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SMALL ARMS

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IDENTIFICATION SERIES

.303-in.BREN LIGHT MACHINEGUN

Partsldentification & Lists,BrenL.M.G. Series Notes, Exploded Parts Drawings,Descriptions, Accessories & Fittings

s.A.t s.
No. 5 Ian Skennerton

REFERENCES: 'A Brief History of the Bren Light MachineGun' 1969, Inspectorate of Armaments 'AustralianServiceMachineguns' lan Skennerton 1989, SKENNERTON 'British Small Arms of World War 2' lan Skennerton 1988, SKENNERTON 'fdentificationList: Gun, Machine,Bren' AustralianMilitary Forces 1945, M.G.O. 'ldentification List for Gun, MachineBren.303-inch' 1944, 1945, 1947, War Office 'lnstructions - 1931 (Supplement No. 2)' 1938 War Office for Armourers 'Light MachineGun - 1939' SmallArms Training Vol. l, PamphletNo. 4, H.M.S.O. 'List of Changes in BritishWar Material' 1939-1946,H.M.S.O. 'LocalE.M.E.Instructions' 1944-1956 Canadian Armed Forces 'Military Small Arms of the 20th Century' Hogg & Weeks sth Ed. 1985 A. & A. P. 'Ordnance & Minutes' 1930-1945,War Office BoardProceedings 'PartsList: Gun, Machine,Bren.303-in.Mk 3 - 1945' Chief Inspector of Armaments 'PrincipalMechanical& ComponentDifferences' Peter Laidler 1992, LAIDLER 'The BrenGun Saga' Dugelby 1983, COLLECTOR GRADEPUBLICATIONS 'The Bren Light MachineGun' 1942, Gale & PoldenLimited,Aldershot 'User Handbook of Armaments for the .303-inchBrenGun' 1969, Inspector ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: Arizona,U.S.A. RobertFaris,Wickenburg, Peter Laidler,Marcham, Oxfordshire,England England HerbertWoodend,M.O.D. PatternRoom,Nottingham, Warren Wheatfield,Sudbury,Ontario,Canada Australia Old., AshmoreCity, Oueensland, Movie Ordnance RobertCourtney,Curatorof Weapons,AustralianWar Memorial Australia The Trustees,AustralianWar Memorial,Canberra, Australia John Mclean, The Gap, Oueensland, Australia Ron Hayes, Bardon,Oueensland, @ lan Skennerton, | 994 & 2OO4 Second lmpression, 2OO4 All rights reserved. No portion of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or othetwise, without the prior permission in writing of the author and the publisher. National Library of Australia data: Gataloguing-in-Publication Skennerton, lan D. tsBN o 949749 23 0 Typesetting, layout and design by lan D. Skennerton. Published by lan D. Skennerton, P.O. Box 8O, Labrador 4215, Australia. Printed and bound bv Thai Watana Panich Press Co. Ltd., Rama I Rd., Bangkok, Thailand.

Distributors: North AmericaArms & MilitariaPress POBox5014 GrantsPass OR97527 USA

Great BritainJeremyTenniswood 36 St. Botolph's St. Colchester Essex CO2 7EA England

AustraliaPublishing lan Skennerton PO Box 80 Labrador Old.4215 Australia

Website: www.skennerton.com E-mail: idskennerton@hotmail.com

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Bren L.M.G. Genealogy Model ldentificationTables Differencesin ComponentAssemblies Gun Specifications U s e rG u i d e . . . Key Plates BarrelGroups Bipods Body Groups Butt & Slide Groups Nut, BArrelAssemblies Piston & BreechBolt Group OperatingMechanism Gun Stripping& Assembly Accessories& Fittings Parts Manufactureldentification

BrenGun SerialNumbers

5 8 9 14 15 16 18 24 26 32 38 40 42 43 46 47 48

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A suitablereplacement for the GreatWar Lewis light machinegun resultedin the Small Arms Committeeexamining the U.S. BrowningLMG and other contemporaries, as early as 1922. By late 1930, the 7.92mm Z,P,26 was being considered,along with an improved Browning BAR, Madsen and Vickers Berthier.Furtherimprovements to the C z e c h B r n o Z B M o d e l 1 9 2 6 r e s u l t e di n i t s a d v a n c e m e ntto M o d e l s 1 g 3 o , 1 9 3 3 and 1 9 3 4 ; i t w a s i n . 3 0 3 - i n .c o n f i g u r a t i o f n o r t h e s eB r i t i s h t r i a l sb y 1 9 3 1 . T h e 1 9 3 4 m o d e l was further developedat R.S.A.F.Enfielduntil the first productiongun was assembled there in 1937. Regardingits name, the first two letters of Brunn (Brno) and Enfield were combinedto identifythe new gun as the BREN. The .3o3 Bren Mark I and its equipmentwas officially approvedfor British service in Augustof 1938' Manufacture w a s a l s oc o m m e n c e d i n C a n a d ab y J o h n I n g l i sC o . L t d . in 1938, and at the Lithgow smail Arms Factoryin Australiaduring 1g40. In order to streamlineproduction,certain features of the early guns were dispensed with not long afterwards.Such machining operations on the receiverincludedomission of the dovetailfor lensaticsight, and deletingthe gas cylinderfluting and gas deflection shield and various strengthening ribs. These productionshortcutsiesulted in a Mark I (Modifiedlversion (Mark l* body) which was producedat all three factories;however few of these "modified" guns are marked as such. Similareconomieswere appliedto the butt and barrel groups and the bipod assembly,resultingin subsequentMarks of the varioussub-assembly and componentgroups. The Mark 2 Bren gun was producedin Britainby the MonotypeGroup,a consortium of Monotype,Daimler,Hercules Cycle,ClimaxRock Drill,F. Tibbenham, BritishFabricating MachineCo. and SigmundPumps.Sometimes known as the "garagehands" model,the Mark 2 further dispensedwith the drum backsightand many machiningoperations on the body, as well as the folding cocking handle.This new receiverwas designated the Mark 2 body, with the gas cylinderbeing screwedinto the body and securedby a pin. ln the official introductionof the Mk 2 gun, the Mk 2 barrel,bipod, butt and slide were also announced,althoughthese assembties are interchangeable on most Marks of Bren g u n s ' S o m e M k 2 g u n s w e r e a l s op r o d u c e d at R.S.A.FE . nfield a n d b y I n g l i si n C a n a d a . Approvedin August, 1948, the Mark 211 Brenhas a small locatinglug brazedonto the front of the cocking handle slot, to suit the folding cocking-hanOte Jloe of the Mk l. -fhe upgradedbody is usuallyengravedwith the new nomenclature. As this modified g u n w a s n o t i n t r o d u c e du n t i l 1 9 4 8 , t h e o l d d e s i g n a t i o n of Mark number and,,r.,, variationhad been superseded by an upgradedmarking,"/1". This replaced the original "*" classifier which indicates an improvement or modification to the pattern. ln July of 1944, the Mark 3 Bren was approved,a considerably lightenedvariant for jungle fighting. The Mk 3 was producedat Enfield; some may have been made by Inglis in 1945. Certainfeaturesfrom the Mk 2 model are obvious,such as the folding leaf aperturebacksight; later marks of the butt and barrel assemblies were also utilised. Substantial millingand lightening cuts were applied to the new bcidyon the Mark 3 gun.

