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TTULO

Nome completo do Candidato


Subttulo
TTULO
Nome completo do Candidato
Subttulo
Dissertao / Trabalho de Projeto / Relatrio de Estgio
apresentada(o) como requisito parcial para obteno
do grau de Mestre em Estatstica e Gesto de Informao

TTULO
Nome completo do Candidato
Subttulo
Dissertao / Trabalho de Projeto / Relatrio de
Estgio apresentada(o) como requisito parcial para
obteno do grau de Mestre em Estatstica e Gesto
de Informao

Standardization of project management processes
Miguel Augusto Martins Pereira
An inside view on changes to achieve efficiency
Work Project presented as partial requirement to obtain
the Masters degree in Information Management

ll
lnsLlLuLo Superlor de LsLaLlsLlca e CesLo de lnformao
unlversldade nova de Llsboa

"#$%&$'&()$#(*% *+ ,'*-./# 0$%$1.0.%# ,'*/.""."
by
Mlguel AugusLo MarLlns erelra


Work ro[ecL presenLed as parLlal requlremenL Lo obLaln Lhe MasLer's degree ln
lnformaLlon ManagemenL, speclallzaLlon ln ManagemenL of lnformaLlon SysLems and
1echnologles

CoordlnaLor:
Ales opovlc


november 2013
lll
&.&(/$#(*%"
1o Lhe ones who are noL among us anymore.

lv
$/2%*34.&1.0.%#"
1here are a number of persons LhaL l would llke Lo acknowledge for Lhelr help ln
wrlLlng Lhls work. WlLhouL Lhem, Lhls work would noL be posslble.
loremosL, l would llke Lo express my graLlLude Lo my advlsor, Ales opovlc for hls
guldance and asslsLance ln deflnlng Lhe guldellnes of Lhls work LhaL helped sLeer lL for a
Llmely concluslon.
Secondly, l also would llke Lo acknowledge my deepesL and slncere appreclaLlon
Lo Lhe supporL glven by Susana Cllvelra, noL only for Lhe endless nlghLs spenL proof-
readlng Lhls work and Lhe much appreclaLed lnpuL ln every sLep of Lhls work, buL also
for Lhe backup glven on every aspecL of normal llfe, helplng ln maklng Lhls work whaL lL
ls Loday.
l also wlsh Lo Lhank my famlly, speclflcally my moLher, faLher, grandparenLs and
slbllngs, buL also all Lhe oLher famlly members LhaL help me ln Lhls long perlod
necessary Lo obLaln Lhe masLer's degree.
A speclal recognlLlon Lo my co-workers aL u8l LhaL were klnd Lo glven Lhelr Llme
ln answerlng my quesLlons, namely: Claudlo Calvo, aulo MrLlres and uora 8allo.
Also l would llke Lo Lhank ulogo Cabral and Lhe Melos, SaleLe and 8lcardo for Lhelr
help, proof-readlng and valuable lnpuLs. Llkewlse, l would llke Lo glve a speclal
appreclaLlon Lo my Leam-members LhaL gave an lmporLanL feedback by means of Lhelr
dally work.
LasLly, l would llke Lo send my appreclaLlon Lo Lhe frlends LhaL read my work ln
lLs several sLages and gave an lmporLanL conLrlbuLe Lo lL, buL also Lo Lhe frlends LhaL
helped [usL by llsLenlng.


v
"500$'6
1he prlmary focus of Lhls work ls Lo provlde a framework of sLandardlzed pro[ecL
managemenL processes developed Lhrough Lhe analysls of Lhe processes of a
orLuguese Small and Medlum LnLerprlse (SML), ln order Lo help address cosL
consumlng lssues LhaL lead Lo lnefflclency on a company.
AfLer Lhe ldenLlflcaLlon of Lhese lssues occurrlng ln Lhe sub[ecL company, Lhe
ob[ecLlve ls Lo deLermlne Lhe besL pracLlces of pro[ecL managemenL based on a
LheoreLlcal background, ln order Lo develop a sLandard ln pro[ecL managemenL
acLlvlLles. 1o accompllsh Lhls, Lhe pro[ecL managemenL workflow ls re-modeled, whlle
keeplng measuremenL acLlvlLles Lo ascerLaln lLs efflclency and valldlLy.
1he flnal parL of Lhls work ls a proof of concepL on how Lo lnLegraLe Lhese
workflows ln an exlsLlng lnformaLlon SysLem sLrucLure and also lL glves a serles of
guldellnes on how Lo lnLroduce Lhese changes on a company.

2.63*'&"
SofLware developmenL, CrlLlcal success facLors (CSl), ro[ecL managemenL, Aglle,
Scrum, 8uslness process managemenL (8M) besL pracLlces, ManagemenL of
lnformaLlon sysLems (MlS)

vl
$7"#'$/#
SofLware developmenL ls a dlsclpllne LhaL ls almosL as old as Lhe hlsLory of
compuLers. WlLh Lhe advenL of Lhe lnLerneL and all of lLs relaLed Lechnologles, sofLware
developmenL has been on hlgh demand. 8uL, and especlally ln SML (small and medlum
enLerprlse), Lhls was noL accompanled wlLh a comparable efforL Lo develop a seL of
susLalnable and sLandardlzed acLlvlLles of pro[ecL managemenL, whlch lead Lo
lncreaslng lnefflclencles and cosLs.
Clven Lhe acLual economlc slLuaLlon, lL makes sense Lo engage ln an efforL Lo
reduce sald lnefflclencles and rlslng cosLs. lor LhaL end, Lhls work wlll analyze Lhe
currenL sLaLe of sofLware developmenL's pro[ecL managemenL processes on a
orLuguese SML, along wlLh lLs problems and lnefflclencles ln an efforL Lo creaLe a
sLandardlzed model Lo manage sofLware developmenL, wlLh speclal aLLenLlon glven Lo
crlLlcal success facLors ln an aglle sofLware developmenL envlronmenL, whlle uslng Lhe
besL pracLlces ln process modellng. 1hls work also alms Lo creaLe guldellnes Lo
correcLly lnLegraLe Lhese changes ln Lhe exlsLlng lS sLrucLure of a company.



2.63*'&"
SofLware developmenL, CrlLlcal success facLors (CSl), ro[ecL managemenL, Aglle,
Scrum, 8uslness process managemenL (8M) besL pracLlces, ManagemenL of
lnformaLlon sysLems (MlS)
vll
(%&.8
1. lnLroducLlon ................................................................................................................. 1
1.1. ConLexLuallzaLlon and problem ldenLlflcaLlon ...................................................... 1
1.2. Cb[ecLlves ueflnlLlon ............................................................................................ 3
1.3. 1he lmporLance of Lhe work ................................................................................. 3
1.4. Work's SLrucLure ................................................................................................... 4
2. 1heoreLlcal 8ackground ............................................................................................... 3
2.1. MeLhodology ........................................................................................................ 3
2.2. ro[ecL managemenL ............................................................................................ 8
2.2.1. CrlLlcal success facLors ................................................................................... 8
2.3. 8uslness process managemenL ........................................................................... 10
2.3.1. lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe 8M framework ..................................................... 11
2.3.2. CrlLlcal success facLors and relaLed besL pracLlce ........................................ 12
2.3.3. MeLrlcs for measurlng processes ................................................................. 13
2.4. lnformaLlon sysLems adopLlon ........................................................................... 18
2.4.1. AdopLlon of changes .................................................................................... 19
3. llndlngs ...................................................................................................................... 22
3.1. AbouL Lhe company ............................................................................................ 22
3.1.1. ro[ecL managemenL meLhodology aL u8l .................................................. 23
3.1.2. LnLerprlse ro[ecL ManagemenL ................................................................. 24
3.2. lnLervlews analysls .............................................................................................. 26
3.2.1. CommunlcaLlon, documenLaLlon and requlremenLs' assessmenL problems
26
3.2.2. Lack of conLrol on pro[ecL sLaLus and furLher analysls problems ................ 27
3.3. Modellng Lhe processes ...................................................................................... 28
3.3.1. ulscovery process ........................................................................................ 29
3.3.2. ueflnlLlon process ........................................................................................ 33
3.3.3. uevelopmenL process .................................................................................. 37
3.3.4. uemo process .............................................................................................. 43
3.3.3. uellvery process ........................................................................................... 46
3.4. CbLalnlng Lhe MeasuremenLs ............................................................................. 32
4. ulscusslon .................................................................................................................. 33
4.1. 1heoreLlcal lmpllcaLlons ..................................................................................... 33
vlll
4.2. racLlcal lmpllcaLlon ........................................................................................... 34
4.3. LlmlLaLlons and recommendaLlons ..................................................................... 33
4.4. luLure work ........................................................................................................ 37
3. Concluslons ................................................................................................................ 39
6. 8lbllography ............................................................................................................... 60
7. Appendlx .................................................................................................................... 63
7.1. lnLervlew LranscrlpLs ........................................................................................... 63
7.1.1. lnLervlew 1 ................................................................................................... 63
7.1.2. lnLervlew 2 ................................................................................................... 82
7.1.3. lnLervlew 3 ................................................................................................... 93


lx
(0$1. (%&.8
lmage 1 - 8equlremenLs assessmenL from Moe eL al. (2012) .......................................... 9
lmage 2 - 8M framework ............................................................................................. 12
lmage 3 - CompleLe process workflow for a pro[ecL ...................................................... 29
lmage 4 - ulscovery process .......................................................................................... 30
lmage 3 - lnformaLlon sLrucLure of Lhe ulscovery process ............................................ 32
lmage 6 - ueflnlLlon process .......................................................................................... 33
lmage 7 - lnformaLlon sLrucLure of Lhe ueflnlLlon process ............................................ 36
lmage 8 - uevelopmenL process .................................................................................... 38
lmage 9 - 8urn-down charL ............................................................................................ 41
lmage 10 - lnformaLlon sLrucLure of Lhe uevelopmenL process .................................... 42
lmage 11 - uemo process .............................................................................................. 43
lmage 12 - lnformaLlon sLrucLure of Lhe uemo process ................................................ 43
lmage 13 - uellvery process ........................................................................................... 47
lmage 14 - lnformaLlon sLrucLure of Lhe uellvery process ............................................ 31



x
#$74. (%&.8
1able 1 - CuesLlons for Lhe C ......................................................................................... 6
1able 2 - CrlLlcal success facLors for buslness process managemenL. ........................... 13
1able 3 - lacLors LhaL help measurlng processes .......................................................... 16
1able 4 - Common pro[ecL Lasks .................................................................................... 26
1able 3 - ro[ecL raLlng lndlcaLors .................................................................................. 31
1able 6 - lnformaLlon needed for a sLory ....................................................................... 33

xl
4("# *+ $77'.9($#(*%"
7,0: 8uslness rocess ManagemenL. An approach on managlng Lhe buslness
processes of a company Lo lmprove Lhelr efflclency ln order Lo dellver
beLLer value Lo Lhe cllenL.
7,0%: 8uslness rocess Model and noLaLlon. A noLaLlon of graphlcal
represenLaLlon Lo model a workflow of a process.
/'0: CusLomer 8elaLlonshlp ManagemenL. A serles of pracLlces supporLed by an
lnformaLlon Lechnology lnfrasLrucLure LhaL manages Lhe currenL and fuLure
cusLomers (Lhrough Lhe use of commerclal leads).
/"+: CrlLlcal Success lacLor. necessary sLep Lo achleve success ln Lhe relaLed
endeavor.
.,0: LnLerprlse ro[ecL ManagemenL. An lnformaLlon plaLform Lo manage and
monlLor Lhe company's pro[ecLs.
(": lnformaLlon SysLem. An aggregaLlon Lerm LhaL encompasses lnformaLlon
Lechnology, people and Lhelr processes.
0(": ManagemenL lnformaLlon SysLem. An lnformaLlon Lechnology sysLem Lo
manage all Lhe componenLs of an lnformaLlon sysLem.
*#.: Crlglnal 1lme LsLlmaLe. An esLlmaLlon glven by Lhe C for a funcLlonallLy of
a pro[ecL.
,*: roducL Cwner. ln Scrum lL ls Lhe responslble Lo ensure LhaL Lhe pro[ecL
dellvers Lhe lnLended producL Lo Lhe cllenL.
'#.: 8emalnlng 1lme LsLlmaLe. An esLlmaLlon glven by Lhe developmenL Leam
Lo an lssue of a sLory.
"0.: Small and Medlum LnLerprlse. A deflnlLlon of a company followlng cerLaln
parameLers llke number of employees and Lurnover or balance sheeL LoLal.



1
;< (%#'*&5/#(*%
ldeally, sLrucLured pro[ecL managemenL processes are essenLlal Lo correcLly
manage a pro[ecL, however Lhe managemenL of Lhese processes ls Lyplcally
overlooked ln favor of a qulcker expedlLlon of a pro[ecL's producL, especlally on Small
and Medlum LnLerprlse (SML), where resources llke Llme, knowledge and money are
noL as avallable as ln larger companles.
neverLheless, for companles ln general and SMLs ln parLlcular, one way Lo reslsL
Loday's economlc crlsls ls Lrough efflclenL work, meanlng LhaL Lhelr lnLernal processes
should be properly sLrucLured and carefully allgned wlLh Lhelr (sLraLeglc) goals.
1he goal of Lhls work ls Lo provlde a framework LhaL sLandardlzes sofLware
developmenL pro[ecL managemenL processes. 1o do so, an analysls was conducLed on
a orLuguese SML whlch feaLured some problems on Lhe level of pro[ecL managemenL
ln order Lo obLaln flndlngs LhaL supporL Lhe new proposed framework. A focus ls glven
Lo SMLs slnce Lhey are Lhe bulk of noL only orLugal's enLerprlse fabrlc (lnL, 2010), buL
also ln Lhe Lu (Wymenga, Spanlkova, 8arker, konlngs, & CanLon, 2012), and LogeLher
Lhey consLlLuLe Lhe ma[or employer of Lhe global acLlve populaLlon and are vlewed as a
ma[or source of lnnovaLlon on Lhelr flelds.
;<;< /*%#.8#5$4()$#(*% $%& ,'*74.0 (&.%#(+(/$#(*%
ln order Lo obLaln Lhe basls Lo formulaLe a conslsLenL framework of sLandardlzed
pro[ecL managemenL processes, an analysls of lssues concernlng pro[ecL managemenL
was conducLed ln a orLuguese SML.
1he company, u8l, works ln Lhe fleld of sofLware developmenL and lLs sLrucLure
can be ldenLlfled as a flaL sLrucLure (Llm, CrlfflLhs, & Sambrook, 2010) because Lhere ls
a low formallzaLlon of Lhe buslness processes, low level of cenLrallzaLlon of declslon
maklng and Lhere ls noL a culLure of documenLaLlon, l.e. lnserLlng Lhe lnpuL on Lhe
sLaLus of a pro[ecL, or Lhe Llme spenL on each of Lhe Lasks of Lhe pro[ecL. ln Lhe
beglnnlng, when Lhe company had few workers, Lhls was a manageable slLuaLlon. As
Lhe workers were on Lhe same pro[ecL, all of Lhe lnformaLlon was (malnly) known by
everyone. 8uL slnce Lhe company ls growlng ln slze, Lhe lnformaLlon Lends Lo be
scaLLered, so some ad[usLmenLs ln Lerms of buslness processes have Lo be made, as
many of Lhe processes are noL modeled or even sLrucLured. AddlLlonally, lL ls dlfflculL
Lo dlssemlnaLe Lhe lnformaLlon due Lo a lack of hlerarchy on Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of
lnformaLlon.


2
WlLh Lhe company's growLh, Lhe managemenL declded Lo esLabllsh a common
aglle pro[ecL managemenL meLhodology uslng Lhe Scrum framework and Lo use an
LnLerprlse ro[ecL ManagemenL (LM) Lo help wlLh pro[ecL managemenL acLlvlLles.
neverLheless, havlng Lhe Lools Lo do Lhe [ob ls only half Lhe work, as lL ls sLlll requlred
Lo deLermlne Lhe correcL appllcaLlon of Lhese Lools Lo beLLer beneflL from Lhem.
ln Lhls way, Lhe followlng lssues were ldenLlfled:
! 1here ls noL a common seL of processes Lo manage Lhe pro[ecLs. Lach
pro[ecL manager, or roducL Cwner (C - whlch ls an equlvalenL role of a
pro[ecL manager ln Lhe pro[ecL managemenL meLhodology adopLed by
Lhe company) has lLs own meLhods, Laklng dlfferenL sLeps ln each pro[ecL,
! 1here ls noL a sLandard procedure Lo gaLher and sLore Lhe lnformaLlon
relaLed wlLh Lhe pro[ecL. resenLly, Lhere are many programs avallable Lo
be used for LhaL purpose, buL ln some slLuaLlons none ls used. 1here ls
noL a cenLral sysLem Lo sLore all Lhe perLlnenL lnformaLlon of a pro[ecL
LhaL ls needed Lo supporL lLs developmenL,
! 1he flnanclal and commerclal deparLmenLs do noL have a clear vlew of
Lhe acLual sLaLus of Lhe pro[ecLs belng worked on, prevenLlng Lhe flnanclal
deparLmenL Lo lssue on Llme paymenL requesLs and Lhe commerclal area
Lo manage Lhe expecLaLlons of upcomlng cusLomers,
! ln Lhe operaLlonal area, Lhe developers also suffer wlLh Lhe lack of
lnformaLlon abouL Lhe pro[ecL, because, slnce Lhey do noL have a clear
plcLure Lhey cannoL be asserLlve and comply wlLh deadllnes,
! Whlle Lhere ls some degree of Lracklng Lhe Llme spenL on Lhe Lasks
performed each day agalnsL prlor esLlmaLlons, Lhls lnformaLlon ls noL
belng used Lo lmprove Lhe meLhods of plannlng and lLs esLlmaLlons.
uue Lo Lhe lack of an esLabllshed seL of pro[ecL managemenL processes, a
company can suffer from Lhe lssues ldenLlfled above whlch reflecL on Lhe company's
performance and make Lhe developmenL process less effecLlve ln Lerms of Llme and
resources.
uslng Lhe daLa obLalned from u8l, lL ls Lhe auLhor's bellef LhaL, LogeLher wlLh an
asserLlve LheoreLlcal background, lL ls posslble Lo devlse a good foundaLlon Lo bulld a
sLandardlzed framework for managlng sofLware developmenL pro[ecLs and Lhus obLaln
a seL of Lools and processes Lo ellmlnaLe or mlLlgaLe lssues occurrlng ln a company,
resulLlng ln a beLLer accounLablllLy for Lhe cllenLs and for Lhe company lLself.


3
;<=< *7-./#(9." &.+(%(#(*%
Many of Lhe lssues prevlously polnLed ouL may be (somewhaL) addressed
prompLly, buL LhaL should noL be Lhe norm whlle lmplemenLlng change. 1aklng Lhe
example of whaL happened aL u8l, ln Lhe pasL, when a problem was found lL was
resolved sLralghL away, whlle lL was poslLlve on a shorL Lerm Lo paLch a problem, noL
Lhlnklng and deflnlng a sLraLegy on Lhe long Lerm [usL posLponed Lhe resoluLlon of Lhe
problem lLself.
As such, Lhe ob[ecLlves for Lhls work are Lo:
! uncover Lhe speclflc problems relaLed wlLh pro[ecL managemenL
processes LhaL occur ln a company,
! ldenLlfy and model new pro[ecL managemenL processes Lo solve Lhe
problems ldenLlfled,
! rovlde meLhods Lo allow Lhe managers, whlch are Lhe maln reclplenLs of
Lhls work, Lo follow more closely Lhe sLaLus of a pro[ecL,
! Crganlze a common sLrucLure Lo sLore Lhe lnformaLlon relaLed Lo a
pro[ecL, so lL may be avallable Lo whoever needs lL.
CaLherlng from all of Lhese polnLs, Lhe overall ob[ecLlve ls Lo bulld a framework
LhaL allows a company Lo lmprove Lhelr pro[ecL managemenL processes and provlde
Lhe Lools and relevanL lnformaLlon noL only Lo Lhe pro[ecL managers, buL also Lo all of
Lhe parLlclpanLs of a pro[ecL Lhus allowlng Lhem Lo be more effecLlve on Lhelr work.
AlLhough Lhls work focuses on Lhe use of Scrum lL ls noL lLs ob[ecLlve Lo uphold
Lhe use of a speclflc meLhodology, buL Lo defend a broader approach on lmplemenLlng
aglle meLhodologles.
;<>< #?. (0,*'#$%/. *+ #?. 3*'2
8y employlng Lhe framework proposed ln Lhls work, a company can achleve:
! A unlfled seL of pro[ecL managemenL processes Lo allow all of Lhe
company's managers Lo manage developmenL pro[ecL ln a coherenL
fashlon and sLore all Lhe necessary lnformaLlon ln a cenLrallzed locaLlon,
! A clear plcLure of Lhe lnlLlal esLlmaLlons and Lhe real cosL ln Lerms of Llme
used on Lhe pro[ecL,
! valldaLlon of Lhe work belng done ln Lhe pro[ecL Lhrough Lhe use of
meLrlcs,
! CerLalnLy LhaL Lhe developmenL of producLs can be made wlLh
accounLable and documenLable quallLy.


4
;<@< 3*'2A" "#'5/#5'.
1he sLrucLure of Lhls work ls as follow: ln Lhe lnLroducLlon Lhe problems LhaL Lhls
work ls almed Lo solve are ldenLlfled, as well as Lhe work's ob[ecLlves and goals.
AfLerwards Lhe LheoreLlcal background secLlon ls presenLed, lncludlng Lhe
meLhodology employed and a Lhorough presenLaLlon on Lhe research done for Lhls
work. 1hls ls followed by Lhe presenLaLlon of lssues found Lhrough a seL of lnLervlews
Lo Lhe Cs and a group of proposals Lo solve Lhe lssues ldenLlfled based on Lhe
lnLervlews and lndependenL observaLlon. nexL lL ls presenLed a dlscusslon from a
LheoreLlcal and pracLlcal polnL of vlew, LogeLher wlLh Lhe llmlLaLlons of Lhls work.
Moreover, some addlLlonal recommendaLlons and some noLes of posslble works ln Lhe
fuLure are made. AL Lhe end, concluslons abouL Lhls work are drawn LogeLher wlLh a
dellberaLlon of Lhe paLh Lhls work proposes for companles.


3
=< #?.*'.#(/$4 7$/21'*5%&
=<;< 0.#?*&*4*16
lor Lhls work, varlous meLhods of gaLherlng lnformaLlon were used. llrsLly
observaLlon, slnce Lhe auLhor works on Lhe sub[ecL company of Lhls sLudy, day by day
observaLlons prompLed several lnslghLs LhaL lead Lo Lhe nexL meLhod: lnLervlews.
uslng Lhese observaLlons, a serles of quesLlons was devlsed (1able 1) and a serles of
lnLervlews ensued wlLh Lhe Cs of pro[ecLs on Lhe company.

%BCDEF GBEHIJKLH *DMENIJOEH
1 Who supplles Lhe lnformaLlon
relaLed Lo new pro[ecLs?
1o deLermlne where Lhe flow of
lnformaLlon sLarLs.
2 WhaL ls Lhe Lyplcal workflow of a
pro[ecL, from Lhe pro[ecL
managemenL polnL of vlew?
1o deLermlne Lhe currenL workflow of
a pro[ecL, from each of Lhe Cs ln
order Lo assess Lhe common Lasks.
3 ls every pro[ecL LreaLed
dlfferenLly, or do Lhey share
some common Lasks / sLeps?
1o deLermlne lf Lhe C has some
sLrucLure ln hls / her process.
4 lf yes, can you ldenLlfy Lhem? CbLaln Lhe sLrucLure.
3 Can Lhese common Lasks / sLeps
be grouped by Lype of pro[ecL or
by anoLher caLegory? ln poslLlve
case, ls LhaL grouplng currenLly
worklng?
ueLermlne lf Lhere are Lasks LhaL can
be grouped and deLermlne Lhe crlLerla
Lo do so.
6 8esldes Lhe communlcaLlon LhaL
occurs wlLh Lhe developers, how
ls Lhe communlcaLlon wlLh Lhe
oLher deparLmenLs of Lhe
company made?
1o deLermlne how Lhe
communlcaLlon, lf any, ls made.
7 WhaL are Lhe mosL common
dlfflculLles LhaL you Lyplcally
encounLer?
1o obLaln a llsL of common problems
already ldenLlfled.
8 uo you have any suggesLlon Lo
mlLlgaLe Lhem?
1ry Lo obLaln some soluLlons LhaL
could be used ln Lhe flnal soluLlon.
9 uo you currenLly compare Lhe
esLlmaLe Llmes done prevlously
wlLh Lhe acLual Llme spenL on
pro[ecL lssues?
1ry Lo deLermlne lf a comparlson ls
made, and whaL are Lhe resulLs.


6
%BCDEF GBEHIJKLH *DMENIJOEH
10 Why or why noL? lL ls expecLed LhaL Lhe C does noL
compare Lhe resulLs. 1hls wlll help Lo
deLermlne Lhe cause and lmplemenL
Lhe soluLlon.
11 uo you have any ldea of whlch
are Lhe acLlvlLles belng
consLanLly underesLlmaLed?
1ry Lo deLermlne lf Lhe C has any
ldea whlch acLlvlLles are more
problemaLlc.
12 ls Lhere any parameLer deflned
LhaL allows deLermlnlng lf a
pro[ecL ls a success or noL?
1o deLermlne lf Lhe C have any CSls
for pro[ecLs.
13 lf so, whlch are Lhey? CbLaln Lhe llsL of CSl of Lhe C.
14 lf CSls are deflned, ls Lhere any
ldea whlch are Lhe maln
problems LhaL lead Lo a pro[ecL
noL belng consldered a success?
Also Lo Lry Lo deLermlne lf Lhere ls
lnformaLlon on whlch of Lhe CSls are
Lhe maln reasons for a fall pro[ecL.
13 And ls lL a problem LhaL occurs
frequenLly? ls anyLhlng belng
done Lo quench Lhls problem and
why?
ueLermlne soluLlons Lo Lhe problem, lf
Lhere are problems ln Lhe currenL
LnLerprlse ro[ecL ManagemenL
(LM).
16 Were Lhere any CSls deflned for
pro[ecLs? ls lL posslble Lo group
Lhem?
lurLher lnformaLlon gaLherlng Lo
assess Lhe sLaLus of CSls of pro[ecLs.
17 1he new
1
LM ls already
lmplemenLed. WhaL do you
make of lL? Any suggesLlons Lo
lmprove lL? Pave you glven some
lnpuL when lL was lmplemenLed?
CaLher lnformaLlon on Lhe lssues wlLh
Lhe new LM sysLem. 1o deLermlne lf
Lhe Cs where lncluded ln Lhe rollouL
of Lhe sysLem.
18 ln whaL sLage of Lhe
lmplemenLaLlon do you Lhlnk Lhe
LM ls?
1o deLermlne Lhe level of lnvolvemenL
of Lhe C ln Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of
Lhe LM sysLem.
19 Cf Lhe Lasks you perform
regularly, do you Lhlnk Lhey
could be done more efflclenLly
uslng Lhe LM?
1o deLermlne lf Lhe LM sysLem ls
belng used Lo help Lhe C, lf lL flLs Lhe
C's needs.
20 lf so, ls Lhere any exLra Lool LhaL
you requlre Lo achleve a beLLer
efflclency?
ueLermlne Lhe needs of Lhe C ln hls /
her dally Lasks.
1able 1 - CuesLlons for Lhe C

1
8ecenLly lmplemenLed aL Lhe Llme Lhe quesLlons were done.


7
AlLhough Lhe presenL llsL ls long, lL ls belleved LhaL lL was necessary Lo ascerLaln
Lhe lnformaLlon needed Lo Lle up wlLh Lhe lnformaLlon gaLhered ln Lhe revlew of
relevanL llLeraLure. Also, Lhe lnLervlews on whlch Lhese quesLlons were used were
esLlmaLed Lo Lake abouL LhlrLy mlnuLes, a perlod LhaL ls consldered adequaLe.
WlLh Lhe lnformaLlon gaLhered from Lhe lnLervlews lL was posslble Lo assess Lhe
problems ln pro[ecL managemenL, from Lhe Cs polnL of vlew. 1hese resulLs were
[uxLaposed and crossed examlned wlLh maLerlal gaLhered from anoLher meLhod:
relaLed llLeraLure analysls from Lhe relevanL works regardlng besL pracLlces ln pro[ecL
managemenL, namely crlLlcal success facLors Lo effecLlvely lmplemenL aglle sofLware
developmenL pro[ecLs llke Scrum. 8y Lylng LogeLher Lhls lnformaLlon, lL was posslble Lo
deLermlne whlch of Lhe ldenLlfled problems on Lhe model company should be focused
for Lhls work.
8ecause Lhe maln problem ldenLlfled ln Lhe company was noL havlng a sLrucLured
seL of processes, Lhe nexL loglcal sLep was Lhe research of correcL modellng of buslness
processes Lhrough Lhe use of a 8M framework gulded by Lhe crlLlcal success facLors
besL sulLed for Lhe company. AnoLher polnL of focus would be Lo acqulre Lhe necessary
lnformaLlon Lo measure (Lhrough Lhe use of meLrlcs) Lhe effecLlveness of Lhe work
belng done on each pro[ecL.
llnally, Lhe besL pracLlces Lo lmplemenL and manage Lhese changes on Lhe
lnformaLlon SysLem of Lhe company were revlewed, maklng Lhe lnformaLlon avallable
Lo everyone who needs lL, when lL ls needed and followlng a common sLrucLure LhaL
can be undersLandable for everyone ln every deparLmenL.
As such lL ls posslble Lo dlvlde Lhls work ln slx separaLe phases:
hase l - Analysls of relevanL llLeraLure for Lhe pro[ecL managemenL, buslness
processes and managemenL of lnformaLlon sysLem Loplcs,
hase ll - lormulaLlon of quesLlons, based on Lhe observaLlon on Lhe dally
acLlvlLles of Lhe company regardlng pro[ecL managemenL,
hase lll - lnLervlews wlLh Lhe company's pro[ecL managers (each aL a Llme),
hase lv - Analysls of Lhe lnLervlews and [uxLaposlLlon wlLh relevanL lnformaLlon
already gaLhered,
hase v - ueslgn Lhe prevlously ldenLlfled key buslness processes and deLermlne
Lhe relaLed meLrlcs,
hase vl - Analysls on how Lo use Lhe LM Lo obLaln Lhe daLa of Lhe deslgned
meLrlcs, how Lo sLrucLure Lhe lnformaLlon ouLpuLLed by Lhe processes and lf Lhe LM
provldes Lhe necessary lnformaLlon ouL of Lhe box or lf some oLher lmplemenLaLlons


8
are requlred. 1hls wlll lead Lo a seL of guldellnes for Lhe correcL use of Lhe lS Lo sLore
and consulL lnformaLlon relaLed wlLh a pro[ecL, ranglng from pro[ecL sLaLus Lo pro[ecL
meLrlcs.
=<=< ,'*-./# 0$%$1.0.%#
Cne of Lhe cornersLones of Lhls work ls Lhe con[uncLlon beLween an analysls of
crlLlcal success facLors of managlng sofLware developmenL pro[ecLs uslng an aglle
meLhodology and an analysls of Lhe percelved problems occurrlng ln Lhe model
company by Lhe producL owners. ln Lhe followlng chapLer, Lhls work wlll focus on
undersLandlng Lhe role crlLlcal success facLors can have when managlng pro[ecLs
especlally Lhe ones relevanL Lo Lhe problems Lhe sald company presenLs.
=<=<;< /FJIJNPQ HBNNEHH RPNIKFH
Chow and Cao (2008), clLlng 8ullen and 8ockarL (1981) descrlbe crlLlcal success
facLors as Lhe llmlLed number of areas ln whlch saLlsfacLory resulLs wlll ensure
successful compeLlLlve performance for Lhe lndlvldual, deparLmenL, or organlzaLlon".
1hls work's goal ls exacLly such: Lo dlscover whaL Lhe areas where more focus ln
resolvlng lssues musL be glven, so Lhe processes of pro[ecL managemenL can be more
efflclenL.
Cf Lhe approaches LhaL could have been done aL Lhls polnL, lL was chosen Lo
revlew a broad selecLlon of relevanL llLeraLure Lo ldenLlfy several facLors LhaL are
plvoLal for a successful managemenL of pro[ecLs ln order Lo supporL Lhe lssues
reporLed ln Lhe lnLervlews. lL ls worLh noLlng LhaL Lhe ldenLlfled facLors are conslsLenL
wlLh Lhe prlnclples behlnd Lhe aglle manlfesLo (lowler & PlghsmlLh, 2001).
!"!"#"#" $%&&'()*+,)%( .+*,%/0
CommunlcaLlon ls one of Lhe bases of Lhe aglle manlfesLo. 1hls facLor ls presenL
ln many of Lhe selecLed llLeraLure. ln Sheffleld and LemeLayer (2013), communlcaLlon
ls presenLed as an lmporLanL facLor LhaL leads Lo a successful lmplemenLaLlon of aglle
pro[ecLs. 8uL ln Lhe sLudy of Mlsra, kumar, and kumar (2009), when adopLlng an aglle
meLhodology on pro[ecL managemenL, communlcaLlon was noL deLermlned as an
lmporLanL facLor llnked Lo success.
neverLheless, for Chow and Cao (2008), communlcaLlon plays an lmporLanL role
and was one of Lhe aLLrlbuLes ln Lhe pro[ecL managemenL process facLor LhaL appears
ln Lhelr survey resulLs. CommunlcaLlng ls a key for passlng lmporLanL lnformaLlon and


9
knowledge ln a rlch aglle envlronmenL, granLlng a boosL ln Lhe posslblllLy of a
successful lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe pro[ecL.
As Lhls facLor ls one of Lhe problems ldenLlfled ln Lhe lnLervlews Lo Lhe Cs and
has such hlgh lmporLance ln Lhe llLeraLure, a soluLlon wlll be proposed Lo solve Lhls
lssue.
!"!"#"!" 123')/2&2(,04 +00200&2(,
1he assessmenL of Lhe pro[ecL's requlremenLs ls an lmporLanL facLor ln every
pro[ecL managemenL meLhodology. Powever, conLrary Lo older pro[ecL managemenL
meLhodologles, Lhe lnvolvemenL of everyone ln Lhe pro[ecL ls recommended ln aglle
meLhodologles, as Lhe shared experlence can help Lhe declslon maklng on lmporLanL
sLeps of pro[ecLs. lor Moe, Aurum, and uyb (2012), noL lnvolvlng Lhe Leam prevenLs
Lhe usage of Lhelr knowledge ln Lhe early sLages, leadlng Lhe C Lo make declslons
unsupporLed, wlLhouL comprehenslve undersLandlng, whlch may have severe
repercusslon ln Lhe developmenL of Lhe producL.


lmage 1 - 8equlremenLs assessmenL from Moe eL al. (2012)

As polnLed ouL ln Lhe lnLervlews, noL assesslng Lhe requlremenLs LogeLher as a
whole (C and Lhe developmenL Leam) ls a rlsk LhaL makes Lhe pro[ecL's success much
more dependenL on Lhe experlence and know-how of Lhe C, slnce he alone wlll be
dolng much of Lhe sLraLeglc and LacLlcal declslons.
!"!"#"5" 1)67, +&%'(, %. 8%*'&2(,+,)%(
1he aglle manlfesLo (lowler & PlghsmlLh, 2001) posLulaLes a Worklng sofLware
over comprehenslve documenLaLlon", relylng on Lhe LaclL knowledge presenL on Lhe
Leam's members and Lhelr lnLeracLlons Lo share Lhe knowledge raLher Lhan on expllclL


10
knowledge presenL on Lhe masslve documenLaLlon whlch ls defended on Lhe more
LradlLlonal pro[ecL managemenL meLhodologles. neverLheless, documenLaLlon ls sLlll
very much necessary, as polnLed ouL ln Lhe lnLervlews, aL Lhe level of pro[ecL
managemenL and also aL Lhe level of developmenL. 1hls lasL case wlll only be referred
marglnally, as Lhe focus of Lhls work ls on a managemenL level, buL as an example, Lhe
use of documenLaLlon could be valuable Lo sLore lnformaLlon of developmenL
declslons or guldlng maLerlal for Lhe demonsLraLlon of Lhe worklng proLoLype LhaL ls
expecLed Lo be achleved aL Lhe end of each developmenL cycle, as Lhe pro[ecL
managemenL framework chosen by Lhe company (Scrum) advocaLes. Also, Chow and
Cao (2008) found ln Lhelr surveys done among Aglle professlonals LhaL Lhe rlghL
amounL of documenLaLlon ls an lmporLanL facLor and should be Laken lnLo accounL.
1he paper does noL sLlpulaLe whaL LhaL amounL should be, whlch ls correcL, because
Lhe level of documenLaLlon wlll always be varlable, dependlng on Lhe Lype of cllenL,
Lype of pro[ecL and also dependlng on Lhe Leam and Lhelr experlence. uocumenLaLlon
efforLs should be focused on Lasks llke ls posLulaLed by Llndvall eL al. (2004) and also
8oehm (2002) whlch defends LhaL process procedures LhaL lnvolve Lasks and
mllesLone plans" should be documenLed.
=<>< 75"(%."" ,'*/."" 0$%$1.0.%#
1he nexL focus of Lhls work ls an analysls of Lhe processes ln lLself and Lhe
proposal of lmprovemenLs. AddlLlonally, Lhe deflnlLlon of meLrlcs LhaL wlll allow Lhe
analysls of Lhe efflclency of sald lmprovemenLs wlll be soughL. 8uL Lo do LhaL,
LheoreLlcal lnformaLlon ls needed Lo Lle up wlLh Lhe aforemenLloned analysls,
speclflcally lnformaLlon abouL 8M Lechnlques. 1hese Lechnlques were chosen
because, among all Lhe approaches LhaL could be lmplemenLed Lo lmprove Lhe pro[ecL
managemenL buslness processes, 8M ls Lhe mosL comprehenslve, well-known, and
wldely used pracLlce as 8ohloff (2009) posLulaLes and ls clLed by Skrln[ar and 1rkman
(2013).
8M can have a loL of deflnlLlons, as Lhe one provlded by 8avesLeyn and
8aLenburg (2010) referenclng van uer AalsL, 1er PofsLede, and Weske (2003), ln whlch
8M ls a fleld of knowledge aL Lhe lnLersecLlon beLween 8uslness and lnformaLlon
Lechnology, encompasslng meLhods, Lechnlques and Lools Lo analyze, lmprove,
lnnovaLe, deslgn, enacL and conLrol buslness processes lnvolvlng cusLomers, humans,
organlzaLlons, appllcaLlons, documenLs and oLher sources of lnformaLlon".


