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# Hindawi Publishing Corporation

## Abstract and Applied Analysis

Volume 2011, Article ID 586328, 28 pages
doi:10.1155/2011/586328
Research Article
A Final Result on the Oscillation of
Solutions of the Linear Discrete Delayed Equation
xn pnxn k with a Positive Coefcient
J. Ba stinec,
1
L. Berezansky,
2
J. Dibl k,
1, 3
and Z.

Smarda
1
1
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication,
Brno University of Technology, 61600 Brno, Czech Republic
2
Department of Mathematics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 84105 Beer-Sheva, Israel
3
Department of Mathematics and Descriptive Geometry, Faculty of Civil Engineering,
Brno University of Technology, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Correspondence should be addressed to J. Diblk, diblik@feec.vutbr.cz
Received 15 January 2011; Accepted 6 June 2011
Copyright q 2011 J. Ba stinec et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative
any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
A linear k 1th-order discrete delayed equation xn pnxn k where pn a positive
sequence is considered for n . This equation is known to have a positive solution if the
sequence pn satises an inequality. Our aim is to show that, in the case of the opposite inequality
for pn, all solutions of the equation considered are oscillating for n .
1. Introduction
The existence of positive solutions of dierence equations is often encountered when
analysing mathematical models describing various processes. This is a motivation for an
intensive study of the conditions for the existence of positive solutions of discrete or
continuous equations. Such analysis is related to investigating the case of all solutions being
oscillating for investigation in both directions, we refer, e.g., to 130 and to the references
therein. The existence of monotonous and nontrivial solutions of nonlinear dierence
equations the rst one implies the existence of solutions of the same sign also has attracted
some attention recently see, e.g., several, mostly asymptotic methods in 3142 and the
related references therein. In this paper, sharp conditions are derived for all the solutions
being oscillating for a class of linear k 1-order delayed discrete equations.
We consider the delayed k 1-order linear discrete equation
xn pnxn k, 1.1
2 Abstract and Applied Analysis
where n Z

a
: {a, a1, . . .}, a N : {1, 2, . . .} is xed, xn xn1xn, p : Z

a
R,
k N. In what follows, we will also use the sets N
0
{0} N and Z
b
a
: {a, a 1, . . . , b} for
a, b N, a < b. A solution x xn : Z

a
R of 1.1 is positive negative on Z

a
if xn > 0
xn < 0 for every n Z

a
. A solution x xn : Z

a
R of 1.1 is oscillating on Z

a
if it is
not positive or negative on Z

a
1
for an arbitrary a
1
Z

a
.
Denition 1.1. Let us dene the expression ln
q
t, q 1, by ln
q
t lnln
q1
t, ln
0
t t, where t >
exp
q2
1 and exp
s
t expexp
s1
t, s 1, exp
0
t t, and exp
1
0
t, ln
1
t, we
will only write t and lnt.
In 4 dierence equation 1.1 is considered and the following result on the existence
of a positive solution is proved.
Theorem 1.2 see 4. Let q N
0
be a xed integer, let a N be suciently large and
0 < pn
_
k
k 1
_
k

_
1
k 1

k
8n
2

k
8nlnn
2

k
8
_
nlnn ln
q
n
_
2
_
1.2
for every n Z

a
. Then there exists a positive integer a
1
a and a solution x xn, n Z

a
1
of
equation 1.1 such that
0 < xn
_
k
k 1
_
n

_
nlnnln
2
n ln
q
n 1.3
holds for every n Z

a
1
.
Our goal is to answer the open question whether all solutions of 1.1 are oscillating if
inequality 1.2 is replaced with the opposite inequality
pn
_
k
k 1
_
k

_
1
k 1

k
8n
2

k
8nlnn
2

k
8
_
nlnn ln
q
n
_
2
_
1.4
assuming > 1, and n is suciently large. Below we prove that if 1.4 holds and > 1, then
all solutions of 1.1 are oscillatory. This means that the result given by Theorem 1.2 is a nal
in a sense. This is discussed in Section 4. Moreover, in Section 3, we show that all solutions of
1.1 will be oscillating if 1.4 holds only on an innite sequence of subintervals of Z

a
.
Because of its simple form, equation 1.1 as well as its continuous analogue attracts
permanent attention of investigators. Therefore, in Section 4 we also discuss some of the
known results.
The proof of our main result will use the next consequence of one of Domshlaks results
13, Theorem 4, page 66.
Lemma 1.3. Let s and r be xed natural numbers such that r s > k. Let {n}

1
be a bounded
sequence of real numbers and
0
be a positive number such that there exists a number 0,
0

## Abstract and Applied Analysis 3

satisfying
0
i

ns1
n

, i Z
r
s1
,

ns1
n
2

, i Z
rk
r1
, 1.5
i 0, i Z
r
r1k
,
ik

ni1
n > 0, i Z

a
,
ik

ni
n > 0, i Z

a
. 1.6
Then, if pn 0 for n Z
sk
s1
and
pn R :
_
_
_
n

nk
sin
_

k
i1
i
_
sin
_

k
i
i
_
_
_
_
sin
_
n k
_
sin
_

n
in1k
i
_ 1.7
for n Z
r
sk1
, any solution of 1.1 has at least one change of sign on Z
r
sk
.
Throughout the paper, symbols o and O for n will denote the well-known
Landau order symbols.
2. Main Result
In this section, we give sucient conditions for all solutions of 1.1 to be oscillatory as n
. It will be necessary to develop asymptotic decompositions of some auxiliary expressions.
As the computations needed are rather cumbersome, some auxiliary computations are
collected in the appendix to be utilized in the proof of the main result Theorem 2.1
below.
Theorem 2.1. Let a N be suciently large, q N
0
and > 1. Assuming that the function p :
Z

a
0, satises inequality 1.4 for every n Z

a
, all solutions of 1.1 are oscillating as
n .
Proof. As emphasized above, in the proof, we will use Lemma 1.3. We dene
n :
1
nlnnln
2
nln
3
n ln
q
n
, 2.1
where n is suciently large, and q 0 is a xed integer. Although the idea of the proof
is simple, it is very technical and we will refer to notations and auxiliary computations
contained in the appendix. We will develop an asymptotic decomposition of the right-hand
side R of inequality 1.7 with the function n dened by 2.1. We show that this will lead
to the desired inequality 1.4. We set
R
1
:

k
i1
Vn i

k
i0
V

n i
n k, 2.2
4 Abstract and Applied Analysis
where V and V

## are dened by A.4 and A.5. Moreover, R can be expressed as

R
sin
_

n
in1k
i
_
n
nk1
sin
_

k
i1
i
_

n
nk
sin
_

k
i
i
_
sin
_
n k
_
sin
_

n
in1k
i
_

n
nk1
sin
_

k
i1
i
_

n
nk
sin
_

k
i
i
_ sin
_
n k
_

k
p1
sin
_
V
_
n p
__

k
p0
sin
_
V

_
n p
__
sin
_
n k
_
.
2.3
Recalling the asymptotic decomposition of sinx when x 0: sinx xOx
3
, we get since
lim
n
nk 0, lim
n
Vnp 0, p 1, . . . , k, and lim
n
V

np 0, p 0, . . . , k
sinn k n k O
_

3
n k
_
,
sinV
_
n p
_
V
_
n p
_
O
_

3
V
3
_
n p
_
_
, p 1, . . . , k,
sinV

_
n p
_
V

_
n p
_
O
_

3
V

3
_
n p
_
_
, p 0, . . . , k
2.4
as n . Then, it is easy to see that, by A.13, we have n On, n for
every R and
R R
1

