1
CAE 307: Structural Design II (Reinforced Concrete Design)
2
CAE 307 will serve the majority
3
Fundamental RC Design (CAE 307)
Advanced RC Design
Special Topics.
4
Materials Properties (Concrete, Steel, RC)
Design Methodology (LRFD or Strength Design)
Design (procedural) vs. Analysis (mech. & econ.)
Design of Members for Flexure and Shear
Analysis and Design of Beam & OneWay Slab
Design of Members in Compression and Bending
Analysis and Design of Short Column
Development of Reinforcement
Deflection, Serviceability, and Crack Control
5
Concrete floor systems selection
Twoway slab analysis and design
Foundation design
Torsion
Column slenderness
Structural walls
6
Introduction to seismic design
Seismic detailing
Blast, progressive collapse and structural
integrity of concrete buildings
Prestressed concrete
Capstone project
7
Four Components
PPT Handouts (major topics):
1. Material/Mix Design
2. Design for Flexure
3. Design of Beams
4. Design of Oneway Slabs
5. Design for Shear
6. Design of Columns
Homework: One per Handout (30%)
Exams: MidTerm (20%) & Final (20%)
Laboratory/Design Projects:
1. Cement Test (5%)
2. Aggregate Test (5%)
3. Mixture Design (5%)
4. Beam Design and Testing (15%)
8
Homework:
For each chapter covered. Important feedback!!!
Opportunity to put design fundamentals to practice
Laboratory/Design Projects:
5 Cement Tests in ONE report including 5 shortform reports
5 Aggregate Tests in ONE report (of 5 shortform reports)
Concrete Mixture Design ONE shortform report
Design and Testing a RC Beam ONE longform report
9
Textbook (required)
Design of Reinforced
Concrete, 9th Edition
Jack C. McCormac
Russell H. Brown
Wiley, 2013
(Conforming to ACI 31811)
10
Reference Materials: (optional)
ACI 31811 ASCE 710
11
Do you know your classmates?
Your expectations:
What have you heard about CAE 307?
Any issues, concerns, questions?
Your goals?
Roadmap for successful completion
CAE 307: core CE course (attitude)
Do not miss classes
Intime completion of homework/projects
12
Fresh Concrete Made by mixing fine aggregate (e.g.,
riversand), coarse aggregate (e.g., limestone, gravel),
cement, water, air, and admixtures.
Hardened Concrete A rocklike solidstate composite
of coarse aggregate and solidified mortar: fine aggregate,
hydration products of cement and admixtures, and voids
13
Concrete Mixture Design: Proportioning
Amounts, Forms and Location of Steel Rebar
Quality Control in Construction
Many Applications
14
Concrete has high compressive strength f
c
and
low tensile strength
Reinforced concrete is a combination of concrete
and steel. The reinforcing steel is used to resist
tension (beams and slabs: flexural members)
Reinforcing steel can also be used to resist
compression (columns: compressive members)
15
High compressive strength relative to unit cost
High resistance to effects of fire and water
Reinforced concrete structures have high stiffness
Low maintenance cost
16
Reinforced concrete structures have a long
service life
Reinforced concrete is often the most economical
material for footings, floor slabs, basement walls
and piers
Reinforced concrete offers architectural flexibility
17
Reinforced concrete uses local materials for
aggregate, and only small amounts of cement
and steel, which may not be available locally
Labor skills are not as high for RC construction,
compared to skills needed for materials, such as
structural steels
18
Concrete has a low tensile strength, requiring use
of reinforcing steel
Forms are required to hold the concrete until it
hardens. In addition, falsework (temporary
structures used for construction) may be
necessary. Both are expensive
Concrete has relatively low strength when
compared to its unit weight ( w.r.t. steels)
19
High unit weight translates into large dead load
and corresponding increase in bending moment
Concrete beams are relatively large, which needs
space, leading to larger story heights and taller
buildings, for example
Concrete properties can vary widely depending
on proportioning, mixing and curing
20
Plain Concrete: Structural concrete without reinforcement (or
with less than min. amount specified by ACI 318)
Reinforced Concrete: Structural concrete reinforced with no less
than the minimum amount of reinforcement specified by ACI 318
Structural Concrete: All concrete used for structural purposes,
including plain and reinforced concrete
Prestressed Concrete: Structural concrete in which internal
stresses have been introduced to reduce potential tensile
stresses in concrete resulting from loads
Precast Concrete: Structural concrete element cast elsewhere
than its final position in the structure
CastinPlace Concrete: Structural concrete element cast in its
final position in the structure
21
SandLightweight Concrete: Structural concrete with normal
weight sand for fine aggregate and lightweight materials for
coarse aggregate
AllLightweight Concrete: Structural concrete with lightweight
materials used for both fine and coarse aggregate
Normal Strength Concrete (NSC): Structural concrete with
compressive strength fc 6,000 psi
High Strength (HSC), High Performance Concrete (HPC):
Structural concrete with compressive strength f
c
6,000 psi, or
with w/c 0.25 (very imprecise definition!)
22
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 31811)
International Building Code (IBC 2012) that adopts the ACI Codes
Our Textbook is in accordance with ACI 31811
For Buildings:
For Highways:
American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials (AASHTO) LRFD Bridge Design Specification
For Railway Bridges:
American Railway Engineering and MaintenanceofWay
Association (AREMA) Manual of Railway Engineering
23
Silicates/Aluminates of lime. Made from limestone
and clay (or shale). When chemically combined
with water (hydration), solidify and develop
adhesive and cohesive properties.
Called Portland cement for
resemblance to Portland
Stone near Dorset, England.
24
Type I common, allpurpose cement (adequate
strength in 14 days, design strength in 28 days)
Type II lower heat of hydration than Type I, and
some resistance to sulfates
Type III high, early strength in first 24 hours; high
heat of hydration
Type IV very low heat of hydration (massive
structures)
Type V used for concrete with exposure to high
concentration of sulfates
25
Concrete made with Type I Portland cement must
cure about two weeks to achieve sufficient
strength to permit removal of forms and
application of small loads
Concrete made with Type I Portland cement
reaches design strength in about 28 days
Concrete made with Type III Portland cement
reaches design strength in three to seven days
26
Concrete made with Type III Portland cement
produces high heat of hydration; more likely to
cause cracking
Concrete used in seawater or some soils may be
subjected to attack by chlorides or sulfates
27
Pozzolans: Contains silica which is finely divided
and glassy. Reacts with Ca(OH)
2
to form CSH
Fly Ash: Byproduct of electric power
plants which burn pulverized coal
Silica Fume: Byproduct from reduction
of highpurity Quartz with coal in electric
arc furnace in manufacture of Silicon or
Ferrosilicon Alloy
Ground Granulated Blast Furnace
Slag: Byproduct from making Iron
in a Blast Furnace
28
Smaller particle sizes allow supplementary
cementitious materials to fit between cement
particles and aggregates, thus providing denser
concrete.
Greater surface area allows quicker reaction with
water (hydration), allowing high early strength to
be achieved.
Commonly used to make HighStrength Concrete:
f
c
6000 psi ( or 8000 psi elsewhere)
29
Aggregates occupy about threequarters of the
concrete volume
Aggregate is relatively inexpensive and
economical concrete uses as much aggregate as
possible, relative to the other components
Concrete aggregate consists of a fine component
(sand) and a coarse component
30
Aggregate that passes a No 4 sieve is considered
to be fine aggregate
Aggregate not passing a No 4 sieve is considered to
be coarse aggregate (3/4 in. most common)
ACI Code Section 3.3.2 limits maximum aggregate
size: onefifth narrowest dimension between
sides of forms; onethird the depth of slabs;
threequarters of the minimum clear space
between reinforcement
Aggregates
Cement
Paste
32
Admixtures are materials (other than cement,
aggregate and water) that are added to concrete
either before or during its mixing to alter its
properties, such as workability, curing temperature
range, set time or color.