11
Powever, a deflnlLlon more flLLlng Lo Lhe scope of Lhls work ls LhaL 8M
represenLs Lhe conLlnuous efforLs Lo analyze and lmprove Lhe company's processes llke
Lhe ones of pro[ecL managemenL, developmenL, communlcaLlon, among oLhers
(adapLed from 1rkman (2010)).
1he analysls and redeslgn of Lhe processes are done ln con[uncLure wlLh 8M
crlLlcal success facLors and relaLed besL pracLlces found ln relevanL llLeraLure.
AfLerwards, Lhe processes can be modeled Lo lmprove Lhem, respecLlng crlLlcal facLors
of success. ConLrol meLrlcs are also deslgned Lo conLrol efflclency.
=<><;< (CSQECELIPIJKL KR ITE 7,0 RFPCEUKFV
ln Lhls work Lhe 8M framework referenced by Arlyachandra and lrollck (2008) ls
used Lo help develop Lhe pro[ecL managemenL processes. 1hls framework ls composed
by four core processes:
"IFPIEWJXE - ln Lhls sLep, lL ls deLermlned whaL Lhe sLraLegy seL ouL by Lhe
company ls. WlLh Lhls lnformaLlon lL can be posslble (alLhough lL ls sald by
Arlyachandra and lrollck (2008) clLlng ollLano (2007) LhaL Lhls ls a challenglng Lask) Lo
elaboraLe some meLrlcs Lo measure Lhe work belng done on Lhe processes.
,QPL - lL ls on Lhls sLep LhaL Lhe course of acLlon ls deflned and Lhe processes are
deslgned as well as Lhe supporLlng acLlvlLles.
0KLJIKF - lL ls aL Lhls sLage LhaL Lhe lmporLance of Lhe 8M lmplemenLaLlon ls
noLlced, slnce resulLs sLarL Lo appear aL Lhls polnL. 8ased on Lhe meLrlcs, measuremenL
resulLs are avallable aL Lhe LM sysLem of Lhe company. WlLh Lhls lnformaLlon, Cs can
plan addlLlonal acLlons, lf necessary.
#PVE NKFFENIJOE PNIJKL - AL Lhls flnal sLep (before Lhe cycle sLarLs over), Lhe C
deploys correcLlve acLlons when a problem arlses or when Lhe daLa avallable lndlcaLe
LhaL problems could happen. An example relaLed wlLh Lhls work could be Lhe C sLarLs
Lo noLlce LhaL Lhe Leam repeaLedly Lakes more Llme Lhan Lhe esLlmaLed, whlle
compleLlng cerLaln Lasks. 1hls could lndlcaLe LhaL Lhe esLlmaLlons were under-
budgeLed or LhaL Lhere ls a problem wlLh Lhe Leam and acLlon should be Laken.



12

lmage 2 - 8M framework
lL ls worLh polnLlng ouL, LhaL Lhls looplng lLeraLlve framework works ln a slmllar
fashlon as ln Lhe Scrum framework, Lhus lL makes sense puLLlng Lhese Lwo worklng
Lechnlques LogeLher ln use, Lo achleve Lhe goals seL ouL for Lhls work.
=<><=< /FJIJNPQ HBNNEHH RPNIKFH PLY FEQPIEY DEHI SFPNIJNE
Whlle revlewlng relevanL llLeraLure, lL became apparenL LhaL many of sald
llLeraLure presenLs a serles of common CSls Lo all of Lhem, buL sLlll Lhey are general
purpose CSls ln Lhelr naLure, llke Lhe ones purposed by Arlyachandra and lrollck
(2008). 8ecause of Lhls, Lhey could be used ln oLher flelds of research, llke ln Lhe case
of lnformaLlon sysLems adopLlon research (ln facL Lhey are somewhaL used ln Lhe
chapLer abouL lnformaLlon SysLems adopLlon). 8uL whlle belng general purposes ln
Lhelr naLure, Lhey should neverLheless be used, as Lhey can form Lhe bulldlng blocks
for Lhe 8M lnlLlaLlve. As such, Lhe mosL relevanL Lo Lhls work are presenLed ln Lhe
followlng Lable.

/FJIJNPQ "BNNEHH +PNIKF 0EPLJLW
Champlon CenLral flgure Lo supporL and promoLe Lhe 8M
lnlLlaLlve lnslde Lhe company, glvlng lnformaLlon
hlghllghLlng Lhe galns of 8M.

ManagemenL of 8eslsLance Applylng new work Lechnlques always leads Lo
reslsLance lnslde Lhe company, ouL of fear or
lgnorance. 8y havlng Lhe knowledge of who can
have Lhls behavlor, addlLlonal supporL should be


13
/FJIJNPQ "BNNEHH +PNIKF 0EPLJLW
glven Lo prevenL evenLual problems.

ManagemenL SupporL 1he lmplemenLaLlon of changes on how Lhe
company works musL be supporLed by Lhe
managemenL of Lhe company.

SufflclenL 8esources lor changes Lo occur, lL ls necessary Lhe lnlLlaLlve
has enough moneLary resources, people, and
Llme.

rocess Skllls lor Lhe success of Lhe 8M lnlLlaLlve, lL ls
necessary LhaL people wlLh exLenslve knowledge
abouL Lhe processes LhaL wlll be worked on are
lnvolved ln Lhe process.

1echnlcal Skllls 8esldes Lhe lmporLance of Lhe knowledge abouL
Lhe process, lL ls also lmporLanL Lo have people
wlLh good knowledge of Lechnlcal skllls Lo help
LranslaLe Lhe processes from a LacLlcal level Lo a
more operaLlonal level.

user SupporL Slnce all or much of Lhe company wlll be affecLed
by Lhe changes LhaL an lnlLlaLlve of Lhls naLure
brlngs, Lhe supporL of Lhe users ls very lmporLanL
for lLs success.

LffecLlve CommunlcaLlon Cnly wlLh an effecLlve communlcaLlon beLween
all Lhe parLlclpaLlng agenLs of Lhe lnlLlaLlve ls lL
posslble Lo LransmlL Lhe correcL lnformaLlon Lo
achleve a successful lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe
lnlLlaLlve.

1able 2 - CrlLlcal success facLors for buslness process managemenL.
neverLheless, for Lhls work, whaL was deslred was Lo have a more concreLe and
ln-depLh CSls LhaL could be used Lo help lmplemenL Lhe new deslgn of Lhe pro[ecL
managemenL processes.
Cne ldenLlfled CSl ls Lhe necesslLy Lo have Lhe performance of Lhe work belng
done consLanLly measured (Skrln[ar & 1rkman, 2013). 1he purpose of Lhls CSl ls Lo help
deLermlne Lhe allgnmenL level of Lhe process wlLh lLs goal, seL by Lhe managemenL.


14
Llkewlse, 8avesLeyn and 8aLenburg (2010) deLermlned ln Lhelr survey LhaL Laklng
measuremenLs and conLrolllng Lhe work belng done was also an lmporLanL facLor, and
Lhus lLs monlLorlng should be a conLlnuous efforL. Cne example of such conLrol
happens aL Lhe end of each developmenL cycle ln a pro[ecL (a sprlnL). 1hls evenL ls
called a SprlnL 8evlew, where Lhe daLa from Lhe work belng done ls revlewed and
concluslons can be drawn from lL.
Cne of Lhe ob[ecLlves of 8M ls Lo sLreamllne Lhe processes. 8elaLed Lo LhaL, one
of Lhe CSl ldenLlfled by 1rkman (2010) ls Lhe need for organlzaLlonal and sLrucLural
changes, buL also Lhe company's capablllLy Lo respond Lo LhaL change. 1hls crlLlcal
facLor helps clean up" redundancles LhaL exlsL ln Lhe company's sLrucLure by glvlng a
proper deflnlLlon of Lasks, Lhe compeLences expecLed from Lhe workers and where
responslblllLy lles ln Lhe processes. 1hls ls Lrue when lmplemenLlng changes where
8M ls lnvolved, llke ln Lhe example of !arrar, Al-Mudlmlgh, and Zalrl (2000) where Lhe
change of managemenL ls also ldenLlfled as a success vecLor, as well as Lhe re-
englneerlng of Lhe buslness processes. Lven furLher, one of Lhe references of
8osemann and de 8ruln (2003) also sLaLes LhaL Lhls process of change musL rely noL
only on sysLems and sLrucLural change, buL also on culLural change as well (Spanyl,
2003).
8eferenced ln many sources ls Lhe CSl of Lhe need of l1/lS supporL of Lhe 8M
lnlLlaLlve. 1he usage of l1/lS should be an enabler and should be used Lo supporL Lhe
lnlLlaLlve, and noL as Lhe maln drlver for change (1erzlovskl, llLzpaLrlck, & C'nelll,
2003). l1/lS can add lLs supporL Lo reduce Lhe problems ldenLlfled ln Lhe lnLervlews
LhaL were relaLed wlLh Lhe lack of documenLaLlon and communlcaLlon.
8uL l1/lS supporL musL go beyond Lhe supporL for documenLaLlon, or else Lhe
sysLem may become an lnformaLlon sllo. Lven more, Skrln[ar and 1rkman (2013) found
LhaL Lhe use of a documenLaLlon sysLem has llLLle lmpacL on Lhe processes lnvolved. An
analysls of Lhe exlsLlng sysLem (LM) wlll be done ln a laLer chapLer of Lhls work Lo
lndlcaLe Lasks LhaL could be done Lo supporL Lhe 8M lnlLlaLlve. As reference Lo Lhese
Lasks, some crlLlcal pracLlces LhaL were ldenLlfled by Skrln[ar and 1rkman (2013), llke
Lhe auLomaLlon of several acLlvlLles wlLhln Lhe processes, Lo allow Lhe workers Lo have
more Llme Lo work on whaL really maLLers and noL ln Lasks LhaL whlle necessary (Lhelr
necesslLy musL also be ob[ecL of aLLenLlon ln Lhe re-deslgn), are of a repeLlLlve naLure
and can be achleved by auLomaLlon.
llnally, a lasL CSl can be referenced from Lhe work of 8avesLeyn and 8aLenburg
(2010). 1he lnvolvemenL of Lhe employees ln Lhe re-deslgn of Lhe process resulLs ln


13
Lhelr empowermenL wlLhln Lhe process and Lhe company, whlch may conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe
success of sald process. 1hls ls because by parLlclpaLlng ln Lhese acLlons, workers can
see Lhe changes and Lhelr beneflLs and acL as champlons, one of Lhe mosL common CSl
ln relevanL llLeraLure. 1hls also goes along wlLh whaL Scrum and Lhe Aglle ManlfesLo
(lowler & PlghsmlLh, 2001) uphold, by havlng self-organlzlng Leams and allowlng
buslness people and developers Lo work LogeLher dally LhroughouL Lhe pro[ecL.
=<><>< 0EIFJNH RKF CEPHBFJLW SFKNEHHEH
1he lmplemenLaLlon of a 8M pro[ecL ls noL a guaranLee LhaL Lhe company wlll
achleve beLLer resulLs. ln facL, several papers show LhaL 8M lnlLlaLlves usually fall, llke
ln Arlyachandra and lrollck (2008). 1he work of Al-Masharl and Zalrl (1999) even sLaLes
LhaL as many as 70 percenL do noL achleve Lhe dramaLlc resulLs Lhey seek". Cne
reason glven for Lhls occurrence was Lhe lack of measuremenL Lo deLermlne lf Lhe
processes are allgned wlLh Lhe company's sLraLegy. ln response Lo Lhls, measuremenLs
of Lhe work belng done can be achleved Lhrough Lhe use of meLrlcs.
1he meLhod of meLrlcs for buslness processes ls slmllar Lo Lhe one deplcLed ln
Lhe lmage 2 - 1he 8M framework. ln Lhls case, as suggesLed by kennerley and neely
(2003), Lhere are Lhree phases Lo Lhe effecLlve lmplemenLaLlon of meLrlcs LhaL are also
presenLed ln a cycle. 1hese are:
'ERQENIJKL - ln Lhls phase, an analysls ls done on Lhe exlsLlng meLrlcs (lf
any) Lo deLermlne whlch are effecLlve or noL (and Lhus should be pursued
or abandoned) and whaL changes should be lmplemenLed ln Lhe meLrlcs
ldenLlfled wlLh such necesslLy,
0KYJRJNPIJKL - AL Lhls polnL, Lhe changes LhaL are requlred Lo be done ln
Lhe meLrlcs should be lmplemenLed on Lhe lS,
&ESQKZCELI - upon lmplemenLaLlon, Lhe lS should sLarL collecLlng daLa
Lo feed Lhe meLrlcs requlred Lo monlLor Lhe processes.
1he work of kennerley and neely (2003) also presenLs a serles of facLors LhaL can
help wlLh Lhe consLanL evoluLlon of meLrlcs. 1hese are Lhe ones, based on observaLlon,
whlch would brlng addlLlonal value Lo Lhe meLrlcs deplcLed on Lhls work:

+PNIKF /PIEWKFZ
8egular process Lo revlew measures wlLh predeLermlned revlew
daLes and allocaLed resources.
rocess
AvallablllLy of mechanlsms Lo Lransfer besL pracLlce. rocess


16
+PNIKF /PIEWKFZ
lnLegraLlon of l1 and operaLlonal ob[ecLlves and resources. SysLems
llexlble l1 sysLems.
Lnabllng modlflcaLlon of daLa collecLlon, analysls and
reporLlng Lools.
SysLems
AvallablllLy of dedlcaLed resources Lo faclllLaLe revlew and
modlflcaLlon of measures.
eople
uevelopmenL of a communlLy of users of measures Lo
Lransfer besL pracLlce (e-mall, user groups, benchmarklng).
eople
CulLure conduclve Lo measuremenL.
Senlor managemenL drlvlng measuremenL.
undersLandlng of Lhe beneflL of measuremenL.
CulLure
AccepLance of need for evoluLlon. CulLure
LffecLlve communlcaLlon of measures and measuremenL
lssues uslng accepLed medla.
CulLure
use of measures Lo prompL acLlons, reflecL on sLraLegy and
processes, eLc.
CulLure
Cpen and honesL use of measures CulLure
1able 3 - lacLors LhaL help measurlng processes
1he caLegorles of Lhese facLors represenL Lhe followlng:
,EKSQE - 1hese facLors provlde Lhe necessary human resources Lo
lmplemenL Lhe meLrlcs,
,FKNEHH - lacLors LhaL guaranLee LhaL a process exlsLs Lo manage Lhe
meLrlcs,
"ZHIECH - 1hey are Lhe facLors LhaL provlde a sLrucLure LhaL enables Lhe
collecLlon of Lhe measuremenLs and ouLpuLs lLs resulLs,
/BQIBFE - 1he exlsLence of a company culLure LhaL ls focused on Lhe
gaLherlng of lnformaLlon Lo feed Lhe meLrlcs.
Cf all Lhe facLors presenLed by kennerley and neely (2003), only Lhe culLural
facLors were all adopLed for Lhls work. Whlle deLermlnlng Lhe necessary meLrlcs for Lhe
processes can be a dlfflculL Lask, deallng wlLh culLural lssues ls also very challenglng.
neverLheless, ln Lhe case of u8l, lLs culLure ls also whaL led noL Lo lnclude some facLors
presenLed on Lhe referenced work, because u8l (Lhrough lLs workers) presenLs a
sLrong and collaboraLlve efforL Lo consLanLly lmprove lLs meLhods of work.


17
When lmplemenLlng Lhls framework, a correcL proflllng of Lhe LargeL company
should be obLalned ln order Lo conslder Lhe approprlaLe facLors from Lhe ones
presenLed above: people, process, sysLem and culLure.
AnoLher valuable polnL LhaL should be addressed when creaLlng Lhe meLrlcs ls
deLermlnlng whlch purpose ls behlnd each Lype of meLrlcs. 8ehn (2003) presenLs a
serles of posslble purposes ln hls paper, of Lhose, some can be used on Lhe processes
LhaL wlll be ouLllned for Lhls framework.
.OPQBPIE PLY NKLIFKQ - 8y evaluaLlng a process, a manager can have a beLLer
grasp on how well (or noL) Lhe process ls belng used and lf lL meeLs Lhe goals LhaL
should be seL when Lhe process ls lmplemenLed. lor Lhls purpose, 8ehn (2003) clLes a
reporL done ln 1994, by Lhe naLlonal Academy of ubllc AdmlnlsLraLlon (nAA, 1994)
LhaL sLaLes erformance measuremenL of program ouLpuLs and ouLcomes provldes
lmporLanL, lf noL vlLal, lnformaLlon on currenL program sLaLus and how much progress
ls belng made Loward lmporLanL program goals". Whlle Lhe prevlous reason Lo
measure had lLs focus on Lhe process lLself, conLrol ls almed aL Lhe people LhaL are
lnvolved ln Lhe process. AlLhough u8l, by adherlng Lo an aglle orlenLed framework
(Scrum), ls looklng Lo empower Lhe Leam (lowler & PlghsmlLh, 2001), Lhere ls sLlll Lhe
necesslLy Lo exerL conLrol Lo deLermlne lf Lhe resulLs are ln llne wlLh Lhe goals and
sLraLegles seL by Lhe company,
0KIJOPIE PLY NEQEDFPIE - Measurlng a process can also be used Lo moLlvaLe a
Leam. Long (buL noL LhaL long) goes Lhe day managers followed Lhe lrederlck 1aylor's
process conLrol (8ehn, 2003), now shlfLlng ln favor of Lhe aglle empowermenL. 8y
measurlng Lhe poslLlve resulLs of a process, Lhey can be used Lo properly moLlvaLe a
Leam. lf Lhe resulLs are noL poslLlve, Lhey can be used Lo sLeer Lhe Leam Lowards Lhe
goals deflned ln Lhe sprlnLs. 8y glvlng Lhls opporLunlLy Lo Lhe Leam, lL may lnduce Lhe
[oy of reachlng Lhe goals on Lhelr own Lerms, lncreaslng Lhe moLlvaLlon Lo achleve
more, whlch ls whaL 8lslng (2013) defended on her presenLaLlon. CelebraLlon of Lhe
resulLs of measurlng a process ls, conLrary Lo Lhe prevlous polnL, LargeL Lo Lhe whole
company. 8y celebraLlng Lhe reachlng of goals of a process LhaL were seL ln accordance
wlLh Lhe sLraLeglc sLeer of a company ls someLhlng LhaL wlll lnduce a greaLer sense of
Leam / company coheslon and may lead Lhe lndlvldual Lo lmprove Lhelr self-worLh by
parLlclpaLlon ln such successful endeavor, whlch ln Lurn may lmprove Lhelr
performance ouLpuL,
4EPFL PLY JCSFKOE - Alongslde wlLh Lhe evaluaLe purpose, Lhe need Lo learn
whlle measurlng processes should be an lmperaLlve, slnce by dolng so, Lhe manager


18
can grasp Lhe causes Lo Lhose resulLs (8ehn, 2003). Speclflc meLrlcs should be
lmplemenLed Lo obLaln such measures Lo perslsL wlLh Lhe conLlnuous lmprovemenL.
1hls leads Lo Lhe flnal purpose: lmprovemenL. 1hls purpose follows, Lo some exLenL,
Lhe polnL presenLed on Lhe Aglle ManlfesL (lowler & PlghsmlLh, 2001) whlch sLaLes AL
regular lnLervals, Lhe Leam reflecLs on how Lo become more effecLlve, Lhen Lunes and
ad[usLs lLs behavlor accordlngly". 8y knowlng whaL happens on Lhe process, acLlons
can be Laken Lo lmprove Lhe process lf necessary or Lo conLlnue ln Lhe same fashlon, lf
Lhe lndlcaLors polnL Lo a saLlsfacLory measuremenL.
=<@< (%+*'0$#(*% "6"#.0" $&*,#(*%
1he flnal LheoreLlcal focus of Lhls work ls on lnformaLlon sysLem (lS) adopLlon
and lmplemenLaLlon pracLlces. 1hls lnformaLlon ls gaLhered from Lhe fleld of
ManagemenL of lnformaLlon SysLems and lLs purpose ls Lo acL as Lhe basls of a serles of
guldellnes Lo allow a beLLer adopLlon on Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe redeslgn processes
by Lhe users of Lhe LM sysLem.
1he work of Sllver, Markus, and 8eaLh (1993) provldes a common academlc
deflnlLlon of lnformaLlon SysLems (lS), ln whlch lS encompasses hardware, sofLware,
daLa, people, and procedures. WlLh Lhe excepLlon of hardware, whlch does noL have
much relevance ln Lhls work, Lhese componenLs of lS are of hlgh lmporLance for a
company and for Lhe success of Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe processes dlscussed ln Lhls
work. 1hese componenLs can be descrlbed ln Lhe followlng:
,FKNEYBFEH - 1he maln componenL, whlch ls Lhe basls for Lhe new
lmplemenLaLlon of Lhls work - Lhe processes. 1hese musL be coded ln Lhe
form of procedures ln Lhe LM sysLem,
&PIP - uaLa ls whaL resulLs from Lhe acLlvlLles of Lhe procedures,
produced by Lhe people and wlll be sLored ln Lhe LM sysLem,
,EKSQE - 1he workers of Lhe company (and more lf necessary) LhaL wlll
lnLeracL wlLh Lhe processes and wlll produce Lhe daLa. Whlle Lhe
procedures are of pro[ecL managemenL naLure, noL only Lhe C wlll
lnLeracL wlLh Lhe sofLware,
"KRIUPFE - 1he LM sysLem ln whlch Lhe procedures wlll be coded, Lhe
daLa wlll be sLored and accesslble Lo Lhe people LhaL wlll lnLeracL ln Lhe
fuLure processes.
Whlle lL ls noL an exLenslve analysls for crlLlcal facLors for Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of
an lS, Lhe work of Subramanlan, !lang, and kleln (2007), clLlng AlLer (1979) purposes a


19
serles of guldellnes for lmplemenLaLlon of an lS wlLh a naLure slmllar Lo whaL ls ln sLudy
ln Lhls work, and as such, lL ls lmporLanL Lo Lake Lhem lnLo conslderaLlon. 1hese
guldellnes are:
2EES JI HJCSQE. lmplemenL / ueploy only whlch ls really necessary and
needed by Lhe users of Lhe lS,
.[ENBIJOE KF IKS CPLPWECELI SPFIJNJSPIJKL NKCCJICELI. lL ls necessary
for Lhe Lop managemenL Lo be lnvolved wlLh Lhe developmenL and
supporL lLs lmplemenLaLlon and lLs use LhroughouL Lhe company. As can
be seen before, managemenL commlLmenL ls a consLanL ln all of Lhe areas
of sLudy ln Lhls work,
#FPJLJLW. rovldlng Lralnlng Lo Lhe users can even permlL a furLher
reflnemenL of Lhe lS and aL Lhe same Llme lnvolve Lhe users ln lLs
deploymenL Lo achleve a beLLer accepLance wlLhln Lhe company,
,FKIKIZSJLW \ EOKQBIJKLPFZ YESQKZCELI. 1he lmplemenLaLlon /
deploymenL of Lhe lS can and should sLarL slmple. 8uL, wlLh each
lLeraLlon, new feaLures can be added or more users should be broughL ln.
=<@<;< $YKSIJKL KR NTPLWEH
Changes are many Llmes dlfflculL Lo lmplemenL. Some even say LhaL changes hurL
on a psychologlcal level llke koch (2006), clLlng medlcal sources. 8eslsLlng change ls
parL of who we are, movlng away from our comforL zone ls someLhlng LhaL we Lry Lo
avold on a consclous and sub-consclous level.
So Lhere ls a greaL necesslLy Lo pay aLLenLlon on how change ls managed wlLhln
Lhe company Lo ensure Lhe success of Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe changes suggesLed
on Lhls work.
llrsL of all, and from an lS percepLlve, Lhe necesslLy of Lhese changes ls a by-
producL of Lhe growLh LhaL Lhe sub[ecL company has been susLalnlng for some Llme
and also ouL of Lhe necesslLy of lnnovaLlon (Swanson & Wang, 2003) on Lhelr
processes, added by Lhe pressure of Lhe markeLs ln whlch Lhe company ls presenL Lo
have servlces LhaL dellver hlgh value Lo Lhelr cllenLs. 1hus, Lhere was Lhe necesslLy Lo
lmplemenL an LnLerprlse ro[ecL ManagemenL sysLem.
Many of Lhe relevanL llLeraLure sLaLes LhaL ln Lhe process of Lhe adopLlon of such
changes on Lhe lS level of Lhe company, Lhe changes should be supporLed by one or
more champlons, who are ''Lechnologlcal leaders'' responslble for convlnclng Lhe resL
of Lhe company of Lhe need for change. 1he champlons' role ls lmporLanL, when Lhey


20
supporL Lhe lnLroducLlon of new lnformaLlon Lechnology unequlvocally, flrmly and
declslvely, so LhaL Lhe resL of Lhe company ls convlnced of Lhe need Lo adopL lL. As
such, lL ls necessary Lo ldenLlfy Lhem wlLhln Lhe sLrucLure of Lhe company. 1hls ls
sLaLed ln Lhe work of 8ruque and Moyano (2007), whlch sLudles Lhe deLermlnanLs for
adopLlon of lnformaLlon Lechnologles by SMLs. Whlle Lhls work ls focused on famlly
and cooperaLlve companles, a correspondence can be made Lo u8l, Lhe sub[ecL
company of Lhls work, slnce as ln a famlly company, everyone knows one anoLher and
many even have deallngs ouLslde Lhe company. neverLheless, llke ln Lhe work of
8ruque and Moyano (2007), lL can be observed on u8l LhaL Lhls envlronmenL ls sLarLlng
Lo change and Lhe company ls becomlng more sLrucLured and (even) more
professlonallzed.
Llke ln Lhe example above, Lhese changes lead Lo a LransformaLlon on Lhe culLure
LhaL should be Laken lnLo accounL when managlng change aL a company. CorporaLe
culLure ls an ever changlng (and some aspecLs cannoL even be conLrolled) properLy of a
company, ln whlch knowledge of more senlor workers ls passed Lo more [unlor and
recenL workers ln Lhe company (!ackson, 2011). Pynes (2009) clLlng ueshpande and
WebsLer !r (1989) descrlbes corporaLe culLure as Lhe paLLern of shared values and
bellefs LhaL help lndlvlduals undersLand organlzaLlonal funcLlonlng and Lhus provldes
Lhose norms for behavlor ln Lhe organlzaLlon". Whlle lmplemenLlng changes, Lhe
aspecL of corporaLe culLure ls many Llmes overlooked and ls ofLen clLed as Lhe prlmary
reason for Lhe fallure Lo lmplemenL corporaLe changes (Llnnenluecke & CrlfflLhs,
2010).
lL has been observed wlLhln Lhe model company LhaL lLs culLure can be ldenLlfled
followlng an lnLegraLlon perspecLlve, as a whole, ln whlch lL dlsplays an lnformaLlonal
culLure, meanlng LhaL Lhe l1 and buslness goals are allgned (!ackson, 2011). lL ls also
posslble, however, Lo ldenLlfy from Lhe perspecLlve of dlfferenLlaLlon, a culLure LhaL
each of Lhe deparLmenLs (sysLems, web developmenL, appllcaLlons developmenL, eLc.)
has, comprlslng dlfferenL perspecLlves on lnformaLlon sysLems and how Lo adopL Lhem.
WlLh an unaLLended LransformaLlon caused by Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of changes, Lhls
behavlor could even deepen, leadlng Lo a non-adopLlon of sald changes.
1hls concludes Lhe round-up of Lhe research done for Lhls work, whlch sLarLed
wlLh Lhe analysls of Lhe pro[ecL managemenL processes of Lhe company, speclflcally
Lhe problems LhaL plague Lhem and a comparlson wlLh proven crlLlcal success facLors
ln relevanL llLeraLure. Slnce Lhe analysls ls on processes, lL makes sense LhaL as Lhe
necesslLy of changes was ldenLlfled, a redeslgn should be made on sald processes,


21
uslng 8M for LhaL goal. 1o LhaL end, an analysls was also done for pracLlces on how Lo
lmplemenL changes uslng 8M and employlng ldenLlfled CSls. 8ecause Lhese changes
need Lo be supporLed by an lnformaLlon SysLem (lS), Lhe besL pracLlces on adopLlon
changes on lS were also ob[ecL of sLudy for Lhls work.


22
>< +(%&(%1"
WlLh Lhe LheoreLlcal background compleLed, Lhe flndlngs are now presenLed.
llrsLly, Lhe sub[ecL company ls conLexLuallzed ln relevance wlLh Lhls work, regardlng
Lhelr sLraLeglc goals, buL also regardlng Lhe chosen pro[ecL managemenL meLhodology.
><;< $7*5# #?. /*0,$%6
1he company focused on Lhls work ls a global consulLancy SML named u8l
(hLLp://www.drl-global.com), headquarLered ln Llsbon, orLugal.
u8l was esLabllshed ln 1999 as a resulL of an academlc spln off. As of !anuary
2013, lL counLs wlLh 40+ employees, placed ln 7 offlces ln Lurope and norLh Amerlca.
lLs maln servlce vecLors are:
8uslness & Soclal lnLelllgence,
C8M & Soclal C8M,
Moblle & LmergenL Medla,
Web & laLforms.
1hese servlces are malnly relaLed wlLh web developmenL, done prlmarlly wlLh
open source Lechnology or servlces relaLed wlLh hosLlng and helpdesk supporL. 1he
developmenL ls malnly done ln Lhe Llsbon offlces, alLhough Lhere are pro[ecLs
developed by mulLl-counLry Leams, where communlcaLlon ls an lmporLanL Loplc.
lLs currenL sLraLeglc plan alms (among oLhers LhaL fall ouLslde of Lhe scope of Lhls
work), on a cusLomer level, Lo reach blgger cllenLs LhaL lead Lo more complex (and Lhus
lengLhler) pro[ecLs. 1o supporL LhaL, on an lnLernal processes perspecLlve, Lhe company
alms Lo lmprove Lhe operaLlng processes and also Lhe producL quallLy.
Cn an organlzaLlon level, Lhe ma[orlLy of Leams ls focused ln web-relaLed
developmenL. 8uL Lhere ls also a Leam of sysLem admlnlsLraLlon, a deslgn Leam, a
flnanclal Leam and also a commerclal Leam. ln addlLlon Lo Lhe developmenL Leams and
besldes Lhe pro[ecL managers LhaL acL as a C for one or more pro[ecLs, Lhere are a
number of Leam members LhaL supporL Lhe developmenL of a pro[ecL, as speclallsLs.
1eam members llke Lhe C1C, Lhe ux Lead or a SofLware ArchlLecL are commonly
lnvolved wlLh Lhe Leams Lo dellver a producL speclally crafLed for Lhe cllenL. 1here ls a
Leam member wlLh Lhe poslLlon of ConLroller LhaL acLs as a hub of lnformaLlon
beLween Lhe Leams of dlfferenL areas.


23
><;<;< ,FKMENI CPLPWECELI CEITKYKQKWZ PI &'(
lor much of lLs sLlll shorL llfe, u8l dld noL have an offlclal pro[ecL managemenL
meLhodology. neverLheless, such lmporLance was polnLed ouL dally, as Lhe company
grew and maLured. 1o achleve LhaL goal, for some Llme now, several Lop managemenL
elemenLs aL u8l have been pushlng for a compleLe adopLlon of Scrum, an aglle
sofLware developmenL framework.
Scrum ls an enhancemenL of Lhe lLeraLlve and lncremenLal approach Lo
dellverlng ob[ecL-orlenLed sofLware" (Schwaber, 1997). Some of lLs ldeals and meLhods
were used ln a meeLlng of represenLaLlves of several meLhodologles, llke LxLreme
rogrammlng, leaLure-urlven uevelopmenL, Scrum, eLc., produclng Lhe Aglle
ManlfesLo, slgned by all parLlclpanLs ln sald meeLlng (lncludlng Schwaber), ln 2001. 1he
manlfesLo defends Lhe followlng:
lndlvlduals and lnLeracLlons over processes and Lools,
Worklng sofLware over comprehenslve documenLaLlon,
CusLomer collaboraLlon over conLracL negoLlaLlon,
8espondlng Lo change over followlng a plan.
Scrum (whlch Lakes lLs name from a formaLlon ln rugby) posLulaLes LhaL Lhe
sofLware developmenL should be done ln small Llmed lLeraLlve sLeps, wlLh Lhe
lnvolvemenL of Lhe sLakeholder Lo lmprove Lhe quallLy of Lhe producL. SLakeholders
can be Lhe cusLomer, end-users, eLc. 1hey are Lhe ones LhaL recelve added value wlLh
Lhe developmenL of Lhe pro[ecL.
Lach of Lhe developmenL lLeraLlons ls called a SprlnL and can Lake from one Lo
four weeks, dependlng on Lhe sLlpulaLlon glven by Lhe ro[ecL Cwner (C). ln Scrum,
Lhe ro[ecL Manager flgure does noL exlsL, and lL can be somewhaL replaced by Lhe C
flgure. Slnce Lhe sprlnLs are falrly shorL, afLer evaluaLlng whaL wenL rlghL and wrong,
changes can be lmplemenLed rapldly.
Whlle analyzlng a pro[ecL, lLs requlremenLs are broken down lnLo sLorles by Lhe
C. Lach sLory represenLs a funcLlonallLy of Lhe pro[ecL and Lhey are furLher
decomposed lnLo lssues by Lhe developmenL Leam. A componenL of Lhe producL can
be composed by several sLorles. WlLh a sorLlng order of Lhe lmporLance of sald lssues,
Lhese seL of lssues ls whaL composes Lhe producL backlog. 1hls backlog ls where Lhe
developmenL Leam, Lhe Scrum MasLer and Lhe C of Lhe pro[ecL come before Lhe sLarL
of every SprlnL Lo bulld Lhe SprlnL backlog by chooslng Lhe flrsL sLorles from Lhe
producL backlog LhaL flL Lhe lengLh of Lhe SprlnL chosen aL Lhe sLarL of Lhe pro[ecL by
Lhe C, Lo answer Lhe goals for Lhe SprlnL, also seL by Lhe C.


