m a n a r m a m e n t could not cope with the F r e n c h f o r t s . T h i s judgment w a s b o r n e out i n 19 14 when the G e r m a n s b a t t e r e d a t Liege f o r 2 weeks b e f o r e the Krupp m o r t a r s c a m e up on August 14 and ended m a t t e r s i n 24 h o u r s . The 3 0 5 ' s w e r e available, on loan f r o m A u s t r i a , a s e a r l y a s 1910, 4 y e a r s a f t e r Schlieffen's death. T h u s i n 1914, the G e r m a n s did have the m e a n s to c o m e to g r i p s with the F r e n c h f o r t s . It i s a m a t t e r of r e c o r d t h a t Moltke r e a l i z e d a s e a r l y a s 1912 that if the F r e n c h lunged into L o r r a i n e ( p e r plan 17) then the whole Belgian a d v e n t u r e would b e pointless f o r the F r e n c h would b e handing t h e G e r m a n s what they m o s t e a r n e s t l y sought--the opportunity t o c l o s e with and d e s t r o y the F r e n c h a r m y . But by 1914 the G e r m a n m i l i t a r y had, psychologically and politically, lbcked itself into t h e ~ c h l i e f f e n plan. T o r e t u r n t o o u r p r o b l e m h e r e , one can s u m up by stating that the a p p r o a c h advocated s e e m s to have t h e v i r t u e s of concentration of f o r c e and simplicity of execution. C o m m e n t s and suggestions m a y be s e n t to: A n d r e s P. E n g e b r e t s o n 1497 Hythe S t r e e t St. P a u l , Minnesota 55108

Numbers 1 t o 14

E a c h ship will need a battle counter a l l t h e t i m e . Only F l a g s h i p s need movem e n t c o u n t e r s a t t h e s t a r t , but a s ship movement f a c t o r s a r e r e d u c e d each ship would have one. P l a s t i c t r a y s with a n u m b e r of c o m p a r t m e n t s a r e suggested for storing the counters in some sort of o r d e r f o r e a s y a c c e s s . C o m m e n t s ? I didn't think s o . 1422 Agnes, Richland, Washington 99352.

THE GENERAL

See How They Run.. .


by Norman Beveridge. J r . What i s the m o s t popular s p o r t i n the w o r l d ? S o c c e r you s a y ? No, f o r t h e r e i s one s p o r t which d r a w s m o r e attention f r o m m o r e people that enjoy s p o r t s than a l l t h r e e t y p e s of football combined; Rugby. S o c c e r , a n d A m e r i can. That s p o r t i s auto racing. By f a r the b e s t a u t o r a c e s a r e the r o a d r a c e s , r a t h e r than the oval shows like Indy. And the b e s t r o a d r a c e s a r e on the Grand P r i x c i r c u i t . And of the four c l a s s e s of c a r s which r a c e on t h i s c i r c u i t , the F o r m u l a I s u r p a s s e s F o r 1 , F o r m u l a 111, a n d F o r m u l a mula 1 Junior (which a r e s m a l l e r c a r s ) . T h i s i s m y subject f o r t h i s a r t i c l e . No doubt m o s t of you who bothered to r e a d t h i s a r e f a m i l i a r with Avalon H i l l ' s fine g a m e s of baseball a n d football. A few of you m a y have seen t h e i r L e Mans game, which I believe r a n k s with the o t h e r two. A l i t t l e experience. enthusiasm, a n d a s m a l l group of people c a n t u r n the game into a gala s i m u l a tion of the r e a l thing. However, those few of you who own L e Mans know that the c a r s provided with i t a r e dated, a n d a r e s p o r t s c a r s . which do not r a c e in the Grand P r i x . T h e r e f o r e , I have done s o m e r e s e a r c h a n d calculated s o m e a p p r o x i m a t e figu r e s f o r s e v e r a l F. I. c a r s : down shift: 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1900 Variant for 1914


One of the difficulties of the 1914 situation, if not THE chief difficulty, was the l a r g e s i z e of the a r m i e s in r e l a t i m t o the amount of f r o n t available. T h i s was not always so. In 1900 the a r m i e s w e r e m u c h a s they w e r e i n 1914. The main difference was that they w e r e considerably s m a l l e r . The 1900 V a r i a n t r e f l e c t s t h i s a l t e r e d situation. This i s a l l i t r e f l e c t s . All o t h e r elements of the game a r e the s a m e . CHANGES FOR THE 1900 VARLANT Initial Deployment: f o r c e s available FRENCH 18 6-10-3 6 6-9-3 3 2-4-3 2 6-0-2 1 1-2-4 7 (2)-1-4 GERMAN 21 7-12-3 10 5-10-3 2 3-4-2 2 4-4-2 2 2-2-2 2 1-1-2 4 8-0-2 8 (4)-3-4

(gear c a r name: speeds: turns: Honda I 18-16-14-12-10-6 2 19-17- 15-14-11-7 2 Honda I1 20-19-17-14-10-5 2 Honda IIA ATS 21-19-16-13-11-9-64 3 BRP 20-18-15-12-11-9-5 3 F e r r a r i V6 20-18-16-14-11-9-6 3 F e r r a r i V8 22-20- 18- 16- 13- 10-7 2 Lola 18-16-14-13-10-5 2 Lotus 25 20-17-15-13-11-7 2 Scirocco-BRM 19- 17- 16-13-11-9-6 3 Lotus F o r d - A 20-17-15-12-10-6 2 Lotus F o r d - B 19-17-14-12-11-7 2 2(3) Cooper M e s s a r e t t i * 18- 17- 15- 13-10-9-7 Ferrari* 17-15-13-12-10-6 2 McClaran Ford* 16- 15- 14-12-11-5 2 3 BRM* 19-16-14-12-11-9-4 Eagle* 18-16-13-12-11-6 2 Repco-Brabham* 17- 16- 14- 12-10-7 2 Lotus BRM* 18-15-13-12-11-7 2 ( T h o s e with a s t e r i s k s (*) a p p e a r e d i n a n e a r l i e r General. They a r e not mine but got m e s t a r t e d o n m y r e s e a r c h . ) Note: The Cooper M e s s a r e t t i t u r n s r e d t u r n s i n second, a n d yellows i n h a r d brakings. third. H. B. Both the L e Mans a n d Monte C a r l o c o u r s e s a r e on the Grand P r i x c i r c u i t . The following information i s provided f o r those who find s t a t i s t i c s i n t e r e s t ing: 1) On Le Mans, one k i l o m e t e r i s 14 s q u a r e s long.

2) On Monte Carlo, one kilometer i s 54 s q u a r e s . 3 ) One t u r n on L e Mans i s 15 seconds long. 4 ) One t u r n on Monte C a r l o i s 4 seconds. Monte C a r l o i s obviously s u p e r i o r . I w a s not satisfied with just two c o u r s e s , a n d have found i t quite e a s y to copy r e a l c o u r s e s i n any s c a l e o r design m y own. However, the types of t u r n s a r e quite inadequate, s o I have added the following t u r n s , ranging f r o m slightest t o sharpest: dry Blue SO 1-3PS 4-6 SU SC wet SO dry Blac~ S0 PS 1-3 SU 4-6 SC wet

BELGIAN: one 3-4-2 e a c h in Namur & Liege. Two 1 - 1 - 2 ' s & one (2)-1-3 in Brussels. BRITISH: two 4-7-3's. one 1-2-3 and one (2)- 1-4. The G e r m a n s m a y r e d u c e 305 f o r t s with t h e i r 210 a r t i l l e r y . They m u s t r o l l a 1 o r 2. CONDITIONS O F VICTORY: The G e r m a n m a r g i n a l victory will now r e s u l t in a draw. They m u s t win a tactical o r d e c i s i v e v i c t o r y i n o r d e r t o win. All o t h e r e l e m e n t s of the game a r e the same. The above situation i s not a n exact r e c r e a t i o n of the 1900 situation a s this would r e q u i r e too much re-design. It i s m e r e l y intended t o s p e e d u p the game.