33
Airentraining admixtures for concrete must
conform to either ASTM C260 or ASTM C618
Airentraining admixtures produce foaming of
water, leading to small air bubbles in concrete
When water in concrete begins to freeze it
expands
34
The expanding water moves into the space in the
air bubbles
In the air bubbles the water has room to expand
without creating internal pressure in the concrete
Concrete without entrained air will deteriorate
due to freezethaw cycles
Important for bridge decks and other concrete
members exposed to freezethaw cycles
35
Accelerating admixtures, such as calcium chloride,
reduce curing time
Calcium chloride can cause corrosion in reinforcing
steel, aluminum and other materials
Retarding admixtures slow the rate of set of
concrete and reduce temperature increase
Retarding admixtures are useful when a large
amount of concrete is to be placed (e.g., dams)
and it is important to reduce temperature
36
Retarding admixtures prolong the plasticity of the
concrete, increasing the bond between
successive pours
Superplasticizers are made from organic sulfates
Superplasticizers maintain workability with
reduced water/cement ratio (usually using less
cement)
37
Superplasticizers are used to produce self
consolidating concrete (SCC)
With SCC, vibration is not required to get
concrete to flow around reinforcing bars and in
congested areas
38
CAE 307: Structural Design II (Reinforced Concrete Design)
39
Strong in Compression
Weak in Tension
Typical StressStrain
Curve for Concrete
About a strain of c =0.0002
40
'
c
f
Compressive Strength
Depends on watertocementitious
materials (w/c) ratio
Obtained by testing 612 cylinders
(U.S., cylinder strength), or 20cm
cubes (European, cube strength):
Cylinder strength = 0.8Cube Strength
Specified Compressive Strength, f
c
:
Strength at 28 days.
41
Compressive strength is determined by testing a
6x12 in cylinder at an age of 28 days
The specified compressive strength of concrete is
denoted by the symbol
'
c
f
For most applications, the range of concrete
strength is 3,000 to 4,000 psi
42
For prestressed concrete, the range of concrete
strength is 5,000 to 6,000 psi
For columns with high axial loads (lower stories
of tall buildings), concrete with strength in the
range 9,000 to 10,000 psi may be used
Cubic Samples used commonly
in Europe and Asia
45
Dependent on fc, rate of loading (positively),
aggregate type, specimen size
46
The relationship between stress and strain is
roughly linear at stress levels equal to about one
third to onehalf the ultimate strength.
Beyond this range the relationship is nonlinear
47
Regardless of compressive strength, all concretes reach
their maximum strength at a strain of about 0.002
48
Concrete does not have a welldefine yield point,
as steels do.
49
Ultimate strain achieved is on the order of 0.003 to
0.004. Lower strength concrete achieves higher
ultimate strains than does higher strength concrete
50
Concrete does not have a single modulus of elasticity
The particular value varies with concrete strength, age,
type of loading and proportions of aggregate and cement
ACI Code Section 8.5.1 
1.5 '
3
'
33
For concrete weighing about 145 lb/ft
57,000
c c c
c c
E w f
E f
=
=
(psi, for w
c
: 90 to 155 lb/ft
3
)
51
Dynamic modulus is about 20 to 40 percent
higher than the static modulus
Highstrength concrete (> 6,000 psi)
1.5
' 6
40,000 10
145
c
c c
w
E f
 
(
= +

\ .
