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18 SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS [1] ET 17 18.1 Second-Order Linear Equations ET 17.1 1. The auxiliary equation is r?—6r+8=0 = (r—4)(r—2)=0 = r=4,r=2. Thenby (8) the general solution is y = cre + ene 2. The auxiliary equation is? — 4r +8 =0 = r= 2+ 2i. Then by (II) the general solution is y= €*(c1 cos 2x + cz sin 2r), 3. The auxiliary equation is r? + 8r +41 =0 => 7 = —4 54, Then by (11) the general solution is y =e (cy cossz + sind). 4. The auxiliary equation is 2r? —r —1=(2r+1)(r—1)=0 > 4. Then the general solution is, 5. The auxiliary equation is r? — 2r + 1= (r—1)?=0 = r=. Thenby (10), the general solution is y= cre? + eane? 52/3 =r(3r—5)=0 = 6. The auxiliary equation is 3r? — r= S.s0y = cr tere! 1. The auxiliary equation is dr? +41=0 = r=-t4i,soy = c1cos ($2) +casin(42) & The auxiliary equation is 16r? + 24r +9 = (4r+3)7=0 + r= —§ soy =cye*/4 + cgre~%*/4 2/4 Or 9. The auxiliary equation is 4r? +r =r(4r-+1)=0 + -}soy sai tae 10. The auxiliary equatos 89? +4=0 = r= +3: soy =crcos(2e) +crsin(2z) M1. The auxiliary equation sr? = 2r—1=0 = r= 1+ V2 soy = crel*VD! 4 ogel!-V2V =0 + ra BtVB soy =ciel V9) + epel-V) “} Bi soy =e [ercom(#i) +ersin(:)] 12. The auxiliary equation is r? — 6r + 13, The auxiliary equation isr?+r+1=0 = 14, Gr? —r—2 = (2r + 1)(8r — 2) = 050 y=cre™*/? + c2e%/8, The solutions (c1,¢2) = (0,1). (1,0), (1,2), (=2,1) are shown. Each solution consists of a single continuous curve that approaches either 0 or shoo as 2 > too. 15. r? — 8r + 16 = (r — 4)? = Osoy = cre + core. ‘The graphs are all asymptotic o the z-axis as 2 —+ —00, and as 2 — oo the solutions tend to +00, 640 CHAPTER 18 SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS ET CHAPTER 17 16. r?—2r+5=0 = r= 142i and the solution is y = €*(c1 cos 2x +c2sin2x). Graphs for (c1,c2) = (1,0), (0,1), (1, ~1). (-1,2) are shown, The solutions are all asymptotic to the z-axis as 2 —+ —co and. they all oscillate, The amplitudes of the oscillations become arbitrarily large as 2 —+ 00 and arbitrarily small a2 > 00 17. 2? + 5r+3-= (2r +3)(r- +1) =0, 507 —1 and the general solution is y = Then y(0)=3 = cite.=3andy(0)=-4 + —$a-@=-4.900 =2anda= solution to the initial-value problem is y = 2e~9*/? + e°*, 18.77+3=0 = r= +V3i and the general solution is * (cy cos( v3.2) + cz sin(V3:r)) = c1 cos(V3-x) + cz sin( v3.2). Then y(0) = ¥(0)=3 > c2= V3, sothe solution to the initial-value problem is y — cos( V3.2) + V3sin(V3z) 19. dr? — dr +1 = (2r — 1)? =0 =} r=} and the general solution is y = cre*/? + cpze*/?. Then y(0) = 1 = c= Land > cr = Land y!(0)=—1.5 = 4er +2 = 1.5, soc = —2 and the solution tothe initial-value problem is 2! _ ome?! v 2/2 te 20, 2r? 4 5r— B= (2r—I)(r+3)=0 = r= },r=—Band the general solution is y = cre" Then 1 = y(0) = er + e2 and 4 = y'(0) = $1 —3e2 soc = 2.2 problem is y = 26"? — e~*. A? 416 = Then y(Z)=-3 + —a=-3 + a =Sandy($)=4 + —de=4 > c2=—Lsothe solution to the initial-value problem is y = 8.cos 4x — sin 4 tee" =1 and the solution to the initial-value > r= 4i and the general solution is y = €%*(c1 cos dir + ez in dz) = ¢; cos 4a + ep sin 4. Dr? -%®+5=0 + 1 =1+2iand the general solution is y = e*(c cos 2x + czsin 2x). Then = ln) =e%(cr +0) > cx =Oand 2= y/(m) = (cx + 2ca)e"_ = cz = 1/e" and the solution to the initial-value problem