roll 1 2 3 4.5.6 PS=pit stop

dry Pink 1-3 P S 4-6 SC

wet

PS
SC SC

dry Green 1-3 SO 4-6 PS

wet SO

S0 PS

sc
SC

SC
SC

SC
SC

PS
1-3 SU 4-6 SC

su

sc

sc

sc

sc

sc

sc

sc

sc
S U = s m a s h up

SC-safely c o r n e r e d

SO- spin out

P i n k and G r e e n t u r n s a r e e a s i e r than Yellow t u r n s , and can b e safely c o r n e r ed one g e a r f a s t e r . Blue and Black a r e e x t r e m e l y s h a r p , a n d must be taken one g e a r slower. With t h e s e innovations andadditions, I have been a b l e t o develop t h i s method of simulation into a n e x t r e m e l y r e a l i s t i c duplicate to the Grand P r i x championship r a c e s , 'and everyone who participatks finds i t interesting, relaxing and enjoyable. P e r h a p s if you battle nuts ( I a m a d i e - h a r d player m y s e l f ) need s o m e r e s t f r o m combat you could take t i m e t o delve into t h i s fascinating battle of wits and machines. Norman Beveridge, Jr. 4822 Kingfisher Houston, T e x a s 77035

THE GENERAL
In a y e a r of reading the G e n e r a l , I have seen many a r t i c l e s advising the G e r m a n player in The Battle of the Bulge, but none giving hints on s t r a t e g y for the me rid an player. I, f o r one, believe that playing the A m e r i c a n s in Bulge i s e v e r y bit a s exciting a s playing the G e r m a n s and I offer t h i s a r t i c l e to beginning A m e r i c a n p l a y e r s of Bulge so that you m a y l e a r n to s a y "nuts" to your G e r m a n opponents effectively, This i s f o r Battle of the Bulge with a l l Tournament and optional r u l e s except One Way Traffic: To s e t up a strong defense, i t i s helpful to know the G e r m a n objectives and the r o u t e s and timetable he m u s t u s e to achieve them. T h e r e a r e five a t t a c k r o u t e s which the G e r m a n can u s e ; two in the north, the E l s e n b o r n - Malmedy Webermount r o u t e and the St. VithVielsalm route; two in the c e n t e r , the road to Houffalize then n o r t h a t E E 27 and a c r o s s to LaRoche o r s t r a i g h t w e s t to LaRoche route, and the ClearvauxBastogne r o u t e ; and one in the south: the Diekirch - Martelange route. The game i s divided into t h r e e s e p a r a t e t i m e p e r i o d s ; Dec. 16-17; Dec. 18-21 and Dec. 22 on. In the f i r s t t i m e period, the G e r m a n m u s t breakthrough your line in f o r c e o n a t l e a s t one of the five a t t a c k r o u t e s ; in the second p e r i o d he m u s t c r a c k the O u r t h R i v e r in f o r c e on a t l e a s t one of them, and in the third period he m u s t c r a c k the Meuse and hold it. If you c a n deny h i m any of these objectives, you will beat h i m easily. In the f i r s t period, the E i s e n b o r n route i s the e a s i e s t to defend and few G e r m a n c o m m a n d e r s will make a d e t e r m i n e d a t t a c k t h e r e . I usually find the 2nd Division s t r o n g enough to holditalone. On the f i r s t t u r n I always send a t l e a s t one unit of the 99th division to St. Vith and the r e s t to the mountain s q u a r e which c u t s the r o a d between T T 10 and St. Vith. This m a k e s St. Vith v e r y difficult to take, but, if the G e r m a n c u t s the r o a d f i r s t , you can s t i l l r e i n f o r c e St. Vith by way of Malmedy f r o m the north. When 7th a r m o r e d division a r r i v e s , I always send a t l e a s t one 7 - 4 to 00 15 and the heavy ground behind St. Vith and r e i n force i t with a t l e a s t one unit of 1 s t division. This way you c a n hold o u t long, even a f t e r St. Vith f a l l s , and e v e r y engagements i s a n A m e r i c a n victory. In the c e n t r a l front, you cannot defend the Houffalize r o a d but I always pull 9th A r m / CCA out of Diekirch on the f i r s t t u r n and put i t in Bastogne and send the r e m a i n d e r of the 7th A r m div to hold the r i v e r c r o s s i n g a t E E 27 above Hoffalize and the r e m a i n d e r of 1 s t div to hold the c r o s s i n g in f r o n t of L a Roche. You c a n be s u r r o u n d e d too e a s i l y trying to hold Houffalize but if p a r a t r o o p e r s and get 84 f a c t o r s against the city to even g e t 2-1 odds. But if you accomplish this watch out because the G e r m a n will quickly t u r n to attack you somewhere else. Thus you should strengthen your r i v e r c r o s s i n g s above Houffalize and i n f r o n t of L a Roche with 82nd A i r b o r n and 9th Divisibn. By t h i s time your north line behind St. Vith will be crumbling and y o u m u s t begin counter attacking. Stavelot m u s t b e held (YOU c a n use 30th Div) and any units you c a n s p a r e f r o m the south should be s e n t to Vielslm. Also a f o r tification should be built on c r o s s r o a d s DD 24. I often u s e a platoon s y s t e m h e r e (Vielslm Road) with one o r two units holding the r o a d while a second g r o u p f o r m s a second line behind them. When the f i r s t units a r e r e t r e a t e d , the second o n e s then a r e the blockers while the r e t r e a t e d units f o r m a new line. If the enemy i s advancing too swiftly, counter-attack! A 1-2 surrounded a t t a c k a g a i n s t strong P a n z e r s t a c k o f f e r s a 20% chance of eliminating many enemy f a c t o r s and even a contact o r engaged i s a tactical victory bec a u s e you f o r c e the G e r m a n to fight f o r a s q u a r e he otherwise would have had f r e e . If you c a n keep the G e r m a n out of Manhay and hold L a Roche until 3 r d A r m o r e d a r r i v e s on 21 AM he won't be able to c r a c k the Ourth and you can beat him. I have ignored the n o r t h e r n route because i t i s e a s y to defend and the f a r southern route because the G e r m a n cannot supply i t beyond Martelange without taking Bastogne. Nevertheless, if your opponent puts much strength against t h e m you m u s t block him. The o b j e c t a l l along i s to shift your stronge s t defense opposite his s t r o n g e s t offense.

Learn to Say, "Nuts"


by David Bush you get a chance, build a fortification (I don't u s e f o r t r e s s e s in t h i s stage of the game b e c a u s e a doubled f a c t o r controlling 7 s q u a r e s i s m o r e valuable than a t r i p l e d f a c t o r controlling only o n e ) o n E E 27 so t h a t you c a n block Houffalize and s t i l l be able to e s c a p e n o r t h of the r i v e r . Your m o s t c r u c i a l defense, however m u s t c o m e on the Clearvaux r o a d and h e r e you m u s t s a c rifice units to gain time. E v e r y single rough t e r r a i n s q u a r e which c o n t r o l s a r o a d i s p r i c e l e s s . Clearvaux m u s t be held to the death but I seldom put m o r e than one unit in i t since the G e r m a n can s u r r o u n d and d e s t r o y two a s e a s i l y a s one and the o t h e r s a r e needed to c u t roads. You m u s t fight f o r e v e r y single r o a d s p a c e but t r y to prevent yourself f r o m being surrounded. If you canhold out long enough f o r 10th a r m d to r e a c h Bastogne your chances will be g r e a t l y increased. You m u s t a l s o hold the Wiltz road. In the south, t r y to f r e e a unit of the 4th div to help block r o a d s , and hold Diekirch. You will eventually be surrounded and eliminated but t h i s will take the G e r m a n s e v e r a l turns. You m u s t be s u r e to keep the G e r m a n s out of Martelange until 10th A r m d r e a c h e s Bastogne, however. The period Dec 18-21 i s your m o s t c r u c i a l defense and b e s t chance to stop the G e r m a n . Bastogne will be your f i r s t w o r r y so I will t r e a t i t f i r s t . If your r o a d c u t t e r s have done t h e i r job and 10th a r m d r e a c h e s Bkstogne, you can put up a stout defense. The two 7-4's of 10th A r m d and the one of 9th A r m d make Bastogne a tough nut to c r a c k but if your r o a d c u t t e r s have been b l e s s e d with an engagement o r two so t h a t l O l s t Airborn g e t s t h e r e too, you c a n make i t impregnable. By placing the a i r b o r n t r o o p s and any remaining r o a d c u t t e r s in s t a c k s of one o r two on the h i l l s s o u t h e a s t of town and on the r o a d s q u a r e n o r t h of and adjacent to Bastogne with a unit of 82nd a i r b o r n holding the r o a d s behind it, the G e r m a n will not be able to s u r r o u n d Bastogne and will have to soak off a g a i n s t the

