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CAE 307: Structural Design II (Reinforced Concrete Design)


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CAE 307 will serve the majority
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Fundamental RC Design (CAE 307)

Advanced RC Design

Special Topics.

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Materials Properties (Concrete, Steel, RC)
Design Methodology (LRFD or Strength Design)
Design (procedural) vs. Analysis (mech. & econ.)
Design of Members for Flexure and Shear
Analysis and Design of Beam & One-Way Slab
Design of Members in Compression and Bending
Analysis and Design of Short Column
Development of Reinforcement
Deflection, Serviceability, and Crack Control
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Concrete floor systems selection
Two-way slab analysis and design
Foundation design
Torsion
Column slenderness
Structural walls
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Introduction to seismic design
Seismic detailing
Blast, progressive collapse and structural
integrity of concrete buildings
Pre-stressed concrete
Capstone project
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Four Components
PPT Handouts (major topics):
1. Material/Mix Design
2. Design for Flexure
3. Design of Beams
4. Design of One-way Slabs
5. Design for Shear
6. Design of Columns
Homework: One per Handout (30%)
Exams: Mid-Term (20%) & Final (20%)
Laboratory/Design Projects:
1. Cement Test (5%)
2. Aggregate Test (5%)
3. Mixture Design (5%)
4. Beam Design and Testing (15%)
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Homework:
For each chapter covered. Important feedback!!!
Opportunity to put design fundamentals to practice

Laboratory/Design Projects:
5 Cement Tests in ONE report including 5 short-form reports
5 Aggregate Tests in ONE report (of 5 short-form reports)
Concrete Mixture Design ONE short-form report
Design and Testing a RC Beam ONE long-form report
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Textbook (required)

Design of Reinforced
Concrete, 9th Edition

Jack C. McCormac
Russell H. Brown

Wiley, 2013

(Conforming to ACI 318-11)
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Reference Materials: (optional)
ACI 318-11 ASCE 7-10
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Do you know your classmates?
Your expectations:
What have you heard about CAE 307?
Any issues, concerns, questions?
Your goals?
Roadmap for successful completion
CAE 307: core CE course (attitude)
Do not miss classes
In-time completion of homework/projects

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Fresh Concrete Made by mixing fine aggregate (e.g.,
river-sand), coarse aggregate (e.g., limestone, gravel),
cement, water, air, and admixtures.

Hardened Concrete A rocklike solid-state composite
of coarse aggregate and solidified mortar: fine aggregate,
hydration products of cement and admixtures, and voids

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Concrete Mixture Design: Proportioning
Amounts, Forms and Location of Steel Rebar
Quality Control in Construction
Many Applications
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Concrete has high compressive strength f
c
and
low tensile strength

Reinforced concrete is a combination of concrete
and steel. The reinforcing steel is used to resist
tension (beams and slabs: flexural members)

Reinforcing steel can also be used to resist
compression (columns: compressive members)

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High compressive strength relative to unit cost

High resistance to effects of fire and water

Reinforced concrete structures have high stiffness

Low maintenance cost

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Reinforced concrete structures have a long
service life

Reinforced concrete is often the most economical
material for footings, floor slabs, basement walls
and piers

Reinforced concrete offers architectural flexibility

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Reinforced concrete uses local materials for
aggregate, and only small amounts of cement
and steel, which may not be available locally

Labor skills are not as high for RC construction,
compared to skills needed for materials, such as
structural steels

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Concrete has a low tensile strength, requiring use
of reinforcing steel

Forms are required to hold the concrete until it
hardens. In addition, falsework (temporary
structures used for construction) may be
necessary. Both are expensive

Concrete has relatively low strength when
compared to its unit weight ( w.r.t. steels)

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High unit weight translates into large dead load
and corresponding increase in bending moment

Concrete beams are relatively large, which needs
space, leading to larger story heights and taller
buildings, for example

Concrete properties can vary widely depending
on proportioning, mixing and curing