24
1he lmplemenLaLlon of Lhls meLhodology ls Laken lnLo accounL and ls
lncorporaLed ln Lhe modellng of Lhe processes descrlbed ln Lhe chapLer 3.3. 1hese
processes (,FKNEYBFEH) are an lmporLanL componenL of Lhe lnformaLlon SysLem of Lhe
company, referred ln Lhe LheoreLlcal background and Lhelr modellng wlll address Lhe
problems found aL Lhe company. lrom Lhese processes, &PIP wlll resulL and ls Lo be
sLored ln Lhe "KRIUPFE made especlally Lo manage pro[ecLs, Lhe LnLerprlse ro[ecL
ManagemenL (LM) sysLem (boLh of Lhese componenLs are, as polnLed ouL ln Lhe
LheoreLlcal background, parL of Lhe lS of Lhe company).
1he flnal componenL of an lnformaLlon SysLem ls Lhe ,EKSQE. AL Lhls company,
and for Lhe case presenLed aL Lhls work, Lhe bulk ls Lhe developmenL Leams. Lach Leam
can be comprlsed by Lwo or more people, dependlng on Lhe pro[ecL aL hand. 8esldes
Lhe already dlscussed C flgure, Lhere ls anoLher elemenL presenL on Scrum Leams: Lhe
Scrum MasLer. 1hls elemenL ls a person whose maln focus ls Lo overcome problemaLlc
slLuaLlons, llke mlsslng lnformaLlon, mlsslng resources, eLc. 1he Scrum MasLer ls
presenL aL all Lhe ually MeeLlngs, a meeLlng LhaL, llke Lhe name lmplles, ls done on a
dally basls and where one or more Leams of a speclflc deparLmenL gaLher Lo dlscuss
Lhe work done ln Lhe prevlous day, whlch problems occurred and whaL wlll be done ln
Lhe presenL day. AL Lhese meeLlngs everyone ls encouraged Lo sLep forward wlLh
soluLlons Lo problems LhaL Lhelr colleagues presenL. lf no soluLlon Lo Lhe problem ls
found, lL ls up Lo Lhe Scrum MasLer Lo flnd resources Lo help solve Lhe problem.
><;<=< .LIEFSFJHE ,FKMENI 0PLPWECELI
1he LM sysLem should be a fundamenLal parL of Lhe lnformaLlon SysLem of any
company and as such, ls one of Lhe focus polnLs of Lhls work. ln Lhls sysLem, all
lnformaLlon of a pro[ecL can be sLored and consulLed, by uslng Lhe dlfferenL
componenLs. 1he sulLe used aL u8l ls from ALlasslan and Lhe maln componenLs Lhls
work wlll concenLraLe lLs flndlngs and dlscusslons are:
! -('$ - A pro[ecL managemenL appllcaLlon, LhaL helps Lo Lrack, plan and
analyze Lhe daLa from a pro[ecL. 1hls appllcaLlon has several plug-lns
lnsLalled, one of whlch ls Lhe #ECSK plug-ln LhaL ls used by Lhe
developmenL Leam Lo log Lhe Llme spenL on each Lask of a pro[ecL.
AnoLher plug-ln ls Lhe 1FEEL?KSSEF, LhaL ls a vlsuallzaLlon plug-ln Lo
dlsplay LhaL Lasks of Lhe pro[ecL ln a Scrum board, wlLh Lhe several sLages
of Lhe developmenL, whlch Lyplcally ls 1o-uo, ln rogress and uone.


23
AnoLher plug-ln used ls Lhe )ESTZF, used for sLorlng lnformaLlon abouL
Lhe LesLs LhaL should be done for Lhe developmenL belng made,
! /KLRQBELNE - A wlkl llke appllcaLlon LhaL ls focused on Leam collaboraLlon.
ln Lhls appllcaLlon, Cs and Lhe developmenL Leam allke can sLore
lnformaLlon (LhaL should be ln a common and sLrucLured way) abouL Lhe
pro[ecL. 1hls appllcaLlon also allows conLrolllng / vlewlng several
calendars, where much lnformaLlon abouL Lhe Leams (among oLher
lnformaLlon) can be dlsplayed Lo help every user plan lLs work.
Some LM sulLes were analyzed and Lhls was Lhe one chosen Lo supporL Lhe
efforL belng made aL u8l Lo lmprove Lhe quallLy of lLs work. lL ls sLlll a work ln progress,
wlLh good accepLance from lLs users, buL lL requlres some guldellnes abouL lLs use,
whlch are presenLed ln Lhls work.
When worklng wlLh Lhe LM sysLem, users should log noL only Lhe Llme spenL on
Lhelr work on lssues of Lhe pro[ecL, buL Lhe Llme used on common Lasks LhaL exlsL ln
every pro[ecL.

%PCE &EHNFJSIJKL $BYJELNE
Daily Meeting

Lach Llme a worker goes Lo a dally meeLlng, he / she
should lnpuL Lhe Llme spenL ln LhaL meeLlng. lf a worker ls
on Lwo pro[ecLs aL Lhe same Llme, Lhe Llme should be
logged ln Lhe pro[ecL where Lhe mosL Llme wlll be spenL ln
LhaL day.
uevelopmenL
1eam and Scrum
MasLer.
Cccaslonally for
C.
SprlnL 8evlew
AL Lhe end of a SprlnL Lhere are several meeLlngs LhaL Lake
place. 1he Llme spenL on Lhe sprlnL revlew, where Lhe
developed work ls demoed Lo Lhe C, should be sLored
here.
uevelopmenL
1eam, Scrum
MasLer and C.
SprlnL
8eLrospecLlve
AL Lhe end of a SprlnL Lhere are several meeLlngs LhaL Lake
place. 1he Llme spenL on Lhe sprlnL reLrospecLlve, where
everyone lnvolved ln Lhe pro[ecL glves an lnpuL on whaL
wenL rlghL or wrong wlLh Lhe sprlnL, should be sLored
here.
uevelopmenL
1eam, Scrum
MasLer and C.
SprlnL
lannlng
AL Lhe end of a SprlnL Lhere are several meeLlngs LhaL Lake
place. 1he Llme spenL on Lhe plannlng for Lhe nexL sprlnL
should be sLored here.
uevelopmenL
1eam, Scrum
MasLer and C.
8acklog
Croomlng
1he developmenL Leam should know, aL leasL, whaL Lhey
wlll do for Lhe nexL monLh or so. knowlng Lhls allows
looklng aL Lhe producL backlog and dolng some groomlng,
Lo see lf any lnformaLlon ls mlsslng. 1he Llme spenL dolng
Lhls Lask should be lnpuLLed here.
uevelopmenL
1eam.
ro[ecL
lannlng
When someone ls lnvolved ln Lhe lnlLlal phase of deflnlng
aspecLs of Lhe pro[ecL Lhey should lnserL Lhe Llme spenL ln
Lhls lssue.
uevelopmenL
1eam, Scrum
MasLer and C.


26
%PCE &EHNFJSIJKL $BYJELNE
Analysls
1he Llme spenL on analyzlng some new Lechnology or
developmenL process should be logged here.
uevelopmenL
1eam
1able 4 - Common pro[ecL Lasks
><=< (%#.'9(.3" $%$46"("
As sLaLed above, one of Lhe meLhods Lo gaLher lnformaLlon for Lhls work
conslsLed on a seL of lnLervlews. 1hese were made aL Lhe sLarLlng polnL of Lhls work
(hase lll) Lo each of Lhe Lhree avallable Cs aL Lhe Llme (Lhe fourLh was unavallable).
upon conducLlng an analysls on Lhe lnLervlews, lL became clear LhaL Lhe maln
problems ln managlng pro[ecLs aL u8l are: communlcaLlon, documenLaLlon,
requlremenLs' assessmenL and Lhe general lack of sLandardlzaLlon of meLrlcs and oLher
sLaLus and conLrol sLrucLure Lo evaluaLe pro[ecLs and Lhelr success. As polnLed ouL ln
Lhe LheoreLlcal background, problems of communlcaLlon, documenLaLlon (and aL some
exLenL requlremenLs' assessmenL) are relaLed mosL of Lhe Llme, slnce much of Lhe
communlcaLlon belng done ls noL sLored ln a cenLral reposlLory and documenLaLlon ls
noL sLrucLured ln order Lo supporL communlcaLlon. lor compleLe LranscrlpLlons of Lhe
lnLervlews, please consulL Lhe chapLer 7.1 of Lhe Appendlx.
><=<;< /KCCBLJNPIJKL] YKNBCELIPIJKL PLY FE^BJFECELIHA PHHEHHCELI SFKDQECH
ro[ecL managemenL communlcaLlon ls a problem LhaL has mulLlple vecLors: wlLh
Lhe flnanclal deparLmenL, beLween Lhe producL owners and wlLh Lhe cllenL. naLurally
Lhe Cs also communlcaLe wlLh Lhe developmenL Leam, buL ln Lhe lnLervlews Lhls
vecLor was noL referenced as problemaLlc.
1he communlcaLlon beLween Lhe C and Lhe flnanclal deparLmenL ls malnly done
ln person and / or Lhrough emall. 1he flnanclal deparLmenL mosLly sLarLs Lhls
communlcaLlon by lnqulrlng abouL Lhe sLaLe of a pro[ecL, because Lhey have Lhe
lnformaLlon LhaL ln LhaL perlod Lhey were supposed Lo blll Lhe cllenL for Lhe pro[ecL.
Whlle Lhls form of communlcaLlon usually works mosL of Lhe Llme and was only
marglnally referenced ln Lhe lnLervlews, lL ls noL as effecLlve as lL can be, slnce Lhls
slLuaLlon leaves Lhe flnanclal deparLmenL dependenL on Lhe lnlLlal lnformaLlon
referrlng Lo when a cllenL should be bllled. lf for some reason LhaL lnformaLlon geLs
ouLdaLed, Lhere ls noL a process Lo dlsLrlbuLe LhaL lnformaLlon.
1he case of communlcaLlon problems among producL owners ls due Lo Lhe lack
of a sLrucLured procedure of communlcaLlon beLween Lhem. Cne lssue LhaL was noL
polnLed ln Lhe lnLervlews buL was commenLed afLerwards was LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon of


27
Lhe allocaLlon of Lhe Leams ls noL easlly accesslble Lo every C, alLhough Lhere ls some
progress ln LhaL fleld, wlLh regular Cs meeLlngs, where Lhe lnformaLlon abouL Lhe
sLaLus of pro[ecLs ls shared. 1he lnformaLlon ls noL avallable on Lhe LM sysLem of Lhe
company, as lL resldes Loday on a shared onllne documenL.
1hese problems can lead, for example, Lo Lhe loss of some of Lhe members of
Lhe developmenL Leam (or Lhe whole Leam) by Lhe roducL Cwner Lo anoLher pro[ecL
LhaL has a greaLer percelved lmporLance, alLhough Lhere ls noL a dlsLlncL deflnlLlon of
whaL Lhe lmporLance of a pro[ecL ls.
llnally, Lhe problems of communlcaLlon wlLh Lhe cllenL are a broader lssue as
Lhey also lnvolve documenLaLlon and requlremenLs' assessmenL lssues. Whlle Lhe maln
problem ls when lnformaLlon ls needed from Lhe cllenL durlng Lhe developmenL of Lhe
pro[ecL and sald lnformaLlon longs Lo arrlve (someLhlng LhaL eludes Lhe purposes of
Lhls work), Lhere are also problems wlLh Lhe lnlLlal communlcaLlon wlLh Lhe cllenL,
when Lhe pro[ecL ls ln Lhe requlremenLs' assessmenL sLage. Slnce Lhere ls noL a
sLrucLured paLh on how Lo proceed aL Lhls sLage, Lhe lnformaLlon ls gaLhered and
sLored ln dlfferenL manner by each C, dependlng on Lhelr experlence. 1hls also leads
Lo poor esLlmaLlons, as Lhe pro[ecL ob[ecLlves are noL clearly known. Also, ln Lhe
lnLervlews, lL was posslble Lo deLermlne LhaL Lhere ls noL a meLhod Lo classlfy a pro[ecL
regardlng lLs lmporLance for Lhe company and also Lo caLegorlze each of Lhe
requlremenLs ln Lerm of Lhelr lmporLance, Lo deLermlne Lhe crlLlcal success facLors for
Lhe pro[ecL.
8esolvlng Lhese lssues can also help reduce Lhe necesslLy of lnformaLlon from Lhe
cllenL ln Lhe laLer sLages of Lhe pro[ecL, whlch causes walLlng Llmes and hlnders Lhe
normal flow of Lhe pro[ecL.
><=<=< 4PNV KR NKLIFKQ KL SFKMENI HIPIBH PLY RBFITEF PLPQZHJH SFKDQECH
AnoLher ma[or lssue ralsed on Lhe lnLervlews was LhaL Lhere are noL esLabllshed
sLrucLures Lo conLrol Lhe sLaLus of Lhe pro[ecL yeL. 1hls means LhaL from Lhe sLarL, Lhere
ls lnformaLlon LhaL ls mlsslng, namely whlch are Lhe crlLlcal funcLlonallLles LhaL should
be lmplemenLed for Lhe pro[ecL Lo be consldered a success.
Llkewlse, Lhere ls noL a sLandard way for Lhe C Lo deLermlne lf Lhe pro[ecL ls on
Lrack and on budgeL. A slLuaLlon LhaL ls also Lrue regardlng Lhe developmenL Leam,
whlch has a large lmporLance ln Lhe organlzaLlon of work ln Lhe aglle meLhodologles. lL
ls deslrable LhaL Lhey have Lhls lnformaLlon Lo glve Lhelr lnpuL relaLlng Lhe
developmenL LhaL should be done. As for when Lhe pro[ecL ls concluded, Lhere ls noL a


28
predeLermlned seL of rules Lo declare lf Lhe pro[ecL was a success or noL, slnce Lhere
are no meLrlcs Lo help deLermlne lL, allke Lhere ls no meLrlc Lo deLermlne lf Lhe
esLlmaLlons made for Lhe Lasks were ln facL Lhe Llme spenL on Lhem.
><>< 0*&.4(%1 #?. ,'*/.""."
WlLh Lhe lnformaLlon obLalned from Lhe lnLervlews, unscrlpLed Lalks wlLh peers
and Lhrough work experlence, lL ls posslble Lo ldenLlfy Lhe flve buslness processes
relaLed Lo pro[ecL managemenL LhaL represenL Lhe workflow slnce Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe
pro[ecL Lo lLs end. 1he end may represenL Lhe acLual end of Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe
producL or Lhe end of a phase of Lhe pro[ecL lf Lhe pro[ecL has Lhe necesslLy Lo be
dlvlded lnLo phases. Lach of Lhese processes wlll lnclude, whenever posslble, meLrlcs
Lo measure Lhe quallLy of Lhe work belng done. WlLh Lhls daLa lL wlll be posslble Lo
deLermlne lf Lhe meLhodology employed ls worklng as expecLed or lf lL ls necessary Lo
lnLroduce changes onLo lL. 1hls analysls should be done yearly. 1hls Llme perlod ls besL
sulLed slnce a shorLer Llme frame would noL generaLe enough daLa Lo allow an
accuraLe percepLlon of Lhe effecLlveness of Lhe process, and a longer Llme frame, whlle
valld, could presenL a rlsk, by perpeLuaLlng lnefflclency.
1o lncrease Lhe changes of a successful lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe 8M framework
on Lhe processes of pro[ecL managemenL, Lhe usage of Lhe crlLlcal facLors dlscovered
on Lhe LheoreLlcal background ls plvoLal. As such, Lhe champlon of Lhls pro[ecL ls long
ldenLlfled (lL was Lhe flrsL sub[ecL belng lnLervlewed), buL from day one, all Lhe
managemenL supporLs Lhe lnlLlaLlve. Moreover, wlLh a correcL usage of Lhe lS
supporLlng Lhose changes wlll come a good dlsLrlbuLlon of Lhe global knowledge abouL
Lhe processes as well as Lhe Lechnlcal skllls requlred for Lhese Lasks.
8egardlng Lhe sLeps polnLed ouL ln Lhe LheoreLlcal background for modellng a
process uslng a 8M framework, Lhe sLages of SLraLegy and lan are conducLed ln Lhe
scope of Lhls work. llrsL by allgnlng Lhe modellng wlLh Lhe sLraLeglc goals of Lhe
company, Lhen by reflnlng Lhe processes and employlng a sLrucLured documenLaLlon
Lo supporL Lhe lmprovemenL of quallLy of Lhe work, by provldlng Lhe lnformaLlon when
needed wlLh a common sLrucLure across pro[ecLs. llnally, Lhe lan phase wlll focus on
Lhe acLual modellng of Lhe processes.
Powever, flrsLly lL ls necessary Lo model Lhe processes, as Lhe processes
dlscussed on Lhls chapLer had noL been prevlously modeled, slnce Lhere was noL a
formal lmplemenLaLlon of Lhem. 8ecause of Lhls, each C would lmplemenL Lhe pro[ecL


29
ln Lhelr own way, maklng Lhe modellng of Lhe processes AS lS lmpracLlcable for Lhls
work. 8ecause of Lhls, only Lhe 1C 8L modellng wlll be presenLed.
All Lhe processes wlll be presenLed as a graphlcal represenLaLlon uslng Lhe
8uslness rocess Model and noLaLlon (8Mn). 1he usage of Lhe 8Mn ls based on Lhe
easlness of lmplemenLaLlon and Lhe ample seL of arLlfacLs LhaL can be used for
modellng, demonsLraLed on relaLed sub[ecLs on Lhe masLers' course. Also, Lhe analysls
of Wohed, AalsL, uumas, PofsLede, and 8ussell (2006) whlch evaluaLes Cn Lhe
SulLablllLy of 8Mn for 8uslness rocess Modellng", susLalned Lhe declslon Lo use Lhls
noLaLlon.
1hese nexL chapLers descrlbe each of Lhe processes, by dlsplaylng Lhe 1C 8L
model, a compleLe descrlpLlon of lL, Lhe usage of Lhe LM sysLem on how Lo obLaln Lhe
lnformaLlon gaLhered ln Lhe processes and lf Lhere are any, a compleLe descrlpLlon of
Lhe meLrlcs used on Lhe processes.
ln Lhe scope of Lhls work, each pro[ecL should have Lhe followlng processes'
workflow:


lmage 3 - CompleLe process workflow for a pro[ecL
><><;< &JHNKOEFZ SFKNEHH
1he flrsL process ls called &JHNKOEFZ, and lL ls sLarLed when Lhe pro[ecL ls awarded
Lo Lhe company. Slnce Lhe lnlLlal conLacL ls Lyplcally made wlLh Lhe commerclal
deparLmenL (alLhough, dependlng on Lhe Lype of cllenL and pro[ecL, some
managemenL sLaff can also be lnvolved early on), many aspecLs of Lhe pro[ecL have Lo
be dlscovered. A represenLaLlon ln 8Mn noLaLlon ls presenLed below:



30

lmage 4 - ulscovery process
5"5"#"#" 9/%*200 82,+):0
lor Lhls process, Lhe focus ls Lo deLermlne Lhe pro[ecL needs, whlch range from
Lhe buslness' needs, Lhe cllenL's needs and Lhe flnal user's needs. 1he pro[ecL's goals
and relaLed consLralnLs LhaL may exlsL are also gaLhered aL Lhls sLage. All of Lhls
lnformaLlon ls dlscovered ln collaboraLlon wlLh Lhe pro[ecL's sLakeholders, buL also
wlLh Lhe developmenL Leam, as Lhe Leam can add a valuable lnslghL based on Lhelr
experlence galned ln prevlous pro[ecLs.
So Lhe flrsL Lask (#1) wlll be Lhe ldenLlflcaLlon of sald sLakeholders, slnce Lhey are
Lhe ones LhaL should have all Lhe requlred lnformaLlon lndlcaLed above, Lhus Lhls Lask
should be done as early as posslble.
ln Lhe nexL Lask (#2) Lhe pro[ecL raLlng wlll be deLermlned. 1hls raLlng ls an
average of several lndlcaLors Lo deflne Lhe level of lmporLance of Lhe pro[ecL for Lhe
company. 1hls can lead Lo declde whlch Leam ls asslgned Lo Lhe pro[ecL, dependlng of
lLs complexlLy, lf Lhe pro[ecL ls of hlgh prlorlLy for Lhe company's lnLeresLs or Lhe order
on whlch Lhe pro[ecLs wlll be developed. 8elow are Lhe lndlcaLors ln a Lable formaL:

(LYJNPIKF &EHNFJSIJKL
value of Lhe pro[ecL

lnformaLlon relaLed wlLh Lhe overall prlce or Llme
equlvalenL agreed wlLh Lhe cllenL.
lmporLance for Lhe company

ueLermlne lf Lhe compleLlon of Lhls pro[ecL wlll brlng
fuLure pro[ecLs wlLh Lhe cllenL or lf Lhe pro[ecL ls of
hlgh vlslblllLy.

ComplexlLy of Lhe pro[ecL Plgh-level evaluaLlon of Lhe complexlLy ln order Lo


31
(LYJNPIKF &EHNFJSIJKL

compleLe Lhe pro[ecL.
1able 3 - ro[ecL raLlng lndlcaLors
Lach of Lhe lndlcaLors should Lake a numerlc value from 1 Lo 10 and Lhelr average
wlll lndlcaLe Lhe pro[ecL's lmporLance for Lhe company. 1hese lndlcaLors should be
revlsed ln Lhe yearly evaluaLlon of Lhe processes and more can be added or removed lf
Lhelr pracLlcablllLy ls noL proven.
WlLh Lhe raLlng of Lhe pro[ecL lL wlll be easler Lo deLermlne (on Lask #3) whlch
Leam should Lake on Lhe pro[ecL or even declde Lo use several Leams, based on Lhe
knowledge of Lhelr developmenL capablllLy Lo Lackle Lhe complexlLy of Lhe pro[ecL, buL
also lf LhaL Leam lf avallable or noL ln Lhe expecLed perlod of developmenL.
1o deLermlne when a Leam ls avallable, Lhe C wlll have a Lool on Lhe LM
sysLem. 1he Confluence appllcaLlon ln Lhe LM has a serles of calendars where lL ls
posslble Lo obLaln lnformaLlon of varlous Lypes. lor Lhls case, Lhere ls Lhe 1eam
AsslgnmenL Calendar deplcLlng LhaL lnformaLlon. 1hls lnformaLlon ls Lyplcally collecLed
aL a meeLlng LhaL occurs weekly, where all Lhe Cs convene Lo reporL on Lhelr pro[ecLs.
1he company's ConLroller gaLhers LhaL lnformaLlon and updaLes lL on Confluence. lL ls
lmporLanL Lo deLermlne whlch Leam wlll be asslgned Lo Lhe pro[ecL as early as posslble
Lo lnLroduce Lhem Lo Lhe pro[ecL, buL also Lo have Lhelr lnpuL based on Lhelr LaclL
knowledge (galned ln prevlous pro[ecLs) aL Lhls crlLlcal phase of Lhe pro[ecL, where Lhe
requlremenLs are belng ldenLlfled.
1he nexL Lask (#4) ls Lhe plvoLal one and ls where all of Lhe lnlLlal lnformaLlon wlll
be gaLhered. uurlng Lhls collecLlon, Lhe lnformaLlon can be sLrucLurally sLored ln
Confluence for reference and communlcaLlon wlLh Lhe resL of Lhe Leam (Lhe sLrucLure
ls presenLed ln Lhe nexL chapLer). 1hls Lask ls lmporLanL Lo deLermlne Lhe pro[ecL
needs, goals (such as Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe mosL lmporLanL componenLs for Lhe
sLakeholders - CSls), and funcLlonallLles (also known as funcLlonal analysls). 1hese
Loplcs are dlscussed ln close collaboraLlon wlLh Lhe Leam, as polnLed ouL as a crlLlcal
success facLor ln Lhe LheoreLlcal background. 1he lnformaLlon gaLhered ls also a
safeguard, because Lhe sLakeholder musL acknowledge and accepL lL before movlng Lo
Lhe nexL Lask of Lhe process.
AfLerwards, on Lhe lasL Lask of Lhls process (#3), Lhe lnformaLlon archlLecLure wlll
be deLermlned. 1he lnformaLlon archlLecLure ls where lL ls deLermlned how Lhe daLa ls


32
organlzed and how lL ls processed. Also, Lhe sLakeholders musL formally accepL Lhls
lnformaLlon Lo close Lhls process.
AL each of Lhe process sLeps, a serles of lnformaLlon ls gaLhered and should be
sLored ln Lhe company's LM. WlLh Lhls documenLaLlon, Lhe problems ldenLlfled ln Lhe
lnLervlews should be quenched, such as Lhe problems ln geLLlng Lhe correcL
requlremenLs from Lhe cllenL and pro[ecL's documenLaLlon. 1he developmenL Leam wlll
have access Lo Lhls documenLaLlon, and a valldaLlon of lnformaLlon musL be obLalned
from Lhe sLakeholders by means of elecLronlc communlcaLlon.
5"5"#"!" ;0+62 %. ,72 <9=
All of Lhe lnformaLlon gaLhered ln Lhls process should be lnserLed onLo
Confluence for fuLure reference. 8egardlng Lhls process, Lhe followlng dlagram deplcLs
how Lhe lnformaLlon should be lnserLed. Lach elemenL ln Lhe dlagram represenLs a
page ln Confluence:


lmage 3 - lnformaLlon sLrucLure of Lhe ulscovery process
1he flrsL page, ro[ecL lnformaLlon, works [usL as a placeholder for all oLher
pages and wlll be used ln oLher processes.
! 1ELEFPQ (LRKFCPIJKL - A general descrlpLlon of Lhe pro[ecL. Also presenL
ln Lhls page wlll be Lhe lnformaLlon of Lhe pro[ecL raLlng (from Lask #2),
! "IPVETKQYEFH PLY ,EFHKLLEQ - 1hls page sLores Lhe lndlcaLlon of Lhe
sLakeholders and Lhelr conLacLs for reference, as well as Lhe personnel of
u8l LhaL wlll be lnvolved ln Lhe pro[ecL, savlng Lhe lnformaLlon gaLhered
ln Lasks #1 and #3,


33
! *DMENIJOEH PLY 'EHIFPJLIH - All of Lhe lnformaLlon gaLhered on Lask #4
should be sLored aL Lhls page,
! (LRKFCPIJKL PFNTJIENIBFE - 1he lnformaLlon gaLhered from Lhls Loplc on
Lask #3 ls sLored ln Lhls page.
AfLer Lhls lnformaLlon ls dlscovered", Lhe pro[ecL can move on Lo Lhe nexL
process.
><><=< &ERJLJIJKL SFKNEHH
1he nexL (second) process ls &ERJLJIJKL. AL Lhls sLage, whaL ls lmporLanL ls Lo
analyze Lhe lnformaLlon gaLhered from Lhe prevlous process, break Lhe lnformaLlon
down lnLo manageable blLs and caLegorlze lL, maklng lL posslble Lo obLaln more
accuraLe esLlmaLlons of Lhe work Lo be done. 1he maln agenLs lnvolved ln Lhls process,
besldes Lhe C, are Lhe sLakeholders and Lhe developmenL Leam.


lmage 6 - ueflnlLlon process
5"5"!"#" 9/%*200 82,+):0
ln Lhls process, Lhe maln Lask ls Lhe deflnlLlon of Lhe scope of Lhe pro[ecL, buL
also Lhe scope of Lhe producL. 1he dlfference of Lhese Lwo scopes ls descrlbed ln Lhe
M8Ck Culde (ro[ecL ManagemenL lnsLlLuLe lnc, 2008):
! 1he SFKMENI HNKSE relaLes wlLh Lhe goals of Lhe pro[ecL, meanlng LhaL Lhe
pro[ecL should resulL ln an answer (Lyplcally a producL) Lo Lhe needs of
Lhe cllenL,
! 1he SFKYBNI HNKSE ls relaLed wlLh Lhe producL LhaL ls produced ln Lhe
pro[ecL and represenLs Lhe feaLures LhaL lL musL dellver.


34
Whlle developlng Lhe pro[ecL, Lhe lack of a clear deflnlLlon of scopes has been
ldenLlfled as Lhe cause of delay ln some pro[ecLs. As such, Lhe flrsL Lask of Lhls process
(#1) ls where Lhe deflnlLlon of Lhe flrsL scope wlll be addressed. 1he C can consulL
wlLh varlous elemenLs of Lhe developmenL Leam Lo asslsL ln Lhls Lask, lf necessary.
AfLerwards, Lhe sLakeholders should approve Lhls scope. lf Lhe sLakeholders laLer
requlre changes of scope ln Lhe pro[ecL, Lhe lnformaLlon gaLhered here wlll help Lhe C
Lo medlaLe any confllcL LhaL may arlse from Lhls requesL. lL ls noL LhaL change cannoL
be done. ln facL, by uslng an aglle meLhodology, Lhe company embraces change. 1he
polnL here ls LhaL by deflnlng a scope, a commlLmenL ls done by Lhe C ln whlch LhaL
pro[ecL wlLh sald scope wlll be done ln x Llme. 8y addlng changes, Lhe sLakeholders
musL drop some oLher funcLlonallLles LhaL are noL as necessary as Lhe changes
proposed by Lhe sLakeholders. AnoLher opLlon ls LhaL Lhe changes are lncorporaLed ln
Lhe scope by renegoLlaLlng furLher paymenL and Llme.
nexL ln llne (#2) wlll be Lhe deflnlLlon of Lhe producL scope and Lhe
caLegorlzaLlon of lLs componenLs ln accordance wlLh Lhelr lmporLance, ln order Lo
obLaln Lhe crlLlcal success funcLlonallLles for Lhe pro[ecL. 1hls may be seen as a
breaklng-down of Lhe goals of Lhe pro[ecL LhaL were prevlously deflned ln Lhe
&JHNKOEFZ process, wlLh furLher reflnemenL. Agaln a close collaboraLlon wlLh elemenLs
of Lhe developmenL Leam and Lhe sLakeholders ls lmporLanL Lo obLaln Lhe maxlmum
amounL of lnformaLlon. AfLer all of Lhe lnformaLlon ls collecLed and sLored ln Lhe LM
sysLem, Lhe sLakeholders musL formally accepL Lhese requlremenLs Lo advance Lhe
process.
AcLlvlLy #3 ls where LacLlcal and operaLlonal opLlons are dlscussed and declded.
1ogeLher wlLh Lhe developmenL Leam and oLher ln-house experLs llke Lhe C1C or Lhe
Senlor SofLware ArchlLecL, lL ls dlscussed ln deLall whaL ls Lhe besL way Lo lmplemenL
Lhe pro[ecL, whlch Lechnologles should be used, among oLher declslons relevanL Lo Lhe
pro[ecL, for lnsLance lf Lhe pro[ecL should be done ln whole, or ln phases Lo dellver
addlLlonal value fasLer Lo Lhe flnal cllenL. lf Lhls happens, Lhe nexL processes repeaL as
many Llmes as Lhere are phases ln Lhe pro[ecL. 8ased on Lhe lnformaLlon gaLhered of
Lhe scope of Lhe pro[ecL / producL and also wlLh Lhe pro[ecL's goals gaLhered on Lhe
&JHNKOEFZ process, lL ls posslble Lo obLaln a llsL of LesLs LhaL should be done Lo
deLermlne lf Lhe producL ls ready for dellvery (accepLance LesLs).
1he flnal acLlvlLy (#4) ls Lhe furLher breakdown of Lhe requlremenLs lnLo sLorles
LhaL form Lhe producL backlog, whlch ls an arLlfacL of Scrum. lor each of Lhe sLorles
creaLed, Lhe C musL lndlcaLe an esLlmaLe for lLs cosL of developmenL, Lhe Crlglnal


33
1lme LsLlmaLe (C1L). 1o reach Lhls esLlmaLe Lhe C can consulL wlLh Lhe developmenL
Leam. AddlLlonally Lhe C musL deflne whaL Lhe accepLance LesLs are for each of Lhe
sLorles. AL Lhls polnL, Lhe C should have enough lnformaLlon Lo declde Lhe lengLh of
Lhe SprlnLs, and alLhough Scrum does noL posLulaLe Lhe change of sald lengLh, as lL may
cause a mlsrepresenLaLlon of Lhe meLrlcs, Lhe C musL have room Lo change lL when
Lhe pro[ecL sLaLus requlres lL, slnce Scrum also upholds Lhe embraclng of change.
5"5"!"!" ;0+62 %. ,72 <9=
unllke Lhe prevlous process, Lhe lnformaLlon gaLhered ln each of Lhe Lasks of Lhls
process wlll noL only be sLored ln Confluence, buL also ln !l8A because Lhe flnal Lask
(#4) of Lhe process ouLpuLs sLorles. 1o creaLe sLorles on Lhe LM, Lhe C should creaLe
lssues of Lhe Lype SLory" wlLh Lhe followlng lnformaLlon:

%PCE &EHNFJSIJKL
uescrlpLlon
1he general descrlpLlon of Lhe sLory. WhaL ls expecLed
from Lhe sLory and oLher relevanL lnformaLlon.
Where Lo uemo
1he locaLlon on where Lo demonsLraLe Lhe funcLlonallLy
of Lhe sLory.
Pow Lo uemo
Pow Lo demonsLraLe Lhe funcLlonallLy of Lhe sLory Lo Lhe
C.
AccepLance 1esLs
1he deflnlLlon of Lhe accepLance by Lhe C, whlch
generally corresponds Lo Lhe how Lo demo lnformaLlon.
AddlLlonally, lndlcaLlon of LesLs necessary Lo achleve Lhe
sLaLus of accepLed sLory should be lnserLed Lhrough Lhe
use of Lhe Zephyr plugln.
ueflnlLlon of uone
1he general deflnlLlon Lo deLermlne lf Lhe sLory ls done.
Crlglnal 1lme LsLlmaLe
1he esLlmaLe done by Lhe C. 1hls ls Lhe Llme LhaL, glven
all Lhe lnpuLs provlded by Lhe developmenL Leam (lf
any), Lhe C expecLs Lo spend on Lhls sLory.
Sub-Lasks
1hls daLa ls lnLroduced by Lhe developmenL Leam, wlLh
all of Lhe necessary Lasks (acLlons) Lo be performed Lo
compleLe Lhe sLory. All exlsLlng sub-Lasks musL have an
esLlmaLlon done by Lhe developmenL Leam, and are
enLlLled 8emalnlng 1lme LsLlmaLe (81L). CreaLlng sub-
Lasks ls noL always necessary as Lhe sLory may be aLomlc
ln naLure, meanlng LhaL Lhe sLory descrlbes a unlque
acLlon Lo be Laken. ln Lhls case Lhe developmenL Leam
lnserLs Lhelr esLlmaLlon (81L) ln Lhe sLory lLself.
1able 6 - lnformaLlon needed for a sLory



36
1he sLorles musL have all Lhe lnformaLlon needed for Lhe developmenL Leam Lo
analyze and Lo creaLe sub-Lasks Lo develop Lhe sLory. lL wlll be on Lhese lssues LhaL Lhe
Leam wlll work on and log Lhelr work Llme (also ln !l8A). 8uL as Lhls Lask ls Lhe
responslblllLy of Lhe developmenL Leam, lL ls noL deplcLed on Lhls process' model. 1hls
acLlvlLy ls called backlog groomlng.
1he sLory can only be consldered ready Lo be lncluded ln a sprlnL backlog afLer
Lhe Leam lnserLs Lhe lnformaLlon descrlbed above and marks Lhe sLory as 8eady".
When analyzlng Lhe pro[ecL aL Lhe end of a sprlnL (done ln Lhe &EOEQKSCELI
process) or even aL Lhe end of Lhe pro[ecL (done aL Lhe &EQJOEFZ process), Lhe C can
look aL Lhe dlscrepancles obLalned (Lhrough Lhe analysls of meLrlcs) beLween Lhe
esLlmaLlon glven Lo Lhe sLory and Lhe sum of Lhe lssues Lhe developmenL Leam gave.
1haL lnformaLlon can help Lhe C make more accuraLe esLlmaLlons on oLher pro[ecLs.
1he followlng dlagram dlsplays how Lhe lnformaLlon LhaL Lhls process ouLpuLs ls
sLored on Confluence:

lmage 7 - lnformaLlon sLrucLure of Lhe ueflnlLlon process
1he flrsL page, ro[ecL lnformaLlon, ls Lhe same deplcLed on Lhe prevlous process
LhaL also holds Lhe general lnformaLlon relaLed Lo Lhe pro[ecL.
! ,FKMENI HNKSE - Llke polnLed ouL ln Lhe prevlous chapLer, Lhls lnformaLlon
ls gaLhered from Lhe sLakeholders ln Lask #1 and should be formally
approved by Lhem. Any changes LhaL are done afLerwards, should be
lnserLed here along wlLh Lhe raLlonale of LhaL change, whaL has been
declded and Lhe formal approval of Lhe sLakeholders,
! ,FKYBNI HNKSE - 1he lnformaLlon of Lhe scope of Lhe pro[ecL wlll be
lodged aL Lhls page. Llke Lhe prevlous scope, all changes ln Lhls scope


37
should also be sLored ln Lhls page, wlLh Lhe [usLlflcaLlon of Lhe change and
Lhe formal agreemenL of Lhe sLakeholders,
! #ENTLJNPQ (LRKFCPIJKL - 1hls page ls on Lhe same level as Lhe page
ro[ecL lnformaLlon and lL gaLhers all Lhe lnformaLlon LhaL resulLs from
Lask #3. 1he lnformaLlon ls, as Lhe name lmplles, of a more Lechnlcal
naLure conLrary Lo Lhe prevlous pages. 1he lnformaLlon ranges from
access daLa Lo appllcaLlons and servlces used on Lhe pro[ecL. Slnce much
of Lhls lnformaLlon varles from pro[ecL Lo pro[ecL, lL ls lmposslble Lo easlly
caLegorlze Lhe lnformaLlon Lo dlfferenLlaLe ln dlverse pages. Also, Lhe
organlzaLlon of Lhe subpages ls done by Lhe developmenL Leam and noL
by Lhe C of Lhe pro[ecL, whlch ls Lhe maln reclplenL of Lhe flndlngs of Lhls
work.
WlLh all Lhe lnformaLlon worked on and accesslble by all members of Lhe Leam,
Lhe pro[ecL can evolve Lo Lhe nexL process.
><><>< &EOEQKSCELI SFKNEHH
1he &EOEQKSCELI process, Lhe nexL process ln llne, ls where mosL of Lhe
developmenL of Lhe producL ls effecLlvely done.
1hls process ls hlghly lLeraLlve, meanlng LhaL lL wlll be processed as many Llmes
as Lhere are sprlnLs for Lhe currenL phase of Lhe pro[ecL or for Lhe enLlre developmenL
sLage. 1he maln developmenL sLage ls where Lhe producL ls belng developmenL based
on Lhe lnformaLlon gaLhered on Lhe prevlous processes. neverLheless, new
developmenL lLeraLlons could happen ln Lhe &EQJOEFZ process, lf small correcLlons are
proven Lo be necessary and lf Lhey can be done. lor Lhese correcLlons (and for Lhe
dellvery of Lhe producL lLself), anoLher seL of sprlnLs wlll Lake place.