is y = Ssinde =e sin 2. (0) and 1 = y'(0)=c2—c1 = cy = Band the solution to the initial-value problem is y = e~* (2cos + 3sin2r). BrP42r42=0 + r= —1tiand the general solution is y = e~*(cy cos + cz sin). Then 2 = a (r-+6)2=0 = r= —Gand the general solution is y = cxe~®* + exze~"*. Then S © = bey + Ben = -e%,s0 = (wie A,r? + 12r + 3K 0= yl) =c1e* +e2€ cx = ~e® and ca = €®. The solution to the initial-value problem is y = —e%e“* + ene = cr ten =Oand 1 =y/(1) = ~6ere® ~ Sexe’ Bar? +1=0 3 =4 = y(n) = e2, so the solution of the boundary-value problem is y Wr? 42r=r(2+r)=0 + 7 44 and the general solution is y = ex cos($2) + ¢2 sin(32), Then 3 = y(0) = ex and 3cos( 42) — 4sin(}2) |r = —2 and the general solution is y = cr + e2e~®*. Then é 1-26 ‘The solution of the = (0) = 1 + ea and 2 = y(l) =e + e2e7? soc 1-2 |e Tae ST boundary-value problem is y ‘SECTION 18.1 SECOND-ORDER LINEAR EQUATIONS ETSECTION 171 © 641 2. 1? —3r-+2= (r—2)(r—1)=0 = r=1,r =2and the general solution is y = cre + c2e**. Then 1 = y(0) = cr +02 and 0 = y(3) = cye® + exe" so cg = 1/(1 — e*) and c: = e*/(e* — 1). The solution of the na gle +, 1-8 boundary-value problem is y = e-1 28. r? +100 =0 = r= 410i and the general solution is y = cy cos 10x + e2 sin 10x. But 2 = y(0) = ex and €1, $0 there is no solution. 5 = y(n) ar and 2 = y(n) = ee 6r+$25=0 = r=3ce4i and the general solution is y = €°*(cy cos 4x + c2 sin dz). But 1 = y(0) = er "= ey = 2/e%*, so there is no solution. 30.1? ~Gr +9 =(r—3)?=0 = r= Band the general solution is y = cre™* + cpze™*. Then 1 = y(0) =r and 0 = y(1) = exe® + c2e* =} ez = —1. The solution of the boundary-value problem is y = e* — ze™* Br? 4+4r4+13=0 = r= ~—2+ 3: and the general solution is y = e~?*(c cos 3x + cz sin 3x), But 2= y(0) =e and 1 = y(3) = e~*(~ca), so the solution to the boundary-value problem is -* (2cos 30 — e* sin32) yee 32.97? —18r +10 =0 = r=1+ Liand the general solution is €* (ex cos § + exsin 2). Then 0 = y(0) =e; and 1 = y(n) u "(401+ Bee) > a The solution of the boundary-value ver De? problems y = E sin($) = Ze e*-* sin($) 3. (a) Case 1(X=0): y"+y=0 = y” =Owhich has an auxiliary equation r? = and y(L) = 0. Thus, 0 = y(0) y= cr + exe where y(0) = ‘Thus, y = 0. randO=y(L)=eb > e=e= Case 2(A <0): y+ Ay =O has auxiliary equation r? =—) = r= 4A (distinct and real since <0) = y=cre¥* + cxe-¥—* where y(0) = 0 and y(L) = 0. Thus, = (0) = er +2 (+) and Malipying() bye”! and subacing (gives ea(e¥=™! eV) = 0 og = Oand tus ey = 0 from (+). Thus, y = 0 for the cases 4 = O and 4 < 0. (b) y” + Ohas an auxiliary equation 7? +A=0 = r=diVN + y—cioosViz-+easinVie where y(0) = 0 and y(L) = 0. Thus, 0 = y(0) = ce, and 0 = y(L) = ca sin VAL since c; = 0. Since we cannot have a trivial solution, cz # O and thus sin VXL=0 => XL = nm where nis an integer > N= ntn?/L? and y = casin(nne/L) where n is an integer 34. The auxiliary equation is ar® + br + © = 0. IF? — dac > 0, then any solution is of the form ve) = be who = BE VETS yy = PVE TE ad carl sve so both ry and rz are negative and litny—2e y(z) = 0. If 6? ~ dac = 0, then any solution is of the form u(z) = cre" + cae" where r= —b/ (2a) <0 since a, bare positive, Hence lim,oo y(z) = 0. Finally if 0 — dac < 0, then any solution is of the form y(:z) = e°* (1 cos Bar + ca sin Br) where a = —b/(2a) < 0 since and b are positive. Thus limg soo y(z) = 0.