52
Average value is about 0.16
About 0.11 for high strength concrete
About 0.21 for low strength concrete
53
54
The effect of evaporating water is shrinkage and
cracking of the concrete
Workable concrete requires more water than is
necessary to fully hydrate the cement
As concrete cures, water not used in hydration
begins to evaporate
Shrinkage occurs for many years, but about 90
percent occurs within the first year
55
The amount of shrinkage depends on exposure of
the member
The amount of moisture lost depends on distance
from the point in the concrete to the surface
Members with large surface area have a higher
rate of shrinkage
56
Place concrete in small sections
Keep mixing water to a minimum
Cure thoroughly
Use construction joints (to control cracking)
Use shrinkage reinforcement
Use dense, nonporous aggregate
57
Creep deformations may be two to three times
as large as instantaneous deformation
Creep is deformation under sustained load
Creep is also called plastic flow
75 percent of creep occurs during the first year,
early curing stages
58
Creep can also cause concrete strength reduction
of 15 to 25 percent
The amount of creep is dependent on the stress
present
The longer concrete cures before load is applied,
the smaller the creep
High strength concrete experiences less creep
than low strength concrete
59
The higher the humidity, the less water
evaporation and the smaller the creep
Creep increases with increasing temperature
The higher w/c, the higher the creep
The presence of compression steel reduces creep
Large members creep less than small members
60
Concrete is filled with microcracks
Tensile strength of concrete is about 8% to 15%
of its compressive strength, f
c
Microcracks affect tensile strength, but not
compressive strength
Tensile strength varies with the square root of f
c
similar to E
c
61
Concrete reach its tensile strength at a small strain,
at which steel does not gain much strength yet;
therefore tensile strength is neglected in designs
While tensile strength is small, it nevertheless has
a significant impact on deflections, bond strength,
shear strength and torsional strength
Tensile strength is measured indirectly, using the
modulus of rupture or split cylinder test
62
6in x 6in x 30in
unreinforced concrete
specimen;
Tested as a simple beam on a
24in span;
Loaded at thirdpoints with
two concentrated loads
ASTM C78
63
Flexural formula for f
r
(modulus of rupture)
3
3 2
6
12
6 2
12
r
r
Mc
f
I
PL
M
bh
I
PL h
PL
f
bh bh
=
=
=
  
 
\ .\ .
= =
L/3 L/3
P/2 P/2
No shear force in the middle span
64
'
7.5
r c
f f =
ACI Code Section 9.5.2.3
is a parameter to account for lightweight concrete:
= 1 for normal weight concrete
= 0.85 for sandlightweight concrete
= 0.75 for alllightweight concrete
66
2
length of specimen
diameter of specimen
r
P
f
LD
L
D
t
=
ASTM C496
67
68
Bars or welded wire fabric (WWF)
Bars can be plain or deformed
Plain bars are rarely used
Deformed bars come in these 11 sizes: No. 3 to
No. 11, No. 14 and No. 18
Up to the No. 8 bar, the diameter of the bar is the
bars number divided by 8
69
Bar No Diameter
(in)
Area (in
2
)
3 0.375 0.11
4 0.500 0.20
5 0.625 0.31
6 0.750 0.44
7 0.875 0.60
8 1.00 0.79
9 1.13 1.00
10 1.27 1.27
11 1.41 1.41
14 1.70 2.25
18 2.26 4.0
Area = old 1 by 1 square bar
Area = old 1.125 by 1.125 square bar
Area = old 1.25 by 1.25 square bar
Area = old 1.5 by 1.5 square bar
Area = old 2 by 2 square bar
70
ASTM A615 deformed or plain billet steel
most commonly used; Marked with letter S
ASTM A706 low alloy deformed or plain bars
properties intended to enhance weldability or
bendability; Marked with letter W
ASTM A996 deformed rail steel or axle steel bars
very limited availability; Marked with letter R
71
Grade 40, 50, 60, 75 or 80
For example, Grade 60 has the 60 ksi specified
minimum yield stress
Grade 60 most commonly used
Grades 40 and 50 priced closely to Grade 60 but
does not have adequate yield strength
72
Grade 75 has two
Grade lines
Ribs
75
See text Appendices A.3(a) and A.3(b)
Both smooth and deformed wires W smooth
wire D deformed wire
Area of wire follows W or D > W4 0.04 in
2
77
Example  > WWF6 x 12W16 x W8
6 x 12 6 in longitudinal and 12 in transverse
spacing wire spacing
16, 8 longitudinal and transverse wire areas,