_
1 O
_

2
n
__
, n . 2.5
Moreover, for R
1
, we will get an asymptotic decomposition as n . Using formulas A.13,
A.57, and A.60, we get
R
1

k
k
k 1
k1

1knk/24
_
k
2
12k 11
_

2
nk/6
_
k
2
5
_
q
i0

i
nO
_
1/n
3
_
1 k/24k
2
3k 2
2
n k/6k
2
3k 2

q
i0

i
n O1/n
3

_
1 kn k
2
q

i0

i
n O
_
1
n
3
_
_
.
2.6
Since lim
n
n 0, lim
n

i
n 0, i 1, . . . , q, we can decompose the denominator of
the second fraction as the sum of the terms of a geometric sequence. Keeping only terms with
Abstract and Applied Analysis 5
the order of accuracy necessary for further analysis i.e. with order O1/n
3
, we get
_
1
k
24
_
k
2
3k 2
_

2
n
k
6
_
k
2
3k 2
_
q

i0

i
n O
_
1
n
3
_
_
1
1
k
24
_
k
2
3k 2
_

2
n
k
6
_
k
2
3k 2
_
q

i0

i
n O
_
1
n
3
_
.
2.7
We perform an auxiliary computation in R
1
,
_
1 kn
k
24
_
k
2
12k 11
_

2
n
k
6
_
k
2
5
_
q

i0

i
n O
_
1
n
3
_
_

_
1
k
24
_
k
2
3k 2
_

2
n
k
6
_
k
2
3k 2
_
q

i0

i
n O
_
1
n
3
_
_

_
1 kn k
2
q

i0

i
n O
_
1
n
3
_
_

_
1 kn
k
24
_
k
2
12k 11
_

2
n
k
6
_
k
2
5
_
q

i0

i
n O
_
1
n
3
_
_

_
1 kn
k
24
_
k
2
3k 2
_

2
n
k
6
_
k
2
3k 2
_
q

i0

i
n O
_
1
n
3
_
_
1
3
8
kk 1
2
n
1
2
kk 1
q

i0

i
n O
_
1
n
3
_
we use formula A.15
1
1
8
kk 1n O
_
1
n
3
_
1
1
8
kk 1
_
1
n
2

1
nlnn
2

1
nlnnln
2
n
2

1
_
nlnnln
2
n ln
q
n
_
2
_
O
_
1
n
3
_
.
2.8
Thus, we have
R
1

k
k
k 1
k1

_
1
1
8
kk 1
_
1
n
2

1
nlnn
2

1
nlnnln
2
n
2

1
_
nlnnln
2
n ln
q
n
_
2
__
O
_
1
n
3
_

_
k
k 1
_
k

_
1
k 1

k
8n
2

k
8nlnn
2

k
8
_
nlnn ln
q
n
_
2
_
O
_
1
n
3
_
.
2.9
6 Abstract and Applied Analysis
Finalizing our decompositions, we see that
R R
1

_
1 O
_

2
n
__

_
_
k
k 1
_
k

_
1
k 1

k
8n
2

k
8nlnn
2

k
8
_
nlnn ln
q
n
_
2
_
O
_
1
n
3
_
_

_
1 O
_

2
n
__

_
k
k 1
_
k

_
1
k 1

k
8n
2

k
8nlnn
2

k
8
_
nlnn ln
q
n
_
2
_
O
_

2
_
nlnn ln
q
n
_
2
_
.
2.10
It is easy to see that inequality 1.7 becomes
pn
_
k
k 1
_
k

_
1
k 1

k
8n
2

k
8nlnn
2

k
8
_
nlnn ln
q
n
_
2
_
O
_

2
_
nlnn ln
q
n
_
2
_
2.11
and will be valid if see 1.4
1
k 1

k
8n
2

k
8nlnn
2

k
8
_
nlnn ln
q
n
_
2

1
k 1

k
8n
2

k
8nlnn
2

k
8
_
nlnn ln
q
n
_
2
O
_

2
_
nlnn ln
q
n
_
2
_
2.12
or
1 O
_

2
_
2.13
for n . If n n
0
, where n
0
is suciently large, 2.13 holds for 0,
0
with
0
suciently small because > 1. Consequently, 2.11 is satised and the assumption 1.7
of Lemma 1.3 holds for n Z

n
0
. Let s n
0
in Lemma 1.3 be xed, r > s k 1 be so large
and
0
so small if necessary that inequalities 1.5 hold. Such choice is always possible since
the series

ns1
n is divergent. Then Lemma 1.3 holds and any solution of 1.1 has at
least one change of sign on Z
r
sk
. Obviously, inequalities 1.5 can be satised for another pair
of s, r, say s
1
, r
1
with s
1
> r and r
1
> s
1
k suciently large and, by Lemma 1.3, any
solution of 1.1 has at least one change of sign on Z
r
1
s
1
k
. Continuing this process, we will get
a sequence of pairs s
j
, r
j
with lim
j
s
j
such that any solution of 1.1 has at least one
change of sign on Z
r
j
s
j
k
. This concludes the proof.
Abstract and Applied Analysis 7
3. A Generalization
The coecient p in Theorem 2.1 is supposed to be positive on Z

a
. For all suciently large
n, the expression R, as can easily be seen from 2.10, is positive. Then, as follows from
Lemma 1.3, any solution of 1.1 has at least one change of sign on Z
r
sk
if p is nonnegative on
Z
sk
s1
and satises inequality 1.4 on Z
r
sk1
.
Owing to this remark, Theorem 2.1 can be generalized because and the following
argumentation was used at the end of the proof of Theorem 2.1 all solutions of 1.1 will be
oscillating as n if a sequence of numbers {s
i
, r
i
}, r
i
> s
i
k 1, s
1
a, i 1, 2, . . . exists
such that s
i1
> r
i
i.e., the sets Z
r
i
s
i
, Z
r
i1
s
i1
are disjoint and lim
i
s
i
, and, for every pair
s
i
, r
i
, all assumptions of Lemma 1.3 are satised because of the specication of function
by 2.1, inequalities 1.6 are obviously satised. This means that, on the set
M : Z

a
\

i1
Z
r
i
s
i
, 3.1
function p can assume even negative values, and, moreover, there is no restriction on the
behavior of pn for n M. This leads to the following generalization of Theorem 2.1 with a
proof similar to that of Theorem 2.1 and, therefore, omitted.
Theorem 3.1. Let a N be suciently large, q N
0
,
0
be a positive number, > 1 and p : Z

a

R. Let there exists a sequence on integers {s
j
, r
j
}, r
j
> s
j
k 1, j 1, 2, . . ., s
1
a, s
1
suciently
large and s
j1
> r
j
such that, for function (dened by 2.1) and for each pair s
j
, r
j
, j 1, 2, . . .,
there exists a number
j
0,
0
such that
0
i

ns
j
1
n

j
, i Z
r
j
s
j
1
,

ns
j
1
n
2

j
, i Z
r
j
k
r
j
1
,
3.2
pn 0 for n Z
s
j
k
s
j
1
, and 1.4 holds for n Z
r
j
s
j
k1
, then all solutions of 1.1 are oscillating as
n .
4. Comparisons, Concluding Remarks, and Open Problems
Equation 1.1 with k 1 was considered in 5, where a particular case of Theorem 2.1 is
proved. In 4, a hypothesis is formulated together with the proof of Theorem 1.2 Conjecture
1 about the oscillation of all solutions of 1.1 almost coinciding with the formulation of
Theorem 2.1. For its simple form, 1.1 is often used for testing new results and is very
frequently investigated.
Theorems 1.2 and 2.1 obviously generalize several classical results. We mention at least
some of the simplest ones see, e.g., 16, Theorem 7.7 or 19, Theorem 7.5.1,
Theorem 4.1. Let pn p = const. Then every solution of 1.1 oscillates if and only if
p >
k
k
k 1
k1
. 4.1
Or the following result holds as well see, e.g., 16, Theorem 7.6 18, 19.
8 Abstract and Applied Analysis
Theorem 4.2. Let pn 0 and
sup
n
pn <
k
k
k 1
k1
. 4.2
Then 1.1 has a nonoscillatory solution.
In 9 a problem on oscillation of all solutions of equation
un pnun 0, n N 4.3
is considered where p : N R

, : N N, and lim
n
n . Since in 4.3 delay is
variable, we can formulate
Open Problem 1. It is an interesting open question whether Theorems 1.2 and 2.1 can be
extended to linear dierence equations with a variable delay argument of the form, for
example,
un pnuhn, n Z

a
, 4.4
where 0 n hn k. For some of the related results for the dierential equation
xt ptxht, 4.5
see the results in 3, 12 that are described below.
Open Problem 2. It is well known 19, 22 that the following condition is also sucient for the
oscillation of all solutions of 4.5 with hn n k:
liminf
n
1
k
n1

ink
p
i
>
k
k
k 1
k1
. 4.6
The right-hand side of 4.6 is a critical value for this criterion since this number cannot be
replaced with a smaller one.
In 30 equation 1.1 is considered as well. The authors prove that all solutions
oscillate if pn 0, > 0 and
limsup
n
pn >
k
k
k 1
k1

k
4k
1/4
, 4.7
where

_
k
k 1
_
k1
liminf
n
n1

ink
p
i
. 4.8
Abstract and Applied Analysis 9
An open problem is to obtain conditions similar to Theorem 2.1 for this kind of oscillation
criteria. Some results on this problem for delay dierential equations were also obtained in
paper 3.
In 26 the authors establish an equivalence between the oscillation of 1.1 and the
equation

2
yn 1
2k 1
k
k
k1
_
pn
k
k
k 1
k1
_
yn 0 4.9
under the critical state
liminf
n
pn
k
k
k 1
k1
, 4.10
pn
k
k
k 1
k1
. 4.11
Then they obtain some sharp oscillation and nonoscillation criteria for 1.1. One of the results
obtained there is the following.
Theorem 4.3. Assume that, for suciently large n, inequality 4.11 holds. Then the following
statements are valid.
i If
liminf
n
__
pn
k
k
k 1
k1
_
n
2
_
>
k
k1
8k 1
k
, 4.12
then every solution of 1.1 is oscillatory.
ii If, on the other hand,
_
pn
k
k
k 1
k1
_
n
2

k
k1
8k 1
k
, 4.13
then 1.1 has a nonoscillatory solution.
Regarding our results, it is easy to see that statement i is a particular case of
Theorem 2.1 while statement ii is a particular case of Theorem 1.2.
In 27, the authors investigate 1.1 for n n
0
and prove that 1.1 is oscillatory if

in
0
pi
_
_
_
k 1
k

k1

ik

ji1
p
_
j
_
1
_
_
_
. 4.14
10 Abstract and Applied Analysis
Comparing 4.14 with Theorem 2.1, we can see that 4.14 gives not sharp sucient
condition. Set, for example, k 1, > 1 and
pn
1
2
_
1
2

8n
2
_
. 4.15
Then,
k 1
k

k1

ik

ji1
p
_
j
_
1 2

1
4
_
1

4i 1
2
_
1
/4i 1
2
1
_
1 /4i 1
2
4.16
and the series in the left-hand side of 4.14 converges since