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The Mark 4 Bren was a lightenedMk 2 model,approvedat the same time as the Mk 3, in Jufy 1944. However, not very many Mk 4 models appearto have been converted and so guns with the "Mk 4" engraving a r e q u i t e s c a r c e .S o m e M k 4 g u n s u s e d I n g l i s M k 2 b o d i e sa n d t h e o r i g i n a M l k 2 engraving is sometimes visible. According to Laidler, most Mark 4's were subsequently converted to the 7.62mm L4 configuration. C a n a d a ' sf i r s t B r e n g u n w a s a s s e m b l e d o n 2 3 r d M a r c h 1 g 4 o a t t h e J o h n l n g l i sC o . plant in Toronto. Ingliswas contracted to providepart of its production to Great Britain; someoriginaB l r n o Z B m o d e l sw e r e s e n t t o C a n a d a in 1936 and Britain's f i r s t o r d e rf o r 5,OOO I n g l i s g u n s w a s p l a c e d a s e a r l y a s S e p t e m b e r1 9 3 8 . p r o d u c t i o no f t h e M k I m o d e l w a s f o l l o w e db y t h e M k I ( M ) , t h e M k 2 , a n dp o s s i b l y t ,h e M k 3 i n 1 9 4 5 a t t h e end of production. C a n a d aa l s o p r o d u c e d t h e B r e nc h a m b e r e d f o r t h e r i m l e s s7 . g 2 x 57mm round, for export to China.Some .30-OO prototypeswere also assembled.

Inglis Bren Mkl(Mlbody marks. iloteMk 1 backsight, Mk I cocking handle & recessed Mk I magcatch. J. lllatter. I n A u s t r a l i a ,s A F L i t h g o w ' st h e f i r s t s i x g u n s w e r e f i r e d o n g t h J a n u a r y 1 g 4 1. The total wartime productionamountedto 17,335 guns, plus a few test and prototype models.Feeder factoriesat Mudgee,Portland and Dubboalso suppliedcomponentparts t o L i t h g o w .T h e M a r k I a n d M a r k | ( M ) g u n s w a s t h e o n l y t y p e s m a d e i n A u s t r a l i a , althougha lightenedpatternwas fabricated for trials.The Brengun was also produced i n f n d i aa t H y d e r a b a dw , ith manufacture commencing d u r i n gw o r l d w a r 2 . After the introductionof the new rimless NATO round, many .303 Bren guns were convertedto becomethe Gun, Machine,7.62mm L4; the most commonlyencountered 7 '62mm model being Britain's L4A4. certain problems associatedwith the original '3O3 rimmed cartridgewere thus overcomeand the Bren was given a new leaseof life u s i n g a r i m l e s sc a r t r i d g e f .o , r which it was originally designedI . n d i a n. 3 0 3 B r e n g u n s w e r e a f s oc o n v e r t e d t o 7 . 6 2 m m ,w i t h a n e w " 7 . 6 2 m m l A ' ; d e s i g n a t i o n .

.303 BREN MODELIDENTIFICATION


ldentificationof the various models of Bren Light Machine Guns is relatively easy becausethis is marked on the body; Mk l, Mk ll, Mk ll/1, Mk 3, etc. However, few of ) r " M k l * " . T h e v a r i o u sm a r k so f t h e M k l * b o d i e sw e r e m a r k e da s " M k l M " ( m o d i f i e do barrel, bipod, butt, butt slide, gas piston, trigger, were progressively introducedand often fitted onto guns alreadyin service,duringroutinemaintenance and upgrades.
Gan nodel Mark | lntroduced Principal features
0thel n0tes

1937 Body Mk l. Theoriginal design, linesight based upon theimprovedHas dovetail slotfor fixed onthe Czech ZGB Model No.4of 1934. Dial drum backsight, receiver body. Buttoriginally fittedwitha gasdeflection dish.shaped shield at frontof body, Mk I butthandle underneath, and a folding strap gaspiston and boltassembly, folding cocking handle. at topof thecup-shaped bunplate. gasvent ports. early style milling around simplification Some of machining operations onbody, flat gasdeflection shield, novertical reinforcing riboutside themagazine housing, and simplified machining/milling around the gasportvents. Fitted withMk ll barel,Mk ll bipod, Mk ll gaspiston, Mk ll carying handle, Mk ll butt andMk ll buttslide. The flat gas thinner, "horn" projecting shield has extensions upwards to prevent left,right movemenl; barrel Mk ll hasnobarrel locating recess or lug.

Mark I lMl 1941 Eody Mk l*. 0mission of dovetail for fixed line sight onleft side of body, butretaining dialdrum backfitted withMk 2 bun-slide, Mark l' sight. Usually and later Mk I buttwithout barrel assembly, style the hinged bunplate strap or thebutthandle underneath. Markll Mk ll. Folding leafbacksight mounted topof 1942 Body onto for backsight body, dovetail slots and some lightening grooves omitted. Gas cylinder is a press fit intothe pin. body, secured by a Non-folding typeof cocking handle withcorresponding changes in body slot. Nonproduction. wellcover. coffugated magazine Simplified

"ll" marked Mark 2/'l 1948 Body Mk211. Additional after theoriginal Mk I cocking handle requires body mod to Mk "ll" or "2" designation. Early folding cocking handle. prevent it reciprocating withpiston extension. Mark3 1944 Body Mk 3. Fitted withMk 2 folding leafbacksight. Essentially a lightened, modified Mk I body Body machining production incorporates many extra lightening cuts fittedwithshorter barrel and later particularly resulting in significant weight groups. reduction, marks of assembly noticeable at frontof thebody, around thegascylinder. 1944 Body Mk4. Has theMk2 folding leafbacksight. Additional body cutsand machining to reduce weight. Essentially a lightened Mk ll body, fittedwith group shorter bareland later assemblies.

