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Q1:Which Blood Group is Universal donor and recipient ?

Ans : Donor O-Blood Group Recepient : AB+ blood group Q2:Which condition is produced in Rh+ blood group in a fetus mother having Rh- blood group in second pregnancy? Ans:Erythroblastosis foetalis Q3:identify the apparatus? Ans: Wester Green Apparatus Q4:Name the two physiological conditions in which ESR is hIgh? Ans: a) Pregnancy b) Mensturation c)Increased temp. Q5:Identify the apparastus? Ans: Westergens Tube with stand Q6:Give one cause of Microcytic anemia? Ans:Deficiency of Vit B12 ( folic acid) Q7:Write down contents of Haemy`s fluid? Ans: Disteled water Nacl Q8: Name the areas in the body where reproduction of RBCs take place? Ans : Yolk sac,liver . spleen, lymph node,bone marrow Q9: Identify the apparatus? Ans: Syphmomanaometer Q10: What is the effect of moderate exercise on systolic blood ptressure? Ans: Systolic blood pressure increases

Q11: Which nervous mechanism increases blood pressure during exercise? Ans: Symptahtic over stimulation Q12:Enumerate two methods of recording blood pressure? Ans:Auscaltatory method Palpatory method Q13: What is rouleax formation? Ans:Pilling up of cells one upon another because their density is more than plasma is called rouleax formation Q14:Name two pathological conditions in which ESR is raised? Ans: Acute Infections: Choronic infections Malignancy Q15: Name the two conditions in which Leucocytes count increases Ans : Appendicitis , Tonsilitis , Pnemonia Q16: What is the mean corpuscular Hb concentration? Ans:It is the average Hb conc. Inerthyrocytes MCHC=Hb gram/100ml PCV/100ml * 100

Q17:What is the clinical significance of MCHC? Ans:If MCHC less than 32, the RBC is hypochromic and it is present in iron deficiency anemia and thalasemia Q18: What is FEVI % Ans: It is the percentage of vital capacity which is expired in fst second of expiration Q19: In what type of disese it is increased? Ans: It is increased in Obstructive Lung Disease . Q20: What produces 1st heart sound? Ans: Closure of Mitral and Tricuspid valves line in less 5th intercostals space

Q21: In which area apex beat is examined ? Ans : About 9 cm from midline or 1 cm internal to midclavical . Q22: Name the conditions In which clotting time is increased ? Ans: Haemophilia A , B,Vit deficiency and liver disease and Throbocytopenia Q23: What is normal clotting time? Ans:2-6 mins capillary method Q24: How will you charge Neubaurs Chamber? Ans: a) Clean the Neubaur Chamber B)Fix the Nuebar chamber on the stage with clips and place coverslip over it c)Now take the prepared RBC/WBC pipette and touch the tip of the pipette near the edge coverslip on central plat form at an angle of 45 degrees and drop wise drop the fluid d)The fluid enters the below the coverslip because the capillary action immediately removes the pipette Q25:Write the contents of Haeym`s fluid? Ans : NaCl Na2SO4 Hgcl2 Distilled Water Q26: Prepare the blood smear on a slide for DLC count. Q27:Name the conditions in which the neutrophils are increased ? Ans: Acute pyrogenic infections ,Abscess,Boils and tonsilits Q28: Write two functions of platelets ? Ans:Haemostasis Coagulation and Clot retraction

Q29: why the Leshman stain be acetone free? Ans: Acetone causes shrinkage of cells and may cause lysis of cells Q30: what type of image do you observe in the microscope ? Ans : Eye Piece forms vertical ,erect and enlarged image. Q31: name the antigen on RBC and agglutinin in the plasma of patient with O blood group? Ans: Antigen .>None , Agglutinin ..> Anti A and Anti B

Q32:What is the genotype and phenotype of the above patient? Ans: Phenotype O , Genotype OO Q33:How will you charge the Westergen Tube? Q34:Give any two physiological conditions in which ESR is raised? Ans: Pregnancy , Menstruration , Increased Temp and High in females Q35: Why and how many times the blood is diluted to count red blood cells ? Ans: The No of RBCs is very high so blood is diluted 200 times with diluents Q36: Give two pathological factors causing polycythemia? Ans: Hypoxia , polycythemia vera

Term

Definition

What is the cheapest and most abundant nutrient?


Term Definition

water

Water makes up ___ to ____% of body weight at birth and ____ to ____% at maturity.
Term Definition

65, 85, 45, 60

Percentage of body water (decreases/increases) with age and has an inverse relationship with body _____.
Term Definition

decreases, fat

Water accounts for ____ to ____% of blood.


Term Definition

90, 95

2
Term Definition

What are some of the functions of water?

transportation of nutrients and secretions chemical reactions and solvent properties body temparature regulation maintain shape of body cells lubricates and cushions joints and organs in the body cavity

Term

Definition

Term

Definition

4
Term Definition

4
Term Definition

4
Term Definition

What is extracellular water?


Term

water outside the cell membrane


Definition

Extracellur water makes up ___ of total body water or ___% of body weight.
Term Definition

1/3, 20

What are the three components of ECW?

interstitial water intravascular water transcellular water

Term

Definition

What is interstitial water?

the fluid in between the cells and in reality is the cells' environment
Definition

Term

Interstitial water makes up ___% of body weight.


Term Definition

15

What is intravascular water?

fluid that is basically the plasma component of the blood


Definition

Term

Intraascular water makes up __% of body water.


Term Definition

Plasma is about ___% water and ___% solids.


Term Definition

92, 8

What is transcellular water?

water found in the body cavities and the gut


Definition

Term

What is the percent of intracellular body water in some animals versus in ruminant animals?
Term

it is relatively small but in ruminant animals it can be quite a large amount because of their increased gut volume
Definition

What is intracellular water?


Term

the water found in the cells


Definition

Intracellular water makes up ___ of body water and ___% of body weight.
Term Definition

2/3, 40

What are some of the avenues of gain for body water?

ingested water water in food metabolic water

Term

Definition

What percentage of body weight is ingested water?


Term

10-12% (as high as 25% in sheep and camels)


Definition

What are some of the avenues of loss for body water?

feces urine milk evaporation

Term

Definition

What are the four main functions of blood?

transportation of dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes regulation of the pH and electrlyte composition of interstitial fluids throughout the body restriction of fluid losses (in event of injury) defense against toxins and

pathogens

Term

Definition

What percentage of body weight is blood?


Term Definition

8-10%

What is the viscocity of blood compared it is five times more viscous than water to water?
Term Definition

What is the pH of blood?


Term Definition

7.35-7.45

What is the color of blood?

scarlet (oxygenated) to purple (venous blood)


Definition

Term

What are the three main components of water?


Term

red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets


Definition

What is another name for red blood cells?


Term Definition

erythrocytes

What is another name for white blood cells?


Term Definition

leucocytes

What is another name for blood platelets?


Term Definition

thrombocytes

What are the two types of leucocytes?


Term

agranulocytes and granulocytes


Definition

What are the two types of agranulocytes?


Term

lymphocytes and monocytes

Definition

What are the three types of

basophils, neutrophils, and eosinophils

granulocytes?
Term Definition

What percentage of the blood is plasma?


Term Definition

45-65%

What percentage of plasma is water?


Term Definition

92%

What percentage of plasma is plasma proteins?


Term Definition

7%

What percentage of plasma is made up by other solutes?


Term Definition

1%

What do formed elements of the blood include?


Term

RBCs, WBCs, and platelets

Definition

What percentage of the blood is formed elements?


Term Definition

35-55%

What percentage of formed elements is RBCs?


Term Definition

99.9%

What percentage of formed elements is WBCs and platelets?


Term Definition

less than .1%

10
Term Definition

How is the serum in blood separated from clotted blood?

the blood is allowed to clot it is put in a centrifuge serum is separated from the clotted blood

Term

Definition

What is serum used to determine?

measurement for extracellular components of blood


Definition

Term

If you want to separate blood into three parts in order to get plasma, what must you use?
Term

an anti clotting agent such as heparin

Definition

When blood is spun in a centrifuge, what is the order in which the blood separates starting at the top?
Term

plasma, buffy coat, erythrocytes

Definition

What makes up the buffy coat?


Term Definition

leukocytes and platelets

What are albumins? What does it transport?


Term

the most abundant plasma protein; transports lipids and steroid hormones
Definition

Where are albumins produced?


Term Definition

the liver

What do globulins transport?


Term

metal ions, hormones, and lipids


Definition

What are gamma globulins?


Term Definition

antibodies

What produces globulins?


Term Definition

plasma cells (WBC)

What makes up the clotting system in bllod?


Term

fibrinogens and prothrombin

Definition

What are some other solutes?

electrolytes, organic nutrients, wastes, and buffers


Definition

Term

Many of the functions of plasma are carried out by ________.


Term Definition

plasma proteins

What is colloid osmotic pressure?

colloid plasma proteins maintain higher concentrations and form osmotic pressure, preventing loss of plasma from the bloodand maintaining volume (the presence of plasma proteins in the blood causes water to enter the blood vessels and helps maintain blood volume)
Definition

Term

What is another name for colloid osmotic pressure?


Term Definition

oncotic pressure

How does colloid osmotic pressure act as a buffer?


Term Definition

it controls pH

What percentage of plasma proteins are albumin?


Term Definition

60%

What does albumin carry?

many substances with low water solubility, such as bile salts, fatty acids, calcium, iron, and some drugs
Definition

Term

What do albumins control?

osmotic pressure of the blood component


Definition

Term

What are the three types of globulins?

alpha globulins, beta globulins, and gamma globulins


Definition

Term

What are alpha globulins?

transporters (thyroid hormone, cholesterol)


Definition

Term

What type of molecule carries energy lipids and structural lipids for biosynthesis?
Term Definition

lipoprotein complexes

What is HDL?
Term Definition

high density lipoproteins

Why are HDLs called HDLs?

because they are mostly protein and only have some phospholipids so they have a high density
Definition

Term

What are LDLs?


Term Definition

low density lipoproteins

Why are LDLs called LDLs?

because they have only a little protein and have more phospholipids so they have a low density
Definition

Term

What are VLDLs?


Term

very low density lipoproteins


Definition

Why are VLDLs called VLDLs?

because they have the most phospholipids and have little protein so they ahve a very low density
Definition

Term

17
Term Definition

17
Term Definition

What are chylomicrons? Where are they produced?

they transport triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol; intestinal absorptive cells


Definition

Term

What is the specific density of water?


Term Definition

What is the shape of erythrocytes? What is the purpose of this shape?

bioconcave; it gives it a larger surface area so enough O2 can diffuse through it


Definition

Term

Erythrocytes do not have ________, ________, or ________.


Term

nucleus, mitochondria, organelles

Definition

Why don't erythrocytes have a nucleus, mitochondria, or organelles?


Term

because they need as much room as possible to carry oxygen


Definition

How long do erythrocytes last on average?


Term Definition

110 days

What structure destroys old erythrocytes and where in the body do they destroy them?
Term Definition

macrophages, in spleen

What produces new erythrocytes?


Term Definition

bone marrow

What is the process called in which new erythrocytes are produced?


Term Definition

erythropoieisis

How does the body know to produce more erythrocytes?

the kidneys monitor the blood and if there are nor enough it sends an endocrine signal to the bone marrow to produce more
Definition

Term

What is the hormone that the kidney secretes to tell the bone marrow to produce more RBCs?
Term Definition

erythropoietin

What is the specific process that occurs when the kidneys decide that there is not enough RBCs?

the kidneys detect reduced O2 carrying capacity when less O2 is delivered to the

kidneys, they secrete the hormone erythropoietin erythropoietin stimulates erythropoiesis by the bone marrow the additional circulating erythrocytes increase the O2 carrying capacity of the blood this relieves the initial stimulus that triggered erythropoieten secretion

Term

Definition

Erythrocytes are fully enclosed with _________.


Term Definition

hemoglobin

Oxygen is carried in ______ by the ________ in erythrocytes.


Term Definition

iron, hemoglobin

CO2 is carried by ___________, not the _____.


Term Definition

hemoglobin itself, iron

What is CO2 carried as? Why?

HCO-3 because it acts as a major pH buffer in the extracellular fluid


Definition

Term

What is hemoglobin?

a large protein containing 4 heme groups containing iron

Term

Definition

Iron ________ binds to oxygen.


Term Definition

reversibly

Binding of oxygen to iron is described by the _______________.


Term Definition

oxygen dissociation curve

Each heme group can bind to ___

1, 4

oxygen(s) so each hemoglobin can carry ____ oxygen(s).


Term Definition

All white blood cells contain ______ and _______.


Term Definition

nuclei, organelles

What is the function of WBCs?

to help defend the body against invasion of pathogens


Definition

Term

There are (more/less) WBCs than RBCs. Why is this?


Term

less; because if we are not sick we do not need WBCs


Definition

At any given time, where are WBCs mostly found?


Term

in connective tissue or in the organs of the lymphatic system


Definition

WBCs primarily use the blood for _________.


Term Definition

transportation

WBCs exhibit chemotaxis. What does this mean?


Term

it means they are attracted to a specific chemical stimuli


Definition

What is the purpose of WBCs exhibiting chemotaxis?


Term

it allows them to converge on pathogens and areas of tissue damage


Definition

WBCs are capable of ________ amoeboid; this allows them to converge movement. What is the purpose of this? on pathogens and sites of injury
Term Definition

What is diapedesis?

the process by which WBCs migrate out of the blood stream by squeezing between endothelial cells
Definition

Term

What are the five types of leukocytes?

neutrophils eosinophils

basophils monocytes lymphocytes

Term

Definition

Neutrophils make up ___ to ____% of circulating WBCs.


Term Definition

50, 70

The cytoplasm of neutrophils is packed with __________________ that contain ___________.


Term

pale "neutral" colored granules, bactericidal compounds

Definition

What is the nucleus of mature neutrophils like? Because of this, neutrophils are known as _________ leukocytes.
Term

segmented; polymorphonuclear

Definition

What is the diameter of neutrophils?


Term Definition

12 m

What is the locomotion and reaction of neutrophils like?

they are highly mobile and are usually the first WBCs to arrive at a site of injury
Definition

Term

What do neutrophils specialize in?

attacking and digesting bacteria that have been marked for destruction
Definition

Term

What is the lifespan of neutrophils?


Term Definition

6 hours to a few days

Eosinophils make up __ to __% of circulating WBCs.


Term Definition

2,4

What is the size of eosinophils like?


Term

they are about the same as neutrophils


Definition

What are the granules in eosinophils like?


Term

reddish-orange staining granules

Definition

What are the functions of eosinophils?

they phagocytize antibody covered bacteria, protazoa, and cellular debris they exocytose toxic compounds onto the surface of pathogens, particularly large multicelluar parasites such as flukes or worms

Term

Definition

What happens to eosinophils during parasitic infection?


Term

they dramatically increase in number

Definition

How are eosinophils and allergens related?

they are sentive to allergens and dramatically increase in number during allergic reactions
Definition

Term

What is the typical lifespan of eosinophils?


Term Definition

8-12 days

Basophils make up ______% of circulating WBCs.


Term Definition

less than 1

What is the size of basophils like?

they are smaller than neutrophils and eosinophils


Definition

Term

What color are the granules that make up basophils?


Term Definition

deep purple or blue

What are the functions of basophils?

they migrate to injury sites and discharge the contents of their

granules

Term

Definition

What is contained in the granules of basophils?


Term Definition

histamine and heparin

What is the function of histamine?

vasodilator and increase capillary permeability


Definition

Term

What is the function of heparin?


Term Definition

an anticoagulant

Collectively, what are the functions of histamine and heparin?

they enhance the local inflammation initiated by mast cells and attract other WBCs
Definition

Term

What is the lifespan of basophils?


Term Definition

it is uncertain

Monocytes make up ___ to ___% of circulating WBCs.


Term Definition

2,8

What is the size of a monocyte?


Term Definition

2X as large as a RBC

What is the nucleus of a monocyte like? it is large and tends to be oval or kidney shaped
Term Definition

What is the movement of monocytes throughout the body like?

individual monocytes use the bloodstream as a highway they stay in circulation for only about 24hrs before entering a peripheral tissue where it becomes a tissue macrophage, an aggressive phagocyte

Term

Definition

What are the two main functions of monocytes?

normal: replenish resident macrophages and dendritic cells inflammation signals: move quickly (approximately 8-12 hours) to sites of infection in the tissuesand divide/differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells to elicit an immune response

Term

Definition

What is the lifespan of monocytes?


Term

it can be up to several months


Definition

Lymphocytes make up ___ to ___% of circulating WBCs.


Term Definition

20, 30

What is the size of lymphocytes?


Term

they are slightly larger than RBCs


Definition

What is the structure of lymphocytes as there is a thin halo of cytoplasm around seen in blood smears? a large nucleus
Term Definition

What is the migration of lymphocytes like?

they continuosly migrate from the bloodstream back into the peripheral tissues and back into the bloodstream
Definition

Term

Where are most lymphocytes located?

in connective tissues and lymphatic organs


Definition

Term

What are the two main classes of lymphocytes?


Term Definition

T and B lymphocytes

What is the function of T lymphocytes?

they defend against foreign cells and tissues and coordinate the immune response

Term

Definition

T lymphocytes become __________.


Term Definition

killer T cells

What is the function of B lymphocytes?


Term

they produce and distribute antibodies


Definition

What are antibodies?


Term

proteins that attack foreign molecules


Definition

What is the lifespan of lymphocytes?


Term Definition

days to years

How can you remember all the lymphocytes and their order of abundance?
Term

Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas: neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils
Definition

What is the size and shape of thrombocytes like?


Term

flattened, disk-like fragments that are musch smaller than RBCs


Definition

Thrombocytes act as a participant in the ____________________.


Term Definition

vascular clotting systems

What is the lifespan of thrombocytes like? Explain.

9-12 days, they are then removed by spleen macrophages, they are continuosly replaced
Definition

Term

On average, how many platelets are there in the blood?


Term

350,000 per microliter (uL) of blood

Definition

Where are thrombocytes produced? Explain.

bone marrow; large cells called megakaryocytesrelease fragments (platelets) into circulation
Definition

Term

What is the proces of producing thrombocytes called?

thrombopoiesis

Term

Definition

What is homeopoiesis?
Term

formation of blood cells and platelets


Definition

Where does hemeopoiesis start from?


Term

stem cells called hemocytoblasts


Definition

35
Term Definition

What is hemostasis?
Term

the process of stopping bleeding


Definition

36
Term Definition

36
Term Definition

What are the three phases of hemostasis?

vascular phase (vascular spasm) platelet phase (formation of platelet plug) coagulating phase (blood clot formation)

Term

Definition

What happens during the vascular phase?

damage occurs endothelial cells become sticky smooth muscle contracts

Term

Definition

What happens during the platelet phase?

platelets attach to sticky area platelet plug is formed chemicals released to attract more pletelets

Term

Definition

What happens during the coagulating phase?

prothrombin is converted to thrombin which converts fibrinogen to fibrin forming

fibrin meshwork RBCs trapped requires Ca 2+ and vitamin K

Term

Definition

The clot contains _______ and _______ which constrict the clot.
Term Definition

actin, myosin

What happens during clot retraction?

clot is dissolved by fibrinolysis plasmin (active form of plasminogen) erodes the clot

Term

Definition

What is thrombus?

(blood clot) it is when platelets stick to the interior of an intact blood vessel
Definition

Term

What is embolus?

when platelet accumulation breaks free in the blood vessel

Term

Definition

Thrombus is followed by ________.

embolus