respectively, in hundredths of square in per foot
of length
79
(Not available Immediately)
80
CAE 307: Structural Design II (Reinforced Concrete Design)
81
ACI 31811 Uses Ultimate Strength or Strength Design Method
Design Strength Required Strength
(Calculated using Factored Load)
Or,
(Nominal Strength) U
82
Design Assumptions:
No slippage between reinforcement and surrounding concrete
(perfect bond, concrete and reinforcement have the same
strain)
Cross sections that were plane prior to loading remain plane
under load (linear strain variation across the depth of the
section)
Concrete tensile strength is negligible and ignored in the
calculation
Stress is proportional to strain
83
Types of loads encountered when designing
reinforced concrete: dead, live, roof live, snow
and ice, rain, wind and seismic
Loads produce load effects (axial force, shear,
moment and torsion)
84
ACI Code Section 9.2 gives the load combinations
to be used in reinforced concrete design
The ACI load combinations deal with load effects,
not loads
Adopted from ASCE 710 Minimum Design Loads
for Buildings and Other Structures
85
( )
( ) ( )
( )
1.4
1.2 1.6 0.5 or or
1.2 1.6 or or or 0.5
1.2 1.0 0.5 or or
1.2 1.0 0.2
0.9 1.0
0.9 1.0
r
r
r
U D
U D L L S R
U D L S R L W
U D W L L S R
U D E L S
U D W
U D E
=
= + +
= + +
= + + +
= + + +
= +
= +
The Maximum U will be used for Design
D: dead load, L: live load, L
r
: roof live load, R: rain load,
S: snow load, W: wind load, E: seismic load
86
D > dead load
L > live load
L
r
> roof live load
F > weight or pressure created by fluids
T > temperature, creep, shrinkage, differential settlement
S > snow load
W > wind load
E > seismic load
H > lateral earth pressure, groundwater pressure or
pressure from bulk materials
More and Detailed Load Definitions
87
The compressive gravity axial load for a building
column are: L = 300 k, D = 150 k and L
r
= 60 k.
The compressive axial force in the column due to
other loads are: wind = 70 k, seismic = 50 k.
Tensile axial force in the column due to other
loads are: wind = 60 k, seismic = 40 k. Determine
the critical design loads based on the ACI load
combinations . Compressive loads are positive
(this is an arbitrary choice).
88
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
9 1 1.4 150 k 210 k
9 2 1.2 150 k
1.6 300 k 0.5 60 k 690 k
9 3 1.2 150 k 1.6 60 k +1.0 300 k 576 k
9 3 1.2 150 k 1.6 60 k +0.5 112 k 332 k
9 3 1.2 150 k 1.6 60 k +0.5 96 k 228 k
9
U
U
a U
b U
c U
= =
= +
+ =
= + =
= + =
= + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4 1.2 150 k 1.0 112 k +1.0 300 k 0.5 60 k 622 k
9 4 1.2 150 k 1.0 96 k +1.0 300 k 0.5 60 k 414 k
a U
b U
= + + =
= + + =
89
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
9 5 1.2 150 k 1.0 50 k 1.0 300 k 0.2 0 k
530 k
9 5 1.2 150 k 1.0 40 k 1.0 300 k 0.2 0 k
440 k
9 6 0.9 150 k 1.0 112 k 1.6 0 k 247 k
9 6 0.9 150 k 1.0 96 k
a U
b U
a U
b U
= + + +
=
= + + +
=
= + + =
= + +
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1.6 0 k 39 k
9 7 0.9 150 k 1.0 50 k 1.6 0 k 185 k
9 7 0.9 150 k 1.0 40 k 1.6 0 k 95 k
a U
b U
=
= + + =
= + + =
Answer: Largest U = 690 kips (Load combination 92)
90
Proportioning concrete mix based on ACI 211.1 Standard for Selecting
Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete:
1. Select Slump (Table 6.3.1)
2. Select max. size coarse aggregate
3. Estimate of mixing water and air
content (Table 6.3.3)
4. Select watercement (w/c) ratio
(Table 6.3.4(a))
5. Calculate amount of cement based on
Steps 3 and 4
6. Estimate coarse aggregate content
(Table 6.3.6)
7. Estimate fine aggregate content
8. Adjust for aggregate moisture
9. Adjust amount for trial batch
91
ACI 211.1 Standard for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete:
92
ACI 211.1 Standard for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete:
93
ACI 211.1 Standard for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete:
94
ACI 211.1 Standard for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete:
95
ACI 211.1 Standard for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete:
96
ACI 211.1 Standard for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete:
97
ACI 211.1 Standard for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete: