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Irrigation and Water System The first artesian wells were built in Betis, Pampanga by Fr. Manuel Camanes.

The water system in Manila (now MWSS) had its beginning from the water works constructed by Fr. Juan Peguero in 1686. The first irrigation system was constructed in Tanay, Rizal by Fr. Jose Delgado.

Schools The Spanish missionaries founded and organized schools (nautical and commerce, fine arts, agriculture, trades, home arts, surveying, medicine). The early schools were San Agustin College, Iloilo; San Alberto College, Dagupan, Pangasinan; San Juan de Letran, Manila and Colegio de Sto. Tomas, Manila.

Domestic In domestic architecture, the mansion type for the well-todo families was given importance. The first floor was usually of adobe stone while the second floor was of wooden structure with tiled roofs. The main door was the main decorative treatment and was treated with pilasters capped with cornice and pediment. The heavy wooden doors were of two sashes made of heavy timber planks studded with wrought iron or bronze nails, knockers, sockets and heavy cross bars. The street windows of the first floor were elevated from the sill (ventanillas). The open interior court or "patio" was a popular feature of the house plan. The gate entrance hallway was called "zaguan" which led to the patio. Open terraces with balustrades surrounded the patio on the second floor. The upper exterior walls were treated with paneled wood partitions, sliding windows of shell sashes and wood louvres above the sill, sliding "ventanillas" below the sill and protected from without by heavy, wide projecting caves.

Filipino Architects
At the closing years of Spanish regime, some Filipino engineers and architects were in the practice of the profession after they returned from Europe where they studied architecture and engineering. The first Filipino architects were Felix Roxas and Diego Hervas. The early

works of the former were the reconstruction of the Sto. Domingo Church, the Church of St. Ignacio and the massive Catholic church of Bacoor, Cavite. He reconstructed the Ayuntamiento (Marble Hall) formerly the Philippine Senate, the palatial residences at San Miguel, Manila for Filipino aristocracy, the Roxas Family, the Paternos, the Valdez', the Aranetas and the Hidalgos. Diego Hervas' works included the St. Paul's Hospital, Assumption Convent, Oriente Building, Monte de Piedad. The later architect was Julio de la Rosa. Influence of European Building Technique. Steel and concrete construction was introduced in the mid-80s as a result of European and American Influence. The first steel structures in the Philippines were: i. ii. iii. Compania General de la Tabacalera, planned in Spain, and erected in Manila in 1894. Puente Colgante (now Quezon Bridge), a suspension bridge spanning the Pasig River. The all-steel Church of San Sebastian, manufactured in Belgium, Gothic in style which was completed in 1891, built by Architect Genaro Palacios.

The introduction of reinforced concrete in the Philippines was in the 1900s and its use in the construction of the Masonic Temple, the first multi-structure in Escolta, Manila.

List of Local Edifices and Their Architects

Name of Local Edifice Quiapo Church Sta. Cruz Church San Sebastian Church Sto. Domingo Church Manila Cathedral Baclaran Church Lourdes Church Architect Juan Nakpil Gregorio Gutierrez Genaro O. Palacio Jose Zaragoza Fernando Ocampo Cesar H. Concio Luis Araneta

Christ The King Church San Agustin Church St. Jude Church San Miguel Pro-Cathedral Antipolo Cathedral Victorias Church Antipolo Church (Circular) U. P. Protestant Chapel U. S. T. Chapel St. Andrews Church (Circular) San Beda Chapel Iglesia Ni Kristo Church in San Juan Sanctuario de San Antonio Mount Carmel Church Legislative Building Manila City Hall Agrigulture and Finance Building Manila Post Office Malacanang Palace Old Manila Hotel Rizal Memorial Sports Complex Philippine General Hospital Old Metropolitan Theatre Quezon Institute Hospital Old Veterans Memorial Building Quezon City Hall Development Bank of the Philippines Philippine National Bank (Escolta) Department of Foreign Affairs U. S. Embassy Building in Manila Bonifacio Monument Rizal Monument Quezon Memorial Fort Santiago

Fr. Frederick Linzenbach Bro. Antonio Herrera Fr. Lyn Juan Nakpil Fernando Ocampo Antonin Raymond Leandro Locsin Cesar H. Concio Fernando Ocampo Leandro Locsin Andres Luna de San Pedro Juan Nakpil Manalac Construction Max Vicente Antonio Toledo Antonio Toledo Antonio Toledo Arellano and Mapua William Parsons Willam Parsons Juan Arellano Tomas Mapua Juan Arellano Juan Nakpil Federico Illustre Ruperto Gaite Carlos Arguelles Carlos Arguelles Crecenciano de Castro A. L. Aydelott and Associates Juan Nakpil and Tolentino Richard Kissling Federico Illustre Fr. Antonio Dendon

Social Security System Building in Quezon City Juan Nakpil

Cultural Centre of the Philippines

Leandro Locsin

Links to Filipino Architecture

Armand Ajala's Pre-Hispanic Architecture Roger Gerard Gaspar's Philippine Colonial Churches Tribung Pinoy Sining Panitikan: The Filipino Arts and Literature Page Arkitektura Link Filipino Architecture page Joel Chua's Homepage on Filipino Architecture August Li's Page on Architecture

Back to Home Page Copyright 1997 Most recent revision Saturday, August 02, 1997