38

lmage 8 - uevelopmenL process
ln Lerms of pro[ecL managemenL and followlng Lhe acLlons proposed by Lhe
Scrum framework, Lhe pro[ecL owner has, wlLh Lhls process, Lhe maln mlsslon of
monlLorlng and conLrolllng Lhe developmenL of Lhe producL.
5"5"5"#" 9/%*200 82,+):0
1he lnlLlal Lask (#1) ln Lhe process ls Lhe deflnlLlon of Lhe sprlnL by Lhe C ln close
collaboraLlon wlLh Lhe Leam. Llke prevlously dlscussed, lf necesslLy arlses, Lhe duraLlon
of Lhe SprlnL can change. 1he reasons could range from Lhe avallablllLy of Lhe Leam, Lhe
complexlLy of Lhe developmenL of Lhe upcomlng sprlnLs or Lhe sLaLus of developmenL
requlres more Llme Lo produce a presenLable proLoLype.
SLlll ln Lhls Lask, and wlLh Lhe lnformaLlon of Lhe duraLlon of Lhe sprlnL, Lhe Leam
proposes a sprlnL backlog, based on Lhe sorLlng order Lhe C gave Lo Lhe producL
backlog. As for Lhe C, he should seL ouL Lhe goals for Lhe sprlnL, based on Lhe pro[ecL
plannlng. So, Lo compleLe Lhls Lask, an undersLandlng beLween Lhe C and Lhe Leam
musL be reached on whaL Lhe C accepLs as Lhe resulL of Lhe sprlnL and how far Lhe
Leam commlLs Lo develop ln sald sprlnL.
WlLh all Lhls lnformaLlon deflned, Lhe sprlnL ls sLarLed by Lhe C aL Lhe Lask #2, by
lndlcaLlng lL on Lhe !l8A appllcaLlon.
AfLerwards, Lask #3 occurs durlng Lhe lengLh of Lhe sprlnL, ln whlch Lhe C wlll
monlLor Lhe Llme spenL on Lhe developmenL belng made by Lhe Leam (agalnsL whaL
was prevlously esLlmaLed). 1hls monlLorlng ls achleved by uslng Lhe LM sysLem. lor


39
each pro[ecL, !l8A provldes a vlsual ald, Lhe burn-down charL. 1hls Lool wlll be furLher
deLalled ln chapLer 3.3.3.3.
AnoLher Lool Lo conLrol Lhe sLaLe of Lhe pro[ecL can be Lhe aLLendance of Lhe
dally meeLlngs. Cver Lhese meeLlngs, every member of a Leam or even of an area of
Lhe company (Lhe web developmenL deparLmenL, for lnsLance) parLlclpaLes ln a dally
basls, lL has a duraLlon of no more Lhan flfLeen mlnuLes. ln Lhese meeLlngs, ln whlch
Lhe C can be presenL buL [usL ln a waLcher capaclLy, Lhe Leam members dlscuss whlch
Lasks were done ln Lhe prevlous day, Lhe dlfflculLles LhaL appeared and oLher lssues
LhaL are LhoughL relevanL. Lvery oLher co-worker can glve Lhelr lnpuL Lo solve a
problem. 1hls way, Lhe C can have a good grasp of Lhe sLaLus and problems of Lhe
pro[ecL and can dlscuss Lhem wlLh Lhe Leam afLer Lhe meeLlng, lf necessary.
lf a problem (delay) ls deLecLed, Lhe C musL deLermlne lLs cause wlLh Lhe Leam
(#4). lf Lhe problems cannoL be quenched wlLhln Lhe sprlnL, some lLems of Lhe sprlnL
backlog may have Lo be posLponed for a fuLure sprlnL. lf Lhls happens, lL may even lead
Lo some funcLlonallLles wlLh leasL lmporLance Lo be puL aslde ln order Lo conclude Lhe
mosL lmporLanL funcLlonallLles of Lhe pro[ecL. 1haL declslon musL be done ln
collaboraLlon wlLh Lhe sLakeholders (#3), and LhaL lnformaLlon ls sLored ln Confluence
for fuLure reference.
AL Lhe end of every SprlnL, Lhe C gaLhers wlLh Lhe Leam and Lhe Scrum MasLer
(aL Lask #6) Lo revlew Lhe pro[ecL's progress and Lhe Leam demonsLraLes Lhe new
funcLlonallLles Lo Lhe C. 8y dolng Lhe meeLlng, Lhe C has anoLher Lool Lo conLrol Lhe
progress of Lhe pro[ecL and make managemenL declslons upon Lhe ouLcome of Lhe
meeLlng. 1hese resulLs should be sLored ln Confluence.
lL may be posslble LhaL noL all of Lhe sLorles of Lhe sprlnL are dealL wlLh accordlng
wlLh Lhe ob[ecLlves of each sLory, for lnsLance lmplemenLlng someLhlng on an
esLlmaLed Llme, or even wlLh Lhe goals of Lhe sprlnL, resulLlng ln a relmplemenLaLlon of
Lhe sLory. 1hls may lead Lo more Llme belng consumed so oLher sLorles may have Lo be
dropped. ln Lhls slLuaLlon lL ls necessary Lo check Lhe accepLance of Lhe sLakeholders
(#7). ln Lhe poslLlve case, changes are made ln Lhe producL backlog (#8), sorLed
accordlng Lo Lhe lmporLance Lhe C glves Lo Lhe sLory. ln Lhe negaLlve case, changes
are done neverLheless, buL no oLher sLorles are dropped, slnce lL was Lhe llablllLy of Lhe
company Lo reach Lhe seL goal ln Lhe esLlmaLed Llme. lL ls worLh polnLlng ouL LhaL Lhls
slLuaLlon should noL occur wlLh Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhese new processes, as Lhe
daLa LhaL supporLs Lhe esLlmaLes ls more compleLe.


40
5"5"5"!" =2,/)*0
1he lnformaLlon gaLhered ln Lhe LM can be showed ln meLrlcs LhaL can be of
Lwo caLegorles: JLRKFCPIJOE, a slmpler meLrlc LhaL lndlcaLes a value LhaL can be
compared wlLh oLher meLrlcs Lo reach a concluslon, and NKCSPFPIJOE, a more
compleLe meLrlc LhaL already compares Lwo or more values Lo help Lhe C reach some
concluslon. lor Lhls process, Lhe followlng meLrlcs are avallable:
"EQENIEY 3KFV - 1hls lnformaLlve meLrlc presenLs Lhe sum of Lhe
esLlmaLlons made by Lhe C (C1L) for Lhe lssues selecLed for a sprlnL,
/KCCJIIEY 3KFV - 1hls lnformaLlve meLrlc ls a sum of Lhe esLlmaLlons
Lhe Leam gave (81L) Lo Lhe sub-Lasks of each of Lhe sLorles selecLed for a
sprlnL. 1hls may dlffer from Lhe esLlmaLlon glven by Lhe C Lo Lhe sLory
Lhese sub-Lasks belong Lo, slnce Lhese were glven wlLh more flne deLall.
1he C can also examlne Lhe dlscrepancles (lf any) and acqulre lmporLanL
knowledge Lo apply ln fuLure pro[ecLs,
$YKSIEY 3KFV - 1hls lnformaLlve meLrlc ouLpuLs Lhe sum of Lhe
esLlmaLes of sLorles LhaL were lnserLed by Lhe developmenL Leam lnLo Lhe
sprlnL backlog (afLer obLalnlng clearance by Lhe C) afLer Lhe sprlnL
sLarLed, meanlng LhaL some work was noL properly deflned and addlLlonal
lssues were used Lo compleLe Lhe goals of Lhe sprlnL. 8uL Lhls ls noL Lhe
only case, Lhe C can also lnserL lssues on Lhe sprlnL backlog, afLer
dlscusslng lL wlLh Lhe developmenL Leam. lL may happen for varlous
reasons LhaL resulL ln Lhe necesslLy Lo do addlLlonal work, alLhough Lhls
wlll lead Lo Lhe dropplng of some oLher lssues,
#KIPQ #JCE "SELI - ln Lhls lnformaLlve meLrlc Lhe C can have a compleLe
cumulaLlve sum of Lhe work done by Lhe developmenL Leam ln Lhe sprlnL.
ln a perfecL world lL would be Lhe sum of Lhe /KCCJIIEY 3KFV wlLh Lhe
$YKSIEY 3KFV meLrlcs, buL LhaL ls very rarely Lhe case. 1hls meLrlc wlll
asslsL noL only Lhe C, buL also Lhe developmenL Leam Lo help deLermlne
whaL wenL wrong wlLh Lhelr esLlmaLlons,
#JCE .HIJCPIE OH< #JCE "SELI - WlLh Lhls comparaLlve meLrlc, Lhe C can
assess Lhe dlfference beLween Lhe sum of esLlmaLes glven by Lhe Leam
and Lhe sum of whaL was acLually spenL ln Lhe developmenL. 1hls conLrol
meLrlc allows Lhe C Lo deLermlne whlch lssues are Lyplcally under-
budgeLed (or over-budgeLed) and acL accordlngly, by dlscusslng Lhls wlLh


41
Lhe Leam. 1he C also obLalns lmporLanL lnformaLlon LhaL can be used
when glvlng Lhe Crlglnal 1lme LsLlmaLe Lo fuLure pro[ecLs LhaL have
slmllar lssues,
Whlle mosL of Lhese meLrlcs can be used for conLrolllng purposes Lo ascerLaln
Lhe sLaLus of Lhe sprlnL, Lhey serve mosLly as a learnlng Lool, slnce Lhey are malnly
obLalned aL Lhe end of Lhe sprlnL, when concluslons can be drawn. lor acLual and
real-Llme" conLrol Lhe C has Lhe dallles and speclally Lhe burn-down charL, descrlbed
ln Lhe nexL chapLer.
WlLh Lhe resulLs obLalned from Lhese meLrlcs, Lhe C can moLlvaLe Lhe
developmenL Leam Lo perfecL Lhelr work or Lo celebraLe whaL was achleved.
5"5"5"5" ;0+62 %. ,72 <9=
8egardlng Lhe monlLorlng of Lhe sprlnL's progress, Lhe C has Lhe burn-down
charL ln !l8A whlch ls a Lool LhaL dlsplays Lhe worklng hours belng logged by Lhe
developmenL Leam on Lhe sLorles of each sprlnL.

lmage 9 - 8urn-down charL
lf Lhe lndlcaLlve red llne goes up Lhe grey dlagonal, lL means LhaL Lhe work ls
geLLlng delayed and Lhe goals of Lhe sprlnL may be ln [eopardy. Pere Lhe C has Lwo
opLlons: elLher go dlrecLly Lo Lhe Leam and Lalk abouL Lhe delay, or aLLend Lhe dally
meeLlng Lo Lry Lo undersLand Lhe reason of Lhe delay. AfLerwards, lf necessary, Lhe C
can acL upon LhaL lnformaLlon, as descrlbed on Lhe process model.
1he lnformaLlon collecLed ln Lhls process wlll also be sLored ln Confluence and
has Lhe followlng sLrucLure:


42

lmage 10 - lnformaLlon sLrucLure of Lhe uevelopmenL process
1he flrsL page, ro[ecL managemenL holds Lhe pro[ecL lnformaLlon regardlng Lhe
sprlnL.
! "SFJLI (LRKFCPIJKL - Cn Lhls page, Lhe C should lnserL ln a Labular form
Lhe general lnformaLlon abouL each sprlnL, gaLhered along Lhls process -
lLs goals, sLarL and end daLe and oLher relevanL lnformaLlon. 1he flnanclal
deparLmenL can use Lhls lnformaLlon Lo blll based on Lhe Lerms of Lhe
pro[ecL's conLracL,
! "SFJLI 'EOJEU - 1hls page sLores Lhe lnformaLlon abouL all Lhe sprlnL
revlews LhaL are made aL Lhe end of Lhe sprlnL. AL Lhe sprlnL revlew, Lhe
Leam members dlscuss how Lhe sprlnL wenL and polnL ouL lssues (lf any)
LhaL could affecL fuLure sprlnLs or even Lhe flnal producL, LhaL need Lo be
addressed and by whom should Lhey be addressed,
! "SFJLI 'EIFKHSENIJOE - 1he lnformaLlon on Lhls page ls gaLhered on Lhe
sprlnL reLrospecLlve, whlch Lakes place afLer Lhe revlew, ln whlch Lhe
Leam members reflecL on evenLs LhaL happened ln Lhe sprlnL, how Lo
lmprove Lhe developmenL of Lhe pro[ecL and whaL was learn ln Lhe sprlnL,
for lnsLance whaL was correcLly or wrongly execuLed, oLher ldeas Lo LesL
and even pralse someone LhaL dld a really greaL [ob,
! "SFJLI 0EIFJNH - 1hls page dlsplays all Lhe lnformaLlon Lhe LM sysLem
collecLed ln Lhe sprlnL. 1hls lnformaLlon ls presenLed by Lhe Scrum MasLer
or by Lhe C who curaLes Lhe daLa lnLo perspecLlve wlLh oLher sprlnLs Lo


43
allow a crlLlcal ouLlook of Lhe Leam's performance Lo glve room for
lmprovemenLs,
! ,FKMENI PLY ,FKYBNI "NKSE - 1hese pages are sLored under Lhe umbrella
page ,FKMENI JLRKFCPIJKL creaLed on prevlous processes. Lach Llme Lhere
ls a change ln Lhe scope, pro[ecL or producL, Lhe lnformaLlon should be
lnserLed on Lhls page, wlLh Lhe reply glven by Lhe sLakeholders accepLlng
Lhe scope change. AlLhough a pro[ecL scope change could happen, LhaL
would mean LhaL Lhe requlremenL assessmenL falled conslderably and
may lead Lo a ma[or redeslgn of Lhe pro[ecL.
AfLer Lhe sprlnL ls done, Lhe C can declde lf Lhe currenL sLage of Lhe pro[ecL ls
slgnlflcanL Lo demo Lo Lhe sLakeholders. lf so, anoLher process ls seL ln moLlon, Lhe
&ECK process.
><><@< &ECK SFKNEHH
When a sprlnL ls flnlshed, Lhe C needs Lo deLermlne lf a demo wlLh Lhe pro[ecL's
sLakeholders ls necessary, meanlng Lhere are funcLlonallLles or lnformaLlon LhaL Lhe
sLakeholder can vlew and glve addlLlonal lnpuLs Lo lmprove Lhe producL.


lmage 11 - uemo process
5"5">"#" 9/%*200 82,+):0
up fronL, on Lhe #1 Lask Lhe necesslLy or noL of Lhe demo ls esLabllshed. 1he C
should look lnLo Lhe goals of Lhe sprlnL, as well as Lhe goals and resulLs of Lhe prevlous


44
sprlnLs (lf any) Lo help deLermlne LhaL necesslLy. ln case Lhere ls someLhlng
consLrucLlve Lo show Lo Lhe sLakeholders, Lhe C, LogeLher wlLh elemenLs of Lhe
developmenL Leam, prepares Lhe demo (#2). 1hls demo ls an exLenslon of Lhe demo
Lhe Leam had done for Lhe C, whlch here as Lhe role of presenLer. 8y dolng Lhe demo,
Lhe C wlll galn a hollsLlc vlew of Lhe pro[ecL: lLs sLaLus, any dlfflculLles LhaL may noL
have been prevlously dlscussed and deLermlne Lhe necesslLy of change. 1hese lnslghLs
occur [usL aL Lhls sLage, because ln Lhe sprlnL demo, Lhe C only had a feaLure orlenLed
vlew of Lhe pro[ecL.
1he demo of Lhe producL musL (lf lL ls Lechnlcally posslble or feaslble) be
prepared Lo be presenLed ln Lhe same server used aL Lhe end of Lhe sprlnL demo.
ldeally Lhls should be an exLernal server because Lhe demo wlLh Lhe sLakeholder
usually Lakes place ouLslde Lhe company's offlce, or by means of remoLe sesslon. 1hls
way, lL should be posslble for Lhe sLakeholders Lo lnLeracL wlLh Lhe producL belng
demoed. Any lnformaLlon LhaL ls gaLhered aL Lhls Lask should be sLored ln Confluence.
AL Lhe nexL Lask (#3), Lhe demo Lakes place wlLh Lhe sLakeholders. LlemenLs of
Lhe developmenL Leam can be called ln Lo help wlLh Lhe demo. WlLh lL, Lhe
sLakeholders have a beLLer grasp on Lhe progress of Lhelr producL, and aL Lhls polnL,
may requlre some changes, lmprovemenLs or new feaLures. lf LhaL ls Lhe case, Lhe C
musL analyze wheLher Lhe changes are wlLhln Lhe scope of Lhe pro[ecL (Lask #4)
elaboraLed ln Lhe &ERJLJIJKL process or noL. lf Lhey fall wlLhln Lhe scope of Lhe pro[ecL,
Lhe C should lnpuL Lhose changes onLo Lhe pro[ecL's backlog aL Lask #7, make Lhe
necessary ad[usLmenLs Lo Lhe sorLlng order of sald backlog and lnform Lhe
developmenL Leam of Lhose changes, Lo allow Lhem Lo analyze Lhe changes and add
Lhelr esLlmaLlons (81L).
8uL lf Lhe changes are beyond Lhe scope of Lhe pro[ecL, lL ls necessary for Lhe C
Lo declde (#3) along wlLh Lhe sLakeholders whaL acLlon should be Laken. Cne opLlon
wlll be Lhe lnserLlon of changes on Lhe pro[ecL's backlog resulLlng on Lhe drop of some
oLher sLory lnsLead, allowlng Lhe process Lo proceed Lo Lask #7. lf noL, Lhe commerclal
deparLmenL (#6) musL lssue an addendum Lo Lhe cosL of Lhe pro[ecL Lo accommodaLe
Lhe addlLlonal change. Cnly lf approved, are Lhe changes added Lo Lhe producL backlog
on Lhe Lask #7.
5"5">"!" =2,/)*0
%BCDEF KR "NKSE /TPLWEH JL ITE ,FKMENI - AfLer Lhe demo, lL ls valld LhaL
sLakeholders deLermlne Lhe necesslLy of change. 1he lnformaLlon of Lhese


43
changes ls recorded ln Confluence wlLh a correcL conLexLuallzaLlon,
maklng Lhls lnformaLlve meLrlc useful Lo help lmprove Lhe requlremenLs'
assessmenL phase ln fuLure pro[ecLs. 1he lnformaLlon gaLhered for Lhls
meLrlc musL be lnpuLLed manually.
1he meLrlc descrlbed above can be used for conLrolllng purposes for Lhe pro[ecL
aL hand, buL also for learnlng and lmprovemenL, slnce Lhe C can ascerLaln from Lhe
changes ln Lhe scope whaL were hls / her mlsLakes ln gaLherlng LhaL lnformaLlon ln
earller processes and lmprove LhaL ln fuLure pro[ecLs.

5"5">"5" ;0+62 %. ,72 <9=
ln Lhls process Lhe lnformaLlon collecLlon ls mosLly done on Confluence. lf some
changes are approved, Lhey are added Lo Lhe pro[ecL's backlog on !l8A.
1he sLrucLure of Lhe lnformaLlon LhaL resulLs from Lhls process should be ln Lhe
followlng manner:


lmage 12 - lnformaLlon sLrucLure of Lhe uemo process
1he flrsL page, ro[ecL managemenL, holds Lhe pro[ecL lnformaLlon regardlng Lhe
demo lnformaLlon.
! &ECK (LRKFCPIJKL - Cn Lhls page, Lhe C should lnserL ln a Labular form
Lhe general lnformaLlon abouL each demo LhaL ls performed for Lhe
sLakeholder. 1he lnformaLlon sLored can be Lhe daLe of Lhe demo, access
daLa Lo Lhe plaLform, eLc.,


46
! ,FKMENI 0EIFJNH - 1hls page dlsplays Lhe pro[ecL meLrlcs lnformaLlon for
Lhls process. 1hls page also holds Lhe lnformaLlon of Lhe meLrlcs
descrlbed ln Lhe prevlous chapLer,
1he Lhlrd page, ro[ecL lnformaLlon ls Lhe same holder page referenced on Lhe
&JHNKOEFZ and &ERJLJIJKL processes. lor Lhls process, Lhe lmporLanL pages are Lhe
,FKMENI HNKSE and ,FKYBNI HNKSE pages (see chapLer 3.3.2.1 for Lhe dlfferences
beLween Lhem), LhaL have been deflned ln Lhe &ERJLJIJKL process. 1hese are only
relevanL lf Lhere are changes approved by Lhe sLakeholders and Lhe C regardlng Lhe
budgeL. lf such ls Lhe case, Lhe lnformaLlon regardlng Lhe change should be lnserLed ln
Lhe approprlaLe page (dependlng lf Lhe change ls on ro[ecL or roducL scope).
When Lhls process ls compleLed, and no more developmenL sprlnLs exlsL (LhaL
lead Lo Lhe compleLlon of Lhe &EOEQKSCELI process), Lhe pro[ecL comes Lo Lhe lasL
process, Lhe &EQJOEFZ process.
><><_< &EQJOEFZ SFKNEHH
1he lasL process, called &EQJOEFZ ls Lhe flnal process of Lhe LoLallLy of Lhe pro[ecL
or of a currenL phase lf Lhe pro[ecL has been dlvlded ln phases. lL occurs when Lhe
producL ls ready Lo be dellvered (deployed). ln Lhls process lL also occurs: Lhe
elaboraLlon of Lechnlcal documenLaLlon and Lhe Lralnlng sesslon (lf such componenLs
were sold), Lhe pro[ecL (or phase) revlew Lo wrap-up Lhe developmenL ln whlch an
analysls ls done on pro[ecL evoluLlon and ouLcome and whaL could be done Lo lmprove
Lhe efflclency of Lhe processes (elLher of pro[ecL managemenL or developmenL ln
naLure). 1he process ls deplcLed below:



47
lmage 13 - uellvery process


48
5"5"?"#" 9/%*200 82,+):0
ln Lhls flnal process, flrsLly lL ls necessary Lo perform a flnal check (Lask #1) of Lhe
producL on Lhe pre-producLlon server used for Lhe demos, uslng Lhe accepLance LesLs
deflned ln Lhe &ERJLJIJKL process. 1hese LesLs are creaLed ln a !l8A componenL, Lhe
Zephyr, whlch can sLore Lhe lnformaLlon of Lhe LesL sLaLus and provldes a dashboard
wlLh Lhe relevanL lnformaLlon of Lhe LesL cycle. lf any of Lhe LesLs falled on Lask #2, Lhe
[usLlflcaLlons are collecLed on Lhe LM sysLem. ln Lhe case a hoLflx (qulck flx done by
Lhe developmenL Leam) can be lmplemenLed wlLhouL Lhe necesslLy of a new sprlnL, lL ls
asked of Lhe developmenL Leam (#3) Lo do so. CLherwlse Lhe process ends and Lhe
pro[ecL reLurns Lo Lhe &EOEQKSCELI process, slnce anoLher sprlnL / oLher sprlnLs of
developmenL musL be done. Cn Lhese Lasks, Lhe developmenL Leam and sLakeholders
are lnvolved Lo valldaLe Lhe resulLs of Lhe LesLs and posslble errors.
lf Lhe LesLs have all been successfully passed, Lhe nexL Lask (#4) ls Lo deLermlne lf
lL ls necessary Lo wrlLe documenLaLlon for Lhe producL (lf LhaL dellverable was sold). ln
poslLlve case, sald documenLaLlon ls elaboraLed ln Lask #3 wlLh Lhe collaboraLlon of Lhe
developmenL Leam, as Lhey possess much of Lhe knowledge of Lhe lnner worklngs of
Lhe producL.
lf no documenLaLlon ls necessary, Lhe flow passes Lo Lask #6 where lL ls
deLermlned lf one or more Lralnlng sesslons were sold. ln poslLlve case, Lhey are
prepared (#7) ln con[uncLlon wlLh Lhe developmenL Leam. 1he Lralnlng sesslon(s) (#8)
can lnvolve one or more sLakeholders, as well as elemenLs of Lhe developmenL Leam,
whlch can even be Lasked Lo presenL Lhe Lralnlng sesslon Lhemselves. AfLerwards Lhe
sLakeholders evaluaLe (#9) Lhe sesslon Lo raLe Lhe quallLy of Lhe Lralnlng, ln order Lo
lmprove lL.
AfLer Lhe Lralnlng sesslon, or lf Lhe sesslon was noL necessary, Lhe acLual dellvery
(#10) of Lhe producL on Lhe producLlon server Lakes place.
AfLerwards, an addlLlonal LesLlng sesslon ls employed (#11), uslng Lhe same
accepLance LesLs, Lhls Llme ln Lhe producLlon server. lf Lhe LesLs are noL meL wlLh
success, Lhe causes musL be deLermlned along wlLh Lhe developmenL Leam (#12), an
analysls musL be done abouL Lhe posslblllLy Lo develop and deploy a hoLflx. lf Lhls ls noL
posslble, Lhen Lhe process ends and Lhose problems musL be quenched ln a reLurn Lo
Lhe &EOEQKSCELI process. lf a hoLflx ls posslble, Lhen lLs deploymenL (#10) ls
requesLed Lo Lhe developmenL Leam (#13) and Lhe process goes Lhrough Lo Lask #11 of
Lhe flnal accepLance LesLs.


49
When all of Lhe flnal LesLs are meL wlLh success, Lhe C should lnform (#14) Lhe
flnanclal and commerclal deparLmenL of Lhe dellvery of Lhe producL so Lhey are able Lo
conLlnue Lhelr own processes.
1he flnal lssue (#13) represenLs a flnal pro[ecL / phase reLrospecLlve lnvolvlng Lhe
developmenL Leam and Lhe Scrum MasLer, Lo reflecL on Lhe progresslon and resulLs of
Lhe pro[ecL / phase. 1hls way lL may be posslble Lo Lransform Lhe LaclL knowledge
galned on Lhe pro[ecL / phase Lo a more expllclL knowledge ln Lhe form of
lmprovemenLs ln Lhe processes, wheLher Lhey are of managemenL or developmenL
naLure.
As deplcLed by Lhe dlagram, documenLaLlon ls produced on every acLlvlLy Lo
quench Lhe problem ldenLlfled ln Lhe lnLervlews: lack of documenLaLlon and
communlcaLlon. Whlle Lhe aglle manlfesLo upholds LhaL documenLaLlon should noL be
a focus, lL ls sLlll much necessary Lo guaranLee Lhe safekeeplng of Lhe lnformaLlon.
5"5"?"!" =2,/)*0
%BCDEF KR IJCEH ITE PNNESIPLNE IEHIH RPJQEY - WlLh Lhls lnformaLlve
meLrlc Lhe C as well as Lhe developmenL Leam can have a beLLer grasp
on how many Llmes Lhe pre-deploymenL accepLance LesLs falled. 1hls
maLLers Lo lmprove noL only Lhe developmenL meLhods (of Lhelr lnLernal
LesLs), buL also Lhe accepLance LesLs Lhe C does aL Lhe end of each sprlnL
Lo ensure Lhe success of Lhe dellvery of Lhe producL,
0KHI IZSJNPQ NPBHEH KR PNNESIPLNE IEHIH RPJQBFE - 1hls lnformaLlve meLrlc
wlll gaLher all Lhe reasons for falllng ln Lhe lnlLlal LesLs, maklng lL posslble
Lo deLermlne whlch are Lhe mosL Lyplcal causes Lo prevenL Lhem from
happenlng ln fuLure pro[ecLs,
%BCDEF KR IJCEH ITE RJLPQ PNNESIPLNE IEHIH RPJQEY - AfLer Lhe dellvery,
anoLher baLch of LesLs musL be done by Lhe sLakeholders. 8y uslng Lhls
lnformaLlve meLrlc, lL ls posslble for all Lhe parLles lnvolved Lo deLermlne
Lhe quallLy of Lhe producL. 1he measuremenLs for Lhls meLrlc musL be
lnserLed manually on Confluence, as Lhe LesLs are performed ouLslde of
Lhe LM sysLem,
0KHI IZSJNPQ NPBHEH KR RJLPQ PNNESIPLNE IEHIH RPJQBFE - As ln Lhe prevlous
meLrlc, Lhls lnformaLlve meLrlc can be used Lo unsure LhaL repeaLlng
causes LhaL occur afLer Lhe producL ls dellvered can be quenched and


30
prevenLed ln Lhe fuLure. Slmllar Lo Lhe prevlous meLrlc, Lhe
measuremenLs musL be lnserLed manually on Confluence,
'PIJK KR IJCEH ITE PNNESIPLNE IEHIH RPJQEY OEFHBH ITE IJCEH ITE RJLPQ
PNNESIPLNE IEHIH RPJQEY - 1hls comparaLlve meLrlc wlll allow deLermlnlng
lf Lhe flnal LesLs are havlng a superlor number of fallures Lhan Lhe lnlLlal
LesLs. WlLh Lhls lnformaLlon Lhe developmenL Leam and Lhe C can
ascerLaln Lhe cause and Lry Lo mlLlgaLe Lhe problem. Cne cause could be
LhaL a Lechnlcal requlremenL was noL gaLhered ln Lhe approprlaLe process
and, wlLhouL LhaL lnformaLlon, Lhe error occurred. 8ecause Lhe
measuremenLs of Lhe flnal LesLs are lnserLed manually, Lhe
measuremenLs for Lhls meLrlc musL also be lnpuLLed ln Lhe same manner
on Confluence,
"IPIJHIJNPQ PLPQZHJH KR ITE EOPQBPIJKL KR ITE IFPJLJLW HEHHJKL - WlLh Lhls
lnformaLlon Lhe C can have a beLLer undersLandlng of Lhe effecLlveness
of Lhe Lralnlng sesslon and can use Lhls lnformaLlon for fuLure
lmprovemenLs.
Llke ln uevelopmenL process, Lhese meLrlcs are Lransversal ln Lhelr naLure, slnce
lL ls posslble Lo use Lhem Lo conLrol Lhe level of errors belng done ln Lhe process, buL
also Lhey can be used for moLlvaLlon purposes based on Lhe resulLs obLalned. 1hese
meLrlcs are moreover capable of permlLLlng lmprovemenLs on fuLure pro[ecLs.
5"5"?"5" ;0+62 %. ,72 <9=
1he lnformaLlon collecLed on Lhls process wlll be sLored ln Lhe LM sysLem ln Lhe
followlng sLrucLure:



31

lmage 14 - lnformaLlon sLrucLure of Lhe uellvery process
1he page 1echnlcal lnformaLlon, also menLloned on Lhe &ERJLJIJKL process, holds
Lhe gaLhered lnformaLlon on Lhls process. 1he followlng pages should be lnserLed ln
Confluence.
! $NNESIPLNE IEHIH FEHBQIH - 1hls page should be used Lo sLore all Lhe
resulLs of Lhe accepLance LesLs done ln Lhls process, Lhe lnlLlal and Lhe
flnal ones, ln a Labular form. ln case of fallure ln one or more LesLs, Lhe
causes should be polnLed ouL.
! #ENTLJNPQ YKNBCELIPIJKL - 1hls page only exlsLs lf lL ls deLermlned LhaL
Lhe Lechnlcal documenLaLlon ls a dellverable LhaL was agreed Lo be
produced. AfLer Lhe documenLaLlon ls concluded on Lhls page, Confluence
allows exporLlng seLs of pages as a ul Lo dellver Lo Lhe flnal cllenL,
! #FPJLJLW YKNBCELIPIJKL - 1hls page wlll exlsL only lf Lhe Lralnlng was an
opLlon sold ln Lhe pro[ecL and should hold all Lhe lnformaLlon and
maLerlals regardlng Lhe Lralnlng,
! &EQJOEFZ JLRKFCPIJKL - All Lhe relevanL lnformaLlon abouL Lhe
deploymenL of Lhe producL on Lhe producLlon envlronmenL should be
sLored on Lhls page.
1he ro[ecL managemenL page, descrlbed ln Lhe prevlous processes, holds Lhe
,FKMENI 0EIFJNH page LhaL sLores Lhe lnformaLlon abouL some meLrlcs. Slnce Lhe lnlLlal
LesLs are done uslng a plugln of !l8A, Zephyr, Lhe lnformaLlon ls dlsplayed ln Lhe Zephyr
dashboard.


32
Also, lL ls worLh polnLlng ouL ln case Lhe accepLance LesLs ouLpuLLed errors, glven
LhaL Lhey were Lhe resulLs of an error of developmenL, a new sLory should be creaLed
on !l8A wlLh Lhe relevanL lnformaLlon Lo correcL Lhem.
WlLh Lhe concluslon of Lhls process and Lhe dellvery of Lhe producL, Lhe pro[ecL
or a phase of Lhe pro[ecL can be consldered compleLe from Lhe company's polnL of
vlew.
><@< *7#$(%(%1 #?. 0.$"5'.0.%#"
When sLarLlng a pro[ecL, Lhe C should bulld Lhe sLrucLure descrlbed ln Lhe
prevlous chapLers ln Lhe LM. neverLheless, Lhe pages relaLed wlLh meLrlcs
lnformaLlon can only be bullL aL Lhe Llme Lhe acLual developmenL sLarLs, when Lhe
measuremenLs begln and Lhe meLrlcs Lake meanlng. Lach of Lhe meLrlcs ls presenLed
on Lhe Confluence appllcaLlon Lhrough Lhe use of a speclal macro, enLlLled -('$ (HHBEH.
WlLh Lhose Lables ln place, meLrlcs wlll be avallable as Lhe daLa ls lnpuLLed.
lL ls apparenL LhaL Lhe LM sysLem, Lhrough !l8A and Confluence provldes good
resources Lo obLaln Lhe measuremenLs of some meLrlcs, buL noL all, especlally Lhe ones
from Lhe &EQJOEFZ process LhaL do noL rely on !l8A lssues, creaLlng Lhe necesslLy of
manual lnpuL for Lhe measuremenLs. 1hls lssue wlll be furLher analyzed ln Lhe
LlmlLaLlons sub-chapLer of Lhe ulscusslon.
Also lmporLanL Lo polnL ouL ls LhaL, whlle Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe processes
descrlbed above could be done somewhaL easlly, slnce Lhe sysLem LhaL wlll supporL lL
ls already ln use, obLalnlng Lhe daLa (measuremenLs) necessary Lo fuel Lhe meLrlcs Lo
reLrleve some useful lnformaLlon ls more dlfflculL. lL ls necessary Lo change Lhe
worklng hablLs of Lhe developmenL Leams for Lhem Lo sLarL lnpuLLlng valld worklng
Llmes. 1o do Lhls, verbal lncenLlve musL be presenL aL all Llmes by Lhe already ldenLlfled
Lechnologlcal leader - one of Lhe Managlng arLners. 8uL Lhls role of champlon can
also be played by Lhe C of a pro[ecL or even Lhe Scrum MasLer asslgned Lo Lhe Leam,
slnce Lhey are ln consLanL conLacL wlLh Lhe Leam and can encourage Lhe accepLance of
Lhese changes.
Cn a concluslon noLe, by obLalnlng Lhese meLrlcs, Lhe C has a good sLarLlng
polnL LhaL enables hlm / her Lo deLermlne lf Lhe pro[ecL ls a success or noL. 1haL
deLermlnaLlon should be done bearlng ln mlnd Lhe sLraLeglc goals of Lhe company, buL
malnly Lhe goals of Lhe pro[ecLs, whlch vary from pro[ecL Lo pro[ecL and should be
deLermlned aL Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe pro[ecL.


33
@< &("/5""(*%
upon compleLlng Lhe flndlngs of Lhls work, lL ls necessary Lo deLermlne Lhe
lmpllcaLlons lL has on a LheoreLlcal level buL also on a more pracLlcal scope.
lor Lhe LheoreLlcal angle, Lhe llnkages beLween Lhe flelds of pro[ecL
managemenL, buslness process managemenL and managemenL of lnformaLlon sysLems
are done. As for Lhe pracLlcal dlscusslon, conslderaLlons are done regardlng Lhe flve
processes LhaL were modeled, Lhelr use ln Lhe pro[ecLs and Lhe valldlLy proven by Lhe
use of Lhe meLrlcs.
Concludlng Lhls chapLer, some recommendaLlons, some llmlLaLlons of Lhls work
and posslble follow up works are presenLed.
@<;< #?.*'.#(/$4 (0,4(/$#(*%"
lrom a LheoreLlcal perspecLlve, Lhe lmpllcaLlons can be dlvlded ln Lhe Lhree flelds
of Lhls work. lor Lhe fleld of pro[ecL managemenL, Lhls work presenLs several crlLlcal
success facLors LhaL musL be observed as a means Lo resolve Lhe lssues polnLed ouL:
NKCCBLJNPIJKL, FE^BJFECELIHA PHHEHHCELI and Lhe FJWTI PCKBLI KR YKNBCELIPIJKL.
Clven Lhe aglle meLhodologles depend on Lhe LaclL knowledge Lo be passed on
face-Lo-face communlcaLlon, many of Lhe relevanL lnformaLlon regardlng a pro[ecL can
be losL. ln order Lo obLaln a coherenL communlcaLlon, Lhls framework presenLs a seL of
rules on how Lo sLrucLurally sLore Lhe lnformaLlon, whlle keeplng ln mlnd anoLher
crlLlcal facLor, Lhe rlghL amounL of documenLaLlon. 1hese lnformaLlon sLrucLures are
meanL Lo supporL Lhe C of a pro[ecL Lo make pro[ecL relaLed declslons, buL also Lhe
developmenL Leam.
SLlll regardlng Lhe crlLlcal facLors, Lhe requlremenLs' assessmenL, Lyplcally done
by Lhe C of a pro[ecL, ls presenLed ln an aglle way, a paradlgm shlfL lf lL may, by
lnvolvlng Lhe developmenL Leam rlghL aL Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe pro[ecL, lnsLead of [usL
on Lhe developmenL sLage. WlLh Lhls earller lnvolvemenL, Lhe C can use Lhelr LaclL
knowledge Lo obLaln a more accuraLe assessmenL on whaL ls requlred of Lhe pro[ecL
and lLs cosL.
A 8M framework was used as a sLarLlng polnL on Lhe modellng of Lhe processes
presenLed on Lhe +JLYJLWH chapLer. 1hls hlghly lLeraLlvely framework emulaLes, Lo a
cerLaln polnL, Lhe mechanlsms upheld by Scrum. 1he 8M framework revolves around
Lhe noLlon LhaL every process has room Lo evolve afLer an analysls of lLs resulLs. AfLer a
new plan ls drafLed, an lLeraLlon of Lhe process can be lmplemenLed.


34
8uL Lhe analysls of Lhe resulLs of Lhe processes ls only posslble lf Lhere are
meLrlcs feed by measuremenLs Lo ascerLaln Lhe valldlLy of Lhe work belng done.
lor LhaL purpose, a serles of meLrlcs was devlsed, as well as Lhe meLhod on how
Lo obLaln lLs daLa. 8uL glven LhaL Lhe meLrlcs are only usable lf daLa ls lnserLed (on Lhe
LM sysLem), a culLural change musL occur ln Lhe reclplenL company Lo encourage Lhe
lnLroducLlon of work-logs by Lhe developmenL Leams. Slnce lnLroduclng Lhls Lype of
lnformaLlon wlll glve a greaL deal of scruLlny Lo Lhe dally acLlvlLles of Lhe developmenL
Leams, some elemenLs of Lhe Leams may feel susplclous of Lhe purpose of such
acLlvlLles and mlghL noL lnserL Lhe lnformaLlon accuraLely. 1o counLeracL Lhe reslsLance
Lo change, Lhls work also recommends Lhe employmenL of one or more champlons.
1hese roles should be asslgned Lo people LhaL are percelved noL only as Lechnologlcal
orlenLed people, buL also leaders LhaL can moLlvaLe oLhers Lo undersLand LhaL Lhe
necesslLy of change ls also beneflclal for everybody, belng a sLep Lo lmprove Lhelr work
and Lhemselves.
@<=< ,'$/#(/$4 (0,4(/$#(*%
1he framework presenLed on Lhls work can acL as a sLepplng sLone for a company
worklng on sofLware developmenL Lo lmprove Lhe efflclency of Lhelr pro[ecL
managemenL processes. Whlle Lhls framework was bullL uslng Scrum as a reference, lL
ls [usL LhaL, a reference and any oLher aglle meLhodologles (such as exLreme
programlng among oLhers) could be used wlLh llLLle modlflcaLlon Lo Lhe processes.
Also lmporLanL Lo polnL ouL ls LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon gaLhered Lo help bulld Lhls
framework was based on a company whlch had problems LhaL were deemed common
on mosL companles. Powever, before embarklng on Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhls
framework, an analysls of Lhe lssues occurrlng on Lhe reclplenL company musL be
underLaken ln order Lo adapL Lhe framework and lLs processes. Llkewlse, Lhls work
presenLs Lhe usage of a Lype of speclflc sofLware, Lhe LM sysLem by ALlasslan. 8uL Lhls
sysLem should only be vlewed as a reference, slnce Lhere are several oLher sulLes LhaL
can accompllsh Lhe same resulL.
ln Lhe lnLervlews done wlLh Lhe Cs, aL phase lll, several lssues regardlng Lhe
managemenL of pro[ecLs were ldenLlfled: CommunlcaLlon among all Lhe parLlclpanLs of
a pro[ecL (ranglng from Lhe cllenL Lo Lhe developmenL Leam), documenLaLlon scaLLered
and unorganlzed, requlremenLs' assessmenL problems and Lhe dlfflculLy Lo ldenLlfy Lhe
sLaLus of a pro[ecL.


33
1o address such problems, flve processes for pro[ecL managemenL were
modeled: ulscovery, ueflnlLlon, uevelopmenL, uemo and uellvery, already descrlbed ln
deLall ln Lhe +JLYJLWH chapLer. lor each process, lL was devlsed a sLrucLure on how Lo
sLore Lhe daLa ouLpuLLed from every process, for easy access of Lhe documenLaLlon
from all Lhe parLlclpanLs LhaL requlre lL. Pavlng a common sLrucLure for all pro[ecLs wlll
allow a more efflclenL flow of lnformaLlon, slnce everybody wlll know where Lo look for
lL. Also, maklng Lhe lnformaLlon easlly avallable on an LM wlll allow a beLLer
communlcaLlon, slnce Lhe LM should have Lhe necessary mechanlsms Lo alerL oLhers
abouL Lhe avallablllLy of relevanL lnformaLlon.
lL was ldenLlfled LhaL Lhe LM does noL always respond Lo every necesslLy of a
company, as such, some adapLaLlon musL be done Lo elLher Lhe LM or Lhe company.
1hls declslon musL be based on Lhe dlfflculLy of changlng elLher of Lhe componenLs of
Lhe company's lS (,FKNEHHEH and ,EKSQE vs. "KRIUPFE). 1he same concluslon could be
drawn regardlng Lhe usage of Scrum. 8elng a framework, a company could use only
some of lLs componenLs and bend" some premlses lf lL beneflLs Lhem.
AddlLlonally, meLrlcs were also ldenLlfled and descrlbed Lo allow Lhe Cs Lo have
a compleLe plcLure of Lhe sLaLus of Lhe pro[ecL. neverLheless, slnce Lhese meLrlcs are
LargeLed for measurlng Lhe developmenL belng made, lL ls noL posslble Lo have Lhem ln
all Lhe processes, speclflcally Lhe flrsL Lwo: ulscovery and ueflnlLlon. 1hls ls because aL
Lhese sLages, no acLual developmenL ls done, buL only analysls and esLabllshmenL of
goals whlch are noL sulLable Lo be measured.
8uL Lhe lnexlsLence of meLrlcs does noL mean LhaL Lhese processes do noL
answer Lhe lssues ldenLlfled. As polnLed ouL earller, Lhe developmenL Leam should be
broughL ln Lo Lhe pro[ecL as soon as posslble Lo help Lhe C obLaln a proper
requlremenLs' assessmenL, based on Lhelr experlence (LaclL knowledge).
WlLh Lhese guldellnes a company has addlLlonal Lools Lo counLer Lhe lack of
resources such as Llme, knowledge and money, whlch ls a common slLuaLlon among
SMLs and Lhus can permlL Lhem Lo sLrlve ln Lhelr markeL.
@<>< 4(0(#$#(*%" $%& './*00.%&$#(*%"
Whlle researchlng for Lhe Loplcs of Lhls work, lL became apparenL Lhe lack of a
Lhorough research on Lhe lmpacL aglle meLhodologles could have ln SMLs and how
Lhey are belng used by Lhose companles, a Loplc LhaL could have helped ln Lhe maklng
of Lhls work. 8elng SMLs Lhe bulk of Lhe companles operaLlng worldwlde,


36
lmplemenLlng Lhls sLudy ln Lhe fuLure could brlng a greaL lnslghL on Lhe currenL sLaLe of
Lhe arL ln sofLware developmenL ln SMLs.
ln Lerms of Lhe premlse of Lhls work, Lo sLandardlze Lhe pro[ecL managemenL
processes, Lhe scope could be expanded ln an efforL Lo lmplemenL a sLandardlzaLlon of
oLher processes, as Lhe acLual developmenL. neverLheless, Lhls ls a greaLer efforL (buL
noL lmposslble) slnce Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of sofLware has many varlables and each
Lechnology has parLlcular aspecLs Lo lL, requlrlng a greaL deal of analysls before
embarklng on Lhe modellng of Lhese processes.
1aklng an example from Lhe sub[ecL company of Lhls work, Lhe cholce of Lhe l1
sysLem LhaL wlll supporL Lhese changes ls of greaL lmporLance, Lo check lf Lhe
lnformaLlon needed Lo manage Lhe pro[ecLs ls easlly obLalned from Lhe sysLem. lL
became apparenL LhaL Lo obLaln and use Lhe meLrlcs Lo assess Lhe valldlLy of Lhe work,
Lhe u8l's LM sysLem alone was noL enough, slnce some of Lhe meLrlcs are only
obLalned Lhrough manual labor. 1he daLa ls all Lhere, buL Lhere are noL auLomaLlsms
avallable Lo dellver Lhem how Lhey are lnLended. lurLhermore, Lhls ls noL a case where
Lhe meLrlcs and relaLed processes can be changed as percelved on Lhe LM sysLem,
slnce Lhe sysLem does noL provlde by defaulL many meLrlcs Lo evaluaLe Lhe work LhaL ls
belng done (whlch lead Lo Lhe developmenL of meLrlcs descrlbed ln Lhls work). uslng
Lhe sysLem as ls wlll force Lhe managers Lo conLlnue Lo use excel worksheeLs, a lengLhy
and manual operaLlon LhaL lnvolves collecLlng all Lhe requlred lnformaLlon leadlng Lo
much Llme belng consumed and sacrlflclng avallablllLy of sald lnformaLlon.
A soluLlon for Lhls problem, on u8l, was Lhe developmenL of anoLher layer
deployed on Lop of Lhe LM. 1hls new layer can communlcaLe wlLh Lhe LM sysLem
Lhough lLs Al Lo auLomaLlcally gaLher all Lhe requlred lnformaLlon Lo feed Lhe meLrlcs
and Lhus provlde valuable and Llmely lnformaLlon Lo Lhe pro[ecL owners and oLher
managers. 1hls soluLlon ls besL sulLed for Lhe company slnce sald Al was already used
Lo lnLegraLe Lhe LM sysLem on oLher Lools used by Lhe company. AnoLher soluLlon
could be Lo creaLe a plug-ln Lo Lhe LM sysLem, buL slnce Lhls sysLem lf wrlLLen ln !AvA
and Lhe maln programmlng language used on Lhe company ls P, lL was noL a vlable
opLlon.
1hese shorLcomlngs furLher hlghllghL Lhe necesslLy Lo perform a careful analysls
of whlch sysLem Lo lmplemenL Lo supporL Lhe changes on Lhe company. lf Lhere ls
already an LM sysLem ln use and lssues of Lhe same naLure as Lhe ones presenLed ln
Lhls work arlse, lL wlll be necessary Lo deLermlne Lhe course of acLlon: can Lhe LM be
adapLed or should lL be subsLlLuLed by a new one. lL ls almosL cerLaln LhaL no LM (or


37
slmllar sysLem) wlll flL perfecLly wlLh Lhe processes of a company, so an analysls musL
be conducLed comparlng Lhe cosL of changlng Lhe exlsLlng LM and Lhe cosL of
adapLlng a new one. ln Lhe case of u8l, a greaL amounL of Llme was already spenL wlLh
Lhls sysLem, lLs users are used Lo lL and maklng furLher cusLomlzaLlons ls a far more
cosL effecLlve soluLlon for Lhe company. 1hls ls a speclflc soluLlon, speclally lndlcaLed
for Lhe sub[ecL company, u8l.
Whlle Lhls work presenLs several meLrlcs Lo help quench Lhe problems ldenLlfled
ln Lhe lnLervlews and respond Lo Lhe crlLlcal facLors polnLed ouL ln Lhe LheoreLlcal
background, more meLrlcs could be lmplemenLed. Cne speclflc meLrlc could be creaLed
Lo help Lhe C deLermlne whaL Lhe raLe of compleLlon of a glven componenL ls. 8uL
slnce Lhe LM cannoL make calculaLlons of a speclflc group of sLorles, Lhls prevenLs Lhe
collecLlon of measuremenLs Lo feed Lhls meLrlc, renderlng lL useless. 1hls slLuaLlon can
be resolved wlLh addlLlonal developmenL as already dlscussed.
Armed wlLh Lhls framework, Lhe managemenL should draw lLs own concluslons
and lmplemenL Lhe changes lL conslders allgned wlLh Lhe company's goals and
sLraLegy. Cne opLlon ls Lo embark on a plloL LesLlng wlLh one C and lLs pro[ecLs Lo
valldaLe Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe guldellnes ln close collaboraLlon wlLh Lhe Lop
managemenL. AfLerwards, wlLh lessons learned Lhe meLhod can be expanded Lo all Cs
and Lhelr pro[ecLs.
llnally, lL ls worLh polnLlng ouL one Loplc LhaL was proposed ln a reference for
Lhls work, auLhored by 8ruque and Moyano (2007). 1hls work proposes Lhe
lmplemenLaLlon of a quallLy sysLem Lo furLher help Lhe lnformaLlon Lechnology
adopLlon, Lo work as a faclllLaLor ln Lhe adopLlon of change buL also Lo provlde oLher
goals. lor Lhe u8l example, lL could represenL anoLher Lool Lo achleve a long-Lerm goal
LhaL ls Lo have Lhe company's pro[ecL managemenL processes cerLlfled ln an lSC
sLandard.
@<@< +5#5'. 3*'2
AfLer Lhe concluslon of Lhls work, Lhe nexL sLep could be Lhe analysls of Lhe
resulLs Lhe changes broughL Lo Lhe sub[ecL company, u8l. WlLh Lhls analysls, a
reflnemenL could be done noL only on Lhe processes Lo furLher lmprove Lhem, buL on
Lhe lnformaLlon sLrucLure and Lhe meLrlcs belng used. 1he analysls could also answer lf
Lhe new developmenLs solved Lhe llmlLaLlons presenL ln Lhe prevlous chapLer.


38
AnoLher analysls LhaL could be done ls Lhe role aglle meLhodologles have on
larger companles, wheLher Lhey are belng used aL all and lf Lhe processes proposed by
Lhls work could be used on such companles.



39
_< /*%/45"(*%"
CollaboraLlon! 1hls work seL ouL wlLh a dlfferenL ldea, efflclency. 8uL whaL was
learned from Lhe analysls of all Lhe references collecLed ls LhaL for any efforL of Lhls
Lype Lo succeed, ln facL Lo achleve efflclency, collaboraLlon ls paramounL. Cne of Lhe
Loplcs dlscussed on Lhe LheoreLlcal background revolves around Lhls, Lo geL Lhe lnpuL
of everyone, Lo have champlons Lo lnvoke LhaL ldea among Lhe workers. Cne example
ls wlLh Lhe case of 8M, ln many of Lhe references lL ls sLaLed LhaL 8M cannoL
guaranLee success on lLself. Changes are necessary, Lo Lransform Lhe mlndseL of Lhe
company, buL noL only Lhe workers, Lhe Lop managemenL as well.
CommunlcaLlon ls also a key facLor ln all Lhe flelds dlscussed ln Lhls work.
WlLhouL lL, Lhe lnformaLlon does noL flow and goals are noL reached ln lLs fullesL.
Moreover, lnformaLlon ls of greaL lmporLance for every company and havlng lL
prompLly avallable conLrlbuLes Lo lmprove communlcaLlon, buL also permlLs a beLLer
sense of collaboraLlon beLween everyone.
Cf course a company does noL sLrlfe on collaboraLlon alone, and Lhrough Lhe use
of Lhe guldellnes dlscussed on Lhls work, lL has an essenLlal Lool ln Lhe efforL Lo
lncrease lLs producLlvlLy and reduce unnecessary cosLs, maxlmlzlng lLs revenue.
!usL by reallzlng LhaL change ls necessary, Lhe LransformaLlon ls already
happenlng. lL may be a long Lerm pro[ecL, slnce changlng menLallLles and processes ls a
Llme consumlng endeavor, buL lL ls a necessary sLep for Lhe paLh Lo achleve Lhe so
much referenced efflclency.



60
`< 7(74(*1'$,?6
Al-Masharl, M., & Zalrl, M. (1999). 88 lmplemenLaLlon process: an analysls of key
success and fallure facLors. !"#$%&## ()*+&## ,-%-.&/&%0 1*")%-23 4(1), 87-112.
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Arlyachandra, 1. 8., & lrollck, M. n. (2008). CrlLlcal success facLors ln buslness
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documenLs/2012/annual-reporL_en.pdf


63
a< $,,.%&(8
a<;< (%#.'9(.3 #'$%"/'(,#"
a<;<;< (LIEFOJEU ;
! lnLervlewer: Mlguel erelra
! lnLervlewed: Cludlo Calvo
! uaLe: 1hursday, 8Lh of november of 2012

0,: When a pro[ecL ls sLarLlng, alLhough Lhese days, Lhe processes are consLanLly
ln muLaLlon, buL normally when a pro[ecL ls dellvered Lo you, from whlch areas of Lhe
company dld lL come? ls lL from Lhe commerclal area?
//: 1haL's rlghL, from Lhe commerclal area.
0,: 8uL how ls Lhe lnformaLlon passed, ls lL a meeLlng wlLh Lhe commerclal area
where Lhe lnformaLlon ls passed, or Lhere ls dlrecLly a meeLlng wlLh Lhe cllenL Lo
deLermlne Lhe requlslLes or boLh or none of Lhls?
//: Ck, so normally Lhere ls Lhe followlng. 1he pro[ecLs can arrlve Lo us by Lwo
means, or because Lhe commerclal area Lells us LhaL Lhere ls a necesslLy Lo do a plloL
pro[ecL, LhaL wlll enLer as a pro[ecL LhaL we musL do ln order Lo demonsLraLe Lo Lhe
cllenL (as a proof of concepL), or because we've done a commerclal proposlLlon and we
musL lmplemenL a pro[ecL based on LhaL commerclal proposlLlon.
0,: Llke ln a 8equlremenL or someLhlng?
//: 1haL's rlghL. 1he cllenL dellvered a llsL of requlslLes ln a proposlLlon. We do a
commerclal proposlLlon. Cbvlously we have aL LhaL momenL a serles of meeLlngs Lo geL
a beLLer grasp of whaL lL ls lnLended and Lo glve a rough esLlmaLe ln order Lo have an
ldea of Lhe cosL of Lhe pro[ecL for Lhe cllenL. And lf Lhe cllenL accepLs, Lhe commerclal
proposlLlon ls won and lL Lransforms ln a proper pro[ecL. 1hese are Lhe Lwo ways ln
whlch pro[ecLs came Lo us. AfLerwards, whaL happens? When Lhe pro[ecL ls won,
normally Lhere ls Lhe phase of pro[ecL managlng, and LhaL phase usually encompasses
flve sLages, Lhe one descrlbed by Ml (ro[ecL ManagemenL lnsLlLuLe), whlch are Lhe
beglnnlng of Lhe pro[ecL, plannlng of Lhe pro[ecL, execuLlon of Lhe pro[ecL, conLrol of
Lhe pro[ecL and closlng of Lhe pro[ecL. And we are golng Lo manage Lhe pro[ecLs ln Lhls
manner. We are already dolng Lhls, alLhough noL clearly deflned ln Lhls manner, as a
process, buL we are ln Lhe sLage of deflned Lhem clearly Lo undersLand Lhem. WhaL
Lasks l have Lo do ln Lhe beglnnlng, ln Lhe plannlng, ln Lhe execuLlon, ln Lhe conLrol and


64
ln Lhe closlng of Lhe pro[ecL. 8aslcally lL ls Lo deLermlne a seL of acLlvlLles Lo be done,
who ls responslble by dolng Lhem Lo lmplemenL Lhe pro[ecL. normally ln Lhe beglnnlng
of Lhe pro[ecL whaL lL ls done? normally a meeLlng wlLh Lhe cllenL ls conducLed where
Lhe scope of Lhe pro[ecL LhaL has been ad[udlcaLed ls presenLed, lLs resLrlcLlons ln
Lerms of Llme, a hlgh-level plannlng, whlch ls a plannlng LhaL was already glven Lo Lhe
cllenL ln Lhe commerclal proposlLlon, LhaL sLaLes LhaL Lhe pro[ecL wlll Lake Lwo Lo Lhree
monLhs (for example) and lL wlll have Lhls sequence of acLlvlLles, lL can be done by
sprlnLs, lL wlll be done ln 4 sprlnLs (for example) and Lhe deslgnaLlon of Lhe Leam LhaL
wlll work on Lhe pro[ecL and Lhe ldenLlflcaLlon of Lhe sLakeholders on Lhe slde of Lhe
cllenL LhaL we wlll need Lo lnLeracL. lrom Lhere we wlll go Lo Lhe sLage of analysls, of
dlscovery, rlghL? Cf course, we have an ldea of whaL lL ls, buL we have meeLlngs,
lnLervlews and conversaLlons Lo undersLand wlLh more deLall Lhe problem ok? ln order
Lo afLerwards bulld Lhe backlog. A backlog glves us a broader scope of Lhe pro[ecL. ln
Lhe proposlLlon sLage Lhe cllenL lndlcaLes LhaL he wanLs Lhls and LhaL, and Lhem when
we Lalk wlLh Lhe persons lL's noL exacLly LhaL, lL ls a blL Lo Lhe slde and we need Lo
reglsLer all LhaL Lo undersLand LhaL ok, from all LhaL we gaLhered ls Lhe beglnnlng
(sLage of Lhe pro[ecL).
0,: And aL LhaL sLage can be Lhe slLuaLlon (Lhe cllenL says) LhaL lsn'L exacLly whaL
we wanL?
//: es. ln Lhls phase of beglnnlng we have a klck-off meeLlng and we have a
hlgh-level plannlng and we have an ldenLlflcaLlon of sLakeholders. 1hen ln Lhe
followlng sLage, whlch ls a plannlng sLage, we are golng Lo dlscover / analyze furLher,
and ln Lhese reunlons we Lry Lo grasp Lhe acLual scope of whaL we have Lo do and we
creaLe Lhe backlog, and whlle dolng so we can arrlve Lo a concluslon LhaL whaL Lhe
cllenL says he acLually wanLs ln Lhe lnLervlews ls blgger or dlfferenL from Lhe flrsL
proposal. lor lnsLance ln Lhe proposal we conLemplaLed four eplcs: we need modules
A, 8, C, and lnLegraLlon wlLh sysLem Z. 8uL Lhen we are golng Lo reflne Lhe assessmenL:
ln module A whlch are Lhe feaLures, Lhe vlews, Lhe valldaLlon and oLher requlremenLs,
and we can flnd we sald Len, Len, flfLeen and LwenLy days, for a LoLal of flfLy flve days ln
Lhe proposal buL ln LhaL reflned assessmenL we conclude LhaL lL ls golng Lo acLually
Lake sevenLy days, and aL Lhls Llme Lhe assessmenL for an esLlmaLe ls [usL made by Lhe
producL owner, because when Lhe Leam geLs lnvolved Lhe esLlmaLes can wlden or
shorLen. 8uL lL ls essenLlal aL Lhls sLage LhaL Lhe producL owner acLs accordlngly Lo Lhe
dlfference whlch was deLecLed. Pe needs Lo say whlch backlog lLems aren'L golng Lo be
done Lo comply wlLh Lhe budgeL or suggesL and addlLlonal proposal Lo comprlse Lhe


63
addlLlonal lLems. 1hls would be ldeal, buL Lhese Lasks arenL done lmmedlaLely, lL Lakes
Llme and Lhere are several Lhlngs LhaL we can'L assess aL Lhls sLage, [usL afLer a couple
of monLhs
0,: SomeLlmes [usL afLer a couple of sprlnLs, or even aL Lhe Lhlrd .
//: 1haL's when we reallze Lhere are some Lasks ouL of Lhe lnlLlal scope,
evldenLly as Llme goes by, lL geLs harder Lo negoLlaLe wlLh Lhe cllenL, lf ln Lhe lnlLlal
proposal Lhere are sevenLy days he may or may noL accepL lL. When he buys flfLy flve
days and lL's golng Lo Lake sevenLy ln Lhe flrsL reunlons Lhere's sLlll a margln Lo
negoLlaLe or abandon Lhe pro[ecL, buL afLer some Llme he ls cerLaln LhaL Lhe flfLy flve
days comprlse all hls requlremenLs, ln Lhe long run he won'L accepL Lhe sevenLy days.
1hls mlghL happen, buL lL needs Lo be mlLlgaLed. AL Lhe plannlng sLage, afLer Lhese
reunlons we can have a more concreLe plannlng, well lf Lhere's all Lhls backlog, we
sLarL managlng Lhe Llme and cosL of Lhe pro[ecL.
0,: AL Lhls sLage lL's noL Lhe responslblllLy of Lhe commerclal area.
//: 1he commerclal area afLer Lhe momenL of Lhe creaLlon of Lhe pro[ecL,
dlsappears: lL's Lhe pro[ecL area: Lhe pro[ecL owner and lLs Leam
0,: 1he commerclal area ls no longer lnvolved wlLh Lhe pro[ecL.
//: no, noL dlrecLly wlLh Lhe acLlvlLles, obvlously Lhey mlghL geL called Lo
reunlons Lo dlscuss dlfferences ln scope, Lhe can also be called Lo some reunlons ln
order Lo dlplomaLlcally help Lhe cllenL when Lhe relaLlonshlp geLs Lense.
0,: 1hey were Lhe flrsL conLacL.
//: 1he proposal was Lhelrs, and Lhe cllenLs LrusL Lhem so Lhey can mlLlgaLe
problems. 1hey can also be called [usL Lo malnLaln a courLeous relaLlonshlp, and ln Lhe
end Lhey can be called Lo access wheLher Lhe cllenL llked Lhe Leam or noL, Lo evaluaLe
how Lhe pro[ecL was developed, ln order Lo geL more poslLlve feedback for Lhe Leam Lo
galn LrusL for fuLure pro[ecLs.
0,: AL whaL sLages does Lhe flnanclal area geL lnvolved?
//: When Lhe commerclal proposal ls done usually Lhere are predeLermlned
sLages of bllllng. 1hese bllllng sLages are seL ln Lhe proposal lL mlghL be 30 ln Lhe
ad[udlcaLlon, 30 when A ls made or dellvered, and 40 ln Lhe flnal dellvery. lL means
Lhe flnanclal area wlll emlL lnvolces of Lhe percenLage values aL predeLermlned daLes,
obvlously Lhe flrsL bllllng ls made as soon as Lhe pro[ecL ls ad[udlcaLed, and Lhe
lnformaLlon ls passed along Lo Lhe flnanclal area
0,: and how ls Lhls lnformaLlon passed on? lL ls by e-mall or verbally? lsn'L Lhere
an auLomaLlc response aL Lhe momenL, Lo deLermlne ln whlch sLage Lhe pro[ecL ls?


66
//: no, lL's always communlcaLlon, Lhe Leam, ln Lhls case Lhe pro[ecL owner, who
ls responslble for Lhe pro[ecL managemenL know we've achleved a deLermlned sLage
and he communlcaLes LhaL Lo Lhe conLroller or dlrecLly Lo Lhe flnanclal area so as Lo blll
aL a cerLaln sLage because we achleved a mllesLone or dellvered someLhlng.
SomeLlmes lL ls Lhe flnanclal area LhaL seLs ouL and makes enqulres abouL Lhe sLaLus of
Lhe pro[ecL, so Lhey can lssue a blll Lo Lhe cllenL.
0,: So, do Lhey have access Lo deLermlne Lhe sLaLe of Lhe pro[ecL or ls Lhe
LlmeLable seL lnlLlally Lhelr guldellne?
//: 1hey make a predlcLlon because ln Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe pro[ecL Lhey Lry Lo
plan when Lhe dlfferenL sLeps of bllllng wlll occur. When Lhe pro[ecL ls ad[udlcaLed, for
lnsLance ln !anuary Lhey ask for a predlcLlon on Lhe followlng sLages, and we glve Lhem
an esLlmaLe based on Lhe number of days seL Lo reach Lhe mllesLones and Lhey plan Lo
blll accordlngly, for lnsLance Lwo monLhs Lo compleLe Lhe flrsL Lwo Lasks so Lhey plan Lo
blll ln March, and ln Lhe end of Lhe pro[ecL esLlmaLed ln four monLhs, so ln May we can
blll Lhls. 1hen Lhey conflrm aL Lhe dlfferenL sLages, and we have Lo explaln Lo Lhe
conLroller lf Lhe Llmes are belng meL or noL. We should be able Lo explaln every week
Lo Lhe conLroller Lhe movlng forward of Lhe pro[ecL aL Lhe esLlmaLe Llme or lf lL's slldlng
so Lhe bllllng can be done accordlngly.
0,: ls lL expecLed or deslrable Lhe exlsLence of a Lool ln Lhe new plaLform Lo
allow a beLLer communlcaLlon, so Lhe flnanclal area can percelve Lhe flowlng of Lhe
pro[ecL?
//: We aren'L focuslng ln Lhe Lool as much as ln Lhe process Lo communlcaLe.
WheLher or noL we're golng Lo have a Lool LhaL solves Lhls problem l don'L know yeL.
1hls could be done llke Lhls: lnslde Sugar C8M we have Lhe opporLunlLles module
where we creaLe our commerclal proposals, Lhere's Lhe pro[ecL module, whlch
generaLes a pro[ecL when Lhe commerclal proposal ls won. And lnslde Lhe pro[ecLs, we
could have, leLs lmaglne, anoLher module LhaL corresponds Lo Lhe bllllng sLages where
we would deLermlne Lhls flrsL bllllng sLage corresponds Lo 30 of Lhe LoLal, Lhls ls 30
and Lhls ls 40 and l could relaLe lL Lo Lhe Llmeframe, Lhus Lhe flnanclal area would
only have Lo llsL Lhe bllllng sLages whlch were expecLed Lo occur aL a glven Llme. 1he
flnanclal area now has Lhls ln Lhelr flnanclal maps and LhaL ls Lhe reason Lhey don'L ask
us abouL lL. lL would be lmporLanL Lo have Lhls, because Lhen Lhe pro[ecL manager
would be able Lo look aL hls/her pro[ecLs and creaLe pressure accordlngly, and focus on
Lhose pro[ecLs Lo overcome Lhe seLbacks whlch won'L allow Lhe bllllng. 8esldes, when
Lhe cllenL asks abouL Lhe pro[ecL, Lhe pro[ecL manager could lnform Lhe sLages of Lhe


67
process and Lhe correspondlng bllllng. Many Llmes Lhe cllenL asks Lhe pro[ecL manager
how much ls Lhere Lo blll or whaL was already bllled?
0,: 1hey don'L have LhaL lnformaLlon, because Lhere are several sLakeholders
lnvolved.
//: 1he producL owner / pro[ecL manager should be lnformed. 1here are oLher
posslble scenarlos, lmaglne LhaL we are behlnd schedule because Lhe cllenL lsn'L
answerlng, Lhen we can negoLlaLe Lhe bllllng accordlngly, bllllng lL 30, 13, 13, 20,
20, 10 ln order Lo achleve a more deLalled pro[ecL and Lo negoLlaLe oLher
mllesLones Lo prevenL noL bllllng 40 because Lhe pro[ecL lsnL reachlng concluslon.
lmaglne LhaL because of Lhe cllenL we are Lwo years walLlng for Lhe bllllng of 40.
0,: lndeflnlLely.
//: 8uL Lhls ls sLlll [usL an ldea, lL would be lnLeresLlng Lo have Lhls lnformaLlon,
Lhere would be much more ..
0,: 1hls plaLform wlll be lnLegraLed wlLh Sugar.
//: Sugar has Lhe posslblllLy LhaL Lhe commerclal pro[ecL and Lhe pro[ecL
managemenL from Lhe vlew of. why do we puL Lhe pro[ecL here? We puL Lhe pro[ecL
here Lo deLermlne LhaL Lhe pro[ecL has a budgeL of 18k, buL lL was sold by 20k, Laklng
lnLo accounL LhaL ln Lerms of developmenL cosL lL Lakes 18k, buL Lhere was Lhe
commerclal ablllLy Lo sell lL above, alLhough LhaL doesn'L glve us Lhe rlghL Lo Lake 20k,
we have Lo do Lhe developmenL wlLh Lhe esLlmaLed 18k, buL as lL was sold by 20k
Lhere ls a margln from Lhe commerclal area, buL Lo manage Lhe pro[ecL lL's 18k.
1hen, Lhere should be posslble Lo creaLe prlorlLles ln order Lo deLermlne Lhe
mosL lmporLanL pro[ecLs from Lhe many ongolng pro[ecLs, and make Lhem surface and
focus on Lhem as Lhey could be essenLlal. lor lnsLance Lhey were low prlorlLlzed
lnlLlally because you could end Lhem early, buL because of Lhls Lhey can brlng more
pro[ecLs or Lake anoLher pro[ecL wlLh oLher cosLumers or Lhey are ldenLlcal Lo oLhers
made. 1hus we have Lo deLermlne Lhls degree of lmporLance, so lL's here on Sugar
where we can deflne Lhls degree of lmporLance, ln a commerclal or markeLlng
perspecLlve.
0,: 1he Llme plannlng wlll no longer be done here on Sugar llke we use Lo, lL wlll
be used [usL for flnanclal analysls...
//: LxacLly. 8udgeL and prlorlLy would be Lhe maln lLems buL anoLher lmporLanL
feaLure would be Lo deLermlne Lhe sLage of Lhe pro[ecL wheLher lL ls acLlve or noL, for
lnsLance Lhe pro[ecL we have Loday on Lhe board (MC) wheLher lL's ln an analyLlcal
sLage or ln developmenL


68
0,: 1he sLage wlll be updaLed ln Sugar.
//: lL wlll all be managed and updaLed here so LhaL ln Lhe fuLure we can have a
dlglLal board whlch shows Lhe pro[ecLs and Lhelr sLages and LhaL a log (a MC log) can
be assoclaLed Lo Lhese pro[ecLs. lf someone from Lhe commerclal deparLmenL wanLs Lo
know how Lhe pro[ecL ls golng along, he goes Lo Lhe board and looks aL Lhe log. Pe
vlews Lhe lnformaLlon LhaL ls collecLed on Lhe MC meeLlngs and he Lhen know Lhe
sLage of Lhe pro[ecL. Pe can see lndlcaLors LhaL lndlcaLe lf Lhe pro[ecL ls over-budgeLed,
under-budgeLed, whaL ls Lhe percenLage of Lhe concluslon of Lhe pro[ecL, LhaL should
be feed (Lhe lnformaLlon) Lhrough Lhe slze of Lhe backlog, lnformaLlon LhaL ls on
anoLher plaLform, uslng !l8A and Creenhopper.
0,: ou would have Lhe concluslon..
//: ou have Lhe enLlre backlog and Lhe Llmeframes, you can collecL Lhe
lnformaLlon abouL Lhe amounL of Llme remalnlng Lo conclude. 1hen l know Lhe scope
of Lhe pro[ecL and l can prompLly undersLand Lhe percenLage of concluslon ln Lhe
pro[ecL. And Lhls can be feed auLomaLlcally lf l have lL updaLed, lf Lhere ls a Llme
change lL would generaLe an alarm. lL would be good Lo have delLas lf from one week
Lo anoLher we change Lhe percenLage, Lhe backlog lncreases, naLurally. uld we
negoLlaLe Lhls? 1he pro[ecL manager needs Lo negoLlaLe for more days or noL. So we
wanLed Lo have all Lhese lndlcaLors LhaL allow managemenL Lo undersLand how Lhe
pro[ecLs are golng, Lhe delLas on a weekly basls lnformlng lf Lhere are more or less
Lhlngs. knowlng LhaL Lhe arLlfacLs of Lhe Lasks Lo perform, Lhe Llmes whlch are
reglsLered agalnsL Lhe Lasks LhaL exlsL, and Lhe amounL of Lhlngs Lo do (scope, Llme
remalnlng and Llme elapsed).1hese are all managed here.
0,: 1hls answer was very comprlslng and you answered a loL of quesLlons, we
have also covered Lhe dlfferenL sLages of Lhe pro[ecL. 1he ldea of Lhe sLages ls Lhey are
always Lhe same for all Lhe dlfferenL pro[ecLs.
//: es, Lhe sLages are Lhe same because any pro[ecL a beglnnlng and an end,
any pro[ecL needed plannlng, blg or small lL needs plannlng. All pro[ecLs have an
execuLlon and all pro[ecLs need Lo be conLrolled. As far as pro[ecL managemenL goes
Lhls ls Lrue for all, buL how much documenLaLlon, how much lnformaLlon you need Lo
develop Lo have and show Lo Lhe cllenL l Lhlnk we should devlse a maLrlx. lL's whaL we
are Lrylng Lo do nexL, LhaL ls Lo have a maLrlx LhaL Lells us lf Lhe pro[ecL has less Lhan 30
days, low prlorlLy and wlLh a new Lechnology. Lhen whaL applles Lo Lhls pro[ecL ls Lhls
seL of acLlvlLles.
0,: And Lhe prlorlLles?


69
//: l don'L know lf Lhese are golng Lo be Lhe crlLerla, Lhere wlll be a maLrlx LhaL
shows several hypoLheses, lf Lhe pro[ecL ls of Lhls Lype, Lhen we need Lo do Lhls, lL sLlll
has all Lhe sLages seL earller, buL lL sLaLes here you should have a klck off meeLlng and a
Leam presenLaLlon, here you don'L, you need very rlgorous plannlng and you need Lo
do such and such. 1he closure of Lhese pro[ecLs, for lnsLance blg emblemaLlc pro[ecLs,
always has Lhe presence of Lhe commerclal, Lhe company's CLC and whaLever, lL needs
some proLocol, lf lL's a small pro[ecL lL doesn'L: Lhe Leam flnlshes Lhe pro[ecL, sends a
mall Lo Lhe cllenL upon compleLlon, Lhey recelve and e-mall sLaLlng lL's all ok and Lhe
pro[ecL ls closed, for lnsLance lL can have some furLher cosLumer survey Lo Lhe cllenL Lo
geL feedback on Lhe pro[ecL, Lhe quallLy, Lhe Leam, Lhe lnLeracLlons.
0,: 1here ls no ldea on Lhe meLrlcs and clear dlvlslons of Lhe maLrlx lLems?
//: lL's belng developed, whaL Ana aula ls dolng ls, as she knows Lhe meLrlcs
LhaL should be analyzed Cne Llme value" and oLher lndlcaLors LhaL normally are
lmporLanL Lo pro[ecL managemenL on Lhe Ml meLhodology and Lhe ob[ecLlve ls LhaL
she Lells us whlch are Lhe lndlcaLors you should have, lf Lhls lndlcaLor ls above Lhls
value Lhen you should worry abouL Lhls pro[ecL because lL's noL ln conLrol, Lhese are
lndlcaLors of execuLlon and conLrol of Lhe pro[ecL. 1hese lndlcaLors are, lf Lhe pro[ecL
as such a Lype you should flnlsh llke Lhls, lf Lhere ls anoLher, Lhen ln a dlfferenL way,
because Lhere ls a loL of documenLaLlon you aren'L golng Lo make for a flve day pro[ecL
and dellver lL.
0,: lL's abouL lLs value.
//: lL's noL [usLlflable, only a blg pro[ecL. All Lhe pro[ecLs LhaL surpass a cerLaln
value or have a cerLaln degree of lmporLance we have Lo dellver a checkllsL of
documenLaLlon. 1hese dellverables are a servlce we provlde and LhaL servlce ls pald
for LhaL's why Lhey are more expenslve, we need Lo dellver Lhem Lo [usLlfy Lhe value.
AnoLher Lhlng LhaL ls made, we have an esLlmaLed backlog, Lhe people execuLlng Lhe
Lasks, all Lhe Leam ls called upon Lo do Lhe plannlng, who creaLes Lhls backlog ls Lhe
producL owner, saylng my cllenL wanLs Lhls and l'm wllllng Lo pay Lhls amounL of Llme
0,: So each Lask ls lnlLlally planned.
//: es, he has already planned, Lhen comes Lhe Leam and ln Lhe sprlnL plannlng
ls golng Lo deLall, maklng a new plannlng, dolng a breakdown, much more Lhorough
and we can reach Lhe concluslon abouL Llme esLlmaLes Lo each Lask and Lhen, based on
Lhese esLlmaLes, lf Lhere are dlfferences he needs Lo renegoLlaLe wlLh Lhe cllenL and he
has Lo manage all Lhese dlfferences. Whlle execuLlng Lhe Leams logs Lhe Llme and says
how much Llme sLlll remalns, meanlng Lhe execuLlon and conLrol are always LogeLher.


70
When we perform a Lask we are execuLlng conLrol, because we are saylng whaL's sLlll
mlsslng, Lhen everyday Lhere ls evldence.
0,: 1hls conLrol ls made by Lhe Leam lLself.
//: lL's Lhe Leam LhaL says whaL's mlsslng. 1he Leam has Lhe noLlon LhaL Lhls
should Lake flfLeen days and Loday l spenL one day, buL Lhere are sLlll flfLeen
remalnlng, buL afLer one day's work, Lhere are only Len days lefL, because we advanced
and Lhe complexlLy dlmlnlshed. Lvery day conLrol lndlcaLors are avallable LhaL say lL's
reduclng or rlslng. lL's ln Lhe burn-down (charLs) LhaL we see lf we are desLroylng
backlog or fllllng backlog. So every day Lhere ls conLrol and execuLlon, we plan ln Lhe
beglnnlng of each sprlnL, every day we execuLe, every day we have meeLlngs Lo
mlLlgaLe rlsks: obsLacles, whaL were we worklng on yesLerday, and whaL we are
worklng on Loday. Lvery day we have conLrol, because as we say whaL we have already
spenL ln an acLlvlLy, we are also saylng whaLs sLlll mlsslng Lhese lndlcaLors are
evldenced. So execuLlon and conLrol are hand ln hand ln each sprlnL, wlLh Lhls aL Lhe
end of each sprlnL, Lhe producL owner ls able Lo communlcaLe Lo Lhe cllenL, my veloclLy
on Lhls sprlnL was such, so lL's predlcLable LhaL Lhe pro[ecL lnsLead of Lwo weeks ls
golng Lo Lake Lhree. lmaglne LhaL you sald sprlnL one - Len days, Lwo people wlLh
weekly sprlnLs are Len days per person, Lhls ls whaL Lhe Leam commlLLed Lo do, buL
Lhen durlng execuLlon Lhe Leam could only do elghL days, Lhls permlLs Lo do Lhls: lf l
could only make elghL, whaL am l golng Lo do? 1hen l assume l can only do elghL ln
each. and Lhen l know, ln Lhe end, l need elghL more.
0,: An addlLlonal sprlnL.
//: llve sprlnLs and l'm golng Lo communlcaLe wlLh Lhe cllenL, based on Lhe
lnformaLlon people reporLed whaL Lhey could do, whaL Lhey weren'L able Lo do, oLhers,
LhaL weren'L on Lhe scope of LhaL sprlnL, lnlLlally l commlLLed Lo Lhls, buL only Lhls ls
done
0,: And as lL's communlcaLed, lL's renegoLlaLed.
//: As lL's communlcaLed and Lhen all abouL managlng Lhe expecLaLlons. 1he
cllenL can say no, lL's nonnegoLlable, so we need Lo Lell Lhe Leam Lo make up for Lhe
losL Llme, Lhe cllenL ls plssed, annoyed. 1he ldea ls Lhls, Lhe producL owner dlscusses
wlLh Lhe cllenL and Lhere's no problem, we go along aL Lhe same pace, buL Lhe Leam
knows, we had planned Lo do ln 10+10+10+10, buL we are loslng. nexL Lhe Leam,
lmaglnlng Lhe cllenL agrees, and Lhe Leam ls commlLLed Lo elghL and does Lwelve, Lhe
average ls Len so ln Lhe nexL sprlnL we say Len and we are golng Lo be on Llme agaln. lL
can be done on a dally basls. 1he followlng day, someone ls slck, we can only do four


71
whaL's Lhe average on Lhls? 24/3 - elghL agaln. Always wlLh Lhls, we look aL Lhe
veloclLy charL and say all we can accompllsh we spllL by Lhe number of sprlnLs we can
obLaln an average veloclLy, and aL each sprlnL closure we can say lf Lhe veloclLy was
such, Lhen lL Lakes x Llme. lmaglne Lhere ls a sprlnL when noLhlng ls done, we sLarLed
Lhe sprlnL buL Lhere was no LracLlon lL geLs ero, when Lhe sprlnL ends and we are
golng Lo be penallzed because lf we haven'L done anyLhlng we had commlLLed Lo do,
Lhen lL ls golng Lo Lake a much longer Llme. 1hen Lhe ldea around Lhls conLrol ls Lo glve
us lndlcLors we can look aL and Lell cllenL lf lL's golng Lo be delayed or noL. 1he producL
owner needs Lo undersLand how long wlll lL Lake and negoLlaLe wlLh Lhe Leam and lf
Lhere ls no margln renegoLlaLe wlLh Lhe cllenL, glve hlm an esLlmaLe on how long lL wlll
Lake. LxecuLlon and conLrol (repeaLs 3 Llmes). AL Lhe end of Lhe pro[ecL, lL's Lhe
closure, Lhe ceremonles of closure: deploys Lo producLlon, closure of all, flnlshlng up
Lhe documenLaLlon and dellvery of lL, run Lhe check llsL Lo see lf all we sald we'd do ls
done, have a flnal meeLlng wlLh Lhe cllenL's Leam or send an e-mall lf Lhe Lype of
pro[ecL ls such, walL for feedback, make a cosLumer's survey and Lhen lL's closed.
AnoLher Lhlng l forgoL was, whlle managlng Lhls, lnslde Lhese appllcaLlons we can
also do resource plannlng. We'll manage Lo have Leams whlch are sLable durlng a Llme
perlod and we can say Lhls Leam ls dolng Lwo, Lhree or four or one pro[ecL, dependlng
on Lhe dlmenslon, ln Lhe near fuLure and so we can plan Lhls Leam, Lhls week ls dolng
Lhls pro[ecL, Lhe nexL week, Lhey'll be dolng anoLher, Lhen Lwo weeks, Lhls, Lhe
followlng Lwo, LhaL. So you can plan, and based on LhaL plannlng, undersLand LhaL lf
more pro[ecLs are avallable buL Lhere's no one Lo hand Lhem Lo, you need Lo speak Lo
human resources.
0,: 1hey need Lo geL more conLracLs.
//: 1here are more pro[ecLs, we are mlsslng resources, Lhe Leams are smaller, aL
Lhe speed Lhey perform and aL Lhe speed Lhe pro[ecLs are comlng ln, Lhey are golng Lo
have pro[ecLs on Lhe backlog, Lhey are only golng Lo be able Lo deal wlLh Lhree monLhs
from now, because Lhey need Lo close everyLhlng aL hand.
0,: 1hen lL's also dlfflculL Lo manage LhaL wlLh Lhe cllenL.
//: 1he pro[ecL comes ln, Lhere ls a flrsL meeLlng Lo presenL Lhe Leam responslble
for Lhe pro[ecL, Lo collecL and have an analyLlcal sLage, because Lhen Lhe Leam can
conLlnue Lo develop, lf Lhere ls someone responslble Lo do Lhls flrsL parL of analysls, lL
manages Lo work, because Lhls sLage needs Lo be done Lo bulld Lhe backlog Lo glve Lo
Lhe Leams and work on lL Lo break lL down lnLo sprlnLs, buL lL can sLarL golng forward
wlLh someLhlng, maybe flfLeen days or a monLh, buL noL Lhree monLhs and Lhen lL


72
needs Lo Lell Lhe cllenL LhaL, based on Lhe plannlng of our resources, we wlll only be
able Lo sLarL Lhls pro[ecL Lhree monLhs from now. We are very sorry buL.
lf we have deadllnes, we someLlmes need Lo alLer prlorlLlzlng. We have Lhe order
of pro[ecLs, we can delay a pro[ecL, renegoLlaLe wlLh LhaL oLher cllenL, Lo flL Lhls one ln
Lhe mlddle.
0,: 1here ls all LhaL managemenL.
//: up Llll now we have lncluded commerclal deparLmenL, flnanclal, human
resources and .
0,: Lveryone lnvolved. now, for anoLher parL: Lhe dlfflculLles encounLered ln
Lhe pro[ecLs, ls Lhere any ldea of Lhe naLure of Lhe problems. Are Lhey all of Lhe same
Lype?
//: 1here are several and from all sources. lor lnsLance, Lhere are problems
relaLed Lo Lhe cllenL, for example Lhe cllenL does noL glve lnformaLlon, or whlch ls
compllcaLed, whose ob[ecLlve ls noL Lo conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe success of Lhe pro[ecL, lnslde
Lhe companles we are exLraneous Lo Lhls, buL have Lo deal wlLh lL, relaLlonshlp
problems beLween cllenL and company, problems abouL lnLernal lnefflclencles: noL
belng able Lo have esLlmaLed and ready backlogs, poor analysls and esLlmaLes, loss of
Leam (leavlng Lhe company, becomlng lll, produclng below of Lhe expecLed, because
Lhey're noL moLlvaLed, Lhere ls people and moLlvaLlon managemenL.
0,: 1hls people managemenL ls always done by Lhe ro[ecL manager or ls Lhere
any oLher way?
//: noL necessarlly, who worrles abouL Lhe Leam wellbelng ls Lhe scrum masLer,
Lhe role of Lhe scrum masLer, hls ob[ecLlve ls ln flrsL place guaranLee LhaL Lhe Leam has
sufflclenL lnformaLlon and all lL needs Lo develop Lhelr acLlvlLles, lf l have a problem,
whlchever lL may be lL ls Lo be reporLed Lo Lhe scrum masLer. 8ecause whaL Lhe scrum
masLer wanLs ls . l feel you can glve some more, whaL ls mlsslng? l'm mlsslng a
machlne, lL's Loo old lL's delaylng me. Ck, LhaL's a problem, we can make lL beLLer, leL
me see whaL l can do. 1he Scrum MasLer ls Lhere Lo help Lhe Leam Lo overcome any
problem LhaL may arlse, Lo guaranLee Lhe Leam dellvers, ln Lhe maxlmum performance
and Luned ln. 1hus keeplng levels of speed sLable (noL lrregular) and hlgh. 8eLLer Lhan
hlgh, ln a flrsL sLage, sLable.
redlcLablllLy, ln order Lo be able Lo know we always keep Lhls veloclLy, l llke Lo
know ChrlsLmas comes on uecember 23
Lh
, noL be ln doubL when ChrlsLmas ls, Lhls
Llme. 1haL occurs wlLh movable holydays, when ls LasLer? We never know. And Lhls
Lype of predlcLablllLy ls good. ou can counL on LhaL. eople llke Lo know whaL Lhey can


73
counL on, aL Lhe end of Lhe monLh recelvlng a pay, someLlmes noL aL Lhe end of Lhe
monLh, aL Lhe mlddle, someLlmes Lwo monLhs afLer.
redlcLablllLy ls only LhaL, lf we are comforLable wlLh lL. 1hen lL can be more
veloclLy, leL's work on LhaL, as Lhe Leams become more experlenced, we are golng Lo
have componenLs we can reuse ln oLher pro[ecLs, our speed lncreases.
CommunlcaLlon problems, noL knowlng LhaL Lhere ls someLhlng golng wrong wlLh
a pro[ecL unLll lL blows on our hands. So lndlcaLors, lnformaLlon on dlfferences of
delLas on a dally basls, whlle people [usLlfy Llme losses and l'm sLlll mlsslng Lhls and lL's
more Lhan whaL l LhoughL lL was. lf Lhls doesn'L flux lnformaLlon LhaL Lells you,
aLLenLlon we have a problem, Lhen you can'L manage efflclenLly, because you don'L
know, you Lhlnk everyLhlng ls alrlghL. 1here ls a need Lo geL people responslble Lo
concenLraLe all Lhls and unblock, Lhrough communlcaLlon, Lhe facL LhaL S (a Leam
member) has enLered Lo perform Lhls conLrol and Lo be scrum masLer aL Lhe same Llme
ls Lo Lry Lo undersLand whaL Lhe Leam needs, whaL Lhey wanL or need ln Lhe pro[ecL or
oLher Lhlngs, Lhen l'm golng Lo pass LhaL on, Lo Lhe proper responslble, aL Lhls Llme he
may noL be able Lo be on LhaL meeLlng buL l am Lhe keeper of LhaL lnformaLlon, and
LhaL's my funcLlon. And lf we can solve lL, very well, we are all glad, everyLhlng ls
flowlng. CuaranLee speed. CuaranLee Lhe conLrol and LhaL Lhls lnformaLlon ls belng
properly recorded, because Lhls lnformaLlon glves us Lhese lndlcaLors and Lhey allow us
Lo acL. lL's her LhaL needs Lo Lell us, we have Lo blll Lhls, we need Lhls or LhaL, we need
more resources, because of Lhe pro[ecLs LhaL are enLerlng and we have Lhe Leam
compleLely allocaLed for Lhe followlng Lwo monLhs. ConLrolllng.
0,: all Lhe varlables
//: lL's noL only on Lhe pro[ecL, buL globally all Lhe acLlvlLy of Lhe company.
0,: And speclflcally on Lhe esLlmaLes, ls Lhere any analysls Lo Lhe sprlnL plannlng
and revlews over Lhe esLlmaLed versus Lhe real Llme spenL?
//: Lvery day. lL's Lhe conLrol, monlLorlng and conLrol. Lvery day we can
undersLand lf Lhere are delLas comparlng Lhe Llme we LhoughL would Lake and Lhe Llme
LhaL we are execuLlng and whaL's mlsslng. 1here ls a Lable here aL !l8A.
0,: ln lan Lab?
//: es, l can'L Lell you Lhe name exacLly buL Lhls reporL ls really nlce, because lL
lnforms you LhaL Lhe sprlnL lnlLlaLed wlLh all Lhese lLems on Lhe backlog and Lhese
Llmes lncluded, remalnlng esLlmaLe, Lhls one sLarLs baldly because Lhere are many aL
zero, all should have a value, and Lhen every day as long as Lhere ls a.


74
for lnsLance on Lhe followlng day of Lhe sprlnL sLarL, Lhe sprlnL sLarLed aL 12.48 (lL
was lLs creaLlon), aL 3pm Lhere was also an lLem belng added, lL doesn'L have Llme
assoclaLed, buL lL should have, because lf Lhere ls Lhls lLem sLlll lncluded, whaL's
mlsslng, and LhaL would make a dlfference, a delLa here aL Lhe esLlmaLed Llme.
0,: 1hen you can conflgure Lhe sendlng of warnlngs?
//: 1he ob[ecLlve ls Lo look here and be able Lo undersLand by Lhe charLs. Lhe
pro[ecL owner looks aL Lhls and undersLands we are worklng and Lhe backlog ls belng
desLroyed, lf Lhe backlog lncreases, he says damn! We needed a day Lo undersLand
Lhere was sLlll a loL mlsslng. 1hen lL wasn'L a good plannlng.
0,: 1haL one dropped rlghL afLer LhaL.
//: 1hen he sald false alarm, buL anyways, lL ls lnformaLlon LhaL needs Lo be
properly conLrolled. Scrum ls exLremely demandlng on LhaL polnL. Lvery day you say l
spenL Lhls, Lhls ls sLlll remalnlng, every day you geL lnformaLlon, every mlnuLe you log
on Llme and saylng whaL's mlsslng you're exerLlng conLrol. 8ecause you're
permanenLly saylng, yes, we are beLLer now because Lhe Llme spenL advanced Lhe
pro[ecL or no l've spenL Lhls Llme buL Lhere are sLlll so much more Lo do. Lvery Llme you
log on Llme, you do Lhls managemenL. lL's very demandlng.
0,: 8uL lL's noL evaluaLed lf Lhere ls a cerLaln Lype of acLlvlLy whlch ls usually
underesLlmaLed.
//: noL aL Lhls Llme, buL Lhese are meLrlcs LhaL may be lnferred ln Lhe fuLure.
8ecause Lhen we can make componenL analysls and conclude, normally Lhese
componenLs lL sLreLches, we esLlmaLed such and lL slldes. AfLer Lhe pro[ecL, we can ask:
whaL were Lhe Lhlngs LhaL essenLlally slld? lL was Lhls user sLory, Lhls and Lhls.
1hen we look and ask lf Lhls user sLory ls always Lhe same, why dld lL sllde? A
new componenL, we had never done anyLhlng llke Lhls, and Lhere was a splke Lo
lnvesLlgaLe, we grasped someLhlng LhaL we had never undersLood, we learnL and we
hope ln Lhe fuLure we can do Lhls. SLarL Lo know, even whlch person, because each one
esLlmaLes ln a dlfferenL way, undersLands Lhe Llme he Lhlnks he's golng Lo Lake, buL
only afLer a whlle does Lhe person sLarL Lo undersLand exacLly how long he Lakes Lo do
Lhlngs normally, and sLarLs belng much more asserLlve. lor example, Lwo days Lo do
Lhls, Lomorrow you are golng Lo do Lhe same and say Lwo days Lo do lL, and ln facL you
only Lake one day afLer some 4 or 3 lLeraLlons you can say one day Lo do Lhls. 8ecause
you have analyzed and undersLood, LhaL lL always Lakes a day. As lL becomes all Lhe
same, you can be much more asserLlve on your esLlmaLes, Lhls ls broughL by
experlence, Llme and Lhe way Lhe Leam works, Lhe worklng process of Lhe Leam,


73
several Lhlngs. We can ldenLlfy LhaL people may need help or Lralnlng, because Lhey're
worklng on componenLs Lhey shouldn'L, because Lhey don'L have enough experlence
on LhaL Lechnology, we could have oLher people worklng on Lhose componenLs
because Lhey are more able, and we can schedule LhaL componenLs for Lwo weeks
from now, when we have Lhe mosL experL person Lo do Lhls avallable and lf lL ls done
aL Lhls Llme, lL ls golng Lo be done by someone who wlll Lake a loL longer and lL lsn'L
worLh lL. And Lhen you can negoLlaLe wlLh Lhe cllenL saylng, our experL ls only avallable
Lwo weeks from now, so we're dolng Lhls ln Lwo weeks, maybe lL's preferable Lo leL Lhe
pro[ecL sllde compleLely.
0,: And whaL abouL crlLlcal facLors Lo Lhe pro[ecL's success? normally when lL
sLarLs, are Lhey deflned?
//: es, LhaL's one of Lhe Lhlngs LhaL should be done over Lhe flrsL assessmenL,
we have already found a company LhaL does LhaL. When we wln a pro[ecL, over Lhe
klck off meeLlng, glve a quesLlonnalre Lo Lhe cllenL Lo flll ouL ln Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe
pro[ecL, wlLh quesLlons such as: WhaL are Lhe crlLerla you conslder more valuable on
Lhls pro[ecL? Llke: Lhe esLlmaLed Llme, Lhe quallLy and robusLness of Lhe flnal producL,
flnlshlng Lhe pro[ecL wlLhln Lhe predlcLable cosL. Several lndlcaLors! 1he cllenL manages
lLs own expecLaLlons. Pe says l value Lhls and LhaL" and Lhen you can communlcaLe Lo
all Lhe Leam, Lhe C Lo Lhe Leam and Lo Lhe Scrum MasLer, all undersLand whaL's
lmporLanL Lo Lhe cllenL. Cn Lhe oLher day we had a meeLlng wlLh lrederlck, and
Correla was saylng 'l'm worrled abouL Lhls, because we can do Lhls, ln Lhls way buL we
are golng Lo have problems wlLh performance, lf we do lL llke LhaL we are golng Lo Lake
Lhe longesL Llme, Lhe problem of synchronlzlng daLa bases lL's golng Lo Lake a very long
Llme Lo do, on Lhe meeLlng we Lalked Lo Lhe cllenL whlch was lrederlck and explalned
we can have performance problems here, how many cllenLs are Lhere? And oLher
quesLlons. Lhls ls golng Lo hlL Sugar(C8M) a loL and we can have problems. lrederlck
answered no problem. lf LhaL happens: more machlnes, more processlng capablllLy, l
don'L Lhlnk lL ls golng Lo happen. lor me LhaL's noL a currenL problem." We deflned Lhe
expecLaLlon he sald l'm noL worrled abouL Lhe performance, leL's do lL LhaL way."
0,: 1haL lnformaLlon ls lnserLed, lL's.
//: More Lhan lnserLed, LhaL lnformaLlon was communlcaLed. Scrum doesn'L
predlcL we documenL everyLhlng, obvlously lL may be reglsLered, send an e-mall wlLh
LhaL lnformaLlon, LhaL's enough and l save LhaL e-mall aLLached somewhere ln Lhe
lssue or ln Lhe descrlpLlon of Lhe lssue lLself lL says performance ls noL a lssue" Lhere lL
musL be deflned LhaL over Lhe accepLance LesLs a performance ls noL consldered. 8uL


76
Lhere ls noL a formal way, Lhe maln aspecL ls communlcaLlon, Lhe reglsLerlng of Lhe
evldence ls a defaulL.
0,: Ck, parameLers. 1he maln success facLors lsnL sLlll very developed, ls lL? 1he
crlLlcal facLors?
//: no, LhaL's someLhlng we are golng Lo develop, all Lhese sysLems you are
Lalklng abouL are golng Lo be deepened, wlLh Ana aula, and Lhey are golng Lo be
clearly deflned and documenLed. WhaL for? ln order Lo have a process where clearly
we know we had a commerclal proposlLlonal LhaL was closed orlglnaLlng a pro[ecL, Lhe
flrsL Lhlng we are golng Lo do ls undersLand whaL Lype of pro[ecL Lhls ls, consulLlng Lhe
maLrlx, leL's creaLe Lhe pro[ecL, whlle dolng so we deflne Lhe bllllng lndexes, we creaLe
Lhe pro[ecL on Lhls slde: flrsL sLage Lhe producL owner needs Lo do Lhls, second sLage
he needs Lo do LhaL and lf Lhere are any dlfferences he needs Lo communlcaLe wlLh Lhe
cllenL. We clearly undersLand every sLage and all Lhe acLlvlLles, Lhe people who need
Lo do whaL, when Lhere are dlfferences, whlch ls perfecLly normal, whaL should be
done, ln such a way we can manage Lhe whole Lhlng wlLh all lLs varlables, as we seen.
0,: 1hey are many. now you don'L have a way Lo ascerLaln lf Lhe pro[ecL was
successful or noL. 1here aren'L meLrlcs.
//: no, LhaL's a Lhlng LhaL dolng Lhe cosLumer survey ln Lhe beglnnlng and ln Lhe
end we can sLarL Lo assess LhaL. We wanL Lo puL Lhese meLrlcs Lo Lhe cosLumer survey
and send lL Lo Lhe cllenL uld you llke Lhe pro[ecL? es, no. WhaL dld you llke Lhe mosL
abouL Lhe pro[ecL? Whlch are Lhe sLrongesL feaLures among all Lhe componenLs of Lhe
pro[ecL? 1he people, Lhe Leam, Lhe Lechnology, Lhls, LhaL, whaL dld you llke Lhe mosL?
1he Llme frame, Lhe producL's quallLy?" We can evaluaLe a global perspecLlve ln llne
wlLh Lhe lnlLlal expecLaLlon survey, ln order Lo undersLand lf Lhe expecLaLlons were
fulfllled or noL. ln meLrlcs vlews we can say we have 100 pro[ecLs a year and from
Lhose 80 have an accepLance level from Lhe cllenL's vlew as good, Lhe relaLlonshlp
wlLh Lhe Leam ls specLacular, Lhen we can dlvulge Lhese lndlcaLors and evaluaLe more
Lhan x of our cllenLs llke our Leam, more Lhan x are glad wlLh our work, we can
manage Lo glve LhaL feedback Lo Lhe markeL, LhaL's whaL brlngs even more cllenLs.
0,: 1o Lhe markeL and lnLernally.
//: lnLernally, Lhe Leam can undersLand Lhe work. Lhe recognlLlon Lhe cllenLs
are havlng of Lhe work Lhey do, exLernally Lhe cllenLs, or oLher poLenLlal cllenLs wlll say
'LeLs work wlLh Lhls company because Lhey are good'.
0,: 1hese crlLerla, Lhese facLors aren'L deflned yeL.
//: 1hey are golng Lo be all deflned.


77
0,: because Lhere was no Llme, ls lL baslcally a problem of Llme?
//: es, lL ls golng Lo happen now.
0,: soon
//: soon. 1hese sysLems LhaL we have been Lalklng abouL are all llnked. 1he way
we are changlng Lhls ls noL leL's [usL sLarL here, because Lhere are some Lhemes we
need Lo undersLand Loday and overcome Loday because Lhey'll brlng more
producLlvlLy. now we are golng Lo focus on plannlng, here and here. We wanL Lo have
esLlmaLed backlogs, compleLely esLlmaLed and LhaL Lhls value maLches Lhls value, whaL
we sell Lo Lhe cllenL ls Lhe same as Lhe backlog, lf Lhere ls any dlfference leL's
lmmedlaLely speak Lo Lhe cllenL, when we come here and we slL Lo plan Lhe sprlnLs we
wanL Lo undersLand, are Lhere any dlfferences, lf so leL's speak Lo Lhe cllenL, and Lhe
Leam needs Lo plck Lhls and work on a known Lhlng, and every day Lhey reglsLer Llme
spenL / remalnlng. 1hls ls our maln worry. lf Lhls ls ln gear, Lhen yes. 1hen how pro[ecLs
are broughL Lo us? 1hey are reglsLered here. Lxample: leL's add flelds Lo a Sugar(C8M).
1hls fleld ls feed by a servlce, Lhls fleld ls feed by anoLher and so on. 1hen aL a cerLaln
Llme we are able Lo say: we have Lhe pro[ecL here belng feed by Lhese lndlcaLors,
based on Llme remalnlng, spenL, and Lhe delLas of Lhe dlfferences from one week Lo
Lhe oLher" and Lhen we are managlng Lo Lackle Lhe maln problem whlch ls Lhe Leams
are produclng, lf we worry abouL Lhls and Lhe Leams are here aL Lhe place, we don'L
have meLrlcs, we have noLhlng, we don'L know how Lhlngs occurred. 1hen Lhe
quesLlonnalre we glve Lhe cllenL ln Lhe beglnnlng and Lhe one ln Lhe end Lhey are golng
Lo be Lhe lasL Lhlngs Lo do, Lhey are noL Lhe flrsL. We baslcally already know Lhe cllenL
llkes Lo geL Lhlngs on Llme, he llkes quallLy and Lhe budgeLs are meL, Lhese premlses we
know LhaL Lhe cllenL always wanLs Lhem. Are Lhere a loL Lo evaluaLe we don'L evaluaLe
now? es. We wanL Lo evaluaLe Lhem ln Lhe fuLure, buL Lhe prlorlLy ls Lo sLeer Lhe boaL.
0,: AlrlghL. now, abouL Lhe sysLem we are uslng !l8A and Lhe oLher
componenLs, we don'L have a name.
//: LM - LnLerprlse ro[ecL ManagemenL
0,: es, l've [usL seen LhaL name. Are Lhe LesLs belng successful? uo you Lhlnk
so? ls lL a beL for Lhe fuLure?
//: l belleve so. 1he nordlcs love lL, Lhey have glven us feedback, Lhey are lovlng
lL. 1he sysLem ls lncredlbly powerful, 8lcardo and l are well lnformed abouL lLs ablllLles,
we sLlll haven'L found Lhe Llme Lo lnform Lhe people we are sLarLlng Lo do Lhlngs Lhls
way.
0,: ls Lhere a way?


78
//: no.
0,: lor example, yesLerday we were asklng where Lo load Llme and, Lhls opLlon
or LhaL.
//: Pe Lold me Lhls mornlng, and lL ls golng Lo be sLlpulaLed, Lhere'll be
documenLaLlon on how Lo deposlL Llme, afLer sLlpulaLlng LhaL, whlch ls someLhlng LhaL
ls lmporLanL for us, parL of Lhe dally acLlvlLy of everyone ls Lhe Llme reglsLraLlon and
LhaL plan needs Lo be rapldly clarlfled so LhaL people sLarL reglsLerlng Lhe Llme on Lhe
correcL places. And Lhe way we are dolng lL ls. lf we were golng Lo deflne Lhe whole
process Lo load on Lo sysLem lL would Lake slx monLhs, and Lhen lL ls preferable Lo load
Lhls, lL happened ln Lhe same way wlLh acLlvecollab unLll we were on gear, you need Lo
glve Lralnlng Lo people. 1here was LhaL whole process buL we were already uslng lL, we
have already senL lL forward. l Lhlnk LhaL ls an aglle corporaLlon, a company LhaL puLs
lLself Lhrough challenges. LeL's sLarL dolng Lhls Lhls way, lL Lrembles a blL, we are a blL
losL, buL slx monLhs from now, we are golng Lo be beLLer and one year from now, even
beLLer, Lwo years, beLLer even. 1he perspecLlve needs Lo be Lhls 'conLlnuum
lmprovemenL, whaL are we golng Lo aLLack now? WhaL are Lhe maln problems?' 1hen
one of our maln ob[ecLlves we are Lrylng Lo obLaln ls backlogs, all pro[ecLs havlng an
esLlmaLed backlog, even lf lL on hlgh level: Len, Len, Len, flfLeen, LwenLy, flfLeen,
LwenLy. 1here! lL's esLlmaLed. uoes lL maLch wlLh Lhe number of days on Lhe
proposlLlon? no. 1hen re-scheme Lo maLch.
0,: 8uL lL can'L be from such a helghL..
//: 8uL lL ls. lL may be. 1here's no problem, you don'L have any commlLmenL.
WhaL do you know Loday? lf you do flve, Len, flve, Len, flve, Len and lL maLches Lhe
number of days, perfecL.
0,: 8uL Lhere ls a rlsk of Lrylng Lo maLch Lhe esLlmaLes wlLh Lhe proposlLlon.
//: es, because l know, lf l sold flfLy days, lL's because l need Lo do Lhls ln flfLy
days, now when we sLarL breaklng lL down, we evaluaLe lf lL can be done ln flfLy days. lf
noL, we renegoLlaLe wlLh Lhe cllenL. 1he cllenL boughL lL for flfLy, Lo say flfLy we had
some assumpLlons, Lhen we need Lo presenL all Lhe lfs. SomeLlmes Lhe cllenL says l
need a sysLem LhaL does such and such." 1hls ls hls requesL, how do you know? ou
answer, Lelllng hlm LhlrLy days, buL Lhen he wanLs LhaL and LhaL. ou answer: WhaL
we had ln mlnd for LhlrLy days was such and such, noL all you are asklng now, whaL you
are saylng ls dlfferenL, lf you had Lold me LhaL ln Lhe beglnnlng we would have
proposed sevenLy or hundred or one Lhousand".
0,: uo you Lhlnk., well l assume Lhls pro[ecL ls always ongolng?


79
//: es, flrsL sLage: have a basellne.
0,: Are we already on Lhe flrsL sLage? 1he second sLage? WhaL's Lhe sLaLus?
//: We are on . LhaL's a blL hard Lo answer. We are well on Lhe way, we already
have all Lhe appllcaLlons lnsLalled and are uslng Lhem, l could explaln all Lhls, because
Lhey are Lhlngs we are already dolng. lL ls noL Luned, we are aL a sLage of LesLlng and
Lunlng.
0,: dlscovery?
//: 1haL l Lhlng ls always Lhere, Lhe same way we are worklng. Lvery Llme you do
a plannlng for a seL of funcLlonallLles ln a sprlnL you are dolng dlscovery. When you are
golng Lo break lL down. ou have a backlog and lL ls esLlmaLed. es! l have a backlog
and l know Lhls ls whaL l wanL Lo do, dld l go Lo every deLall and reflned lL? no. 1here
are some parLs where l'm more advanced and Lhere are oLhers where l'm more
dlsLanL, buL l know whaL l wanL, and how much Llme do l have Lo do lL all. 1haL's why l
can'L Lell you lf we are on a flrsL, second or Lhlrd sLage, because lL ls lLeraLlve. Pow
many passages have we done? Several, we sLarLed by lnsLalllng all Lhe appllcaLlons, we
sLarLed revlewlng Lhe meLhodologles we are golng Lo use, we've already done a
prevlous sLudy on pro[ecL managemenL meLhodologles and sofLware developmenL and
now we need Lo Lune lL. We need Lo ask: ln whaL way does Lhls adapL Lo our currenL
model?" Assumlng LhaL our model lsn'L Lhe correcL one. 1here ls sLlll a loL Lo lmprove.
0,: Ck. We have spoken abouL Lhe Lool, ls Lhere anyLhlng Lhe Lool doesn'L.
//: 1he Lool needs Lo manage requlremenLs, backlog and background of Lhe
Lasks. 1he Lool needs Lo allow communlcaLlon and by reglsLerlng Lhlngs you are already
communlcaLlng and by deflnlng esLlmaLes and Llmes (by Lhe Leam and C), you are
already communlcaLlng expecLaLlons, you have Lhe Confluence LhaL allows you Lo
descrlbe and documenL e everyLhlng, you have Lhe posslblllLy Lo make pro[ecL's
documenLaLlon and analysls, glossarles lnslde Confluence, Lhe posslblllLy Lo make mock
ups and dlagrams. 1he communlcaLlon plaLform ls sLlll mlsslng, we have preLLy much
chosen one, buL we haven'L gone forward yeL. 8uL we are movlng on, because for Lhe
revlews lLem, for Lhe sprlnL revlews lL ls very lmporLanL. As we do many remoLe
revlews, for lnsLance for Lhe nordlcs, we are dolng a remoLe presenLaLlon we need Lo
have a Webex where we can show, where we can record and recelve Lhose feedbacks
afLer.
0,: ls LhaL someLhlng LhaL may be lnLegraLed?
//: l don'L know yeL. We are Lrylng Lo explore ln whaL way lL can be lnLegraLed.
1he process ls lnLegraLed, l can say all sprlnL revlews done wlLh remoLe cllenLs, or wlLh


80
near-shorlng Leams are done Lhrough an appllcaLlon, l can do a presenLaLlon and
recordlng so l can plck Lhe feedbacks and feed Lhe backlog based on Lhem. 1he LesLlng
Lool: 1wo - Zephyr and 8onflre". Zephyr permlLs Lo creaLe LesL cases, LesL scrlpLs and
LesL cycles Lo allow bulldlng: funcLlonal LesLs, a cycle LesL for cross browser for lL,
llrefox Chrome, Lo have a LesL cycle of regresslon LesLs whlch are when we change
someLhlng, aL leasL Lhese ones we need Lo LesL, a LesL cycle of unlLary LesLs of cllenL
accepLance or user accepLance LesLs. 1hen 8onflre ad hoc LesLs you can surf Lhe
appllcaLlon, Lhe producL you have [usL concelved, capLure screen shooLs and lmporL
Lhem dlrecLly lnslde !l8A / CreenPopper. Make shooLs wlLh boxes and arrows and sLuff
around.
0,: Saylng whaL?
//: Saylng whaL Lhe problem ls, lL auLomaLlcally capLures operaLlng sysLem,
browser verslon and a serles of Lhlngs.1he LesLlng parL ls covered. We covered
requlremenLs, developmenLs, LesLs, documenLaLlon, dlagrams, mockups,
communlcaLlon. l Lhlnk we have all Lhe Lools and condlLlons Lo do Lhe besL work
posslble. l don'L see Lhls happenlng aL Lhe companles around us. l look aL Lhe
companles around us, and see Lhem worklng ln Lhe model ln whlch u8l worked ln Lhe
pasL, where Lhe lnformaLlon was exchanged orally, Lhere were no records and where
people dldn'L have Lhe noLlon lf Lhey are performlng Lasks LhaL are really producLlve or
belng.
0,: 1hey don'L know Lhe sLaLus quo.
//: LxacLly, whaL we ulLlmaLely wanL ls a room full of screen across Lhe offlce
where we have all Lhe lnformaLlon abouL our acLlvlLy, all we do on Lhese screens, lL's
someLhlng you look whlle you pass, and lf you see a red screen you see LhaL pro[ecL
lsn'L ok, someLhlng ls up, can l help? We are havlng a problem ln Lhe supporL area, how
many LlckeLs arrlved Loday? Can l help? More pro[ecLs are arrlvlng, llke ln Lhe alrporL:
Lhe plane A, 8, C are landlng.
0,: lL's lmporLanL Lo have Lhe noLlon of whaL's comlng.All LhaL aL '1orres do
CrlenLe' rlghL?
//: es.
0,: (LaughLer).
//: noL Lhere, Lhere ls a llmlLaLlon whlch ls you can only have one person by each
10 square meLers, renLlng an offlce of 400 square meLers you could only have 40
people Lhere, LhaL's whaL we have here. 1here's a llmlLaLlon abouL emergency exlLs, so
Lhere's Lhe llmlLaLlon LhaL each offlce only has one person for each 10 square meLers


81
and lL's a bruLal cosL. lf anyone here wlns Lhe loLLo and wanLs Lo renL Lhe offlces Lhere
l won'L mlnd.
0,: Ck. lL's all.
//: Are you enllghLened? uo you Lhlnk my vlslon.?
0,: l already had an ldea, buL l wanLed Lo have Lhese Lhemes Lo dlscuss wlLh Lhe
professor and see, based on my research, buL Lhese weeks l arrlve home a blL Llred.
//: ou have Lhe ldea of whaL's happenlng and wlll happen. Ana came here Lo
glve Lhese Lralnlngs and lasL week 8lcardo and l had a reunlon wlLh her Lo Lry Lo
undersLand whaL she LhoughL abouL Lhe Leams and she sald she LhoughL Lhe Leams had
a loL more knowledge Lhan whaL she has observed elsewhere, when she glves Scrum
Lralnlng Lhe people don'L know, don'L undersLand and never heard of lL, she has
arrlved aL places where Lhey say we do Scrum, buL noLhlng llke Lhls".
0,: (LaughLer)
//: And she undersLood we have a predlsposlLlon, we are all opened up, one of
Lhe maln dlfflculLles on lmplemenLlng Lhese sorLs of Lhlngs ls reslsLlng changlng, buL
she undersLood we are really orlenLlng on lmprovlng and we all wanL someLhlng much
more organlzed, more loglcal and predlcLlve. 1hen whaL we agreed wlLh her ls LhaL we
wlll conLlnue Lo do Lhls Lralnlng process, buL on Lhe [ob, Lackllng Lhe crlLlcal polnLs. We
Lold her we were golng Lo Lry Lo guaranLee we have backlogs prlorlLlzed and
esLlmaLed and we wanL you on Lhe plannlng meeLlngs Lo observe how do Lhe guys
break down Lhe problems and reglsLers Lhls lnformaLlon so LhaL you can promoLe
lmprovemenL on how we do LhaL. We weren'L used Lo lL, Lo breaklng down someLlmes
we Lhlnk buL we don'L wrlLe l need Lo do Lhls, and Lhls, and Lhls." And lL works
because when you wrlLe everyLhlng, you only need Lo.
0,: ass on?
CC: ou have seen Lhe documenLs you have belng maklng for supporL. 1o me lL's
loglcal. lf l need Lo pass Lhe lnsLrucLlon of deploymenL Lo someone, l wrlLe all of Lhem,
and Lell Lhem where Lhey are, you share.
0,: l even llked, l hadn'L dlscovered yeL, LhaL l could puL Lhe checkboxes.
//: 1hls ls done and Lhls Loo and so ls Lhls. And l already have a plug-ln LhaL ls
'1alk' where you can puL commenLs ln llne llke you do on google docs, for lnsLance l
don'L qulLe know Lhls" or aLLenLlon Lo Lhls". ou can communlcaLe wlLh everyone and
our real ob[ecLlve ls Lo flnd a paraphernalla of Lhlngs, noL Lo subsLlLuLe verbal
communlcaLlon, LhaL ls always lmpllclL, buL Lo reglsLer and save evldences abouL Lhe
Lhlngs we do. under LhaL a secreL pro[ecL ls runnlng LhaL ls Lhe collage of our process Lo


82
CMMl, Lo be compllanL wlLh maLurlLy level ll aL leasL and one day be able Lo propose
ourselves Lo cerLlflcaLlon. Why ls lL secreLly runnlng? 8ecause lL has Lermlnology a blL
dlfferenL from Scrum and we don'L need Lo know. ou do Lhe acLlvlLy x1C of
whaLever whlch ls Lake a phoLo and puL lL lnslde Lhe sysLem. 1he value lL brlngs even lf
we don'L know how lL ls called on CMMl lL's LoLally lrrelevanL. All we need Lo know ls
LhaL we have a screenshoL and we puL Lhe phoLos of our deslgns and sLuff saved elLher
on Lhe lssue on !l8A or lnslde Lhe Lree of Lhe pro[ecL and so on.
l Lhlnk wlLh Lhls we are leaplng forward ln quallLy, l'm clearly undersLandlng LhaL
slx monLhs from now over Lo a year we are golng Lo be on a compleLely dlfferenL
reglsLer. ou are here longer and you have observed, how we were a few years back,
how we have been progresslng and l Lhlnk Lhls whaL lL does for us ls Lo belleve, Lhls
lsn'L belng done by one or Lwo, Lhls ls belng done because everybody wanLs Lhls and ls
movlng Lhere. We have accompllshed Lo undersLand and belleve Lhls works. 1hen look,
puL Lhlngs ongolng and conLlnue Lo flghL and walL. LssenLlally we need Lo walL, walL
knowlng we are dolng someLhlng. !usL walLlng, knowlng LhaL noLhlng ls happenlng,
LhaL we are dolng noLhlng, no, LhaL ls demoLlvaLlng. SomeLlmes lL's noL so fasL, we
need a longer break, Lhen we go forward qulcker.
0,: 1he way lL's always been: one sLep aL a Llme.
//: lL needs Lo be solld and susLalnable, oLherwlse.
0,: Ck.
//: l hope l've been clear.
0,: erfecLly.
//: l'm sorry abouL Lhe delay on Lhe conversaLlon, buL Lhese have been crazy
weeks.
0,: Ck, leL me [usL.
a<;<=< (LIEFOJEU =
! lnLervlewer: Mlguel erelra
! lnLervlewed: uora 8allo
! uaLe: lrlday, 29 of november of 2012

0,: 1he flrsL quesLlon ls: who glves you Lhe lnformaLlon you need for Lhe new
pro[ecLs? lrom Lhe commerclal area, ls lL you.
&7: lrom Claudlo, (laughLer) baslcally.
0,: lL doesn'L come from 8yder, ls lL always Cludlo?


83
&7: no, 90 comes from Cludlo, exlsLlng buslness or new buslness LhaL arrlved
Lhrough hlm and Lhen he passes lL on Lo me. 1hen lf lL ls a pro[ecL l am already worklng
on llke 1ecnldelLa, lL's me who does Lhe requlremenLs assessmenL wlLh Lhe cllenL, Lhen
l valldaLe lL wlLh Lhe asslgned commerclal, ln Lhls case 8ebelo or 8yder, ulogo (8ebelo)
on Lhe knowledge and 8yder on Lhe bureaucraLlc process of proposals. When lL's really
new, normally lL's always Claudlo. l'm golng Lo Lell you abouL Lhe cases, 1ecnldelLa ls
Lhe one l've Lold you abouL, verLl l was presenLed Lhe pro[ecL flrsL, Lhls case was
Cludlo, SlAS was Cludlo, Lhe llfLy-Slx l don'L know lf lL was Claudlo or aulo MrLlres
because Lhey already had prlor knowledge.
0,: es, yes.
&7: 1hey presenL lL Lo me, pass on Lhe lnformaLlon. no from SlAS lL was !orge
1elxelra da Sllva who pass lL on. 1hey pass on Lo me all Lhe pre-analysls work Lhey had
done and l valldaLe lL, ask for some more componenLs and lL sLarLs ln Lhls manner.
0,: And Lhen?
&7: When lL's wlLh Lhe cllenL, lL's Lhe cllenL LhaL glves me LhaL lnformaLlon.
0,: ln Lhe ones you were already a parL of?
&7: LxacLly.
0,: Whlle seLLlng up Lhe pro[ecL, do you always sLarL by asklng LhaL lnformaLlon
Lo Claudlo? 8uL evenLually you conLacL Lhe cllenL and do your own analysls or do you
base yourself ln Lhe one Lhey geL you?
&7: 1here ls always doubL, Lhen you have Lo Lalk Lo Lhe oLher conLacL, lL may noL
be Lhe cllenL dlrecLly, buL someone responslble. how ls lL called, lL's noL Lhe buslness.
0,: lrom Lhe cllenL's slde?
&7: yes.
0,: SLakeholder.
&7: SLakeholder, exacLly. lL may be someone exLernal and ln Lhe SlAS case lL's
SanLana, Lhen he speaks Lo MouLlnho and Lhey see lnLernally wlLh Lhe cllenL Lnglneer
whaL's ls name. So Lhere are a loL of people. l also valldaLe lL lnLernally wlLh people
who already knew Lhe pro[ecL lnslde. 8uL Lhe lnlLlal documenLaLlon ls never on Lhe
level of deLall we need, so we always need Lo pose more quesLlons, your own Leam
asks you quesLlons and you need Lo geL.
0,: Lhe lnformaLlon, yes. And do Lhe pro[ecLs always follow Lhose sLeps? Cr ls
each pro[ecL dlfferenL?
&7: ln everyLhlng ln llfe, each pro[ecL ls dlfferenL. 1here lsn'L a pro[ecL 100 llke
oLher.


84
0,: ou can never ldenLlfy some sLeps LhaL.
&7: no, Lhe sLeps are global, buL Lhey always have dlfferenL conLours. 8ecause of
Lhe people lnvolved, for lnsLance ln Lhe case of verLl Lhere was a flrsL requlremenLs
assessmenL done by Cuerra, l Lhlnk, and Lhen l spoke Lo Lhe cllenL and dld anoLher
requlremenLs assessmenL myself.
0,: ou dld LhaL requlremenLs assessmenL yes. 8uL Lhen how Cludlo sald Lhere
should be Lhose phases: conLrol and execuLlon, noL LhaL much Lo you, LhaL's more for
Lhe developmenL crew, Lhe conLrol, Lhe lnlLlaLlon and Lhe dellvery sLages. lnslde Lhose
sLages l don'L know lf you have LhaL noLlon. lf you Lhlnk llke LhaL.
&7: 8lghL now l was [usL focuslng on whaL happens ln Lhe beglnnlng.
0,: 8uL whaL abouL along Lhe whole pro[ecL?
&7: 1he whole pro[ecL.
0,: Are Lhere any sLages you ldenLlfy?
&7: l ldenLlfy, l ldenLlfy myself wlLh Lhls way we are worklng now, ln Lhe sense
Lhere are several lLeraLlons and we are dolng LhaL on all he pro[ecLs now. As l dld ln
oLher pro[ecLs, where Lhe meLhodology was Lo show ln each Lhree monLhs or rlghL aL
Lhe end of Lhe developmenL lL lsn'L golng Lo work, noL Lo say bad words
0,: 1haL's ok, 1hen l
&7: ou fllLer Lhe bad words. 1he followlng parL on how we are dolng lL know
obllges LhaL, every Lwo weeks or aL Lhe maxlmum every Lhree weeks, you show
someLhlng Lo Lhe cllenL. lL's a way of havlng a rouLlne.
0,: Also monlLorlng
&7: MonlLorlng whaL ls belng developed. And LhaL, once agaln, ls dlfferenL from
cllenL Lo cllenL, for lnsLance verLl ln some subpro[ecL we can do LhaL really every Lwo
weeks, because we had Lhe demos and we passed Lhem onLo Lhelr envlronmenL. WlLh
1ecnldelLa Lhere ls every 4 or 6 monLhs LhaL we do small new feaLures. ln Lhe SlAS
case, every Llme we develop someLhlng we show Lhem Lo valldaLe lL, [usL now l've
recelved and e-mall glvlng me feedback on whaL l had senL Lhem, LhaL's why l Look a
llLLle longer.
0,: ou do Lhe monlLorlng and aL Lhe end ls lL always Lhe same way? Pow do
you. ou glve lL Lo Lhe cllenL and.
&7: Cnce more, lL depends on Lhe cllenL, from pro[ecL Lo pro[ecL. l'll glve you all
Lhe examples of Lhe pro[ecLs l've worked on. Cn verLl's case, we had an envlronmenL
LhaL we made avallable for Lhem Lo LesL, we had dlfferenL people wlLh whom we spoke
Lo, Lhe demos we made LhroughouL developmenL were wlLh key users no, Lhe maln


83
sLakeholder, he valldaLed everyLhlng, dld Lhe LesLs, eLc. when he accepLed, Lhen we
had a formaLlon wlLh Lhe key users and Lhey dld LesLs and Lhen we enLered producLlon
and flnlshed. 1hey lnLernally dld more valldaLlon and LesLs.
ln 1ecnldelLa's case, for example we do our LesL here, we make avallable a LesL
envlronmenL, Lhe cllenL (Cludla) LesLs lL, someLlmes she doesn'L glve Lhe correcL
feedback and Lhen we puL lL on producLlon. 1hen who glves feedback are Lhe
operaLors, who glve her feedback LhaL Cludla sends Lo us.
ln SlAS's case, l sLlll haven'L puL anyLhlng ln producLlon, buL lL's Lhe sLakeholder.
0,: lL ls golng Lo be llke LhaL.
&7: We Lry Lo have aL leasL one LesLlng envlronmenL / quallLy and Lhen Lhe flnal -
producLlon.
0,: 8eyond Lhe communlcaLlon you perform wlLh Lhe developmenL Leam,
besldes LhaL wlLh whaL oLher deparLmenLs do you communlcaLe durlng Lhe
developmenL sLage, how do you do lL?
&7: lnLernally, here.
0,: es.
&7: 1here's only one Lhlng LhaL perlodlcally we are quesLloned abouL, Lhe
flnanclal deparLmenL normally when a preposlLlon ls made for Lhe pro[ecLs LhaL are
bllled aL Lhe sLarL, ln oLher words Lhey have flxed prlce Lhere ls a clause LhaL says when
Lhe pro[ecL ls bllled, x ln Lhe beglnnlng, x ln x monLhs and x someLlme afLer and x
ln Lhe end. When LhaL Llme comes, Lhe flnanclal deparLmenL asks lf Lhey can blll Lhe
cllenL or noL. 1haL's whaL l speak Lo Lhem.
0,: ls lL done verbally or.
&7: Mall and verbally boLh. WlLh Lhe commerclal deparLmenL always when Lhere
ls a requlremenL LhaL changes Lhe condlLlons, for example Lhe oLher day Lhere was a
problem wlLh 1ecnldelLa's daLabase, lL crashed and Lhe cllenL spoke Lo me and Lo Lhe
Lechnlcal (supporL) deparLmenL and l also spoke Lo Lhe commerclal area Lo valldaLe
LhaL LhaL was conLracLually esLabllshed and lncluded on Lhe servlce, so LhaL l wouldn'L
offer Lhe cllenL a servlce LhaL Lhey weren'L paylng for. And Lhus l Lhlnk l spoke abouL all
Lhe u8l's deparLmenLs: SysLems supporL, commerclal and flnanclal. MarkeLlng, Lhey
speak more Lo me Lhan l Lo Lhem. noL Lhe one you were Lhlnklng abouL, buL for
lnsLance l rarely asked Lhem someLhlng for Lhe pro[ecLs, Lhey ask us more for Lhelr
pro[ecLs noL Lhe personal parL you oughL Lo be Lhlnklng abouL llke newsleLLer and whaL
noL .


86
0,: es, buL lL wasn'L all. LhaL and for Lhem Lo publlclze Lhe pro[ecLs LhaL were
done.
&7: es, buL Lhey can also ask, as Lhey already dld, when Lhey wanL a case LesL
approved by Lhe deparLmenL.
0,: now, maybe Lhe mosL dlfflculL quesLlon: WhaL are Lhe maln dlfflculLles you
encounLer on managlng Loday?
&7: 1he pro[ecLs?
0,: es.
&7: 8e able Lo documenL, now wlLh Confluence lL ls a preclous help. 8uL lL was Lo
be able Lo documenL convenlenLly Lhe pro[ecLs and l'll explaln whaL l mean wlLh
convenlenLly documenL pro[ecLs. Why ls Lhls? l have someLhlng LhaL l need Lo descrlbe,
someLhlng l wanL Lo alerL Lo, someLhlng l [usL wanL Lo polnL ouL, someLhlng Lo keep Lo
show Lhe cllenL ln Lhe fuLure and each Llme l had Lhese needs l wroLe Lhem ln a doc or
excel or google share doc someLhlng llke LhaL and
1wo Lhlngs: 1he flrsL: l'd lose Llme knowlng how Lo organlze my own lapLop, whaL
klnd of lnformaLlon LhaL was, Lhey should be lnslde a folder called whaLever for me Lo
be able Lo flnd lL laLer, Lhen l'd lose Llme over Lhe formaL, l need lL Lo be preLLy, Can l
make lL lnLo a Lable, lf l come here afLer Lhree monLhs am l golng Lo recall how Lhls was
wrlLLen? So, Lhere were always Lwo Lhorns ln Lhe slde LhaL prevenLed me Lo reach Lhe
goal more rapldly whlch was Lo effecLlvely descrlbe whaL l wanLed Lo descrlbe. WlLh
Confluence, LhaL helps a loL because l can do baslc formaLLlng a la wlkl, lL doesn'L
maLLer lL ls always avallable Lo everyone, so l don'L need Lo worry abouL where lL ls, l
can search for lL ln any way LhaL l wlll flnd lL and laLLer l can exporL lL Lo pdf or puL onLo
a mall l can do whaLever l wanL. l also can reuse LhaL lnformaLlon Lo everyLhlng l wanL.
Cne of Lhe greaLer dlfflculLles LhaL l had slnce my oLher company and now here ln Lhe
beglnnlng was, Lhe lnlLlal process ln every pro[ecL ls always a meeLlng, mlnuLes of Lhe
meeLlng, Lhen a drafL of Lhe proposal, Lhen Lhe effecLlve proposal and Lhem Lhe
requlremenLs deLall and Lhls ls all lnformaLlon LhaL before was only on docs, Lhen Lhe
requlremenL was noL LhaL one, lL had Lhe number of Lhe oLher requlremenL and Lhem l
had Lo wrlLe over many Llmes Lhe same Lhlng, someLlmes Lhe LexL wasn'L exacLly Lhe
same Lhlng, when l only wanLed Lo add deLall or read[usL. 1haL goL ln Lhe way, because
lL was Llme consumlng and lL perverLed Lhe Llme l had Lo profound Lhe requlremenL
deLall ln each deal, now lL ls much beLLer. l can reuse everyLhlng l wrlLe once wrlLLen lL
may be llnked Lo varlous places, llnked Confluence Lo !l8A and lL has been bruLal. l


87
make beLLer use of my Llme and Lhe documenLaLlon ls always avallable Lo everyone.
l'm speaklng mosL abouL Lhe Lools because Lhey have been Lhe greaLesL help.
0,: 8uL your problem was documenLaLlon.
&7: ln Lhe sense LhaL, l'd do lL, spend Llme dolng lL and Lhen whaL were Lhe galns
l had for dolng lL? l could geL Lhem, buL lL Look Loo long Lo geL Lhem, because lL was Loo
scaLLered. 1hey were Lhe maln problems. Whlle you were speaklng Lo someone, whaL
was Lhe verslon of Lhe documenL? Was lL x or ? l can'L open lL, because l don'L have
docx, lf lL was ln excel. send me LhaL ln pdf, now l can'L see Lhe Lable. send me LhaL
on an e-mall. A loL of Llme ln crap, ln LroubleshooLlng lnformaLlon access and llLLle
Llme Lo analyze whaL you really wanL. AL any Llme you can share, and Lhe facL LhaL you
share doesn'L dupllcaLe Lhe LexL.
0,: 1he lnformaLlon yes.
&7: When you do lL by e-mall, dlrecL e-mall, you wroLe lL once and Lhen you hlL
reply and Lhe people ls already on anoLher e-mall, flne lL's all connecLed buL you have
LhaL wrlLLen a loL of Llmes on Lhe e-mall. When you share your LexL ls only Lhere, you
only polnL ouL people Lo access and commenL LhaL lnformaLlon. 1he lnformaLlon
doesn'L geL losL.
0,: 1haL was your maln problem, looslng and lnformaLlon managemenL.
&7: and Lhe Llme losL ln all LhaL.
0,: ou've already answered Lo Lwo quesLlons ln one.
&7: CreaL
0,: ou are on half Lhe Llme now.
&7: CreaL (long slgh)
0,: Are Lhe esLlmaLes made for Lhe developmenL currenLly compared Lo whaL
was done?
&7: wlLh whaL was spenL by Lhe end of Lhe pro[ecL.
0,: es.
&7: Ah. l sLlll dldn'L have Lhe opporLunlLy Lo do lL, slnce we are uslng Lhe Lool,
on Lhe oLher pro[ecLs l had never done LhaL Lype of analysls, or l end up dolng lL when l
spenL more Llme, because lL sLands ouL, Lhe quesLlon was [usL abouL analysls, ls LhaL lL?
0,: es, analysls. lf you do lL or noL.
&7: 1here are people who do lL for me necessarlly, whlle dolng Lhe bllls Lhey see
how much Llme l spenL. And now lL ls much easler Lo be on Lop of LhaL sorL of maLLer,
because Lhlngs sLand ouL much more clearly.
0,: So before you dldn'L.


88
&7: 8efore l dldn'L do lL. 8y my own lnlLlaLlve, noL dlrecLly, Lhe resulLs appeared
Lo me.
0,: And now wlLh Lhe Lools avallable, do you Lhlnk you wlll be able?
&7: no.
0,: 1haL belng, you cannoL have any ldea on whaL Lhe acLlvlLles LhaL are
underesLlmaLed.
&7: l have an ldea, because erroneously or mlsLakenly, when you do Lhe flrsL
proposal and when a commerclal Lhlnks abouL someLhlng Lo glve Lo Lhe cllenL, Lhere
are several Lhlngs he doesn'L Lake lnLo conslderaLlon. More and more l have been
searchlng for Lhose polnLs and lncludlng Lhem. And we reach Lhe concluslon LhaL a
pro[ecL of 100k, lL's dlfflculL someLlmes for cllenLs Lo undersLand lL, you spenL abouL 40
or 30 effecLlvely on developmenL, all Lhe resL ls whaL lnvolves handlng ln Lhe pro[ecL,
all sorLs of managemenL noL only pro[ecL managemenL buL managlng Lhe Leam, Lhe
lssues, noL [usL developmenL.
0,: es all Lhe communlcaLlons, all Lhose Lhlngs and preparlng.
&7: And Lhen Lhe oLher slxLy aren'L [usL Lhls, lL's all Lhe LesLlng, Lralnlng and
documenLlng. All LhaL ls nearly half Lhe pro[ecL.
0,: 1he nexL sLep ls do you generally have deflned Lhe crlLlcal facLor for lL Lo be
consldered successful?
&7: 1he maln feaLures belng avallable.
0,: uo you deflne aL Lhe sLarL, whlch are Lhe maln feaLures for lL Lo be ok? 1hls
because l don'L have as much percepLlon abouL sugar pro[ecLs. AL a slLe, ls Lhe slLe
belng operaLlonal, buL maybe lL's noL [usL LhaL. AL a sugar pro[ecL lL may be dlfferenL.
&7: l'll glve you an example, 1ecnldelLa, for Lhe pro[ecL Lo be worklng Lhere are
several modules and normally Lhose modules are ldenLlfled aL Lhe proposal, lf Lhe
proposal says sLorage managemenL, Lhen Lhe sLorage managemenL needs Lo be
avallable. now are all Lhe feaLures presenL? 1haL ls a posLerlor breaklng down. 8uL for
Lhe pro[ecL Lo be a success ls, really, Lhe users havlng a worklng sLorage managemenL
feaLure.
0,: Ck
&7: Lasy. lL's llke LhaL. Why does Lhe cllenL come Lo us Lo develop someLhlng?
Pe has a need and he can'L do lL some oLher way or does lL ln an archalc manner,
we have Lo guaranLee LhaL whaL he couldn'L do or dld ln an archalc manner, can now
do wlLh our producL, and LhaL's Lhe declslve facLor. AL slLes, however, l can glve you
verLl's case, Lhere were several slLes, acLually lL ls an appllcaLlon ln urupal's case, and


89
Lhey wanLed, ln Lhe case of Lhe occurrences, a porLal where all Lhe company could
submlL conLenLs and have Lhe P8 deparLmenL Lo manage Lhose conLenLs, from Lhe
momenL Lhey glve feedback and Lhey can manage LhaL feedback lL's success.
0,: ls Lhere a comparLmenLallzaLlon of Lhe polnLs where Lhe modules are
lnsLalled Lo deLermlne, for lnsLance.
&7: 1he cllenL doesn'L wanL Lo know whaL modules are lnsLalled.
0,: 1haL's noL Lhe quesLlon, from Lhe feaLures, for lnsLance when lL ls esLlmaLed
a cerLaln Llme and acLually Lhe developmenL requlres a longer Llme, aL leasL aL Aglle lL
ls sLaLed, Lhen see wlLh Lhe Llme avallable whaL can.
&7: And LhaL ls someLhlng, slncerely ln every pro[ecL l've parLlclpaLed up Llll now,
l sLlll haven'L had Lhe opporLunlLy Lo do and LhaL ls always golng Lo depend upon Lhe
cllenL's menLallLy and lf lL ls closed aL Lhe beglnnlng or noL, lf lL's Llme and maLerlals.
And whaL happens always ls LhaL Lhere are Lhree or four blocks of feaLures whlch are
conLemplaLed aL Lhe proposal and was accepLed by Lhe cllenL, Lhen you are golng Lo
deLall, lL ls besL Lo be very deLalled Lo know whaL lL conLemplaLes, when lL's noL, you
have Lo deLall afLerwards. 1here are cllenLs LhaL don'L wanL Lo know more, you develop
whaL you compeLed for and lL's Lhe pro[ecL manager LhaL guaranLees LhaL Lhere ls all
LhaL was supposedly sold, some oLher cllenLs are lnvolved and Lhey ask for more and
here Lhere are Lwo ways: one - lL was noL conLemplaLed, lL Lransfers Lo anoLher pro[ecL
LhaL you wanL Lo pay afLer, normally on Lhe pro[ecLs LhaL l'm lnvolved wlLh, lL's Lhls
LhaL happens even ln my former company. lf lL's ouL of Lhe pro[ecL's scope, we'd do a
proposal of conLlnuous malnLenance and upgradlng or a new pro[ecL Lo whlch we
would assemble Lhose funcLlonallLles. now l always Lry, lf lL ls posslble for Lhe cllenL,
because Lhey have closed budgeLs and lL lsn'L always as easy or as agllely as Aglle
wanLs. WhaL Aglle says ls ok you need Lo have all Lhe feaLures or he asks for one or one
Lakes longer, Lhe lasL one drops and Lhen you have Lwo ways or lL dles ouL and lL ls
never done or he pays more and you feed lL blgger.
0,: AcLlvlLles, success. So baslcally we can say LhaL Lhe pro[ecLs we have
worked on are all consldered successes.
&7: ln whlch parameLers?
0,: 8y your parameLers.
&7: noLhlng ls losL, all ls Lransformed. Lven a bad experlence a pro[ecL you
consldered wenL wrong, why because we spenL longer or efforL Lo develop and we losL
money wlLh lL, because Lhe cllenL send lL Lo Lhe Lrash can, Lhe several reasons why Lhe
pro[ecL may have wenL wrong, you always learnL and Lhe nexL pro[ecL you'll do you wlll


90
be able Lo avold Lhose Lypes of slLuaLlons, avold some confronLaLlons. A pro[ecL wenL
wrong, because you aggravaLed yourself wlLh Lhe cllenL and you had an argumenL and
he wenL away, you now, for Lhe nexL pro[ecL, Lhe llmlLs you have Lo guaranLee for LhaL
noL Lo happen agaln, so Lo me ln global Lerms all ls success, beLLer off, noL success,
wlLh every pro[ecL wheLher Lhey are good or bad you wlll learn and LhaL ls always a
success.
0,: And for Lhose problems, Lhey are always Llme problems or ls Lhere any oLher
problems LhaL condlLlons.
&7: no, lL can be Lechnology or lack of vlslon from Lhe cllenL's parL or from our
parL, we don'L undersLand someLhlng, LhaL's noL Lyplfled l guess.
0,: uo you have any ldea on Lhose problems? 1he Llme, Lhe cllenL's vlslon.
&7: Pere, as you now, l have eleven years' experlence from anoLher company
and l can glve you several examples of Lhlngs LhaL wenL wrong and why. Pere, from Lhe
pro[ecLs l'm ln and l can say someLhlng has gone wrong. When we say wenL wrong
whaL do you mean? ls noL worklng wlLh Lhem agaln or Lhe cllenL belng unsaLlsfled?
lrom verLl he was saLlsfled and hasn'L conLlnued, because Lhey have no budgeL aL Lhe
momenL, 1ecnldelLa ls glad and conLlnues Lo works wlLh us, Lhere are some problems
on Lhe cllenL's slde and on communlcaLlon wlLh oLher parLners LhaL need Lo be done,
SlAS Lhere ls no problem, llfLy-slx Lhe problem LhaL may exlsL ls Lhe mlnor prlorlLy
LhaL has delayed Lhe pro[ecL. now, oLher pro[ecLs, Lhlngs gone wrong ln my oLher
experlences: ou have much efforL on Lhe pro[ecL and suddenly Lhe cllenL ends Lhelr
budgeL you need Lo drop lL, lL dled, on anoLher cllenL Lhe pro[ecL ls ok, flne, you dellver
lL, Lhe cllenL changed Lhe dlrecLor and he does lL all agaln wlLh anoLher company, for
you lL's a success because you dld lL and dellvered lL buL lL's done.
0,: uld you geL pald?
&7: es, lL's Lhe same Lhlng lf you buy a 1v, ok l don'L llke lL, lL shouldn'L be black,
buL lL ls whlLe. bummer, your speclflcaLlons sald you wanLed lL black you wanL a whlLe
one, buy anoLher. lL wenL wrong, we dldn'L do anyLhlng Lhe cllenL wanLed, ls LhaL
correcL, and ls lL wrlLLen you valldaLe lL and you flnd Lhe cllenL was rlghL you do lL agaln
or Lhe cllenL doesn'L pay and we are sLlll ln good Lerms, lL depends. 8uL Lhe quesLlon, l
am Lalklng Lo you abouL Lhe negaLlve aspecLs, buL your quesLlon was abouL Lhe poslLlve
aspecLs.
0,: no, lL was: WhaL are Lhe maln problems LhaL lead a pro[ecL noL Lo be
deemed as a success? lL's exacLly whaL you were saylng.


91
&7: Success for whom? And whaL are Lhe parameLers? lf you are from Lhe
flnanclal area, Lhe pro[ecL ls noL successful lf you have 0 or loss. 1he Llme consumed
and Lhe esLlmaLed was Lhe same lnsLead of belng lucraLlve, a cenL earned, a cenL
spenL", you goL experlence and noLorleLy, you can say you dld LhaL pro[ecL, you can
earn more pro[ecLs for LhaL cllenL, Lhe cllenL ls very demandlng and lL Lakes Loo long Lo
pay. lL depends on whaL's poslLlve or noL ln Lhe flnanclal area, ln Lhe commerclal area,
you dld lL, lL was ok, buL lL doesn'L sulL you Lo say you dld lL.
0,: es, Lhls ls [usL from a managerlal polnL of vlew.
&7: ln pro[ecL managemenL l Lhlnk lL ls never a fall, lL's a fall. l have already had
cllenLs, noL here buL elsewhere, we dld lL, lL's ln producLlon, and Lhe people are uslng
lL, buL l never wanL Lo see LhaL cllenL agaln because he ls very annoylng. ou can'L say
Lhe pro[ecL was noL a success, Lhe personal relaLlonshlp may someLlmes spoll Lhe
pro[ecL managemenL. lL's Loo sLressful. l forgoL ConLrollnvesL: we developed Lhe Lhlngs
are ln producLlon, Lhe cllenL ls a blL annoylng buL ok. So.
0,: So Lhere's noL a frequenL problem.
&7: 1he recurrenL problem Lo Lhe pro[ecLs ls Lo puL a break on whaL Lhe cllenL
asks whlle Lhe pro[ecL ls runnlng. 8ecause he always wanLs more, he wanLs everyLhlng
and even lf lL's noL conLemplaLed lf you glve hlm a candy, he wlll Lake lL, buL he rarely
wanLs Lo pay for Lhe candy. lf you don'L puL a sLop Lo Lhese demands, you end up
glvlng wlLhouL hlm recognlzlng he's geLLlng lL for free.
0,: So lf you have a sysLem Lo supporL you, lL helps you on LhaL.
&7: 1o supporL Lhls, lL's whaL happens wlLh Lhe producL backlog, now l puL lL
lnslde and ok you say LhaL" lL's noL lnslde Lhe pro[ecL (scope) buL l undersLand your
need, aL Lhls momenL we are focuslng on developlng whaL we commlLLed Lo do, when
we flnlsh Lhls pro[ecL we speak abouL lL. SomeLlmes Lhey forgeL and never speak of lL
agaln.
0,: (laughLer)
&7: buL lL's a moLlve Lo collecL all and aL Lhe end Lhey pay for LhaL one and Lhen
you remlnd hlm and propose, lf he says yes you glve hlm a budgeL and he accepL or
noL.
0,: Ck, aL Lhe Llme Lhls was made, !l8A wasn'L very developed sLlll. Pave you
already LesLed !l8A?
&7: es, and l'm lovlng Confluence.
0,: Ck.


92
&7: And !l8A Loo.
0,: l've used lL now for Lhe Lralnlng and lL came ln handy. uo you Lhlnk Lhere ls
someLhlng LhaL needs Lo be lmproved? Can you polnL ouL anyLhlng LhaL needs Lo be
lmproved?
&7: ln whaL?
0,: ln !l8A or Confluence, ln Lhe sysLem.
&7: We are sLlll ln a learnlng perlod and knowledge, we have already deLecLed
some mlsLakes LhaL are appearlng ln Lhe reporLs.
(lnLerrupLlon - phone call)
0,: We were Lalklng abouL problems LhaL may be happenlng aL !l8A.
&7: 1hey were [usL Lhose ones.
0,: WhaL were Lhey?
&7: 1he reporLs aren'L reporLlng some Lhlngs correcLly, some Lhlngs LhaL you feel
lnLulLlvely lL should be capable Lo do buL lL doesn'L, Lhen you can do lL ln anoLher way.
lor lnsLance, a masslve copy of lssues from one pro[ecL Lo Lhe oLher you can'L do, you
have Lo copy lssue by lssue, a masslve updaLe, and Lhlngs llke LhaL, buL lL's [usL deLalls.
0,: uo you Lhlnk you can sLlll beneflL even more on Lhe way you can work wlLh
Confluence?
&7: 8eneflL more, yes, yes. and over Llme even more.
0,: Lven more.
&7: es, l'm sLlll a blL green, 20 of whaL l can Lake ouL of resulLs.
0,: uo you Lhlnk ln Lhe Lool, ln Lhe LM, Lhere ls someLhlng mlsslng?
&7: l can'L answer LhaL because l don'L know all of lL, do you undersLand?
l have noLlced we have some wldgeLs / macros we can lnclude and Lhere aren'L
all Lhere, so we need Lo search on Lhe neL whlch ones come ln handy and geL Lhem. l
don'L know all of Lhem, l LhoughL oh Lhls one would be good, Lhls ls beLLer Lhan LhaL
and LhaL one could do LhaL. buL l cannoL answer LhaL wlLh cerLalnLy from whaL l know.
WhaL l can Lell you ls my flrsL commenL abouL Lhe ALlasslan Confluence / !l8A was 'uh!
Pow ugly!' 8ecause l dld a loL of research and l was used Lo seelng Lhlngs wlLh a cuLer
graphlc lnLerface, buL LhaL's noL Lo be cuLe, lL's Lo be funcLlonal so really as cuLer lL ls,
Lhe slower lL geLs Loo, normally. So LhaL ls exacLly wlLh Lhe conLenLs you need, when
you need Lhem, wlLh Lhe permlsslons you need, wlLh Lhe shorLcuLs you need and wlLh
Lhe llnks you need, lL can ad[usL and l really llke Lo ad[usL wlndows Lo be able Lo see Lhe
mosL lnformaLlon l posslbly can and lL has cerLaln llnk poslLlonlng LhaL does lL for you.


93
So you can have ln your vlslon fleld all Lhe lnformaLlon you need Lo solve a cerLaln
lssue. We wln by noL belng Loo complex, Lhe slmplesL lL can be. lL could be more
appeallng, buL lL has whaL lL needs and no more. lL's greaL.
0,: So a Lek sesslon soon.
&7: Are you dolng lL?
0,: no, you are.
&7: (laughLer) .. uone?
0,: uone.
&7: bye! See you Lomorrow
0,: 1hank you
a<;<>< (LIEFOJEU >
! lnLervlewer: Mlguel erelra
! lnLervlewed: aulo MrLlres
! uaLe: lrlday, 7Lh of uecember of 2012

0,: llrsL quesLlon, well l'll ask. lrom Lhe pro[ecL managemenL polnL of vlew,
how does Lhe lnformaLlon geL Lo you? Where does lL come from? uoes Lhe
commerclal area pass Lhe lnformaLlon on Lo you? Cr whlle Lhe commerclal area ls
deallng wlLh Lhe cllenL do you go Lalk Lo hlm?
,0: lL depends, you have boLh cases. 1here are pro[ecLs LhaL arrlve preLLy
much already deflned by Lhe commerclal area and Lhe cllenL, buL Lhese are rare,
normally whaL arrlves ln an lnlLlal sLage ls very llLLle lnformaLlon and mosL of Lhe
Llmes Lhe pro[ecL ls already sold. 1hen on Lhe oLher hand, more and more even
before a proposal ls made, who manages Lhe pro[ecL or who conLrlbuLes Lhe mosL
sLraLeglcally ln an lnlLlal sLage ls presenL durlng Lhese flrsL meeLlngs and geLs much
more lnformaLlon aL LhaL Llme. Anyway we are always speaklng abouL very global
lnformaLlon, only from Lhe momenL when you sLarL Lo do Lhe pro[ecL wlll you
effecLlvely pull ouL whaL you really need. And ln Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhe pro[ecLs Lhe
lnformaLlon lsn'L glven Lo you, you need Lo flnd lL ouL. 8ecause elLher Lhe cllenL
doesn'L know or nobody LhoughL of lL. ln a general manner you never geL Lhe
lnformaLlon you need ln Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe pro[ecL.
0,: ou go and geL lL dlrecLly wlLh Lhe cllenL?
,0: es, lL's usually so.


94
0,: So baslcally Lhe flow of Lhe pro[ecL ls commerclal area, Lhen pro[ecL
managemenL and flnally developmenL?
,0: lf you Lhlnk of lL ln a normal pro[ecL managemenL perspecLlve, lL's llke
LhaL. 8uL ln my case, l'm presenL, mosL of Lhe Llmes, when Lhe pro[ecL lLself doesn'L
exlsL, yeL. l access lnformaLlon aL a sLage when lf l was merely a pro[ecL manager ln
Lhe normal flow l wouldn'L. lncreaslngly less l'm Laken by surprlse.
0,: uo you Lhlnk LhaL ls our way Lo do lL, LhaL you are Lhere? Cr are you
seelng lL from Lhe ux perspecLlve?
M: lL lsn'L abouL Lhe ux perspecLlve, lL's really belng called. More and more lL
ls Lrled Lo do lL llke LhaL: Lhe Leams, Lhe pro[ecL managers or sLraLeglsLs Lo be
presenL aL an lnlLlal sLage of Lhe pro[ecL. lrequenLly Lhe pro[ecL doesn'L exlsL, yeL.
We are only lnvesLlgaLlng and make proposal or gaLher lnformaLlon Lo do a
proposal, buL l Lhlnk Lhere has been an efforL Lo Lry Lo lnvolve Lhe Leam aL Lhe early
sLages of Lhe pro[ecL. lL lsn'L enough Lo have Lhe manager or C or whomever wlLh
all Lhe lnformaLlon, you need Lo have Lhe whole Leam or else lL affecLs everyLhlng. l
Lhlnk Lhere has been an efforL accordlngly. ln my parLlcular case l geL lnvolved ln Lhe
beglnnlng, because l care, buL Lhere ls an efforL from Lhe company ln LhaL dlrecLlon.
0,: So Lhe pro[ecL preparaLlon, how would you say lL ls? Pow ls Lhe process
of beglnnlng a pro[ecL? 1he meeLlngs. ls Lhere any maLerlal already made? lor
example aL Lhe Aldelas" you have Lhe lnformaLlon archlLecLure, buL LhaL ls ln a
more advanced sLage. how do you do Lhe lnlLlal seLup Lo sLarL?
,0: lL varles ln each pro[ecL, ln Lhe case of Aldelas" lL's a dlfferenL pro[ecL,
you know you have Lo do Lhree componenLs, you LhaL are some obvlous Lhlngs LhaL
need Lo be a parL of Lhose componenLs buL Lhe mosL of Lhe lnlLlal sLage of Lhe
pro[ecL ls Lo undersLand exacLly whaL Lhe problem was, aparL from whaL Lhe cllenL
LhoughL lL was and Lhen have a sLraLeglc approach Lo come up wlLh a soluLlon. So
Lhe pro[ecL's scope changed afLer lnvesLlgaLlng and dolng a workshop, and
undersLandlng Lhe problem wasn'L such and such, buL really LhaL. So here Lhere was
a dlscrepancy ln Lerms of Lhe proposal, whaL Lhey wanLed was a sLore and a
communlLy and Lhe porLal wasn'L all LhaL lmporLanL, buL Lhelr maln problem was
really Lhe porLal. 1hey need a sLep Lo geL Lo people, so Lhe Lhlngs were lnverLed. 8uL
Lhen you have pro[ecLs where lL ls much more llnear. ou know exacLly whaL you
have Lo bulld, you may noL know every llLLle deLall and dlscover Lhem on LhaL flrsL
sLage or along Lhe pro[ecL. lL varles a loL, Lhere lsn'L exacLly a model. And moreover
by a Llme consLraln and laLely by meLhodology you don'L need everyLhlng aL flrsL Lo


93
sLarL developlng. ou Lry Lo have Lhe essenLlal, you need Lo know Lhe way and Lhe
seL of feaLures LhaL are Lhe basls, buL rapldly we can sLarL worklng, whlle before we
sLarLed worklng wlLhouL knowlng exacLly whaL we were golng Lo do.
0,: ou deflne a guldellne and Lhen aL each lLeraLlon you.
,0: LxacLly.
0,: 8reak down.
,0: lf you really llke Lo be Scrum or follow a more Aglle sLyle you need Lo
follow LhaL paLh. ou may have a dlscovery phase, you should have lL, lL can be
more or less sLrucLured and based on LhaL lnlLlal dlscovery sLage, you may call lL
sprlnL zero or whaLever, you bulld a more asserLlve backlog. And supposedly Lhen
Lhe Leam has Lhe condlLlons Lo sLarL worklng, lL's noL exacLly whaL happens. lL
doesn'L necessarlly happen llke LhaL all Lhe Llme buL Lhe efforL ls Lo walk LhaL paLh?
0,: lsn'L Lhere a sLrucLure for LhaL sprlnL zero?
,0: noL yeL.
0,: noL yeL. 8uL ls lL planned?
,0: ln my parLlcular case l'm Lhlnklng of lL, because Lhe web area has cerLaln
parLlcularlLles LhaL maybe Sugar and oLher Lhlngs don'L, buL l Lhlnk so lL's belng
LhoughL of.
0,: Cludlo spoke of all Lhe sLeps LhaL are ln a pro[ecL: Lhe beglnnlng. l don'L
have lL deLalled here aL Lhe momenL. Lhe second Lo lasL ls Lhe developmenL and
Lhen Lhe dellvery and Lhe follow up, l can'L remember Lhe flrsL ones now. 8uL Lhe
way you manage Lhe pro[ecL, are all Lhe sLages dlfferenL? ls Lhere anyLhlng ln
common?
M: es, ln a general manner all Lhe pro[ecL have Lhe same sLrucLure. ou
have Lhe lnlLlal sLage of dlscovery, requlremenLs' assessmenL, sLudy soluLlons eLc.
1hen you have Lhe acLual developmenL: Lhe deslgn, Lhe ux, Lhe programmlng, Lhe
LesLs. lf you are worklng ln an aglle sLyle you don'L do lL, you don'L LesL [usL ln Lhe
end, Lhey are belng LesLed.
0,: es, aL Lhe end of each lLeraLlon.
,0: LxacLly.
0,: AlmosL aL Lhe end of each lLeraLlon.
,0: 1hen supposedly, you have a deploymenL sLage and Lhere you perform
measuremenLs and Lhe upgrades or follow up. lL's one of Lhose Lhlngs, lL depends
on Lhe way Lhlngs are sLrucLured and sold. 8uL Lo me, lL makes sense LhaL when you
have a pro[ecL, rlghL ln Lhe beglnnlng, you deflne whaL Lhe mlnlmum producL ls, or


96
whaL ls essenLlal you dellver LhaL and you save Llme and money from Lhe pro[ecL Lo
keep on maklng lL beLLer. WhaL ls normally done ls you develop Lhe pro[ecL wlLhln
LhaL budgeL and dellver lL and Lhen Lhe lmprovemenLs, noL a supporL, buL Lhe
lmprovemenLs are a new pro[ecL, wlLh a surcharge. 1he ldeal was Lo make a budgeL,
dellver Lhe pro[ecL under Lhe budgeL and Lhen save Llme Lo lmprove. lrom Lhe
momenL you have Lhe pro[ecL onllne or belng used, you can pull meLrlcs and Lhlngs
Lo lmprove on, up unLll Lhen you're guesslng.
0,: 8uL LhaL way of Lhe llfecycle of Lhe pro[ecL ls always Lhe same.
lndependenLly from Lhe level, l don'L know how Lo call lL, more or less complex or
wlLh a larger budgeL.
,0: AL flrsL, yes. lf lL's a pro[ecL, noL [usL move someLhlng qulckly, you always
have LhaL. ou always have Lhe lnlLlal sLage of dlscovery and preparaLlon, Lhen Lhe
acLual developmenL and lnslde lL you may have pro[ecLs wlLh a large deslgn
componenLs and oLher noL really, you have oLhers wlLh more fronLend, oLhers sLlll
wlLh more fronLend and backend, buL lf you conslder lL Lo be developmenL, all you
are dolng ls producLlon, all have exacLly LhaL, whlch ls l have Lhe dlscovery, Lhe
execuLlon and aL Lhe end Lhe deploy, LesLs and follow up.
0,: ldeally lL ls really Lo dellver Lhe documenLaLlon and Lhe LesLs .
,0: LxacLly.
0,: Ck. l had Lhe quesLlons ln Lhree groups, from Lhls group.
8esldes Lhe developmenL sLage, whlle you are ln conLacL wlLh Lhe
programmers, well you musL always be ln conLacL, rlghL?
,0: Always.
0,: Pow ls Lhe communlcaLlon wlLh Lhe remalnlng deparLmenLs done? 1he
flnanclal or Lhe commerclal area. ls lL done verbally, by e-mall, ls Lhere a supporL
llke !l8A or.?
,0: no, Lhere lsn'L. lL's done verbally and by e-mall. 1here lsn'L any oLher.
well, Lhere are meeLlngs, follow up meeLlngs.
0,: llnances?
,0: es, when you have Lhe C meeLlng Lhere ls someone from flnanclal area
Lhere Lo see how Lhe pro[ecLs are golng Lo percelve when Lhey can blll.
0,: Ck.
,0: 1haL klnd of Lhlnk, buL oLherwlse lL ls done ln an arLlsanal way.
SomeLlmes someone asks abouL lL and you say lL's Lhls or LhaL.
0,: uo you Lhlnk.


97
,0: We are walLlng Lo close by Lhls Llme. usually Lhere lsn'L much
communlcaLlon, wlLh Lhe commerclal area Lhen lL's very rare, unless Lhe cllenL
annoys Lhe commerclal, or Lhe commerclal needs Lo know a concreLe lLem. WlLh Lhe
flnanclal area Lhere ls usually a conLacL when, from Lhelr parL, Lhey ask us lf Lhey can
blll or lf Lhey can send Lhe lnLermedlaLe paymenL or someLhlng llke LhaL. 8uL Lhere
lsn'L a process, lL's noL a regular Lhlng, you're noL always Lalklng wlLh Lhe flnanclal
area Lo accounL for.
0,: Aren'L Lhe paymenLs done aL Lhe end of each sprlnL or someLhlng?
,0: no, you have a paymenL plan whlch ls agreed wlLh Lhe cllenL and lL varles
accordlngly Lo each pro[ecL. 1here are cllenLs LhaL have moLlves, llke for lnsLance ln
Lhe case of Aldelas, Lhey need Lo make Lhe paymenLs ln cerLaln Llmes when Lhey geL
Lhe money from Lhe communlLy funds. 1here are oLhers, LhaL lL's ln Lhe beglnnlng,
Lhen 30 more whenever and Lhe resL ln Lhe end, or forLy, forLy, LwenLy. Cr every
monLh Lhey pay x, l Lhlnk lL happened noL LhaL ofLen. 1here are several models LhaL
can be ad[usLed Lo Lhe cllenL.
0,: Ck.
,0: 8uL you don'L deal much wlLh LhaL, as a C you deal malnly wlLh
esLabllshlng a budgeL, obLaln an execuLlon schedule and your concern ls LhaL, Lo
keep Lhe schedule and lnslde Lhe budgeL.
0,: AfLer all LhaL, whaL's Lhe Lyplcal dlfflculLy you flnd whlle managlng
pro[ecLs?
,0: Pere parLlcularly lL ls managlng Llmes, you have a greaL dlfflculLy knowlng
exacLly how long you sLlll have for Lhe pro[ecL. lL's belng mlLlgaLed, buL lL was a
dlfflculLy, because l remember LhaL for a very long Llme we couldn'L Lake ouL Sugar
reporLs for Lhe pro[ecL. l don'L know how long was already spenL or l do Lhe maLh by
hand or l don'L know. Lven now Lo do lL, lL ls almosL by hand Lo undersLand exacLly.
Cn Lhe oLher hand you have esLlmaLes done ln a cerLaln way, Lhere are some Lhlngs
LhaL aren'L Laken lnLo accounL, Lhere are hours LhaL geL ln laLe, people have Lo flll
ouL LlmesheeLs and someLlmes lL's a blL confuslng and we don'L undersLand exacLly
where have so many days gone lnLo developmenL, when ln effecL you know lL
wasn'L exacLly llke LhaL. 1he dlfflculLy ls Lo know exacLly how long you have spenL,
how long you have lefL, ln whaL sLage exacLly ls Lhe pro[ecL. Cne Lhlng ls knowlng
you have LwenLy days buL Lhe pro[ecL ls 90 done and Lhe oLher ls knowlng you
have LwenLy days buL Lhe pro[ecL ls 2, so . you sLarL havlng mechanlsms Lo
undersLand buL LhaL's noL very easy yeL.


98
0,: usually when people answer Lhe flrsL, Lhey Lend Lo answer Lhe second:
Pow can you mlLlgaLe Lhese problems? lL's belng made. ls lL wlLh Lhe supporL from
Lhe Lool?
,0: LxacLly, you have !l8A and everyLhlng you work on should have an lssue
and LhaL lssue musL have an esLlmaLe Llme asslgned and Lhus, Lhe Llme should be
auLomaLlcally assumed and lL should glve you Lhose meLrlcs rlghL away. lL's noL
exacLly so, buL Lhere ls an efforL belng done ln LhaL dlrecLlon.
0,: es, buL Lhese esLlmaLes are always more complex, Lhey requlre a
sLrucLure.
,0: 1he problem ls LhaL Lhere ls normally a dlfference, someLlmes large,
beLween Lhe esLlmaLes Lo provlde a budgeL ln a sLage you sLlll don'L know much
abouL Lhe pro[ecL, buL Lhen lL ends up belng a reference for Lhe Llme you have Lo
execuLe lL. And Lhere resldes Lhe dlfflculLy ln marrylng Lhe Lwo. SomeLlmes Lhe
pro[ecL ls way more complex and you need Lo do more Lhlngs and lL lsn'L posslble or
you have Lo flL ln wlLh whaL was sold. Someone sold 30 days, buL Lhe problem ls
LhaL Lhose aren'L 30 calendar days buL 30 l1Ls, LhaL ln effecL can be one week lf you
have slx people worklng.
0,: So, accordlngly Lo Lhe way esLlmaLes are done, aL Lhe momenL, you have
no way of comparlng Lhe esLlmaLes wlLh Lhe real execuLlon Llme by Lask.
,0: 8y Lask you are sLarLlng Lo have lL, before Lhere was no way. ou had a
very global ldea by Lype of acLlvlLy or sLage. 1he deslgn used up x days, Lhe
developmenL used up whaLever, buL you had no way of knowlng, ok Lo seL up a CAS
Look abouL x Llme, Lo make Lhe fronL end lL Look whaLever, buL now you sLarL Lo
have a way. ou can undersLand LhaL maybe your esLlmaLe whlch was sold and you
made Lhe pro[ecL from doesn'L maLch aL all wlLh Lhe real execuLlon. lL's a quesLlon
of undersLandlng whaL falled: was your esLlmaLe lncorrecL? Cr who was
coordlnaLlng Lhe lmplemenLaLlon wanLed Lo do more Lhan whaL lL was supposed Lo?
lL's always compllcaLed. Cn Lhe oLher hand, lL's a quesLlon of orlenLlng by Lhe value
Lo Lhe cllenL. Always Lrylng Lo keep on budgeL evldenLly, and Lhe quesLlon of whaL's
good for Lhe company buL orlenLed Loward Lhe cllenL. ou normally have Lhe
Lendency Lo puL more Lhan., alLhough you don'L have Llme you dellver more ln Lhe
besL posslble way, lL makes sense for Lhe pro[ecL and Lhe cllenL, lL's a quesLlon of
vlslon. l don'L Lake parL ln LhaL, Lhere are Lhose who Lhlnk we have a budgeL and lf lL
fall under ok, lf lL doesn'L Lhough luck. We are noL worklng Lo no avall.


99
0,: So based on. you don'L have Lhe posslblllLy Lo see, yeL or you do. uo
you have any ldea on whaL are Lhe acLlvlLles LhaL are usually underesLlmaLed?
,0: es, normally Lhe bulk ls Lhe deslgn parL, LhaL lL's noL underesLlmaLed.
0,: lL's underesLlmaLed.
,0: l mean LhaL lL ls underesLlmaLed noL because people Lhlnk lL Lakes less
Llme, buL because normally ln commerclal Lerms ls sold by less or Lhey dldn'L accepL
more, lL's geLLlng beLLer. normally Lhe deslgn parL Lakes longer, because lL's a
collaboraLlve labor and lL lnvolves more people. lL's a blL underesLlmaLed. 1he
developmenL parL, Loo.
0,: ls lL underesLlmaLed?
,0: l Lhlnk so. l Lhlnk lL's normally esLlmaLed accordlng Lo Lhe feaLures on
Lhelr baslc componenLs, l need Lo geL lL worklng and lL wlll Lake x Llme and normally
lL lacks Llme Lo reflne lL. Cne Lhlng ls havlng Lhe form sendlng an e-mall, anoLher ls
havlng a preLLy form wlLh error messages, Lhe preLLy e-malls and all Lhose Lhlnks.
8aslcally lL's all Lhe same feaLure, Lo have a form, buL Lhey only Lhlnk Lo have
Lhe form l Lake x Llme, buL Lhen lL comes Lhe C or someone and Lells you lL's
lacklng Lhe error messages, Lhls or LhaL. ln a general manner l Lhlnk everyone
underesLlmaLes Lhe Lasks. 1hen you have oLhers LhaL Lhrow lL upwards, as Lhey have
no ldea and Lhey don'L wanL Lo geL burnL, Lhey say LhaL's a whole week and when
Lhe Llme comes lL's done ln a day or less, buL ok. 1haL's a quesLlon of Llme,
experlence, havlng meLrlcs LhaL more or less allow you Lo undersLand LhaL. 1he ldeal
ls for example, worklng on a pro[ecL wlLh urupal and you geL LhaL afLer 4 or 3
pro[ecLs LhaL on average LhaL seL of feaLures Lakes x long. ln Lhe beglnnlng, when
Lhe C ls dolng Lhe lnlLlal esLlmaLes or Lhe plannlng sprlnL wlLh Lhe Leam already has
Lhe noLlon LhaL Lhey usually Lake x long Lo do Lhls, somewhere ln beLween Lhe elghL
and Lhe elghLy, ln Lhe mlddle Lhere's an average. AL Lhls Llme, we can'L make any
calculaLlon of LhaL sorL.
0,: ls Lhere a crlLlcal success facLor deflned by you or oLhers for each
pro[ecL.? lf Lhls lsn'L meL Lhe pro[ecL lsn'L.
,0: no, Lhere lsn'L any sLrucLured Lhlng. lL's obvlous LhaL lf you're dolng a
porLal or an appllcaLlon Lhey have Lo work, lf Lhey don'L work you have a problem,
buL you don'L have crlLerla.
0,: lL's noL commerclally deflned...
,0: ou don'L have anyone who says, Lhls needs Lo work so and so or lL's noL
vlable. Who deflnes Lhe crlLerla lL's us and Lhe cllenL.


100
0,: 8aslcally lL's: Lhls exlsLs, all needs Lo work.
,0: LxacLly, lL's a quesLlon of commonsense and Leam ad[usLmenL. lL's llke
Lhe form sLory, you can have a form worklng correcLly wlLh Lhe error messages and
all. lL works, lL's all done, and Lhere ls noLhlng whlch lsn'L done. ln mere Lerms Lhls ls
an accepLance crlLerlon, lL works, we can send an e-mall, lL reglsLered, lL saves on
Lhe daLabase, Lhe user goL Lhe e-mall, he cllcked, conflrmed lL's all worklng. 8uL
Lhen you can have, lf Lhere ls Llme and wlll, you can have exLras Lhls wlll do lL ln A[ax
or whaLever, buL lL's noL deflned. lL's one of Lhe Lhlngs LhaL needs Lo sLarL belng
deflned by Lhe C, Lhe accepLance crlLerlon of a cerLaln Lask. lf Lhe crlLerlon ls LhaL
Lhe form needs Lo be ln A[ax and change color, lL was deflned by hlm, or Lhe Leam
explalns why Lhey can'L do lL ln LhaL manner or lf Lhey don'L, he has a rlghL Lo say lL
lsn'L done, and geL back. usually, on Lhe cllenL's slde, LhaL doesn'L exlsL. 1he cllenL
doesn'L deflne Lhe accepLance crlLerlon, lL's noL expressed.
0,: So lL's more a C's declslon Lhen Lhe cllenL's.
,0: es.
0,: 1he cllenL ls [usL Lhe maln scope.
,0: LxacLly. 1he C needs Lo have Lhe ablllLy Lo undersLand when someLhlng
ls ready Lo be dellvered Lo Lhe cllenL, and ln advance he already knows lf Lhe cllenL
accepLs lL or noL. up unLll now, Lhere weren'L exacLly Lhlngs belng reLurned.
0,: Ck.
,0: And Lhe ones whlch dld weren'L our faulL. lL's because he changed hls
mlnd or he expressed hlmself lncorrecLly. 1here was someLhlng ln Lhe mlddle, an
exLernal facLor whlch was noL relaLed Lo Lhe pro[ecL. 8uL Lhe one who makes LhaL
fllLerlng should be Lhe C. As lf you have a Lechnlcal responslble for a Leam or
deparLmenL lL should be someone who looks aL Lhe pro[ecL and sLaLes LhaL from Lhe
Lechnlcal polnL of vlew lL's correcL and ready Lo be shown or puL lnLo producLlon or
whaLever.
0,: So Lhere never was any pro[ecL. you referred some LhaL were reLurned.
8uL Lhe maln problems are from Lhe cllenL's parL or Lhe communlcaLlon wlLh Lhe
cllenL?
,0: 1here was never someLhlng whlch was developed, aL our speclflc case
everyLhlng LhaL was reLurned was by lssues wlLh Lhe deslgn noL funcLlonallLy. lL's
noL a quesLlon of Lhe porLal belng poorly made, or Lhe speclflcaLlons weren'L correcL
buL slmply because Lhe cllenL changed hls mlnd or dldn'L even remembered
approvlng lL. up unLll now, Lhe problem has always been on Lhe cllenL's slde.


101
0,: Ck.
,0: 1here ls a loL belng reLurned lnslde Lhe Leam.
0,: ln LesLs.
,0: 1he reLurn here ls debaLable. ou conslder someLhlng ls done, someone
looks and says lL lacks someLhlng or lL doesn'L comply wlLh Lhe deflned crlLerla or
adopLed sLandard buL LhaL's normal. Malnly because Lhere lsn'L a deflnlLlon of Lhe
sLandards anywhere. lL needs Lo be deflned.
0,: 1here are some, buL.
,0: As l refer Lo sLandards, lL's Lhe accepLance crlLerlon of whaL ls consldered
done, made. lL's easler Lo wrlLe l need a form Lhen l need a form LhaL does LhaL, and
lf LhaL doesn'L happen, Lhls needs Lo happen so my accepLance crlLerla are Lhese. lL
needs Lo send malls, Lhe oLher needs Lo recelve and lf lL doesn'L lL needs Lo do
whaLever. ou already know LhaL someone who ls developlng a Lask knows exacLly
whaL lL needs Lo do, whaL means belng done and whaL's accepLed or noL.
0,: And whaL abouL Lhe quesLlon of Lhe cllenL saylng he doesn'L remember, ls
Lhere anyLhlng belng done Lo mlLlgaLe Lhose problems?
,0: ou have no process and no Lools Lo do LhaL offlclally, as Lhe
communlcaLlon wlLh Lhe cllenLs happens malnly ln person or by e-mall, Lhey are Lhe
Lwo .
0,: Lhe Lwo channels.
,0: ou don'L exacLly have a collaboraLlve plaLform where Lhe e-malls LhaL
geL ouL or come ln are always reglsLered for Lhe Leam knowledge. 1here ls Lhe
commonsense pracLlce LhaL lf Lhere ls someLhlng asked vla Lelephone LhaL alLers or
may go wrong, Lhere ls Lhe senslLlvlLy Lo reglsLer lL ln wrlLlng. Accordlng Lo whaL was
spoken Lhere ls an e-mall wlLh lL and by prlnclple lf no one conLesLs lL, whlch was
accepLed. uocumenL Lhe mosL.
0,: Lhe declslons.
,0: Lhe declslons. vla e-mall or you send a deslgn and you geL someLhlng
saylng l llke lL very much, buL LhaL doesn'L work for you. WhaL works ls expresslng lL
ls accepLed, go ahead or someone saylng yes Lo lL. ou don'L have a place where
LhaL ls esLabllshed, saved or documenLed Lo everyone. We Lrled wlLh (acLlve)Colab
buL.
0,: 8ecause Lhe cllenL dldn'L.
,0: 1here you go, lf you had someLhlng capable, Colab lsn'L Lhe besL example
of lL. ou have a number of appllcaLlons where Lhe Leams collaboraLe wlLh Lhe


102
cllenLs and Lhe cllenLs go Lhere wlLhouL any problem. Maybe Lhe Lool wasn'L Lhe
besL for LhaL Lo happen, lL depends of Lhe cllenLs.
0,: uo you Lhlnk Lhls one has Lhose feaLures?
,0: up unLll now l haven'L seen any of LhaL. 1he place where Lhe
documenLaLlon ls, lsn'L avallable Lo lnLeracL wlLh Lhe cllenL. l have noL seen
anywhere l can communlcaLe wlLh Lhe cllenL and lL ls reglsLered. So, no.
0,: Ck. AL Lhe end. WhaL abouL Lhe sysLem lLself? ou have LesLed lL
lmmensely, now. When lL was belng developed dld you had a say ln lL?
,0: es, l had some lnpuLs. 1he Lhlngs were belng lmplemenLed ln a cerLaln
way, llLLle by llLLle, geLLlng a loL of lnpuL from Lhe people. lL changed, you have a
meLhodology whlch ls belng applled ln a cerLaln way, more forcefully. 1here ls sLlll
Lhe lnpuL gaLherlng, people say whaL Lhey need Lo say, buL up unLll now Lhe
meLhodology ls belng applled forcefully.
0,: uo you Lhlnk lL's worklng well?
,0: lL's sLlll early Lo Lell. 1here are some Lhlngs LhaL cannoL be applled exacLly
as books Lell you Lo, because Lhe Leams are dlfferenL, Lhe people are dlfferenL and
Lhe companles are dlfferenL. So l don'L belleve Lhere ls one slngle model appllcable
Lo all. LeL's see. up Llll now Lhose changes weren'L lncorporaLed. WhaL Lhe Leams
are saylng ls Lrylng Lo be mlLlgaLed lnslde Lhe consLralnL of Lhe meLhodology, buL
Lhere were no changes.
0,: ln Lerms of meLhodology, abouL Lhe sysLem do you Lhlnk lL needs Lo be
alLered?
,0: WhaL sysLem?
0,: !l8A, Confluence.
,0: l Lhlnk no Lool ls perfecL, none can predlcL every case. ou Lry Lo ad[usL
accordlng Lo Lhe Lool you have, as you can'L change, you work wlLh lL and LhaL l
Lhlnk people are dolng, whlle Lhey geL Lo know Lhe plaLforms. l geL LhaL ln Lerms of
collaboraLlon and documenLaLlon Confluence ls good and brlngs advanLages and we
are noL even geLLlng half Lhe producLlvlLy we could. AbouL !l8A, lL has some good
lLems buL Lhere are oLhers, LhaL elLher by lssues of conflgurlng or lack of knowledge
Lransforms lL ln a hurdle. Cn Lhe oLher hand you have a place where you can see all
Lhe pro[ecLs and a vlsual represenLaLlon of whaL ls happenlng or ls golng Lo happen,
people can log ln Lhe Llmes wlLh Lhe advanLages and dlsadvanLages LhaL brlngs, lL's a
blL odd you can only log Llme on Lhlngs avallable aL !l8A, lL doesn'L glve you rellable
meLrlcs. Cr you log Loo much Llme ln lssues LhaL really dldn'L Lake LhaL long, because


103
you need Lo seL 8 hours, well aL leasL 6, because 2 you can puL elsewhere, when for
real Lhlngs don'L work ln LhaL way. Where do l puL Lhls half an hour here? uo l puL lL
ln Lhe Lwo hours l have Lo speak wlLh my colleagues, buL whaL lf l have already
spenL Lhose, because of oLher Lasks? 8uL Lhese are Lhlngs LhaL need Lo be Luned. ln
a general way, !l8A ls beLLer Lhan whaL we had. 1he sulLe ls beLLer, now we wlll see.
0,: uo you Lhlnk lL's sLlll very much aL Lhe beglnnlng? AL whaL percenLage do
you say we are aL?
,0: ou sLlll dldn'L have a whole complex pro[ecL belng managed Lhere. lf you
really reallze, we are only uslng !l8A aL abouL one monLh, even less offlclally ls Lhe
only Lool ln pro[ecL managemenL slnce november 14
Lh
, aL Lhree weeks. 1here were
already some pro[ecLs uslng lL before, buL Lhe LlmesheeLs and Llmes where
elsewhere. l guess Lhree weeks or a monLh of lnLenslve usage lsn'L enough Lo draw
concluslons.
0,: uo you conslder LhaL ls helps you wlLh Lhe Lasks you regularly have? Are
you belng more efflclenL?
,0: l Lhlnk l'm belng more efflclenL, because l have less responslblllLy", one
week sprlnLs wlLh four hour meeLlngs, no. 1he greaLesL advanLage of Scrum or Aglle
ls Lhe collaboraLlve envlronmenL among Lhe Leams, and so you should need so
much Llme wlLh rlLuals, because Lhlngs should happen organlcally, durlng Lhe sprlnL.
8uL wlLh one week sprlnLs, you can'L be organlc. ou sLarLed Lhe sprlnL and
suddenly lL has ended. We can'L even undersLand much. When we have sprlnLs of
Lwo, Lhree weeks lL wlll dlfferenL, posslbly. ou have a meeLlng sprlnL plannlng
reLrospecLlve LhaL Lakes half a day, or even a whole day, LhaL happens someLlmes,
Lhen you sLarL a sprlnL wlLh [usL four days, you don'L have Llme Lo enLer..
0,: Lhe developmenL.
,0:. Lhe reglme. 8uL Lhese are Lhlngs.
0,: Lo lmprove. Ck. lL's all.
,0: uone?
0,: uone.