Você está na página 1de 6


CENTRAL PHILIPPINE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES JARO, ILOILO CITY MAN 770 Clinical Supervision and Management PLANNING Planning is the primary function of management and occupies the first position in the management process. It is the starting point of the whole management process as other management functions are related to planning function. Planning means deciding in advance the objectives to be achieved and preparing plans/programmes for achieving them. In other words, planning is the process of foreseeing desired objectives - anticipating problems and developing solutions. It serves as a core of the whole management process. Planning, in simple words, means to decide the objectives clearly and to prepare a plan. Definitions of Planning According to Koontz and O'Donnell, "Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it, and who is to do it. Planning bridges the gap between where we are and where we want to go. It makes it possible for things to occur which would not otherwise happen. According to George R Terry, "Planning is the selecting and relating of facts and the making and using of assumptions regarding the future in the visualization and formulation of purposed activities believed necessary to achieve desired results". According to Philip Kotler, "Planning is deciding in the present what to do in the future. It is the process whereby companies reconcile their resources with their objectives and opportunities". Characteristics of planning 1. Planning focuses on achieving the objectives: Management begins with planning and planning begins with the determining of objectives. In the absence of objectives no organization can ever be thought about. 2. Planning is the primary function of management: Planning is the first important function of management. The other functions organising, staffing, directing and controlling come later. In the absence of planning no other function of management can be performed. 3. Planning is continuous: Planning is the process which begins with the beginning of business itself and ends with the ending of the business. It means that as long a business exists, the planning process is continuous. 4. Planning is Futuristic: Planning decides the plan of action-What is to be done, how is to be done, when is to be done, by who is to be done, all the questions are related to future. Under the planning, answers to these questions are found out. While an effort is made to find out these answer. By: Jenno Ray Senal, RN ~PLANNING~

2 5. Planning is a mental exercise: Planning is known as a mental exercise as it is related to thinking before doing something. A planner has mainly to think about the following questions: (1) What to do? (3)When to do it? (2) How to do it? (4) Who is to do it? Types of Planning A. STRATEGIC PLANNING >Top-level managers, formulate long-term strategic planning to reinforce the firms mission (the mission clarifies organizational purpose) >Strategic plans are specified for five years period or more; but circumstances dictate the planning horizon. B. TACTICAL PLANNING >Middle management is responsible for translating strategies into shorter-term tactics. Tactical plans are often specified in one-year increments. (E.g. annual budget) > Translating strategic plans into measurable tactical objectives is important because most strategic objective is rather vague. C. OPERATIONAL PLANNING > Operational planning is accomplished by fist-line managers. Operational planning is most concerned with budgets, quotas and schedules. These are refinements of tactical objectives in which work is defined and results are measured in small increments. Time horizon for operational planning is very short. Most plans at this level reflect operational cycles. D. CONTINGENCY PLANNING > Contingency plans allow a manager to be flexible and change-savvy by providing an alternative course of action, which can be implemented if and when an original plan fails to produce the anticipated result. It is an alternative course of action, which can be implemented if and when an original plan fails to produce the anticipated result. Having a contingency plan might seem like extra work, but it's better to have it and not need it than to need it and not have it. In order to fulfil her/his own job responsibilities and to guide subordinates towards agency goals, the nurse manager must spend scarce materials and human resources wisely. Since the nursing service operation in even a small agency is immensely complicated, careful planning is needed to avoid waste, confusion and error. Scope of Planning Top management o Composed of nursing directors, chief nurses and their assistants o Set the over-all goals and policies of an organization; their responsibility covers over-all management of the organizations nursing service Middle management o Composed of nursing supervisors o Direct the activities to actually implement the broad operating policies; formulation of policies, etc. for intermediate level for ongoing projects and activities is done in coordination with top mgt. and those in the lower level Lower level (first-level) management o Composed of head nurses or senior nurses (+ charge nurses) o Do the daily and weekly plans for administration of direct patient care

By: Jenno Ray Senal, RN


3 Characteristics of a Good Plan A well-developed plan should: 1) be precise with clearly-worded objectives, including desired results and methods fir evaluation; 2) be guided by the principles and/ or procedures affecting the planned action; 3) indicate priorities 4) develop action that are flexible and realistic in terms of available personnel, equipment, facilities and time; 5) develop a logical sequence of activities; 6) include the most practical methods of achieving each objective; 7) pervade the whole organization. The Planning Hierarchy (Marquis, 2000) - Plans form a hierarchy, with the plans at the top influencing all the plans that follow - This hierarchy broadens at lower levels, representing an increase in the number of planning components - Planning components at the top are more general and lower components are more specific Elements: Purpose or Mission statement Identifies the reason that an organization exists and its future aim or function Identifies the organizations constituency and addresses its position regarding ethics, principles, and standards of practice Philosophy Delineates the set of values and beliefs that guide all actions of the organization Serves as the basic foundation that directs all further planning toward that mission Goals These are the ends towards which the organization is working Goal: the aim of the philosophy; the desired result toward which the effort is directed Goals should be measureable and ambitious but REALISTIC. They should also clearly delineate the desired end-product

Objectives Objectives: identify how and when the goal is to be accomplished: Process objectives written in terms of the method to be used Ex. To strengthen and integrate the role of the hospital in the promotion of health and prevention of illness through health care service, linkages and referrals with community leaders, civic and government organizations and agencies Result-focused objectives specify the desired outcome Ex. To establish a systematic staffing pattern that ensures availability of nursing personnel who can provide quality and safe nursing care to patients in accordance with their skill level. The more specific the objectives for a goal can be, the easier for all the involved in goal attainment to understand and carry out specific role behaviors

By: Jenno Ray Senal, RN


4 Policies and Procedures Policies: explain how goals will be met and guide the general course and scope of organizational activities Procedures: identify the process or steps needed to implement a policy Established procedures save staff time, facilitate delegation, reduce cost, increase productivity, and provide a means of control Rules and regulations These are plans that define specific action (or nonaction) Rules: describe situations that allow only one choice of action Existing rules should be enforced to keep morale from breaking down and to allow organizational structure Reasons for Planning Planning is essential to nursing: 1. Leads to success in the achievement of goals and objectives a. Brings about behavior that leads to desired actions and outcomes b. Makes performance of tasks more meaningful c. Helps nurses relate what they are doing to their professional goals 2. Provides for the effective available personnel and facilities a. E.g. projecting the number of nurses needed to care for a group of patients or ordering enough supplies for a unit. 3. Helps nurses cope with crisis and problems calmly and efficiently pervade a. Predict future activities, anticipate future problems, and plan for alternatives to prevent or cope with potential problems. 4. Reduces element of change a. Study what has been successful or unsuccessful b. Discover the need for change 5. Necessary for effective control a. Enables manager to design effective way to ensure accomplishment of goals and objectives through coordination and collaboration between and among people in the organization and effective use of resources Importance of planning Planning is the first and most important function of the management. It is needed at every level of the management. In the absence of planning all the business activities of the organization will become meaningless. The importance of planning has increased all the more in view of the increasing size of organizations in the absence of planning; it may not be impossible but certainly difficult to guess the uncertain events of future. 1. Planning facilitates decision making: Decision making means the process of taking decision. Under it, a variety of alternatives are discovered and the best alternative is chosen. But it is important to determine the objectives before the discovery of alternatives. Objectives are determined under the process of planning. So it can be said that planning facilitates decision making. 2. Planning reduce risk of uncertainty: Planning is always done for future and future is uncertain. With the help of planning possible changes in future are anticipated and various activities are planned in the best possible way. 3. Planning reduces overlapping and wasteful activities: Under planning, future activities are planned in order to achieve objectives. The problems of when, where ,what and almost decided. This puts an end to disorder. In such situation coordination is established among different activities and departments. It puts an end to overlapping and wasteful activities. By: Jenno Ray Senal, RN ~PLANNING~