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Plain Concrete: Structural concrete without reinforcement (or
with less than min. amount specified by ACI 318)
Reinforced Concrete: Structural concrete reinforced with no less
than the minimum amount of reinforcement specified by ACI 318
Structural Concrete: All concrete used for structural purposes,
including plain and reinforced concrete
Prestressed Concrete: Structural concrete in which internal
stresses have been introduced to reduce potential tensile
stresses in concrete resulting from loads
Precast Concrete: Structural concrete element cast elsewhere
than its final position in the structure
Cast-in-Place Concrete: Structural concrete element cast in its
final position in the structure
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Sand-Lightweight Concrete: Structural concrete with normal
weight sand for fine aggregate and lightweight materials for
coarse aggregate
All-Lightweight Concrete: Structural concrete with lightweight
materials used for both fine and coarse aggregate
Normal Strength Concrete (NSC): Structural concrete with
compressive strength fc 6,000 psi
High Strength (HSC), High Performance Concrete (HPC):
Structural concrete with compressive strength f
c
6,000 psi, or
with w/c 0.25 (very imprecise definition!)

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Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-11)

International Building Code (IBC 2012) that adopts the ACI Codes

Our Textbook is in accordance with ACI 318-11

For Buildings:
For Highways:
American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials (AASHTO) LRFD Bridge Design Specification
For Railway Bridges:
American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way
Association (AREMA) Manual of Railway Engineering
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Silicates/Aluminates of lime. Made from limestone
and clay (or shale). When chemically combined
with water (hydration), solidify and develop
adhesive and cohesive properties.


Called Portland cement for
resemblance to Portland
Stone near Dorset, England.
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Type I common, all-purpose cement (adequate
strength in 14 days, design strength in 28 days)

Type II lower heat of hydration than Type I, and
some resistance to sulfates

Type III high, early strength in first 24 hours; high
heat of hydration

Type IV very low heat of hydration (massive
structures)

Type V used for concrete with exposure to high
concentration of sulfates

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Concrete made with Type I Portland cement must
cure about two weeks to achieve sufficient
strength to permit removal of forms and
application of small loads

Concrete made with Type I Portland cement
reaches design strength in about 28 days

Concrete made with Type III Portland cement
reaches design strength in three to seven days

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Concrete made with Type III Portland cement
produces high heat of hydration; more likely to
cause cracking

Concrete used in seawater or some soils may be
subjected to attack by chlorides or sulfates

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Pozzolans: Contains silica which is finely divided
and glassy. Reacts with Ca(OH)
2
to form CSH

Fly Ash: Byproduct of electric power
plants which burn pulverized coal
Silica Fume: Byproduct from reduction
of high-purity Quartz with coal in electric
arc furnace in manufacture of Silicon or
Ferrosilicon Alloy
Ground Granulated Blast Furnace
Slag: Byproduct from making Iron
in a Blast Furnace
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Smaller particle sizes allow supplementary
cementitious materials to fit between cement
particles and aggregates, thus providing denser
concrete.

Greater surface area allows quicker reaction with
water (hydration), allowing high early strength to
be achieved.

Commonly used to make High-Strength Concrete:
f
c
6000 psi ( or 8000 psi elsewhere)

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Aggregates occupy about three-quarters of the
concrete volume

Aggregate is relatively inexpensive and
economical concrete uses as much aggregate as
possible, relative to the other components

Concrete aggregate consists of a fine component
(sand) and a coarse component

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Aggregate that passes a No 4 sieve is considered
to be fine aggregate

Aggregate not passing a No 4 sieve is considered to
be coarse aggregate (3/4 in. most common)

ACI Code Section 3.3.2 limits maximum aggregate
size: one-fifth narrowest dimension between
sides of forms; one-third the depth of slabs;
three-quarters of the minimum clear space
between reinforcement

Aggregates
Cement
Paste
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Admixtures are materials (other than cement,
aggregate and water) that are added to concrete
either before or during its mixing to alter its
properties, such as workability, curing temperature
range, set time or color.