Mark4

Note:Some differences may be noted in the body features (e.9. gas deflection shield), not always in accordancewith originalspecifications. Certain changesmay have been implemented graduallyand even applied differentlyin the Canadianand Australianfactories.The various barrel, carry handle, bipod, gas piston, butt and slide groups are basicallyinterchangeable; many guns were upgradedand fitted with later replacementparts in service. For the purpose of identification,the Mark of the gun is taken to be that markedon the body. Servicereplacement barrelsand slidegroupswere alwaysserial-numbered the same as the gun body number.

DIFFERENCES IN COMPONENT ASSEMBTIES


M a n y g u n s w e r e u p g r a d e d i n s e r v i c ew i t h v a r i o u s r e p l a c e m e n tp a r t s a n d e n s u i n g M a r k s o f b a r r e l s ,b i p o d s , b u t t s , & c . A s s e m b l i e sf r o m t h e d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r i e s m a y a l s o b e f i t t e d . T h e b o d y M a r k n u m b e r i s f o u n d o n t h e r e c e i v e r ,w i t h t h e f a c t o r y n a m e o r c o d e a n d year of production. Most parts and groups are interchangeable on the various action b o d i e s . A c o d e s y s t e m w a s a p p l i e d i n B r i t a i nd u r i n g W . W . 2 f o r c o m m e r c i a l c o n t r a c t o r s a n d s t a m p e d o n m S l y p a r t s . E n f i e l dg u n s u s u a l l y h a v e t h e " E " l o g o w h i l e t h e M o n o t y p e g u n s a r e c o d e d M 6 7 o r " D " f o r D a i m l e r .C a n a d i a nr e c e i v e r sc a n b e r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d as t h e y a r e m a r k e d " l N G L l S " ; t h e i r A u s t r a l i a n c o u n t e r p a r t sa r e s t a m p e d " L I T H G O W " a n d " M A " . I n d i a n r e c e i v e r sa r e u s u a l l y m a r k e d " S A F " . G u n s e r i a l n u m b e r s a r e u s u a l l yf o u n d a t t h e t o p r e a r o f b o d y , l e f t s i d e o f b a r r e l ,r e a r o f b u t t - s l i d ea n d o n t h e b a r r e l n u t . Bodies:

(1 Action bodies from top: Mk 1 Enfield 937), Mk | (M) lithgow, Mk2 DaimlerlMonotype, Mk2ll (originaily Monotype), Mk3 Enfield and Mk4 conversion. Note differences inbody cuts & lightening. gas backsights, vents & miiting, and barrel cradles. Mk 1,l(M)&3 bodies have locating lug(rear of gas shield)to centralise barre!. Mk2 & c bodies donotlBarrets Mk l, l. & 3 have a corresponding slotbehind thegas block to fit Mk1,t(M)&3 bodies. While reporred tharMk2,4& 5 barrels arenor interchangeable onMk| & 3 bodies, ourexperience - M.0.0. pattern isthatallbarrets interchange 0nallMark bodies. floon.

Butts: Butt Mk l. Cupped buttplate; early model had folding butt strap and butt handle. Production economies dispensed w i t h t h e f o l d i n gb u t t s t r a pa n d h a n d l e . Butt Mk 2. Flat buttplatewith extendedshoulderrest. Recoilspring and plate omitted, new butt swivel and plate fitted. Returnspringretainedby a screwedspringtube nut. Butt Mk 3. Furtherproductioneconomies to Mk 2, with flat buttplateheel; not issued. Butt Mk 4. Lightened and tapered,sling swivel bar on buttplatewith recessslot.

From theleft- Butts Mark l, 2, 3 and 4. M.0.0. Pattern froon, lloninghan.

Butt-Slides: Marks 1, 2 & 3. Machined f r o m s o l i d ,t h e n e w M a r k s p r o g r e s s i v e ls yi m p l i f i e d manufacture.Major differences a r e o b v i o u sf r o m t h e d r a w i n g s ;t h e p r o g r e s s i v e machining changesare not necessarily relatedto specificmarks of the butt slides.

Cocking Handle: Mk l. Spring-loaded and hingedcocking knob, folds forward in the closed positionand does not reciprocate with the butt slideduringoperation. Givesa thinnergun profile. Mk 2. Fixedhandleand plunger;it does not fold forward like the Mk I pattern.

Barrel Nut: preventsbutt Mk l. Lightening recesson outsideof side lever.Safety cam on underside beingfully withdrawn and mechanism cockedor fired, unlessthe nut is fully closed. Mk 2. Safety cam omitted. Lightening recessalso omitted, a productioneconomy. Mk 3. Slightlydifferentmachining, only usesthe catchesMarks 2 or 3.

From leftMarksl,2&3. Gas Piston & Post:

Mk l. Comprisesstem, extension,piston post, piston post spring, plunger,cotter and pin. Flutedpiston stem. Mk 1 piston post is not as deeplyrecessed, largerin diameter. Mk 2. Mk 2 plungeris longer,the Mk 2 pistonpost is recessed deeperand is smallerin diameter,giving better supportto the plungerand surrounding spring.The piston stem is not fluted.

From left-

Marks I & 2. Magazine Catch: the Marks 1 & 2. Mk 1 catch has a milled recessin the rear face of the thumb-piece; Mk 2 has a hole boredthrough it.

From theleft- Marks 1 & 2.

11

Barrels: M k l A s s e m b l y . U s u a l l yw i t h o u t a M a r k d e s i g n a t i o n number.lt is 25-in. long with a s t a i n l e s ss t e e l s l e e v ef o r t h e l a s t 1 0 . S - i n .t o m u z z l e .S t r a i g h tt a p e r o n f l a s h h i d e r , s o i t i s s i m i l a rt o t h e M k l * e x c e D tf o r t h e e x t e r n a lt a p e r o f t h e f l a s h h i d e r c o n e . M k l * A s s e m b l y .S t a m p e d " l * " o n l e f t s i d e n e a r b r e e c h .M k l l l g a s r e g u l a t o r fitted, with i t s l a r g e rt h r e e g a s v e n t s i n c r e a s e d i n d i a m e t e r ,s t a m p e d " l l l " . S o m e M k I b a r r e l sw e r e c o n v e r t e dt o t h i s p a t t e r n ( a l s o2 5 - i n . l o n g ) .D i s t i n c t" k i n k " i n f l a s h h i d e r c o n e t a p e r . M k 2 A s s e m b l y . F l a s he l i m i n a t o r a n d g a s b l o c k f i t o n t o b a r r e le n d , n o t i n t e g r a lw i t h i t . E l i m i n a t o ri n c o r p o r a t e s f o r e s i g h t b r a c k e t , g a s b l o c k h o u s e s t h e r e g u l a t o r .N o l o c a t i n g r e c e s st o n g u e ( n e a rt h e m i d d l e )u n d e r n e a t h t h e b a r r e l ;2 5 - i n . l o n g . n e w d e s i g nf l a s h e l i m i n a t o ra n d f o r e s i g h t b l o c k ; M k 4 A s s e m b l y . L i g h t e rc o n s t r u c t i o n , 2 2 . 2 5 - i n . l o n g . ( M k 3 w a s 2 - g r o o v ee x p e r i m e n t ao l nly). M k 5 A s s e m b l y . L i g h t e rc o n s t r u c t i o n , m o d i f i e d M k 2 p r o d u c t i o nb y t u r n i n g d o w n a n d L o n g e rs i g h t i n gr a d i u s ,s i g h t i n gb r a c k e tc l o s e rt o m u z z l e ;2 2 . 2 5 - i n . l o n g . shortening.

Differen bta r r e m l a r k sf,r o mt o p 4 a n dM a r k Mark 1., Mark 2, Mark 5. ll engths, Note t h ed i f f e r e n bta r r e forms o f t h ef o r e s i g h at n dt h e i r positionin wg h,i c h affects relative h a n d ls el e e v e s ; s i g h t i nrg adius C .arry M k t h a sl i g h t e n i n hg o l e sM , k2 has n o n eM , k 3 i s s h o r t ew r i t hl i g h t e n i n g holes W . a i s t eM d k 1 wood handle carry l p em a yb e a s w e l la s M k 2 p a r a l l e ty n o l i c eo dn t h el a t e r barrels. M.0.0. PatternBoom, llottinghan. Bipods:

M a r k s 1 , 2 a n d 3 ( p e r 1 9 6 9 p a m ) . M k t h a s t e l e s c o p i n gl e g s , s p r i n g - l o a d e d so they f o l d a t t h e s a m e t i m e . M k 2 h a s f i x e d l e n g t h l e g s w h i c h f o l d i n d e p e n d e n t l yM . k 3 is like Mk 1 but with non-extending l e g s ; a l s o m a y h a v e s p i k e df e e t . I n 1 9 4 7 , t h e B r i t i s hM k 3 w a s a M k 2 t y p e w i t h i n d e p e n d e n lte g s ; b u t l a t e r n o m i n a t e da s t h e t y p e s h o w n h e r e .

L e f tt o r i g h t Mk1,Mk2 &Mk3. M.0.0. Patternfloon.

12

Magazines: 3O-rd,Mk l. The originalpattern. 3o-rd, Mk l*. Auxiliaryspringfitted insidethe case, the front of which is recessed top and bottom to providea seatingfor the spring.Converted from Mk i r"g"rin". 3o-rd, Mk l*t. similar to Mk l* but fitted with Mk l* bottom plate and bottom plate retainer'Mk l* plate has two half-moonindents.Converted from'Mi-l magazine. 30-rd' Mk ll. Same as Mk l* magazine but new made. Slightdimensional differences. 3o-rd, Mk llt. Same as Mk l** magazine but new made.Slightdimensional differences. upon the introduction of the Mk l** and Mk tt* models, the Mk l, Mk l* and Mk It magazines were declared obsolescent. Some magazine cases are stamped as ,,lll,.
30-rd Magazine Mk ll.l. Case, magazine Mk ll 2. Guide, platform 3. Plate, bortom, Mk l. 4. Platform, Mk ll 5. Retainer, plate, bottom Mk l. 6. Spring, auxiliary 7. Spring, ptarform, Mk tl

W
1.O.O-1d, Mk l. Originaltype. Upon introduction of Mk ll drum, (a) Mk I was modifiedby deletinginspectioncover and insertionof a washer in lieu; (b)'inspection'note and slot for cover in the top cover plate deleted;(c) "WIND" and direction arrow pressedinto top cover plate.toeliminate possibility of winding springin the wrong Jiiectlon. loo-rd, Mk tl. Simplified design,which.alsoincorporates - - the winding handleas part of the magazine, positioned alongside the loadingfevei.
[eft: 100rd. A..A. Magazine Mk 1 Right: l00rd.A.-A. Magazine Mk 2

13

SPECIFICAT'ONS

GUN, MACHINE,BREN,.3O3-iN. Length 3 ft.9.5 in.t1155mml 3 f t . 9 . 5 i n . [ 11 5 5 m m ] 3 ft.6.9 in.I1o89mml 3 ft. 6.9 in.t1O89mml 25.O in. [635mm1 25.0 in. [635mm] 22.25 in. [565mm1 22.25 in. [565mm] Weight 22\b.2 oz.[10 kgl 2 3 l b . 3 o z . [ 1 O . 5k g ] 1 9 l b . 5 o z . 1 8 . 7 6k g l 19 lb.2 oz.t8.67kgl 6 6 5 5 lb. 4y4 oz. 12.84kgl lb. 7lz oz. t2.93 kgl l b . 1 y 2o z . [ 2 . 3 1 k g ] lb. O oz. 12.27kgl Sight Radius 31.0 in.[787mm] 3 O . 8i n . [ 7 8 2 m m ] 27.3in. [694mm] 27.3in. [694mm]

G u n ,M k 1 : G u n ,M k 2 : G u n ,M k 3 : G u n ,M k 4 : BarrelMk BarreM l k Mk Barrel BarrelMk 1 *: 2: 4: 5:

Barrel: Rifling Rifling twist Mean groove depth Mean width of lands Sights: BacksightMk 1 BacksightMk 2 Front Method of Operation Cyclic Rateof Fire Magazines ...

' 6 groove,Enfieldconcentric R . H . ,1 t u r n i n 1 0 i n . .O057-in. .088-in. Aperture,dial drum, 200 - 1,800 yds. yds. Aperture,foldjng leat, 2OO- 2,OOO Bladeforesight Gas-piston 45O - 550 r.P.m. box magazine 3O-round (anti-aircraft) 1OO-round drum magazine .303-in.British 2,440 ft./sec. approximate f4olo/od (Mk l, 1939) Enfield,Engtand f3O/18/Od (Mk ll, 19421Monotype, England $160.00 (Mk 2, 19441lnglis, Canada c. f3T lOlOd(Mk l, 1943) Lithgow, Australia 29 lb. 19o 42o

Cartridge MuzzleVelocity, Mk Vll ball ... Productioncosts:

Tripod;Weight (w/ A.A. leg) Elevation Traverse 14

USER GUIDE
for PARTS and VOCAB.L/SIS IMPORTANT- Readthis sectionfirst.
British and AustralianLists have been the principalreferences, updated in some areas.This User Guideshould be studied so as to better understand the lists and their arrangement. REF. NO. is the part number as illustratedon the adjacent page. DESIGNATIOII is the service part name. Lines are often indentedwhere that particularline appliesto the previous entry. For example, the Nut, cam, backsight (page 27, illustratedas Part No. 5) is part of the Backsight assemblyof the Body group. e.g. BODYGROUP, MK I Part assembly group. BACKSIGHT, MK I Part assembly group. CAM Part group, applicable to the Backsight Assembly. CAM, backsight Component part of the Cam assembly. NUT, cam, backsight Componentpart of the Cam assembly. Lower case indicatesan additionaldescriptionof the part, lt is noted, however, that by the end groups tend to have becomedispersed;screws, springs,etc. of of the war, these sub-assembly the various assemblies are inclinedto be groupedtogether, at the end of the particularlists. VOCAB.NUMBERis the service part number as on originalpackagingor attached labels,mainly a stores reference.Letter prefixes are also a service indicator. Original British stores numbers use two letters. A third letter suffix is sometimesnoted, "A" is an Australianmodification,"C" is Canadian.For example,bipod legs Mk lin the Australianlist are part nos. CAA 1088 and 1O89. CGB is also Canadian. The general"81/" prefix is for rifle parts, "C1l" for machinegun parts, "C2l" for AFV machinegun parts and "G1/" for general storesand ironmongery. BritishVocab. No. prefixesseem to have commencedwith "AA", through "BA" and "BB" for the .3O3 No. 1 rifle. "BB" was also used for the No. 4 rifle while "BJ" generally relatesto its Mk l* variant. "CR" parts numberprefixesseem to date from around 195O, continuinginto the 7.62mm NATO era. "BD" prefixeswere appliedto the .303 VickersMachineGun, "BE" to the 9mm Sten and also for the .3O3 Bren gun. Vocab. Nos. with unusualcombination prefix such as M3/MC 8268 (steel keepersplit-pinfor Mk 2 bipod leg hinge pin) indicatessupply from listingsoutsidethe small arms series; the M3/MC is from a 3-in. mortar mount. An indicator(#) marks those parts available through the ordnancesupply system for normal maintenance. Major component groups did not have Referenceor Vocab. Nos. in the usual column as they were not available."GA" is a GeneralArrangementand "A" signifiesan "Assembly". This explainsthe absenceof part or vocab. numbersas these were assemblygroups or sub-groups. The MAT. column detailsthe part materialand l/O. OFFis the "number of" or quantity required. DRAWING NUMBER is the original manufacturer'spart drawing. An A.D.D.(S) prefix to the drawing number indicatesAustralian origin, D.D.(E)is an Enfielddrawing (DesignDepartment, Enfield). M.G.D. is also of Britishoriginwhile M.G.A. indicates an assembly.

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MECHANISM OPERATING
ACTION DESCRIPTION- On dischargeof the cartridge, some of the gases following the bullet pass through the gas vent and gas regulatorinto the gas cylinder.This forces the piston to the rear and compressesthe return spring until the piston is stopped by the piston buffer. The empty case, being gripped by the extractor, is carriedto the rear on the face of the breech block until its base meets the ejector. The case then ejects downwards through the ejectionslot in the piston' having The piston, carryingthe breechblock, been stopped by the piston buffer, is forced forward by the return spring. Feed horns on the bolt contact the base of the first round in the magazine and force it forward into the chamber,the extractor closing over the rim. The piston post in its f inal move forward cap, drivesthe firing pin againstthe cartridge thus firing the round. The cycle is repeated during automatic fire, so long as the trigger remains depressed and the magazine is charged.
Action o! the Gases and Unlocking the Brcech

With the change lever at "A" (Automatic), pressure on the trigger disengagesthe sear from the bent on the piston, and the piston is allowedto go forward. As long as the trigger is pressed, the gun will continueto fire but if the bent will engage the trigger is released, with the sear the next time the piston comes to the rear, stoppingits forward movement. the With the change lever at "R" (Rounds), trigger must be pressedeach time a shot is to be fired, becausethe piston is held back after each round. With the change lever at "S" (Safe), from the sear the triggeris disengaged and the gun cannotbe fired.
(BURsrs)
SAfE ROUNDS(SINGLEROUNDS)

(or Repetitionl

Ethaysl

Action ol thc Gues,

Ettpctiot

ond Electio^

post 3 piston tongue 5 gaspiston 6 rear of breech block locking 9 body shoulder I 1 extractor pin 13 firing gasvent 15 banel

1 6 gasregulator 1 7 gasblock 1 8 return spring rod 1 9 unlocking cam face 20 gasvenls 2 1 eiector

is maintained when Note- lf trigger pressure the change lever is altered from "safe" to "automatic"and then released and the trigger pressed again, the gun will not f ire. The change lever, therefore, will not be altered while the triggeris pressed.

42

STRIPPING & ASSEMBLY

The Bren was designed for quick takedown and interchange of assemblies and their sub-assemblies; for further stripping, it is best to use the original Bren tools. Essentialspare parts and a combination tool were issuedin the SparesWallet with each gun. Before stripping, the standard safety procedures ate to remove the magazine,cock the gun and check that the body and chamberare clear.

To Remove the Piston & Breech Block Assemblies. With piston and breech block in the forward position,push out the body lockingpin (1) from left to right and draw the butt (2) to the rear until the return spring rod (3) is clear of the body (4). Hold the return spring rod to the left and pull the cockinghandlesharplyto the rear to withdraw piston (6) and breech block l7l. lf this does not move the piston and and breech block to the rear, insert your fingersthrough the ejectionopeningunderneath and ease piston and breechblock rearwards. Returnthe cocking handleto its forward positionand remove piston and breech block. Release the return spring rod in order to resume its normal position. To Remove Breech Block from the Piston Extension (after removal from the gun), pull the block to the rear and give it a slightupwardtilt in orderto clearthe pistonpost. To Remove Firing Pin and Spring, hold the breech block with undersideuppermost, press out firing pin retainer(8) from left to right, allowingthe firing pin spring (9) to push the firing pin (10) rearwards.Be carefulthat the firing pin does not fly out underpressure of its spring. To Remove Extractor Stay and Spring. With the underside of breech block uppermost, lift the f ront end of the extractor stay (11) until it disengages from the extractor(12). Removeextractor stay and spring (13) and lift the extractor up out of its guides in the breech block. Be careful to prevent loss when pressure on the stay springis released. To RemoveBarrel. Check that the magazineopeningcover is closed and the gun is tilted to the right. Depressbarrelnut catch {14) and raisehandle(15) to its fullest extent, disengaging the lockingthreadsof the barrelnut from those of the barrel.Pushbarrelforward and lift Cteir.-

Remove Gas Regulator. Press the gas r e g u l a t o rp i n ( 1 6 ) i n w a r d s u n t i l i t i s f l u s h with its housing (17). Turn the regulator until the retainingpin housing coincides with the slot in the gas block (18) and p u s h o u t t h e r e g u l a t o rf r o m r i g h t t o l e f t . Remove Butt Slide Assembly (not illustrated). Disengage barrel nut catch and r a i s e t h e b a r r e l n u t h a n d l e ( n e c e s s a r yo n l y f o r s t r i p p i n gt h e M k 1 g u n ) . W i t h d r a w t h e butt slide from the body. To Remove Butt Plate and Return Spring. Mk 1 Butt: Depress the butt plate catch (19) and removethe butt.plate(20). Place t h e o p e n e n d o f t h e c o m b i n a t i o nt o o l ( 2 1 ) over the return spring tube cap (221, press the cap inward and turn anticlockwise approximately 90o, ease the combination tool to the rear and remove the cap. Withdraw the return spring (23) a n d r e t u r n s p r i n gr o d . Mk 2 & 4 Butts: Unscrew and remove the two butt olate screws (24\ and remove the butt plate (25). Usingthe combination tool or screwdriver, unscrew the return springtube cap (26) and remove the cap. Remove the return spring (271 and return s p r i n gr o d .

24

v'-.

l\

it
44

\
29
30 32 3l

Remove and Strip the Trigger Mechanism. Rotate the change lever (28) until the detent is clear of its recess (i.e. between " S a fe " a n d " A u t o m a t i c " o r " S a f e " a n d " R e p e t i t i o n "a n d p u s h o u t t h e l e v e r f r o m right to left, controlling the upward tendency of the sear. Push out the sear p i n ( 2 9 ) f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t . c o n t r o l l i n gt h e upward tendency of the sear (30). Remove the sear (30), spring (31) and post (32). Rotate the tripping lever (33) u p w a r d t o d i s e n g a g et h e p l u n g e r f r o m t h e c a n n e l u r ei n t h e t r i g g e r p i n ( 3 4 ) a n d p u s h out the pin from right to left. Remove the trigger and tripping lever complete, through the top of the butt slide.

To Remove Bipod. Rotate the gun body to the left through 9Oo and then withdraw the bipod from the gas cylinder.

J
To Remove Magazine Catch, Ejector and Magazine Opening Cover. Slide magazine opening cover forward, press magazine catch pin (35) to the right to disengage the retainer, and withdraw the pin to the right as far as it will go. Slide ejector and magazine catch (36) forward, clear of the body. With magazine catch and ejector removed from the gun, withdraw the m a g a z i n eo p e n i n g c o v e r ( 3 8 ) t o t h e r e a r . To Strip the Magazine Catch and Ejector. Hold the magazine catch and ejector between the finger and thumb of the right hand, the thumb placed against the rear of the ejector and with the finger and thumb of the left hand, hold the operating projection of the magazine catch. Then compress the magazine catch spring (37) and rotate the catch (36) forward, thereb y d i s e n g a g i n gt h e t w o c o m p o n e n t s . To Remove the Barrel Nut. Close the magazine opening cover, disengage the barrel nut catch and press down the plunger in front of the magazine opening (39) with a punch or bullet tip. Then lift out the barrelnut. To Strip the Magazine. Press in stud (4O) protruding through the bottom plate (41) and slide it off. Mk 2 magazine has two indentations (421 in the bottom plate which prevent its being slid all the way off; then lift it off sideways. Take out m a g a z i n es p r i n g ( 4 3 ) a n d p l a t f o r m . ASSEMBLY of the gun generallyoccurs in reverseorder to the stripping. In replacing springs, be careful they do not buckle. CLEANING: For working guns, lubricate the breech block locking shoulder and bearing surfaces, bearing surfaces on the piston extension, piston guide and ribs and grooves in the gun body in which the piston guide ribs run. Leave the barrel dry as well as the gas cylinder and regulator. Also leave the piston head, between the piston rings, and the breech bolt face dry.

45

ACCESSORIES & FITTINCS


capacity,with as 1OO-rd magazines are shown on page 13. Nominated The anti-aircraft three dummy "follower" rounds,the true cartridgecapacitywas 97. These magazines and armour-piercing of tracer, incendiary were generallyloadedwith a high percentage ammunition and zeroed on the target by observingthe tracer bullet flight. With the large capacity drum fitted, standardsights were not able to be used. The magazine cover plate was removedand a specialbracketand flat springfitted so as to mount the magazine.Makers are listed in British Small Arms of lNW2. Four such magazineswere suppliedin a specialbox which has fittings to facilitateloadingof the magazines. British Bren tripods were made by B.S.A.; they were also manufacturedin Australia, and airborneforces, Canadaand India. Some specialtripods were made for paratroops role, these are identifiedby the short front leg and lower profile. For the anti-aircraft the front leg was raisedverticallyand a two-pieceextensionremovedfrom insidethe tubes, to serve as a long front leg. A specialmortice slot also facilitatedthe S.M.L.E. rifle being used as the front leg, by fitting onto its bayonetlug.

ffi=e@

a
BREN 303'"fl 'c' Mt( l'

,t,ir.'

Brenguns were issuedin wooden transit chests which also held the steel cleaningrod. A webbing holdall(sparebarrelbag) containsthe No. 2 barrel,cylindercleaningrod and as follows: chambercleaningstick. lt also has five externalpocketsdesignated cleaningbrush. Top leftMop, wire brush,gas cylinderfoulingtool and magazine Top centre- Singlepull through. Top rightOil bottle for graphitegrease. CentreSpare parts wallet. BottomOil can. The webbing spareswallet pocketswere nominated to contain: Top lefttools. Combination CentreOil can full of Oil A. Top rightDoublepull through and flannelette. rupturedcase reamers, BottomSparepartstin which also containsgas regulator pin point gauge. gauze extractor,wire and a firing include a magazinemandrill (for repairingdented cases), a Other issue accessories deflectorcartridgecase bag and a long webbing sling with specialhook catches.The steel magazinecase holds twelve magazines, and wooden battalionsparesboxes "A" "8" parts. and containedtools and servicespare The "8" box is twice as high as the "A" box and the designations are usuallystencilled on the greenboxes in white paint. 46

PARTS MANUFACTURE IDENTIFICATION


A close examinationof the inspectionand productionmarks on componentparts will help to establish the originalityof a gun because different manufacturerindicator stamps were applied by the variousfactoriesand contractors.Many guns had parts replacedin service,during their routine maintenance and repair,so thele replacement componentscan usuallybe identified by checkingthe markings. Body Manufacturer Markings: Guns were usually marked on the right side of the body with the factory indicator and year of production. The British guirs will be found to have "ENFIELD", "D" logo, or "UE" on later 7.62mm L4 grns. Monotype or the EnJield Daimlerguns have the M67 or "D" markings.Canadian guns are mjrked INGLISwhile the Australianguns are marked "LITHGOW"or "MA". Most of the lndian .3O3 Brens have been converted to 7.62mm 1,A and these are still in service. Those few Hyderabad guns examinedhave been markedwith "sAF" and the year. Other Parts & lnspectors' Markings.' Manufacturers'markingsand/or inspectionstamps will be found on most componentparts. Those examplesshown here are typical, no doubt some others are likely to be encountered. Australianand Canadianinspection and proof stamps will be found to differ from their Britishcounterparts. The inspection marks should not be confusedwith proof markswhich incorporate crossedflags, or the factory identificationcodes. Serial numbers can also be an indicator although many guns were upgradedin serviceusingcomponentpartsfrom other makersand countries.
Enfieldlnspection mark: lnglis lnspection marks: lithgow lnspection mark: Monotype lnspection mark: Sydney lnspection narh: Eritish Contracton'marks:

cb
E 27

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)r
d2

JI, JII
ci? l8 L

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6

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o
s
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s26 s81 s99 s105 s111 sl 23 sl80 s223


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Gouernment Acceptancc marh: Canadian Contnctorc'marks:

@
Canadian 0overnment marts:

?n
Austnlian Factorynarks:

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s2s

47

BREN GUN SERIALNUMBERS


Differentmakers were allottedserial number blocks,these can confirm manufacturers. They may also identifythe makerand gun to which some parts belong.Some numbersat the series end may not have been utilised, figures were sometimes recorded as being terminated short (Erifish Small Arms of World War 2; Codes & Contracfs, Skennerton). guns by the end of the war. To this with over %-million manufacturer ENFIELD- Principal quantityfrom the end of the war until as late total of 253,633 must be addedan indefinite and ran into the 7.62mm era.The was intermittent this production as the 1960's, although on the body,as the contractdates, that engraved yearsare indicators only, not necessarily production and assemblyare seldomfound to have coincided.
producedsome MONOTYPE GROUP Entield 1937 A1 to 4999 guns, 1942-1945. during 83,438 Enfield B1 Monotype Corp. R1 ro R9999 Enfield 82 to B1O3 (DP guns) Monotype Corp. 51 to 59999 Enfield c.1938 8104 Sknmodel Monotype Corp. T1 ro T9999 Enfield 8105 fo 89999 Monotype Corp. U9999 U1 ro c.1939 Enlield C1 to C9999 MonotypeCorp. V1 ro V9999 was Mkl to Enfield 05000 D1 ro D9999 Monotype Corp. W1 fo W8320 Enfiefd Mkl(Mlchangeover. El to E9999 Monotype Corp. RA1 fo RA6695 Enfield F1 ro F9999 MonotypeCorp. RBlOOOO RB1 fo Entield c.1940 G1 to G9999 Enfield H1 ro H9999 Enfield K1 ro K9999 production ran from 1939 until INGLIS Entield c.l94l L1 fo 19999 1945. Some work was carriedout at Enfield Pl ro P9999 Long Branchafter lngliscloseddown. Enlield c.1942 U1 fo U9999 Inglis,Canada M1 fo M9999 Enfield V1 to V9999 lnglis,Canada N1 ro N9999 Enfield W1 fo W9999 Inglis,Canada P1 to P2 Enfield X1 to X9999 Inglis,Canada OT1 fo 15T7544 Enfield Y1 to Y9999 and maybe more. Enfield 21 to 29999 Inglis,Canada, OCHI(?)to Enfield AA1 fo AA9999 7.92mm Chinese 4CH3000 apprcx. Enfield c.1943 BA1 fo 849999 contract,1943-45 Enfield BB1 fo 889999 Enfield BC1 to 8C9999 Enfield BD1 fo 8D9999 ran from LITHGOW S.A.F.production Enfield BE1 fo 8E9999 1 9 4 0 u n t i l 1 9 4 5 , a t o t a l o f 1 7 , 4 2 9g u n s . Enfield c.19tU BF1 fo 8F9999 Lithgow, Australia A1 to A9999 Enfield BG1 fo BG9999 Lithgow, Australia 87429 81 to Enfield 8H883 BH1 fo Enfield fronc.l945 LB1 fo LB35OO0 Enfield l948'1952 fo LB54O33 LB350OO lndia productionoccurred to.280'in. HYDERABAD Enfield cnnvetted LB54384 with tripods,marked WW2 along during 1952'1954 Enfield 1858823 1854385 ro SAF with year of manufacture. A1000 fo A7O0Oapprox. Enfield 1950's'1960's.

Aden,Burma,Singapore, Sudan, orderswerefor the lrishRepublic, Most 1 952-1956Enfield Aden, and FTR programs. lraq and Ceylon,Rhodesia,Tripolitania, Hong Kong, Pakistan, The l, J, M, N, O, O, R, S, & T prefixeswere not used by Enfield.U, V, & W prefixesare A 1 to 4999 and 81 Also notethat serials to both Enfieldand Monotype. listedas allocated only. was Lithgow A9999 A1000 to to 87429 were used by Lithgowtoo, though with 57,60O of the Mk lgun at 22O,OOO RecentEnfieldrecordsputtheirtotal production a peddled produced Corporation, by Monotype Mk 3. The Mk 2 was only of the subsequent guns. 83,438 figure of WW2 with their total sub-contractors, schemewhich incorporated 48

SER'ES SMALLARMSIDENTIFICATION
the components & accessories lists and Armourers'lnstructions, Based on serviceldentification partsidentification havetechnical drawings.Ihe5.A.1.S. and disassembly with stripping, aredetailed reference. The 11 x B%-in.sizewith plasticlaminated not available beforein a single information paper ideal and manual. art makes the studyor workshop reference binding and cover,thread-sewn o No. 1 -.303-in. RIFLE 2004 & reprinted M. t Skennerton Updated Australia and lndia until afterWW 2. series as madein England, The Short MagazineLee-Enfield o No. 2 - .303-in. RIFLE 2002 M. 4 Sken nerton Updated& reprinted in Britain, and the U.S.A. manufactured Canada of the No. I 5.M.1-.E., Wartime successor r No. 3 - 9mm AUSTEN & OWENSMG's Skennerton indigenous development and production,duringWorld War 2. Australia's o No. 4 - .303-in. RIFLE M. 5 Mk I Skennerton its successes alongwith its shortcomings. carbine', TherenownedBritish'jungle o No. 5 -.303-in EREN LIGHT MACHINEGUN Skennerton Updated& reprinted 2004 and Austalia, the differentmodelsand partsvariations. in Britain,Canada Manufactured o No. 6 - BR,TiSHSERVICE SIyORDS& LANCf PAIIERNS Skennerton and lances sincethe 1850's. An illustrated synopsis of the serviceswords,cut/asses o No. 7 -.303-in. MAGAZINE LEE-METFORD RIFLES & CARETNES Skennerton & LEE-ENF,ELD rifle. the standardEmpireissue From l BBBuntil the adventof the ShortMagazineLee-Enfield, o No. 8 - .303-in. VTCKERS Mk I MACHTNE CUN Skennerton guns. mostreliable machine from t9l2 until 1945,oneof history's in England and Australia Made o No. 9 -.455-in. WEBLEY Skennerton M. I REVOLVERS precisof the renowned Britishrevolverin servicefrom 191 5 until about 19 50. An illustrated o No. 10 -.303-in. PATTERN VAR,ANTSSkennerton 1914 RIFLE & SNTPTNG in the U.S.A.during the CreatWar, the P'14 laterservedas a 2nd line arm. Manufactured o No. 11 - 9mm SIEN MACHTNE I, I*,2 & 3 Skennerton CARBINE MARKS gunand itsearlyproduction variants . wartime expedientsub-machine Britain's o No. 12 - 7.62mm Ll & Cl F.A,L.RIFLESkennerton productionFN inch-FAl series. & Australian A comparative study of the British,Canadian o No. 13 - SPEC,AL LEE-ENFIELDS Skennerton SERV,CE gas-operated autoloaders. .45 De Lisle Commandocarbineand the wartimeexpedient o No. 14 -.303-in. LEWIS MACHINE GUN Skennerton manufactured by BSACuns;the Creat War ground & air patternguns. An Americandesign r No. 15 -.450 &.303-in. MARTIN,RIFLES & CARETNES Skennerton generalservice issue longarm. firstpurpose-builtbreech-loading The BritishEmpire's o No. 16 - BRITTSH RIFLES Skennerton EMP,RE CADET & IRATNTNG g rifles. Australian, Canadian & New Zealandissue trainin A synopsis of the British, o No. 17 -.45 THOMPSONSUB-MACHINE GUN Skennerton during World War 2. issueof the Model 192BAl and M I variants Commonwealth U.5.& British o No. 18 - 7.62mm L42At SNIPE& 139,2A & LEE-ENFIELD CONVERSTONS Skennerton of the No. I and No.4 rifleseries. NATO era development British & lshapore o No. 19 - AIJSTRALIAN & Labudda VARTATIONS Skennerton S.M.L.E. sporters. Specific Lithgowand WW2 feederfactoryproductionalong with Lithgow/ Slazenger

SERIES ARMSIDENTIFICATION SMALL


lan Skennerton

TitlesListProjected 7.62^ L1 & C1 Rifles Machine Cun .303Vickers Variations L.E. Australian S.M. Rifles & Training British Empire Cadet l l l a n dl l l * . ,a r k s , o . 1 , S . M . L . EM . 3 0 3R i f l e N &2 | & l * , M a r k s1 1 2 , 1 / 3 , o .4 M a r k s . 3 0 3R i f l e N Conversions 139 & Lee-Enfield 7.62^ L42A1Sniper, Guns Mk | & 9" Owen Mk I Sub-Machine 9" Austen Lee-Enfield & Magazine Lee-Metford .303 Magazine Variants 1914Rifle& Sniping .303 Pattern Sword& LancePatterns BritishService Rifles & Carbines .450& .303Martini Cun Machine . 3 0 3 B r e nL i g h t Machine Gun .30 Browning Lee-Enfields Seruice Special Gun Machine . 3 0 3L e w i s No.5 Mk I . 3 0 3R i f l e , No. 1 Revolver, .455 Pistol, No. 2 Revolver, .380 Enfield, Cun Sub-machine .45 Thompson Carbines Mk | & Mk ll Machine 9" Sten Carbines Mk V & Mk Vl Machine 9" Sten

... to be continued