5 4. Planning provides direction: Under the process of planning the objectives of the organization are defined in simple and clear words. The outcome of this is that all the employees important role in the attainment of the objectives of the organization. 5. Planning establishes standards for controlling: By determining the objectives of the organisation through planning all the people working in the organization and all the departments are informed about when, what and how to do things. Standards are laid down about their work, time and cost. Under controlling, at the time of completing the work, the actual work done is compared with the standard work and deviations are found out and if the work has been done as desired the person concerned are held responsible. Limitations of planning Planning is needed both in the business and non-business organizations. Some people think that planning is based on the future and nothing can be said certainty about future. Therefore, it is for all the situations before and which now requires immediate decision. If planning has to be successful and purposeful, the managers should be aware of these difficulties and limitations of planning. Following are the limitations of planning. 1. Planning does not work in dynamic environment: Planning is based in the future happenings. Since future is uncertain and dynamic. Generally, a longer period of planning makes it less effectives. Therefore, it can be said that planning does not work in dynamic environment. 2. Planning reduce creativity: Under the planning all the activities are connected with the attainment of objectives of the organization are pre-determined. Everybody works as they have been directed to do and it has been made clear in the plans. It means that they do not think about appropriate ways of discovering new alternatives. 3. Planning is time consuming process: Planning is blessing in facing a definite situation but because of long process it cannot face sudden emergencies. Sudden emergencies can be in the form of unforeseen problems or some opportunity of profit is and there has been no planning manager thinks of completing the planning process before taking some decision. Thus, planning is time consuming process. 4. Planning does not guarantee of success: Sometimes the manager think that planning solves all their problems. Such a think makes them neglect their real work and adverse effect of such an attitude has to be faced by the organization. In this way, planning offers the managers a false sense of security and makes them careless. So, we can say that mere planning does not ensure success; rather efforts have to be made for it. Planning Process There are several models that could be used for planning, but they are all very similar. The planning process contains SIX steps: 1. Establishment of objectives Planning starts with the setting of goals and objectives to be achieved. Moreover objectives focus the attention of managers on the end results to be achieved. 2. Establishment of Planning Premises Planning premises are the assumptions about the lively shape of events in future. They serve as a basis of planning. Establishment of planning premises is concerned to take such steps that avoids these obstacles to a great extent. By: Jenno Ray Senal, RN ~PLANNING~

6 3. Choice of alternative course of action When forecast are available and premises are established, a number of alternative course of actions have to be considered. For this purpose, each and every alternative will be evaluated by weighing its pros and cons in the light of resources available and requirements of the organization. 4. Formulation of derivative plans Derivative plans are the sub plans or secondary plans which help in the achievement of main plan. Secondary plans will flow from the basic plan. Derivative plans indicate time schedule and sequence of accomplishing various tasks. 5. Securing Co-operation After the plans have been determined, it is necessary rather advisable to take subordinates or those who have to implement these plans into confidence. 6. Follow up/Appraisal of plans This is done on the basis of feedback or information received from departments or persons concerned. This enables the management to correct deviations or modify the plan.

References: Web sites: http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/types-of-planning-strategic-tactical-operational-contingencyplanning.html#lesson http://kalyan-city.blogspot.com/2010/06/planning-first-primary-important.html https://www.boundless.com/management/introduction-to-management/principles-ofmanagement/fulfilling-the-planning-function/ http://www.flatworldknowledge.com/node/19618 http://voices.yahoo.com/the-four-functions-management-foundation-all-538016.html http://forum.daffodilvarsity.edu.bd/index.php?topic=7717.0 Powerpoint presentations: A Presentation of: Planning for NURSING SERVICE Planning: Processes and Techniques Chapter 4 Management 370Types of Planning by M. Zubair, Lecturer Kmu The Functions of Management (Prentice Hall, 2007) Excellence in Business, 3e; Chapter 6-1 Functions of Management Chapter ---Planning, Class XII commerce, Subject Business Studies Books: Venzon, Lydia M. and Jennifer M.V. Nagtalon (2006). Nursing Management Towards Quality Care (3rd ed.). Quezon City: C & E Publishing, Inc. Marquis, Bessie L. and Carol Jorgensen Huston (2000). Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and Application (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. By: Jenno Ray Senal, RN ~PLANNING~