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Air-entraining admixtures for concrete must
conform to either ASTM C260 or ASTM C618

Air-entraining admixtures produce foaming of
water, leading to small air bubbles in concrete

When water in concrete begins to freeze it
expands

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The expanding water moves into the space in the
air bubbles

In the air bubbles the water has room to expand
without creating internal pressure in the concrete

Concrete without entrained air will deteriorate
due to freeze-thaw cycles

Important for bridge decks and other concrete
members exposed to freeze-thaw cycles

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Accelerating admixtures, such as calcium chloride,
reduce curing time

Calcium chloride can cause corrosion in reinforcing
steel, aluminum and other materials

Retarding admixtures slow the rate of set of
concrete and reduce temperature increase

Retarding admixtures are useful when a large
amount of concrete is to be placed (e.g., dams)
and it is important to reduce temperature

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Retarding admixtures prolong the plasticity of the
concrete, increasing the bond between
successive pours

Superplasticizers are made from organic sulfates

Superplasticizers maintain workability with
reduced water/cement ratio (usually using less
cement)

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Superplasticizers are used to produce self-
consolidating concrete (SCC)

With SCC, vibration is not required to get
concrete to flow around reinforcing bars and in
congested areas

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CAE 307: Structural Design II (Reinforced Concrete Design)
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Strong in Compression
Weak in Tension

Typical Stress-Strain
Curve for Concrete
About a strain of c =0.0002
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'
c
f
Compressive Strength
Depends on water-to-cementitious
materials (w/c) ratio
Obtained by testing 612 cylinders
(U.S., cylinder strength), or 20-cm
cubes (European, cube strength):

Cylinder strength = 0.8Cube Strength

Specified Compressive Strength, f
c
:
Strength at 28 days.
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Compressive strength is determined by testing a
6x12 in cylinder at an age of 28 days

The specified compressive strength of concrete is
denoted by the symbol

'
c
f
For most applications, the range of concrete
strength is 3,000 to 4,000 psi

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For prestressed concrete, the range of concrete
strength is 5,000 to 6,000 psi

For columns with high axial loads (lower stories
of tall buildings), concrete with strength in the
range 9,000 to 10,000 psi may be used

Cubic Samples used commonly
in Europe and Asia
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Dependent on fc, rate of loading (positively),
aggregate type, specimen size
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The relationship between stress and strain is
roughly linear at stress levels equal to about one-
third to one-half the ultimate strength.
Beyond this range the relationship is non-linear

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Regardless of compressive strength, all concretes reach
their maximum strength at a strain of about 0.002

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Concrete does not have a well-define yield point,
as steels do.

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Ultimate strain achieved is on the order of 0.003 to
0.004. Lower strength concrete achieves higher
ultimate strains than does higher strength concrete

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Concrete does not have a single modulus of elasticity

The particular value varies with concrete strength, age,
type of loading and proportions of aggregate and cement

ACI Code Section 8.5.1 -

1.5 '
3
'
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For concrete weighing about 145 lb/ft
57,000
c c c
c c
E w f
E f
=
=
(psi, for w
c
: 90 to 155 lb/ft
3
)
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Dynamic modulus is about 20 to 40 percent
higher than the static modulus

High-strength concrete (> 6,000 psi)

1.5
' 6
40,000 10
145
c
c c
w
E f
| |
(
= +
|

\ .
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Average value is about 0.16

About 0.11 for high strength concrete

About 0.21 for low strength concrete

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The effect of evaporating water is shrinkage and
cracking of the concrete

Workable concrete requires more water than is
necessary to fully hydrate the cement

As concrete cures, water not used in hydration
begins to evaporate

Shrinkage occurs for many years, but about 90
percent occurs within the first year

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The amount of shrinkage depends on exposure of
the member

The amount of moisture lost depends on distance
from the point in the concrete to the surface

Members with large surface area have a higher
rate of shrinkage

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Place concrete in small sections

Keep mixing water to a minimum

Cure thoroughly

Use construction joints (to control cracking)

Use shrinkage reinforcement

Use dense, non-porous aggregate

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Creep deformations may be two to three times
as large as instantaneous deformation

Creep is deformation under sustained load

Creep is also called plastic flow

75 percent of creep occurs during the first year,
early curing stages

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Creep can also cause concrete strength reduction
of 15 to 25 percent

The amount of creep is dependent on the stress
present

The longer concrete cures before load is applied,
the smaller the creep

High strength concrete experiences less creep
than low strength concrete

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The higher the humidity, the less water
evaporation and the smaller the creep

Creep increases with increasing temperature

The higher w/c, the higher the creep

The presence of compression steel reduces creep

Large members creep less than small members

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Concrete is filled with micro-cracks

Tensile strength of concrete is about 8% to 15%
of its compressive strength, f
c
Micro-cracks affect tensile strength, but not
compressive strength

Tensile strength varies with the square root of f
c
similar to E
c
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Concrete reach its tensile strength at a small strain,
at which steel does not gain much strength yet;
therefore tensile strength is neglected in designs

While tensile strength is small, it nevertheless has
a significant impact on deflections, bond strength,
shear strength and torsional strength


Tensile strength is measured indirectly, using the
modulus of rupture or split cylinder test

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6-in x 6-in x 30-in
unreinforced concrete
specimen;
Tested as a simple beam on a
24-in span;
Loaded at third-points with
two concentrated loads



ASTM C78

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Flexural formula for f
r
(modulus of rupture)

3
3 2
6
12
6 2
12
r
r
Mc
f
I
PL
M
bh
I
PL h
PL
f
bh bh
=
=
=
| || |
| |
\ .\ .
= =
L/3 L/3
P/2 P/2
No shear force in the middle span
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'
7.5
r c
f f =
ACI Code Section 9.5.2.3

is a parameter to account for lightweight concrete:

= 1 for normal weight concrete
= 0.85 for sand-lightweight concrete
= 0.75 for all-lightweight concrete

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2
length of specimen
diameter of specimen
r
P
f
LD
L
D
t
=

ASTM C496

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Bars or welded wire fabric (WWF)

Bars can be plain or deformed

Plain bars are rarely used

Deformed bars come in these 11 sizes: No. 3 to
No. 11, No. 14 and No. 18

Up to the No. 8 bar, the diameter of the bar is the
bars number divided by 8

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Bar No Diameter
(in)
Area (in
2
)
3 0.375 0.11
4 0.500 0.20
5 0.625 0.31
6 0.750 0.44
7 0.875 0.60
8 1.00 0.79
9 1.13 1.00
10 1.27 1.27
11 1.41 1.41
14 1.70 2.25
18 2.26 4.0
Area = old 1 by 1 square bar
Area = old 1.125 by 1.125 square bar
Area = old 1.25 by 1.25 square bar
Area = old 1.5 by 1.5 square bar
Area = old 2 by 2 square bar
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ASTM A615 deformed or plain billet steel
most commonly used; Marked with letter S

ASTM A706 low alloy deformed or plain bars
properties intended to enhance weldability or
bendability; Marked with letter W

ASTM A996 deformed rail steel or axle steel bars
very limited availability; Marked with letter R

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Grade 40, 50, 60, 75 or 80

For example, Grade 60 has the 60 ksi specified
minimum yield stress

Grade 60 most commonly used

Grades 40 and 50 priced closely to Grade 60 but
does not have adequate yield strength

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Grade 75 has two
Grade lines

Ribs
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See text Appendices A.3(a) and A.3(b)

Both smooth and deformed wires W smooth
wire D deformed wire

Area of wire follows W or D > W4 0.04 in
2
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Example - > WWF6 x 12-W16 x W8

6 x 12 6 in longitudinal and 12 in transverse
spacing wire spacing
16, 8 longitudinal and transverse wire areas,
respectively, in hundredths of square in per foot
of length
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(Not available Immediately)
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CAE 307: Structural Design II (Reinforced Concrete Design)
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ACI 318-11 Uses Ultimate Strength or Strength Design Method

Design Strength Required Strength
(Calculated using Factored Load)

Or,

|(Nominal Strength) U
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Design Assumptions:

No slippage between reinforcement and surrounding concrete
(perfect bond, concrete and reinforcement have the same
strain)

Cross sections that were plane prior to loading remain plane
under load (linear strain variation across the depth of the
section)

Concrete tensile strength is negligible and ignored in the
calculation

Stress is proportional to strain
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Types of loads encountered when designing
reinforced concrete: dead, live, roof live, snow
and ice, rain, wind and seismic

Loads produce load effects (axial force, shear,
moment and torsion)

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ACI Code Section 9.2 gives the load combinations
to be used in reinforced concrete design

The ACI load combinations deal with load effects,
not loads

Adopted from ASCE 7-10 Minimum Design Loads
for Buildings and Other Structures
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( )
( ) ( )
( )
1.4
1.2 1.6 0.5 or or
1.2 1.6 or or or 0.5
1.2 1.0 0.5 or or
1.2 1.0 0.2
0.9 1.0
0.9 1.0
r
r
r
U D
U D L L S R
U D L S R L W
U D W L L S R
U D E L S
U D W
U D E
=
= + +
= + +
= + + +
= + + +
= +
= +
The Maximum U will be used for Design
D: dead load, L: live load, L
r
: roof live load, R: rain load,
S: snow load, W: wind load, E: seismic load
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D -> dead load
L -> live load
L
r
-> roof live load
F -> weight or pressure created by fluids
T -> temperature, creep, shrinkage, differential settlement
S -> snow load
W -> wind load
E -> seismic load
H -> lateral earth pressure, groundwater pressure or
pressure from bulk materials
More and Detailed Load Definitions
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The compressive gravity axial load for a building
column are: L = 300 k, D = 150 k and L
r
= 60 k.
The compressive axial force in the column due to
other loads are: wind = 70 k, seismic = 50 k.
Tensile axial force in the column due to other
loads are: wind = 60 k, seismic = 40 k. Determine
the critical design loads based on the ACI load
combinations . Compressive loads are positive
(this is an arbitrary choice).
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( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
9 1 1.4 150 k 210 k
9 2 1.2 150 k
1.6 300 k 0.5 60 k 690 k
9 3 1.2 150 k 1.6 60 k +1.0 300 k 576 k
9 3 1.2 150 k 1.6 60 k +0.5 112 k 332 k
9 3 1.2 150 k 1.6 60 k +0.5 96 k 228 k
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U
U
a U
b U
c U
= =
= +
+ =
= + =
= + =
= + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4 1.2 150 k 1.0 112 k +1.0 300 k 0.5 60 k 622 k
9 4 1.2 150 k 1.0 96 k +1.0 300 k 0.5 60 k 414 k
a U
b U
= + + =
= + + =
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( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
9 5 1.2 150 k 1.0 50 k 1.0 300 k 0.2 0 k
530 k
9 5 1.2 150 k 1.0 40 k 1.0 300 k 0.2 0 k
440 k
9 6 0.9 150 k 1.0 112 k 1.6 0 k 247 k
9 6 0.9 150 k 1.0 96 k
a U
b U
a U
b U
= + + +
=
= + + +
=
= + + =
= + +
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1.6 0 k 39 k
9 7 0.9 150 k 1.0 50 k 1.6 0 k 185 k
9 7 0.9 150 k 1.0 40 k 1.6 0 k 95 k
a U
b U
=
= + + =
= + + =
Answer: Largest U = 690 kips (Load combination 9-2)
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Proportioning concrete mix based on ACI 211.1 Standard for Selecting
Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete:
1. Select Slump (Table 6.3.1)
2. Select max. size coarse aggregate
3. Estimate of mixing water and air
content (Table 6.3.3)
4. Select water-cement (w/c) ratio
(Table 6.3.4(a))
5. Calculate amount of cement based on
Steps 3 and 4
6. Estimate coarse aggregate content
(Table 6.3.6)
7. Estimate fine aggregate content
8. Adjust for aggregate moisture
9. Adjust amount for trial batch
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ACI 211.1 Standard for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete:
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ACI 211.1 Standard for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete:
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ACI 211.1 Standard for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete:
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ACI 211.1 Standard for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete:
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ACI 211.1 Standard for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete:
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ACI 211.1 Standard for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete:
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ACI 211.1 Standard for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete: