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3/30/2009

Substitution of Bias Ply Tires for Radial Tires on Caterpillar Large Mining Trucks Today with demand exceeding available radial tire supply, many customers are seeking alternative tires, such as bias ply for use on Caterpillar Large Mining Trucks. Caterpillar continues to recommend the use of radial tires on all Large Mining Trucks. This provides the best machine performance; tire life and cost per ton in all applications. However, based upon the current radial tire demands, if and when the need arises to consider replacement of radial tires with bias ply, the customer should consult their local tire representative for an equivalent size bias replacement. Prior to replacing the radial with bias ply, the tire representative and customer will have to select a bias tire that has physical dimensions that allow rim fitment and machine clearance. The additional weight of these tires needs careful consideration, as the weight limit is critical to the Roll Over Protection Structure (ROPS), steering, and braking performance. Caterpillar does not approve any attachment that causes the weight of the truck to exceed the certification test mass limit as stated on the ROPS certification plate attached to the cab. The certification test mass is defined as the entire weight of the truck including all attachments, fluids, etc., less normal debris and body. Any weight added, whether from fitment of biased ply tires and/or any other additional attachments, must also be included in GMW calculations. Payload adjustments must be made when weight is added to the empty truck in order to comply with machine operating guidelines and the 10/10/20 policy. Haulage payload and speed requirements will need to be reviewed and adjusted as necessary so as not to exceed the tires load rating and ton-mile per hour (TMPH) / tonne- kilometer per hour (TKPH) limits. TMPH/TKPH is the working capacity of the tire that is calculated using the average tire load and average speed for the day, with some minor adjustments. Best practices include choosing a size, ply rating and type that will not be overloaded at maximum recommended operating pressure and would have a TMPH rating slightly in excess of job TMPH requirements. Bias ply tires have lower TMPH ratings than radials and may require reduced job speeds and / or payloads to ensure the capability of the tire is not exceeded. Reductions in tire wear life, traction, fuel economy, ride and handling should be expected with bias tire use. Because of the bias ply tires stiff sidewalls, the operator feels more discomfort from up-down acceleration. Radial tires have much more ground contact and provide better traction than bias tires because of the basic construction differences between the two. Caterpillar recommends that if you do use bias ply tires, they should be used in the easiest applications at the job site. For example, support trucks, water trucks, etc. Front tires work harder than the rears, including a higher average load. For this reason, bias ply tires should be fitted only to the rear axle when this option is possible. Our Fleet Production and Cost Analysis (FPC) tool indicates as much as a 22% negative average impact on productivity by using biased ply tire in place of radials. The impact is much greater for longer hauls, lesser for short hauls. The analysis consisted of 21 different haul road profiles; uphill, downhill, flat, long, short, moderate and severe with one-way distances from approximately 790 meters to 14,700 meters. Ambient temperature was fixed at 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38C). Calculations were conducted for 6 positions on the 785, 789, 793 and 4 positions (rear only) on the 785. Results are listed below.

3/30/2009
Bias Performance Penalty vs. Best Radial Truck Truck GVW 777 360,000 785 550,000 785 550,000 789 700,000 793 846,000 Bias Max GVW 380,300 509,600 509,600 768,200 768,200 Empty Weight 147,945 224,135 224,135 280,500 349,040 Payload Penalty N/A 12.4% 12.4% N/A 15.7% Average Net Penalty 4% 16% 13% 7% 22% Min Net Penalty 0% 3% 7% 0% 11% Max Net Penalty 46% 56% 47% 53% 60%

Size 27.00-49 33.00-51 33.00-51 Rear Only 40.00-57 40.00-57

Caterpillar trucks equipped with VIMS have a number of features to help manage tire life including: 1. TKPH/TMPH Speed Manager 2. Max Speed Manager 3. Road Analysis Control (RAC) Refer to Salesgram TEKQ0350 Speed Management Functionality for Cat Mining Trucks for additional information.

In summary, the radial is still the Caterpillar recommended standard tire for Large Mining Trucks. Installation of equivalent size bias tires should only be considered after consultation with the customers local tire representative to insure safety, fitment, and performance requirements have been reviewed and applied. Any necessary changes in payload, and haulage speed should be determined and implemented.