If things go bad and the G e r m a n takes the Ourth by the 21st, you probablywon't be able to keep h i m f r o m the Meuse but you should continue your slowing t a c t i c s and hope your reinforcem e n t s and a i r p o w e r g e t a chance to stop him. But m o s t important, you m u s t a t t a c k h i s supply lines. A s his p a n z e r s c r a c k e d the O u r t h and begin their m a d d a s h to the Meuse, he m a y have l e f t pockets of r e s i s t a n c e not quite isolated and you should attack Manhay o r Bastogne with them. Even a 1 - 2 gives s o m e chance of succe.ss and d e l a y s h i s advance. But if you have fought your e a r l i e r battles strong and h a r d the G e r m a n m a y find himself running s h o r t of units a t just the key time. Then you can tell h i m "nuts" with vigor.
David Bush 141 E. 15th Ave. Columbus, Ohio

THE GENERAL
GENERAL RULES 1) Hidden units within 2 s q u a r e s of a n e n e m y unit a t the end of a t u r n a r e r e v e a l e d a s long a s they s t a y within two s q u a r e s of a n e n e m y unit. Revealed units however a r e concealed when moving until they stop two s q u a r e s f r o m a n e n e m y unit. 2) All g a m e r u l e s not affected by these modifications r e m a i n in f o r c e . ( f o r e s t s , mountains, etc. ) Although not the b e s t s y s t e m to use this does provide a r a t h e r simply -cornplex method of adding t h e s e f a c t o r s to a g a m e , and i t i s not n e c e s s a r y to use both simultaneous and hidden r u l e s a t the Same time. Any questions you m a y have o r any suggestions o n how to i m prove this method a r e welcome. Add r e s s a l l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e to: Paul P e r l a 7205 Schley C o u r t P i t t s b u r g h , P a . 15218

"Simultaneous Hidden" Movement


by P a u l P e r l a I have placed the title i n quotes bec a u s e actually, m o v e m e n t under t h i s s y s t e m i s n e i t h e r totally simultaneous nor totally hidden. I t i s m o r e o r l e s s a conglomeration of s e v e r a l different ideas, however I have found this to be a c o m p a r a t i v e l y un-complex (notice, not s i m p l e ) method of including s i m u l taneous a n d / o r hidden m o v e m e n t in m o s t AH games. A s originally developed, I intended to use n u m b e r e d c o u n t e r s to r e p r e s e n t but as I didn't want things to get too involved, I decided to j u s t t u r n the s t a c k s upside down. ( T h i s i s e s pecially effective in Blitz with i t s m a n y different s i z e d units..) But f o r those of you who a r e r e a l f a n a t i c s with t i m e and c o u n t e r s to burn, the f i r s t method i s a m u c h m o r e fascinating way to play. MOVEMENT 1 ) Movement i s c a r r i e d o u t by r e v e r s e d s t a c k s o r units, and i s conducte d in p h a s e s , two p h a s e s to a turn. P l a y e r A m o v e s h i s f i r s t phase then player B then A again then B. 2) A unit o r s t a c k m a y move up to half i t s r e g u l a r allowance p e r phase and m a y not c a r r y o v e r any unused f a c t o r s to the n e x t phase. 3) All o t h e r m o v e m e n t r u l e s apply. COMBAT 1) When a unit m o v e s into the zone of c o n t r o l of a n e n e m y unit, i t m u s t sto,p. 2) The p l a y e r who moved into c o m bat i s the a t t a c k e r and r e m a i n s s o in that battle f o r the r e s t of the t u r n , no m a t t e r what o t h e r m o v e m e n t i s m a d e . 3) Once contact i s m a d e , the units that have contacted e a c h o t h e r m a y not move until the n e x t phase. battle b e c o m e s a n engagement. 3 ) Now e a c h p l a y e r i s p e r m i t t e d to bring up m o r e r e i n f o r c e m e n t s during the second phase, with blue remaining the attacker. ~~~~l~ may be divided according to the rules of the game. 4) Combat i s r e s o l v e d a t the end of the turn, with each side revealing the strength of their units f o r the f i r s t t i m e i n the battle. 5 ) Second phase battles a r e c a r r i e d out in the same manner, and they are a l s o r e s o l v e d a t the end of the turn.

Wellington's Waterloo
(How to Lose a War in a Single
by T o m S t o r s l e e A soft b r e e z e blew f r o m t h e w e s t a t the s m a l l town of Waterloo. The w a r m e a r t h glowed with the h e a t of the a f t e r noon sun. But the village which w a s u s u a l l y knownfor i t s d r o w s y a t m o s p h e r e today v i b r a t e d with the news of B o n e y ' s Coming. A s o l d i e r on a l a t h e r e d h o r s e r a c e d through the cobblestone s t r e e t s and pulled up i n f r o n t of a r e d b r i c k inn. The r i d e r l e a p e d f r o m the saddle and b u r s t through the door. But t h i s was no o r d i n a r y inn f o r housed within i t s humble w a l l s w a s the Duke of Wellington who had e s t a b l i s h e d h e a d q u a r t e r s t h e r e . The Duke w a s i n the m i d s t of h i s afternoon t e a ( i m p o r t e d of c o u r s e ) w h e n a r u d e knock pounded a t h i s d o o r . The m e s s e n g e r , f o r such he w a s , w a s l e t into the c o m m a n d e r ' s presence. "Quatre B r a s h a s f a l l e n ! The s u r viving t r o o p s a r e routed. Most of the P r u s s i a n s a r e d e s t r o y e d . The w a r i s l o s t !" The D u k e ' s f a c e whitened and then flushed i n r a g e . The m e s s e n g e r saw a s t r u g g l e within Wellington to compose himself. "What do you m e a n Q u a t r e B r a s h a s f a l l e n ? How did i t h a p ~ e n ? " The following i s roughly what the m e s s e n g e r should say: Q u a t r e B r a s i s the key point of the whole t e r r a i n . I t ' s e a r l y f a l l would m e a n a l l i e d defeat. Q u a r t e r e d a t the n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r of t h e F r e n c h occupied city of G o s s e l i e s w a s the c a v a l r y and h o r s e a r t i l l e r y of the F r e n c h totaling seven f a c t o r s . T h i s f o r c e w a s moved along the n o r t h e r n p r i m a r y r o a d toward Q u a t r e B r a s . With the r o a d bonus this f o r c e r e a c h e d the s q u a r e c i r c l e d in the d i a g r a m . (It i s the r o a d and slope taken square. ) This strategic d u r i n g the f i r s t t u r n completely d e s t r o y e d the n a t u r a l d e f e n s e s of Quatre B r a s . The zone of combat and the woods prevented the PAA f o r c e s f r o m moving t o t h e hilltop s q u a r e (labeled X in the d i a g r a m ) . B e c a u s e of the l a c k of suff i c i e n t t r o o p s the PAA f o r c e s could not hold the a r e a without the doubled de-

COMBAT PROCEDURE 1) In the f i r s t phase, Blue m o v e s into contact with Red, becoming the a t t a c k e r . Neither side m a y move these units during the r e m a i n d e r of the f i r s t phase. The s t r e n g t h of the units r e m a i n s concealed. 2) Before the second phase begins, Red ( d e f e n d e r ) r o l l s die if he w i s h e s to b r e a k contact. If he r o l l s a 1 o r 6 , cont a c t i s b r o k e n , and he m a y move h i s units in the second phase. If not, the

PAGE 9
What I a m offering h e r e i s a r a d i c a l opener f o r the G e r m a n c o m m a n d e r i n Bulge. F o r the m o s t p a r t i t i s b a s e d on the p e r c e n t a g e s f o r i t s s u c c e s s , and with the r i g h t t h r o w s of the d i e the A m e r i c a n p l a y e r will b e l e f t i n u t t e r d e s p e r a t i o n . F o r t h o s e of you who play by m a i l and don't f e e l t h a t t h e P B M odds c h a r t g i v e s you a f a i r chance, h e r e i s a suggestion. Use the s a m e s t o c k s f i g u r e that you would f o r P B M , but i n s t e a d of using t h e l a s t digit, t a k e the whole n u m b e r and divide by s i x . Then the r e m a i n d e r will b e t h e throw of the die; no r e m a i n d e r m e a n s t h e equivalent of a t o s s of s i x . T h i s way the r e g u l a r r e s u l t s t a b l e can b e u s e d . The following i s m y s u g g e s t e d lineup of a t t a c k s , i n the p r e s c r i b e d o r d e r . You m a y add o r d r o p a t will.

THE GENERAL

Radical Opener - Bulge


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f e n s e f a c t o r s . If a l l PAA t r o o p s w e r e concentrated t o hold t h i s a r e a , they could be a t t a c k e d f r o m behind by a c a v a l r y c h a r g e (30 to 40 f a c t o r s ) that originally feinted a n a s s a u l t a t Tilly. T h i s plan would work only if the c o m m a n d e r w a s bold and r e c k l e s s . All F r e n c h t r o o p s had t o b a c k the f r o n t a l a t t a c k vanguarded by seven c a v a l r y f a c t o r s . The s e v e n f a c t o r s w e r e wiped out but by the second t u r n t h e F r e n c h w e r e entrenched i n the hilltop s q u a r e ( m a r k e d X ) and Napolean could p r o c e e d to d e s t r o y t h e PAA r e s i s t a n c e a t b a s i c odds. HERE ARE THE S T E P S FOR A SURE WIN: 1. P l a c e the s e v e n c a v a l r y f a c t o r s in position on t h e f i r s t move. 2. B a c k up with f o r c e s that can r e a c h position X by second t u r n . 3. F e i n t a t T i l l y with c a v a l r y ( 3 0 t o 40 f a c t o r s ) then t u r n t o w a r d Q u a t r e B r a s . ( T h i s will e i t h e r occupy the P r u s s i a n s o r t i e up t r o o p s t o defend the Q u a t r e B r a s r e a r . ) 4. Always a t t a c k a t l e a s t 2-1 odds and defeat PAA by s h e e r n u m b e r s and f i e r c e n e s s of a t t a c k . I g u a r a n t e e t h i s plan t o w o r k . The seven c a v a l r y f a c t o r s a r e usually l o s t but it i s m a d e up l a t e r with the b a s i c odds. Move f a s t and the PAA r e i n f o r c e m e n t s will b e u s e l e s s . The g a m e should be won b e f o r e the e n t r a n c e of the P r u s s i a n s .

14 c a v 423 r e g

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One out of t h r e e t i m e s with t h i s off e n s e the A m i s will b e foolish even t o t r y to hold St. Vith, u n l e s s they don't want t o s e e a r e g i m e n t o r two a n y m o r e . P e i p e r and the 4 a n d 310 P z s e r v e t h e i r p u r p o s e on the f i r s t t u r n by protecting s e v e r a l s p a c e s , a n d then i n the second t u r n they a r e available t o d i s p l a c e t h e defender on 0017. If the G e r m a n s have b e e n lucky, (2 of 6 ) , on the 5 - 1 a t t a c k , they will e i t h e r have t h e h i l l a t QQ13 o r b e n e x t t o i t . E i t h e r situation i s a n enviable one, and it i s well worth the one out of s i x r i s k of a n exchange f o r the f o r t r e s s . But t h e r e is a one of two chance that the E l senborn- St. Vith r o a d will not be cut by t h a t battle, s o a 1- 2 i s n e c e s s a r y t o t h e n o r t h . If you think about i t , a n a t t a c k on NN25 i s not r e a l l y n e c e s s a r y , f o r only a n advance of one s p a c e would be allowed anyway. T h e r e f o r e , save t h i s a t t a c k and place one unit e a c h on 0023 and 0022 to d e t e r h i m f r o m taking up position n e a r t h e r e . I u s e a t t a c k s 3 a n d 4 t o e l i m i n a t e my foe. T h e 8 - 1 i s b e t t e r a g a i n s t ,the 109 R e g b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no exchange t h e r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , a n a t t a c k on the 8 Reg

d o e s m o r e than just cut off t h e 4 Division; t h e r e i s a good chance to t r a p a r e g i m e n t t h e r e i n a n engagement, and then s u r r o u n d it next t u r n . A s soon a s Monschau i s f r e e , infiltrate one t o t h r e e r e g i m e n t s through the woods t h e r e . One i s enough, f o r i t f o r c e s the foe to c o v e r i t with a t l e a s t one unit. He can i l l a f f o r d t h i s one t o one coverage. Use t h i s s a m e m a n e u v e r SW of Martelange and i n the woods between Houffalize and V i e l s a m . T h e A m e r i c a n s ' f e a r of being outflanked will f o r c e a move on h i s p a r t . One f u r t h e r piece of advice, probably well known, i s that m o s t of the G e r m a n P a n z e r s t r e n g t h should be pooled n e a r Houffalize e a r l y in the g a m e and t h e n d i r e c t e d toward the weak point t h a t i s o b s e r v e d . F o r t h e s a k e of A m e r i c a n p l a y e r s , well placed f o r t r e s s e s c a n m e a n the d i f f e r e n c e in a c l o s e g a m e . A f o r t r e s s on the r o a d slightly t o the e a s t of M a r t e lange will s e r v e a s a capable roadblock. I t s p l a c e m e n t is d e t e r m i n e d by a c a r e f u l study of the condition i n the south. Since t h e m a i n d r i v e of the G e r m a n s h e a d s NW a f t e r p a s s i n g Bastogne, and

THE GENERAL
the r o a d situation d e t e r i o r a t e s f o r t h e m , u s e the f o r t r e s s a g a i n . But a n i m p o r t ant observation must h e r e be made. Between Bastogne and R o c h e f o r t , B a s togne and M a r c h e , and Bastogne and Hotten, t h e r e i s not one r o a d by which German units may travel laterally, that i s m a n e u v e r e a s i l y . T o t h e N E of that only two s h o r t l a t e r a l r o a d s . e x i s t . Haven't you e v e r been the G e r m a n playe r and found the pace of y o u r a t t a c k slowing down w e s t of t h e O u r t h e R i v e r ? Now you know why - no l a t e r a l r o a d s t o m a n e u v e r on. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s the w i s e A m e r i c a n p l a y e r who u s e s f o r t r e s s e s to block the r o a d s . The f i r s t blocking f o r t r e s s should b e built on DD31. But you a s k why not o n Bastogne. Well, build one on Bastogne l a t e r , but DD31 i s m o r e a h i n d r a n c e t o t h e movement of t r o o p s n o r t h of Bastogne. To c o v e r the r o a d t o L a Roche, place a f o r t r e s s on BB29; s i n c e h e c a n not c r o s s the r i v e r , he might b e p r e s s e d t o a t t a c k the f o r t r e s s , g a r r i s o n i ~ t with a 7-4. Then c o m e s the I1Wall1l. When the 7 A r m o r e d c o m e s in, stop the CCR a t DD25 to build a f o r t r e s s . Then build f o r t r e s s e s a t CC26, BB27, L a Roche, Y29, Y30, and maybe Y31. Two r e g i m e n t s of the a i r b o r n e should b e u s e d to build p a r t of the "Wall". GG2O and GG2 1 a r e a l s o good Spots f o r f o r t r e s s e s . A f o r t r e s s a t Y38 will help t o c o v e r the south flank. And if the decision i s in doubt, place a f o r t r e s s a t Y l 9 . But the r e a l big stopcock should b e built i n the beginning a t JJ23 and 1124, with a unit on the h i l l a t I122 t o guard the r i v e r . The b e s t c o u n t e r a t t a c k s f o r the A m e r i c a n s will take place on the n o r t h e r n flank of the G e r m a n s , a s f a r e a s t a s p o s s i b l e , but watch out f o r t h e e n t r a p m e n t t h e r e by breakthrough G e r m a n t r o o p s n e a r Manhay and Aywaille. All c o m m e n t s a n d c r i t i c i s m should be s e n t t o Joseph W. S a u n d e r s , 3708 Yuma St. NW, Washington, D. C. 20016.

PAGE 10
delaying b a t t l e s . A s soon a s B r e s t Litovsk f a l l s your powerful P a n z e r s should wheel e a s t and take Minsk. The infantry should be up t o the Divina and if they w e r e lucky, might even have a bridgehead. In F i n land, r e t r e a t towards Helsinki, tying up a s many R u s s i a n u n i t s a s possible. In the d e e p south, the Rumanians should f o r m a defensive l i n e on the Dnestr a f t e r c r o s s i n g the P r u t . The G e r m a n f o r c e s should move North, between the m a r s h e s and the n o r t h e r n end of the Southern ~ u g . They should then move on Kiev. A s soon a s Minsk f a l l s , your powerful turn crossing the Divina andadvancing Leningrad' The remaining 'lose to Smolensk and possible get as them-

A defense line then be e s t a b l i s h e d running f r o m the s w a m p s south of Lake I l m e n to the P r i p y a t M a r s h e s . In the south, Kiev should b e taken and your P a n z e r s m u s t move on B r y a n s k and O r e l , thus f o r c i n g the R u s s i a n s t o f a l l b a c k t o a l i n e running roughly f r o m Smolensk to Ore1 o r K u r s k . E s t a b l i s h a defensive l i n e f r o m K u r s k t o the C r i m e a .

Yes, a German l/ictory in Stalingrad


by Ron Salcedo C o n t r a r y to what the S t a l i n g r a d B a t t l e Manual s a y s , a n o r t h e r n campaign in Stalingrad can b e quite productive. T h i s c a n be done a s follows: On t h e p r e s u m p t i o n t h a t your opponent u s e s a s e t u p slightly s i m i l a r to the AH one i n t h e Battle Manual, you should s e t up your 6 m o s t powerful P a n z e r C o r p s i n s t a c k s of 3 n o r t h of W a r s a w . A l s o put the bulk of y o u r Infantry south of B r e s t Litovsk. S t a c k your 3 6 - 6 - 6 ' s south of Warsaw and put a s many Rumanian f o r c e s a s p o s s i b l e i n Rumania. Also, put t h e full 8 combat f a c t o r s i n Finland t o a s s i s t the F i n n s . On the f i r s t t u r n s , the P a n z e r s n o r t h of Warsaw should a t t a c k the flank of t h e Bug R i v e r , moving t o w a r d s B r e s t L i t ovsk. Infantry, a t the s a m e t i m e , should h i t the Nemunas a t V - 19 and a t Kaunas. with 1-1 and 1-2 odds. If the p o s s i b l e l o s s involved i s not too g r e a t , a t t a c k B r e s t Litovsk with infantry only a t the b e s t odds, even b e f o r e the P a n z e r s get t h e r e . In the south, the r e maining P a n z e r and P a n z e r g r e n a d i e r f o r c e s should take Lwow and i n t h e d e e p south, a bridgehead a c r o s s the P r u t should be established. In Finland, fight

Your advance on Leningrad will b e quite h a r d t o stop due t o your powerful a r m o r concentration. Take r e i n f o r c e m e n t s a w a y f r o m the north, if possible, by t h r e a t e n i n g e l s e w h e r e . With p r o p e r handling of your f o r c e s you will c a p t u r e Leningrad by l a t e '41 o r e a r l y '42.

By now the F i n n i s h campaign will m o s t likely be o v e r and r e g a r d l e s s of the outcome t h e r e should be l i t t l e o r no R u s s i a n s l e f t , i n Finland. A f t e r giving Leningrad a p r o p e r g a r r i s o n , c r o s s the Volkhov o r e l s e the S v i r , whichever i s e a s i e r . The infantry should d r i v e a s c l o s e to Moscow a s possible and then e s t a b l i s h a defensive line along the Volga a r e a . Meanwhile, the P a n z e r s

PAGE 11
and the r e m a i n i n g infantry should c r o s s the Kolp a n d then hit the Volga in the Yaroslavl a r e a . While a l l t h i s i s going on, what i s happening e l s e w h e r e ? Your o t h e r P a n z e r s should c r o s s the r i v e r a t Ore1 and c r o s s the Oka south of Vladimir n e a r the Moscow-Stalingrad railway. T h e s e movements should push the R u s s i a n s back f r o m Smolensk to the Ugra, thus shortening your defensive line i n f r o n t of Moscow. Maintain the defensive on a l l o t h e r f r o n t s u n l e s s you get a lucky b r e a k . In that c a s e , move t o w a r d s Stalingrad. Now you m u s t decide whether t o a t t a c k Moscow f r o m the e a s t , o r s t a r v e the R u s s i a n s out. T h i s decision d e pends on the R u s s i a n s strength. Moscow m u s t f a l l b e f o r e August of 1942 t o give you a good chance of winning.

THE GENERAL

I, too, have r u n into the uninitiated's n o r m a l r e a c t i o n to the f i r s t contact with wargaming. But I immediately a t t e m p t to point out that wargaming i s m e r e l y a m e n t a l e x e r c i s e , only using a m e d i u m which i s a little l e s s common then the Scrabble b o a r d o r c h e s s . Why do you i n s i s t on trying to defend yours e l v e s in o t h e r w a y s ? The p r o b l e m now i s that s o m e people have begun to take it a l l too seriously. Most of these q u a s i - m i l i t a r y clubs a r e s t a r k , raving ridiculous. How c a n high school and college students possibly pretend to give e a c h o t h e r r a n k s and a d d r e s s e a c h o t h e r a s if i n the s e r v i c e ? I think it's childish. I engage in the g a m e s to both m e e t people and to pit m y mind a g a i n s t t h e i r s . What fun i s t h e r e in playing a g a m e by m a i l with someone who n e v e r w r i t e s ? I ' m not looking f o r a win on the won-loss r e c o r d ; I ' m looking f o r a challenge and a friend, win o r lose..

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K. T. Hoffman 266 C a r r o l l S t r e e t New Bedford, Mass.

02740

The following a rebuttal to Mr. Guthrie's provocative letter (Vol. 5, No. 2) on "lack of freedom" within the wargaming world.
A f t e r Moscow f a l l s , advance down the Railway t o w a r d s Stalingrad. Now. t h e r e a r e no defensive strongpoints due t o poor t e r r a i n . T h i s advance will f o r c e the R u s s i a n s b a c k f r o m t h e i r defensive positions n e a r the S e a of Azov. Now you simply fight a battle of annihlation until the R u s s i a n s u r r e n d e r s o r until your conquering a r m i e s e n t e r S t a l ingrad. When I r e a d your l e t t e r to the e d i t o r 1,really couldn't quite believe you w e r e serious. How c a n these supposedly totalitarian wargaming clubs f o r c e you to be a m e m b e r of one of t h e m ? How can they possibly make a l l w a r g a m e r s join? The only way one could do s o would be to be m o r e beneficial to the w a r g a m e r than the o t h e r clubs. Totali t a r i a n ? With a little investigation. Mr. Guthrie, you would have found out that SPARTA and A g g r e s s o r Homeland e l e c t t h e i r l e a d e r s . Boldland h a s just m e r g e d with IFW which e l e c t s i t s l e a d e r s . I have no information on Big Army, but would not be s u r p r i s e d if it, too, e l e c t e d i t s officers. If t h e r e i s a p a t t e r n to be found among t h e s e "totalitarian" clubs of y o u r s i t i s a p a t t e r n of democracy. One of your m a i n points w a s that the totalitarian clubs you mentioned w e r e conspiring to deny w a r g a m e r s any choice in t h e i r hobby. This i s c o m ple tely l u c i c r o u s because the clubs you so loudly condemnoffer c h o i c e s to w a r garners, not deny them. We now have the full r a n g e of clubs, f r o m the w a r mongering o n e s to o n e s devoted solely

to the providing of s e r v i c e s f o r their m e m b e r s . And t h e r e i s always the option of not joining any club a t a l L You couldn't a s k f o r m o r e choices than these, and choice i s a good definition of freedom. You m a d e the c h a r g e that a c e r t a i n n e u t r a l club (you m e a n SPARTA) subv e r t e d A g g r e s s o r Homeland. You go o n to s a y that the l e a d e r of A g g r e s s o r Homeland i s a high-ranking m e m b e r of SPARTA, and then insinuate that he subverted A g g r e s s o r Homeland s o a s to gain control of i t f r o m the outside. Again, had you investigated to uncover the t r u t h of the m a t t e r you would have found out a n u m b e r of illuminating facts. I a m the l e a d e r of A g g r e s s o r Homeland that you s p e a k of. I w a s a long-time m e m b e r of A g g r e s s o r Homeland before I had even h e a r d of SPARTA. I commanded the e n t i r e A r m y of A g g r e s s o r Homeland a t the time I joined SPARTA. And, finally, the l e a d e r of A g g r e s s o r Homeland a t that time, Victor Gervol, gave m e the l e a d e r s h i p of the club when he r e t i r e d . I will supply a photo-copy of h i s l e t t e r to m e if you would like one. Can't you imagine a p e r son being in two c l u b s a t once and n o t trying to h a r m one o r the o t h e r ? A r e you that narrow-minded? But it w a s in your final proposal t h a t you r e a l l y s u r p a s s e d yourself. You demanded t h a t Avalon Hill not p r i n t the a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f r o m the clubs you mentioned in the GENERAL. Yes. you r e a l l y want to l e t the w a r g a m e r s enjoy their freedom. We c e r t a i n l y a r e lucky that you a r e h e r e to keep u s f r o m falling p r e y to those clubs. Democracy ~ould be too much f o r u s to handle. B r u c e Sullivan 7873 E l Dorado P l a z a Long Beach, Calif. 90808

Dear Sirs: Concerning your a r t i c l e by Mr. Sear i g h t (July-Aug. 68) I think i t i s completely absurd. Even though he i s right about the ignorance surrounding nuclear development, I don't believe he i s right in brushing off the a t o m i c t h r e a t a s " t r a s h . " We now have m o r e than enough nuclear weapons to d e s t r o y the whole world. I think it i s high time for s o m e cool s t r a i g h t thinking. No ignoring o r panicking about t h i s probjust cool middle of the r o a d thinking w i l l solve it. Stephen Woodruff John St. Ext. W e s t e r l y , R. I. 02891

Ronnie Salcedo 78 C h a r l e s S t r e e t New Rochelle, N. Y. 10801.

THE GENERAL
Dear S i r .
In a n e f f o r t t o i m p r o v e t h e quality of

PAGE 12

the G e n e r a l , AH r e q u e s t s the bi-monthly


c o n t e s t e n t r a n t s t o n a m e t h e headlines of t h e t h r e e b e s t a r t i c l e s i n t h e i s s u e . Choosing t h e t h r e e i s a c h o r e , b e c a u s e i t i s often difficult t o find t h r e e well w r i t t e n columns. Too f r e q u e n t l y the r e a d e r finds m i s s p e l l i n g , i n c o r r e c t word usage, illogical construction, and poor punctuation. R e g a r d l e s s of content, many of t h e a r t i c l e s a r e quickly thrown t o g e t h e r and not p r o o f r e a d b e f o r e they go t o AH. T h i s m u s t not continue. Occasionally your staff i s guilty of t h e s e e r r o r s . In a n y c a s e i t is the job of e d i t o r s to edit. Obvious m i s t a k e s in copy should b e c o r r e c t e d by t h e staff b e f o r e publication. Notations t o t h a t f a c t should b e m a d e a f t e r t h e a r t i c l e . One way to i m p r o v e the quality of t h e work in general i s to require the disc l o s u r e of the n a m e of e a c h author. Anyone with a n y p r i d e will b e l o a t h t o sign h i s n a m e to a n i n f e r i o r product. Contributing w r i t e r s s h o u l d u s e c a r e ful, p r e c i s e wording. A dictionary, t h e s a u r u s , o r synonym f i n d e r i s helpful i n s e l e c t i n g t h e e x a c t w o r d f o r i t s meaning. F o r i m p r o v e m e n t of style. the w r i t e r should consult a n y of t h e good English composition m a n u a l s . The b e s t one i s probably S t r u n k and White, The E l e m e n t s of Style. A u s e f u l method f o r t h e m e w r i t i n g follows. It is not e a s y , but t h e t o i l i s worthwhile if i t i m p r o v e s t h e G e n e r a l . ( 1 ) B r i e f l y outline the points to be made. ( 2 ) Do a l l n e c e s s a r y r e s e a r c h . Check your f a c t s , a n d w h e r e t h e m a t e r i a l i s not c o m m o n knowledge, note t h e s o u r c e . If jrou p r o p o s e t o a l t e r a r u l e , you should b e a b l e t o defend t h e change. ( 3 ) Write t h e f i r s t d r a f t quickly t o develop t h e m a i n i d e a s . Do not w a s t e t i m e on g r a m m a r and f o r m s o long a s you know what you m e a n . ( 4 ) Completely r e w r i t e t h e f i r s t f r a f t . Choose your w o r d s c a r e f u l l y , and u s e t h e m sparingly. ( 5 ) S e t t h e p a p e r a s i d e f o r a day o r two. When you c o m e b a c k t o i t your mind will b e f r e s h and a l e r t t o d e t e c t m i s t a k e s . If t h e n a r r a t i v e flows s m o othly and logically m a k e s i t s points, the e s s a y i s a l m o s t complete. P r o o f r e a d f o r punctuation and spelling. If you have t h e s l i g h t e s t doubt about a spelling, look i t up. ( 6 ) Type t h e final d r a f t , r e s e r v i n g a c a r b o n copy f o r yourself s o you know what you have submitted. (7) Proofread. Proofread. Proofr e a d . Good writing. E r i c Shimer I l l i c e r ' s Mill Road Bethlehem. P a . 18017

Ofiial A~alon Hill Game Clubs...


The clubs l i s t e d below supplement the initial l i s t i n g m a d e i n the J a n - F e b 1968 i s s u e . Due to space l i m i t a t i o n s , we have not r e p e a t e d a n y p r i o r l i s t i n g s although many have f o r w a r d e d u s updated information. The p u r p o s e of t h i s l i s t i n g i s simply t o provide b a s i c information t o t h o s e r e a d e r s looking f o r new clubs.

CLUB South A l a b a m a D i r e c t o r a t e of Inter-Colligiate ~ t r a t e ~ i e s t s 137 1 Ridgewood Mobile, A l a b a m a 36608 T h e Galactic E m p i r e 5756 E a s t Seventh S t r e e t Tucson. A r i z o n a 857 11 T h e G r e a t G e n e r a l Staff 5723 S. Kenwood Chicago. Illinois 60637 E a s t Horizon 1403 E. 77th Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 1s t Shock A r m y 761 1 R i v e r d a l e Road # 3 15 New C a r r o l l t o n , Maryland 20784 Dual Monarchy 2713 Urbana Drive Wheaton, Maryland W a r g a m e r s Club of A m e r i c a 52 G r a y S t r e e t Boston. M a s s a c h u s e t t s Panzer Lehr R. D. #3, Box 189 Battle C r e e k , Michigan 49017 T h e Voltiguers (SAC) 16502 G r a y s Bay Blvd. Wazata, Minnesota 5539 1 4th SS V o l k s g r e n a d i e r s 141 P i n e Road B r i a r c l i f f , New York 10510 Stonewall B r i g a d e P. 0. Box 763 Newbern, North C a r o l i n a 28560 I m p e r i a l G u a r d s (SAC) 5712 Wells C i r c l e South F t . Worth. T e x a s 761 14 Royal G u a r d s 147 Bloxom Drive Newport News, Virginia 23602 A. H. P o r t u g u e s e Club Av. Duque d e Avila Lisbon, PORTUGAL

PRESIDENT P a t Knapp

MEMBERSHIP a s e l e c t few

Phil Pritchard

M a r k Zumpher

Duane C l a r k F i a n t

Patrick Otero

T . F. M o r i n & Robert Hoess

Michael Nicholson

26

J a m e s Pulsipher

John Kuechle

10

James Anderson

Stonewall

Bill G r a y

Steven Seefeldt

Antonio Calcada

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THE GENERAL
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Contest No. 27
The B e s t of the B e s t

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Don't f o r g e t t o vote on what a r e t h e ret h r e e b e s t a r t i c l e s of t h i s i s s u e . c o r d your v o t e s w h e r e provided on t h e Contest E n t r y blank.

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I f r o m AH'S l a s t survey, i s now r e a d y t o give i t a n o t h e r go.

The IBM 360130 c o m p u t e r , having just gotten o v e r the indigestion i t received Contest winners will be picked a t random, t h e offer of a gift c e r t i f i c a t e a n inducement to get another large response.

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The Coupon shownbelow is f o r t h e benef i t of the f u l l - y e a r s u b s c r i b e r . A s soon a s you have a c c u m u l a t e d 4 s u c h cmlpons, 1 e a c h f r o m t h i s and succeeding i s s u e s , you a r e entitled to a $1.00 d i s count applied t o t h e p u r c h a s e of a n y Avalon Hill g a m e s , p a r t s , play-bym a i l equipment a n d t h e G e n e r a l . H e r e ' s how i t w o r k s E a c h coupon i s w o r t h 25C. But one coupon alone d o e s not e n t i t l e you to a 25f c r e d i t . You m u s t a c c u m u l a t e 4 different coupons b e f o r e taking advanta g e of the $1.00 c r e d i t . When you have a c c u m u l a t e d 4 coupons, then you c l i p t h e m a l l t o g e t h e r and s e n d t h e m i n with your o r d e r f o r a n Avalon Hill game. When o r d e r i n g in t h i s m a n n e r , you s i m p l y s e n d u s a check o r m o n e y - o r d e r f o r $1. 00 l e s s than t h e u s u a l r e t a i l value of the g a m e .

I 1

The p u r p o s e of t h i s s u r v e y i s t o b e t t e r a s c e r t a i n exactlywhich a r e a s of tactics. strategy,and playability m a k e f o r g a m e s t h ~ a t r e fun t o p l a y . F o r each group, a s s i g n HIDDEN MOVEMENT

1 "3" t o your p r e f e r e n c e ; "2" t o your 2nd I choice. "1" t o your t h i r d choice. When I t h e r e a r e only two choices to a group. I u s e n u m b e r s "3" and "1".

,
'

ZONES O F CONTROL:

I I
I
I
I

n
I

u I I

a
-

A s i n Gettysburg

I I A s i n Guadalcanal

F u l l zones of control (Stalingrad)

P a r t i a l zones ( G e t t y s b u r g ) No zones (1914)

H I

A s i n 1914 (upside-down c o u n t e r s )

RETREATS:

GRIDS S q u a r e Grid

n
n

Allowed t h r u n o r m a l l y blocking terrain Not allowed t h r u blocking t e r r a i n

1.
v

Hex Grid MOVEMENT: Consecutive Simultaneous (in e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a g e , only)

STACKING One Unit m a x i m u m ( T a c t i c s 11)

ISAVE THIS COUPON


4
GOOD TOWARD T H E PURCHASE O F A L L AVALON HILL PRODUCTS

R 1

YPT-OCT 1968

I I I

Stacked a c c o r d i n g t o Units (Stalingrad) Stacked a c c o r d i n g t o combat f a c t o r s (Waterloo)

Name

I Headlines of 3 B e s t A r t i c l e s :

I I
Address city State

I
I

THE GENERAL

PAGE 14
F o r the second s t r a i g h t season, the Avalon Hill baseball t e a m took top h o n o r s in the Baltimore Unlimited Baseball League. A 6 to 0 victory in the f i n a l playoff g a m e a s s u r e d them the top spot and an invitation to the Maryland State Tournament finals. With e s s e n t i a l l y the s a m e personnel a s l a s t y e a r , but with a new look in the pitching c o r p s , the l o c a l s b e a t down the p r e s s u r e that had been applied by the r e s t of the league in t h e i r efforts to dethrown l a s t y e a r ' s champs. "The r o a d was much tougher this year, "relates m a n a g e r Tom Shaw. "When you're king-pin, a l l the o t h e r t e a m s a r e out to g e t you. Consequentl y you f a c e t h e i r b e s t pitching game a f t e r game. I ' "As a r e s u l t , the t e a m batting a v e r age w a s down o v e r that of l a s t y e a r . Currently. we've only got two 300 h i t t e r s and t h e y ' r e both pitchers."

AH Baseball Team Cops Crown

COMBAT RESULTS METHOD: B a s i c s y s t e m (Stalingrad) Substitute Counter reduction s y s tem (Blitzkrieg)

VICTORY CONDITIONS:

I I Step-down reduction

s y s t e m (1914)

FI
-

Written reduction P a d s,ystem (Guadalcanal ) Elim-Engaged-Retreat system (Bulge)

El

Conditional elimination (Stalingrad) Point s y s t e m (1914) T e r r i t o r i a l objective (Bulge)

I
I

I I

COMPLEXITY LEVEL: T a c t i c s I1 S talingrad Blitzkrieg 1914

I I

DIRECTION O F RETREAT: Dictated by winner Dictated by l o s e r

AIR POWER: D-Day Bulge Blitzkrieg ROUGH TERRAIN FACTORS: Combat f a c t o r s added t o defender

ISOLATION & SUPPLY: Replacement City s y s t e m (Stalingrad) City s o u r c e s y s t e m ( B l i t z k r i e g ) Supply quota s y s t e m (D-Day) Line of supply s y s t e m (Bulge) Supply Counters s y s t e m (Afrika Korps)

When a s k e d what the t e a m did specifically to o v e r c o m e such p r e s s u r e , Shaw replied, "we had to dig deep into o u r b a g of t r i c k s to s t a y one step ahead strategically. I ' " F o r example; whenever we had a situation where t h e r e was l e s s than 2 o u t and b a s e r u n n e r s a t f i r s t and third, we always attempted the delayed double-steal. r e g a r d l e s s of the speed of o u r b a s e r u n n e r s . What w a s the opposing t e a m to do in this i n s t a n c e ? If they threw to s e c o n d t o g e t the runn e r , o u r m a n on third usually made it home before the r e l a y . But usually, no a t t e m p t w a s m a d e on the m a n a t second. Thus, we've s e t up a 2nd and 3 r d base situation which negated the possible double-play. By the t i m e the o t h e r t e a m c a t c h e s on to t h e s e t a c t i c s , you're through playing t h e m f o r the season. I t

..

I
I
, I

ARTILLERY: 1914 s y s t e m Guadalcanal s y s t e m Gettysburg s q u a r e - g r i d s y s t e m Waterloo s y s t e m

H
8 4

Combat f a c t o r s s u b t r a c t e d f r o m a t I tacker No effect

I I I I I

LUCK ELEMENTS:

Die r o l l using 1 die Die r o l l using 2 dice

No dice - u s e m a t r i x s y s t e m (Football S t r a t e g y )

"And, too, we have a home diamond t a i l o r - m a d e to o u r attack. Our s h o r t right-field fence i s built-to-order f o r o u r left-hand pull h i t t e r s , and o u r 'right-hand l a t e swingers. I t c a n work both ways, s o I was c a r e f u l to i n s t r u c t o u r p i t c h e r s to pitch the right-handers tight and the l e f t - h a n d e r ' s outside. This way, m o s t of the opposition hits would land away f r o m the right field sector. " "That's a l l I'll tell you now; we s t i l l have the tournament coming up. We w e r e r u n n e r s - u p l a s t y e a r , s o I ' m reserving our surprise strategy for these games. Avalon Hill will have i t s work cut o u t f o r them. Since the tournament f e a t u r e s only those top t e a m s f r o m o t h e r l e a g u e s around the a r e a , i t s back to Baseball S t r a t e g y f o r a r e f r e s h e r c o u r s e f o r Manager Tom Shaw and his coaching staff.

PAGE 15

THE GENERAL
St. , Tucson. Arizona 8571 1, just s t a r t ing; The Kommandeur. 844 Ashcomb Drive, Valinda. Cal. 91744, highly inf o r m a t i v e q u a r t e r l y publication i n 3 r d y e a r ; The P a n z e r f a u s t , Box 280, RD#2, S a y r e , P a . , i n i t s 2nd y e a r covering a l l a r e a s of gaming; Das Schwarz Korps, 16 Oliver S t . , Hartford. Conn. 06106, two i s s u e s ; The S p a r t a n , IFW, 2249 N. B r o a d St., Phila. P a . 19132, bi-monthly n e w s l e t t e r approaching 2nd y e a r of publication. The S p a r t a n Gladiator, 5820 John A v e . . Long Beach, Cal. 90805, voice of John Powell & Company c u r r e n t l y i n s e r i e s 3 meaning 3 r d y e a r (we a s s u m e ) ; The S p a r t a n Phantom. 2233 South Louisville.Tulsa, Oklahoma 741 14, two i s s u e s devoted t o "candidus immunit u s publicus;" The S t o r m t r o o p e r , no a d d r e s s , no editor, but i n t e r e s t i n g a r t i c l e s ; S t r a t e g y & T a c t i c s . 50 F a i r f i e l d A v e n u e , Albany, New York 12205, m o s t professional of the l o t . . . a m u s t . The e v e r expanding publication off i c e s of S & T (Strategy & T a c t i c s Magazine) h a s done i t again. Coming in the F a l l will be a .highly informative one- shot magazine entitled,. "German Weapons & Strategy, " I t s publisher, P r o j e c t Analysis Corporation, 50 F a i r field A v e . . Albany, N. Y. 12205, has g a t h e r e d the f i n e s t h i s t o r i a n s available f o r the compilation of t h i s r e m a r k a b l e work. A s a n a s i d e , much of the r e a sons f o r t h e design o f A H 1 s 1914 i s substantiated i n the pages of this l i t e r a r y effort which i s the culmination of over 3 y e a r s of doggedly intensive r e s e a r c h . Many s u r p r i s e s a w a i t the r e a d e r . Many must f o r m y t h s have been exploded. A the connosur of G e r m a n m i l i t a r y h i s t o r y . The Olympics - 1968. .not the one in Mexico, but the one sponsored by the S p a r t a n Neutral Competition League ( s e e c o v e r s t o r y ) will c o m m e n c e Novemb e r 1, 1968. R e g i s t r a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d by October ?5th f o r PBM t o u r n a m e n t s f e a t u r i n g a l l AH and Gamescience PBM g a m e s . An inquiry, b e t t e r still, a oned o l l a r - b i l l should be sent to t h e i r 5820 John Avenue, Long Beach, California 90805 a d d r e s s . D i s a g r e e m e n t o v e r the execution of plans i n W a r g a m e r ' s Clinic precludes the inclusion of E x e r c i s e #4 i n t h i s i s sue. A s soon a s the protagonists e m e r g e f r o m t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e hospitals, the s e r i e s will b e r e s u m e d . C o n g r a t s t o A H ' S b a s e b a l l team. The league championship w a s secondary c o m p a r e d t o t h e i r 4 t o 3 d e s t r u c t i o n of Navy a t the Academy e a r l y i n August. "Bring on West Point. " we gloat. According t o C r a f t , Model & Hobby Industry Magazine. G a m e s a s a hobby i s 5th down f r o m the top of the hobby l i s t . In 1 s t p l a c e ? P l a s t i c kits, of c o u r s e . F o r e v e r y game sold a s a hobby, 9 p l a s t i c kits a r e sold. Take h e a r t ; the r a t i o i s about 1 on 1 between model r a i l r o a d s and g a m e s .
p

Our thanks to the 1,000 plus e n t r a n t s t o Contest #25 giving u s your s u r v e y p r e f e r e n c e s . T h e 10 p r i z e w i n n e r s picked a t r a n d o m have -.been s e n t gift c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r AH m e r c h a n d i s e . Gift c e r t i f i c a t e s have a l s o been sent t o the following "authors" f o r t h e i r outstanding a r t i c l e s i n l a s t m o n t h ' s i s s u e of The G e n e r a l . Heading the l i s t i s C a r l K. Knabe I1 f o r Bel'gium - When?, followed by J a r e d J o h n s o n ' s P e a c e - I n , Alvin F i l e s ' T o g e t h e r n e s s f o r the Conf e d e r a t e s . Sidnev T r e v e t h a n ' s On S t r a tegic Defense, and R i c h a r d C. Giber s o n ' s Jutland Plav-bv- Mail. Continuing o u r benevolent mood, we've a l s o s e n t gift c e r t i f i c a t e s t o t h e 10 w i n n e r s of C o n t e s t #26: R o b e r t Gwinn, S a n F r a n c i s c o ; Manuel Guarinna, Mexico City; T o m deShong. Washington, D. C . ; Gordon B r e v e r , K a n s a s City, Mo. ; G a r y Smith, S a n F r a n c i s c o ; J a m e s E . Devoe, Littlestown, P a . ; Howard Kingamon, Dallas. Texas; Brenton Anderson, Iowa City. Iowa; C h a r l e s C a r t r i g h t . Miami. F l a . ; and Nelson Doinger, Chicago, Illinois. H e r e i s a TIME-SAVER suggestion by Jay Bennett. Wyndmoor. P a . , f o r a l l p l a y e r s of 1914 who find w r i t i n g and planning mobilizations t r o u b l e s o m e using the c u r r e n t s y s t e m . The only n e c e s s a r y equipment i s two b o a r d s of the Football S t r a t e g y o r Midway o r B i s m a r c k type. You m e r e l y stand t h e m up on t h e i r e d g e s a n d u s e t h e m a s s c r e e n s . One b o a r d h a s i t s joint l o c a t ed on s q u a r e GG-26; one edge r u n s n o r t h along t h e GG column; the o t h e r edge r u n s s o u t h e a s t f r o m s q u a r e GG-26 (along the F r a n c o - P r u s s i a n b o r d e r ) . The o t h e r b o a r d i s placed with i t s joint a t MM-32; one edge r u n s south along the MM column; the o t h e r edge r u n s southeast f r o m MM-32. With the b o a r d s placed thus, both p l a y e r s c a n mobilize a t the s a m e t i m e by placing t h e i r units i n t h e i r positions on the b o a r d without using the c u m b e r s o m e mobilization c h a r t s since n e i t h e r p l a y e r c a n s e e the o t h e r ' s side and the s c r e e n i n g b o a r d s r u n along t h e b o r d e r s w h e r e no one i s p e r m i t t e d to place t r o o p s . Still t h e r e a r e two p r o b l e m s : one s q u a r e MM-37, which i s completely G e r m a n t e r r i t o r y , i s blocked by the s c r e e n and, i n the north, the G e r m a n Dutch b o r d e r c a n be seen. If the G e r m a n player w i s h e s t o place units i n t h e s e a r e a s , i t would b e b e s t t o make a notation of the s q u a r e s and units. Still the method should p r o v e t o b e a g r e a t t i m e - s a v e r in the t i m e - c o n s u m i n g s t e p of mobilization.

Congratulations to M a r k Rudolph ( e a s t ) and R i c h a r d Rubin ( w e s t ) p r i z e w i n n e r s in P.O. W . ' s 4th annual P B M t o u r n a m e n t . A total of 15 p r i z e w i n n e r s w e r e announced by the publicity man f o r the tourney, the only c o - s p o n s o r e d competition held i n the wargaming world. Kudos to the Pennsylvania O r ganized W a r g a r n e r s and A g g r e s s o r Homeland f o r bringing this type of c o m petition t o fruition. P l a n s f o r next y e a r ' s tourney a r e being f o r m u l a t e d a t t h e i r HQ, Box 280, RD#2, S a y r e , P a . 18840. "Join the common m a r k e t , " a s k s Bill Dobbins whose organization i s willing to a c t a s m e d i a r y f o r a l l t e r r i t o r i a l c l a i m s . A n e w s l e t t e r @ 50{ a throw will i n f o r m s u b s c r i b e r s on a l l "the action and odds and e n d s . " Q u e r i e s r e c e i v e d a t 18090 NW Avalon Drive, P o r t l a n d , Oregon 97229. New club r e g i s t r a t i o n s get s t r a n g e r The and s t r a n g e r . L a t e s t t o e n r o l l i s Galactic E m p i r e . .boasting not one magazine, but two: S p a c e l a n e s and Galaxian, not t o mention a 20-page Manual of The Galactic E m p i r e edited a t 5756 E . 7th S t r e e t , Tucson, A r i z o n a 85711 by P a u l P r i t c h a r d , S i r i u s S e c t o r , P r e f e c t of C e n t a r u s , Sol 111. Wierd, man. A l s o on the t o u r n a m e n t c i r c u i t , t h i s one with l i v e talent, the P a c i f i c Northw e s t War G a m e s A s s n . announced the w i n n e r s of t h e i r annual b a s h i n Seattle. P r i z e s of AH g a m e s , S & T s u b s c r i p tions, and cold c a s h w e r e a w a r d e d t o many including Ben T u r k , winner of the AH division; Doug B a k e r , winner of the Diplomacy division; a n d r u n n e r s up R i c h a r d Shagrin, G r e g Long, and Doug B e y e r l e i n . Other f e a t u r e s of the t o u r n a m e n t included displays of t a b l e top w a r g a m i n g a n d F l e t c h e r P r a t t Naval m a t e r i a l . The U. of Washington may a g a i n be h o s t t o the next tournament, d e t a i l s of which a r e now a v a i l a b l e a t 3934 S . W. Southern, Seattle, Washington 98116.

Organizational Magazines and Newsl e t t e r s on our r e c o m m e n d e d l i s t numb e r : The C o u r i e r , Box 547. F r e d e r i c k s burg. Va. 22401, the official news o r g a n f o r Boldland, in i t s 2nd y e a r of publication; The Galaxian, 5756 E. 7th

COVER PHOTO CREDITS: Top-to-bottom; Doug Walker presenting "Spartan of the Year" award t o Marc Herbert; Russell and Donna Powell at Waterloo; Spartan stalwarts at award dinner-Herbert, Bill Groover, Raymond Betts, Larry Dingle, Steve Sents, Walker; Herbert and Betts computing combat factors, or writing an article for Life Magazine.