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Pedagogical shift and ICT integration for TESOL teachers in Hong Kong Arnold Pang Hong Kong has

developed from an industrial society in the !"#s to an information society in $hich information is used in almost all forms of activities %C&S'( )# )*+ ,Over the last t$o decades( $e have $itnessed a period of unprecedented changes in information and communication technology %ICT* and the pervasive adoption of an increasing num-er of ICT.related products/services such as personal computer( Internet and mo-ile phone, %C&S'( )# )( p+vii*+ Concerning the structural changes happened in a changing society( 0oogt %)##1* distinguished t$o types of pedagogy2 the ,traditional pedagogy, for the industrial society and the ,emerging pedagogy, for the information society+ The ,traditional pedagogy, formed a teacher.dominated classroom $here students mainly learnt on an individual -asis -y receiving $hat the teacher had taught+ ,Emerging pedagogy, on the other hand formed a student.centred learning environment $hich allo$s students learn in their o$n paces and support one another+ The differences are summari3ed in the follo$ing ta-le+ "Traditional pedagogy" for the industrial society Active Activities prescribed by teacher Whole class instruction Little variation in activities Pace determined by the program Collaborative ndividual !omogeneous groups Everyone for him"herself Creative $eproductive learning Apply #no%n solutions to problems "Emerging pedagogy" for the information society Activities determined by learners Small groups Many different activities Pace determined by learners Wor#ing in teams !eterogeneous groups Supporting each other Creative Productive learning &ind ne% solutions to problems

ntegrative

'o lin# bet%een theory and practice Separate sub(ects )iscipline*based ndividual teachers

ntegrating theory and practice $elations bet%een sub(ects Thematic Teams of teachers

Evaluative

Teacher*directed Summative

Student*directed )iagnostic

Ta-le )+) 2

Overvie$ of traditional pedagogy and emerging pedagogy %0oogt( )##1*

0oogt4s idea agrees $ith that of Collins % !! * $ho studies ICT integration and suggests a more student.centred( tas5.-ase( cooperative and multimedia pedagogical approach+ It also applies to the situation in Hong Kong $here the government suggests that pedagogic change includes the use of ICT to facilitate interactive learning( the esta-lishment of student.centred learning environments %EC( )##67 E'8( )##9d* and the running of the ,tas5.centred( constructivist( pro-lem.-ased teaching approaches, %E:8( )##"( p+1)*+ The pedagogical potential of technology is characteri3ed -y its authenticity( interactivity and connectivity %8ransford et al+( !!!*+ Social.constructivism has -ecome one of the influential pedagogical approaches to support the use of ICT in education %La$ et al+( )###7 ;e$house( )##)7 E:8( )##"7 Had<errouit( )##!*+ =or the younger generation( learning al$ays ta5es place -y interacting $ith and connecting to the open $orld through the net$or5s+ >e can see that the sharing of resources( content and information $ithin the electronic virtual $orld is already a 5ey component of life -ecause of the development of -road and effective social net$or5s %C&S'( )# )7 O-linger & O-linger( )##"7 Thompson( )##9*+ ,This peer.to.peer dynamic carries through to all aspects of the net generation4s daily lives including their educational e?periences, %:c>illiam & 'a$son( )##@( p+ #*+ TESOL teachers in Hong Kong sometimes or freAuently used ICT in class %E'8( )# )*+ One of the main goals of the government policy to empo$er teachers $ith ICT is to provide them $ith professional development opportunities and supports to

underta5e the challenge of using ICT for curriculum and pedagogical innovations %E:8( )##B*+ The shifting pedagogical approaches can -e ,facilitated through appropriate professional development of teachers, %C;ESCO( )##B( p+ * $ho ,have to -ecome a$are of the interaction -et$een pedagogical o-<ectives and the potential of ICT, %European Commission( )# #( p+)"*+ =or e?ample( recent porta-le types of technology( such as ta-let computers( P'A and mo-ile phones( can -e used to support and enhance learning %Sharples et+ al( )##!7 Hennessy et+ al( )# #*+ As the development of ICT is forever gro$ing and ICT is not inherently good or -ad for education( there is a need to thin5 a-out $hat and ho$ ICT is to -e used in classroom %Solomon & Schrum( )##97 >englins5y( )##"*+ ,It is the pedagogical 5no$ledge of the su-<ect matter in relation to the resource $hich im-ues the use of the resource $ith meaning in the conte?ts of practice, %DamEre3 et al+( )# )( p+ BB"* and determines the success of ICT integration+ The shift in pedagogies accompanies a shift in teachers4 roles+ ICT supports the shift to student.centred learning and the ne$ roles of teachers and students %C;ESCO( )##)*+ To facilitate the student.centred approach( the teachers have to play the role as a supporter or facilitator rather than an information provider as there should -e ,a proportional shift to$ards a less didactic and more open style $hen computers are used, %i-id( p+6#*+ Teacher no longer only passes information to the students( -ut guides them to -ecome more involved in the o$nership of their learning and develop their o$n 5no$ledge %:cFee( )###( p+)#67 DamEre3 et al+( )# )7 Smeets & :ooi<( )## *+ Haddad and 'ra?ler %)##)( p+ 1* state that ,the effectiveness of different levels of sophistication of use of ICTs depends to a large e?tent on the role of learners and teachers as practised in the educational process, %i-id p+ 1* and use the figure sho$n -elo$ to demonstrate the use of ICT for different roles of teachers and learners+

=igure )+ + Cse of ICTs for different Doles of Teachers and Learners %Haddad & 'ra?ler( )##)( p+ 1* ICT allo$s the language education shifts from ,systems of teaching and supervision of learning, to ,systems of learning and facilitation of learning, %Haddad & 'ra?ler( )##)( p+ B*+ Sutherland et al+ %)##!( p+6* share a similar idea that the teacher4s role involves a comple? shifting of perspectives from the ,more.5no$ledgea-le.other, to the ,co.constructor of 5no$ledge, to the ,vicarious participant,+ Therefore( one of the 5ey aims of ICT professional development for TESOL teachers is to provide them $ith opportunities to thin5 a-out themselves on the roles of teachers and students+