in
0
pi
_
_
_
k 1
k
k1

ik

ji1
p
_
j
_
1
_
_
_

in
0
1
2
_
1
2

8i
2
_
/4i 1
2
1
_
1 /4i 1
2

in
0
1
i
2
_
1

i
2
_
< .
4.17
But, by Theorem 2.1 all solutions of 1.1 are oscillating as n . Nevertheless 4.14 is not
a consequence of Theorem 2.1.
Let us consider a continuous variant of 1.1: a delayed dierential linear equation of
the form
xt atxt , 4.18
where > 0 is a constant delay and a : t
0
, 0, or a : t
0
, R, t
0
R. This
equation, too, for its simple form, is often used for testing new results and is very frequently
investigated. It is, for example, well known that a scalar linear equation with delay
xt
1
e
xt 1 0 4.19
has a nonoscillatory solution as t . This means that there exists an eventually positive
solution. The coecient 1/e is called critical with the following meaning: for any > 1/e,
all solutions of the equation
xt xt 1 0 4.20
are oscillatory while, for 1/e, there exists an eventually positive solution. In 10, the
third author considered 4.18, where a : t
0
, 0, is a continuous function, and t
0
is
suciently large. For the critical case, he obtained the following result being a continuous
variant of Theorems 1.2 and 2.1.
Abstract and Applied Analysis 11
Theorem 4.4. (a) Let an integer k 0 exist such that at a
k
t if t where
a
k
t :
1
e

8et
2

8et lnt
2

8et lnt ln
2
t ln
k
t
2
. 4.21
Then there exists an eventually positive solution x of 4.18.
(b) Let an integer k 2 and > 1, R exist such that
at > a
k2
t

8et lnt ln
2
t ln
k1
t
2
, 4.22
if t . Then all solutions of 4.18 oscillate.
Further results on the critical case for 4.18 can be found in 1, 11, 14, 17, 24.
In 12, Theorem 7 was generalized for equations with a variable delay
xt atxt t 0, 4.23
where a : t
0
, 0, and : t
0
, 0, are continuous functions. The main
results of this paper include the following.
Theorem 4.5 see 12. Let t t t
0
t
0
if t t
0
. Let an integer k 0 exist such that
at a
k
t for t , where
a
k
t :
1
et

t
8et
2

t
8et lnt
2

t
8et lnt ln
2
t ln
k
t
2
. 4.24
If moreover
_
t
tt
1

d 1 when t ,
lim
t
t
_
1
t
lnt ln
2
t ln
k
t
_
0,
4.25
then there exists an eventually positive solution x of 4.23 for t .
Finally, the last results were generalized in 3. We reproduce some of the results given
there.
Theorem 4.6. (A) Let > 0, 0 t for t , and let condition (a) of Theorem 4.4 holds.
Then 4.23 has a nonoscillatory solution.
(B) Let t > 0 for t , and let condition (b) of Theorem 4.4 holds. Then all solutions
of 4.23 oscillate.
For every integer k 0, > 0 and t , we dene
A
k
t :
1
et

8ets
2

8ets lns
2

8ets lns ln
2
s ln
k
s
2
, 4.26
12 Abstract and Applied Analysis
where
s pt :
_
t
t
0
1

d. 4.27
Theorem 4.7. Let for t
0
suciently large and t t
0
: t > 0 a.e., 1/t be a locally integrable
function,
lim
t
t t ,
_

t
0
1

d , 4.28
and let there exists t
1
> t
0
such that t t t
0
, t t
1
.
a If there exists a 0, such that
_
t
tt
1

d , t t
1
, 4.29
and, for a xed integer k 0,
at A
k
t, t t
1
, 4.30
then there exists an eventually positive solution of 4.23.
b If there exists a 0, such that
_
t
tt
1

d , t t
1
, 4.31
and, for a xed integer k 2 and > 1, R,
at > A
k2
t

8ets lns ln
2
s ln
k1
s
2
, 4.32
if t t
1
, then all solutions of 4.23 oscillate.
Appendix
A. Auxiliary Computations
This part includes auxiliary results with several technical lemmas proved. Part of them
is related to the asymptotic decomposition of certain functions and the rest deals with
computing the sums of some algebraic expressions. The computations are referred to in the
proof of the main result Theorem 2.1 in Section 2.
Abstract and Applied Analysis 13
First we dene auxiliary functions recalling also the denition of function given by
2.1:
n :
1
nlnnln
2
nln
3
n ln
q
n
,
n :
1
n

1
nlnn

1
nlnnln
2
n

1
nlnnln
2
n ln
q
n
,

0
n :
1
n
2

3
2n
2
lnn

3
2n
2
lnnln
2
n

3
2n
2
lnnln
2
n ln
q
n
,

1
n :
1
nlnn
2

3
2nlnn
2
ln
2
n

3
2nlnn
2
ln
2
n ln
q
n
,
.
.
.

q1
n :
1
_
nlnn ln
q1
n
_
2

3
2
_
nlnn ln
q1
n
_
2
ln
q
n
,

q
n :
1
_
nlnn ln
q
n
_
2
,
n :
1
n
2

1
nlnn
2

1
nlnnln
2
n
2

1
_
nlnnln
2
n ln
q
n
_
2
,
A.1
where n is suciently large and q N
0
. Moreover, we set for admissible values of
arguments

_
p
_
:
k

1
_
k p
_
, A.2

_
p
_
:
_
p
_

_
k p
_
, A.3
V
_
n p
_
:
k

_
n p k
_
, A.4
V

_
n p
_
: V
_
n p
_

_
n p k
_
, A.5
S
_
p
_
:
k

1
_
k p
_
2
, A.6
S

_
p
_
: S
_
p
_

_
k p
_
2
. A.7
A.1. Asymptotic Decomposition of Iterative Logarithms
In the proof of the main result, we use auxiliary results giving asymptotic decompositions of
iterative logarithms. The following lemma is proved in 11.
14 Abstract and Applied Analysis
Lemma A.1. For xed r, R \ {0} and a xed integer s 1, the asymptotic representation
ln

s
n r
ln

s
n
1
r
nlnn ln
s
n

r
2

2n
2
lnn ln
s
n

r
2

2nlnn
2
ln
2
n ln
s
n

r
2

2nlnn ln
s1
n
2
ln
s
n

r
2
1
2nlnn ln
s
n
2

r
3
1 o1
3n
3
lnn ln
s
n
A.8
holds for n .
A.2. Formulas for p and for

p
Lemma A.2. The following formulas hold:

_
p
_

k
2

_
k 2p 1
_
,
A.9

_
p
_

k 1
2

_
k 2p
_
.
A.10
Proof. It is easy to see that

_
p
_

kp1

p

_
k p 1
_

_
k p 2
_

_
p
_

_
k
_
p 1
__

_
k
_
p 2
__

_
k
_
p k
__

k
2

_
k 2p 1
_
,

_
p
_

_
p
_

_
k p
_

k 1
2

_
k 2p
_
.
A.11
A.3. Formula for the Sum of the Terms of an Arithmetical Sequence
Denote by u
1
, u
2
, . . . , u
r
the terms of an arithmetical sequence of kth order kth dierences
are constant, d

1
, d

2
, d

3
, . . ., the rst dierences d

1
u
2
u
1
, d

2
u
3
u
2
,. . ., d

1
, d

2
, d

3
, . . .,
the second dierences d

1
d

2
d

1
,. . ., and so forth. Then the following result holds see,
e.g., 43.
Lemma A.3. For the sum of r terms of an arithmetical sequence of kth order, the following formula
holds
r

i1
u
i

r!
r 1! 1!
u
1

r!
r 2! 2!
d

1

r!
r 3! 3!
d

1
. A.12
Abstract and Applied Analysis 15
A.4. Asymptotic Decomposition of n l
Lemma A.4. For xed R and q N
0
, the asymptotic representation
n n
_
1 n
2
q

i0

q
n
_
O
_
n
n
3
_
A.13
holds for n .
Proof. The function n is dened by 2.1. We develop the asymptotic decomposition of
n when n is suciently large and R. Applying Lemma A.1 for 1, r and
s 1, 2, . . . , q, we get
n
1
n lnn ln
2
n ln
3
n ln
q
n

1
n1 /n lnn ln
2
n ln
3
n ln
q
n
n
1
1 /n

lnn
lnn

ln
2
n
ln
2
n

ln
3
n
ln
3
n

ln
q
n
ln
q
n
n
_
1

n

2
n
2
O
_
1
n
3
_
_

_
1

nlnn

2
2n
2
lnn

2
nlnn
2
O
_
1
n
3
_
_

_
1

nlnnln
2
n

2
2n
2
lnnln
2
n

2
2nlnn
2
ln
2
n

2
nlnnln
2
n
2
O
_
1
n
3
_
_

_
1

nlnnln
2
nln
3
n

2
2n
2
lnnln
2
nln
3
n

2
2nlnn
2
ln
2
nln
3
n

2
2nlnnln
2
n
2
ln
3
n

2
nlnnln
2
nln
3
n
2
O
_
1
n
3
_
_

_
1

nlnnln
2
nln
3
n ln
q
n

2
2n
2
lnn ln
q
n

2
2nlnn
2
ln
2
nln
q
n

2
2
_
nlnn ln
q1
n
_
2
ln
q
n

2
_
nlnn ln
q
n
_
2
O
_
1
n
3
_
_
.
A.14
Finally, gathering the same functional terms and omitting the terms having a higher order of
accuracy than is necessary, we obtain the asymptotic decomposition A.13.
16 Abstract and Applied Analysis
A.5. Formula for
2
n
Lemma A.5. For xed q N
0
, the formula

2
n
4
3
q

i0

i
n
1
3
n A.15
holds for all suciently large n.
Proof. It is easy to see that

2
n
1
n
2

2
n
2
lnn

2
n
2
lnnln
2
n

2
n
2
lnnln
2
n ln
q
n

1
nlnn
2

2
nlnn
2
ln
2
n

2
nlnn
2
ln
2
n ln
q
n

1
nlnnln
2
n
2

2
nlnnln
2
n
2
ln
3
n

2
nlnnln
2
n
2
ln
q
n

1
_
nlnnln
2
n ln
q
n
_
2

4
3
_
1
n
2

3
2n
2
lnn

3
2n
2
lnnln
2
n

3
2n
2
lnnln
2
n ln
q
n

1
nlnn
2

3
2nlnn
2
ln
2
n

3
2nlnn
2
ln
2
n ln
q
n

1
nlnnln
2
n
2

2
nlnnln
2
n
2
ln
3
n

2
nlnnln
2
n
2
ln
q
n

1
_
nlnnln
2
n ln
q
n
_
2
_

1
3
_
1
n
2

1
n lnn
2

1
nlnnln
2
n
2

1
_
nlnnln
2
n ln
q
n
_
2
_

4
3
q

i0

i
n
1
3
n.
A.16
A.6. Asymptotic Decomposition of Vn p
Lemma A.6. For xed p N and q N
0
, the asymptotic representation
V
_
n p
_
n
_
k
_
p
_
n S
_
p
_
q

i0

i
n
_
O
_
n
n
3
_
A.17
holds for n .
Abstract and Applied Analysis 17
Proof. It is easy to deduce from formula A.13 with k p 1, k p 2, . . . , p that
V
_
n p
_
:
_
n p k 1
_

_
n p k 2
_

_
n p
_

kp1

p
n n

kp1

p
_
1

n

nlnn

nlnnln
2
n

nlnnln
2
n ln
q
n

2
n
2

3
2
2n
2
lnn

3
2
2n
2
lnnln
2
n ln
q
n

2
nlnn
2

3
2
2nlnn
2
ln
2
n

3
2
2nlnn
2
ln
3
n

3
2
2nlnn
2
ln
3
n ln
q
n

2
nlnnln
2
n
2

3
2
2nlnnln
2
n
2
ln
3
n

3
2
2nlnnln
2
n
2
ln
3
n ln
q
n

2
nlnnln
2
nln
3
n
2

3
2
2nlnnln
2
nln
3
n
2
ln
4
n ln
q
n

2
_
nlnnln
2
n ln
q1
n
_
2

3
2
2
_
nlnnln
2
n ln
q1
n
_
2
ln
q
n

2
_
nlnnln
2
n ln
q
n
_
2
O
_
1
n
3
_
_
.
A.18
Then
V
_
n p
_
: n
kp1

p
_
1 n
2
q

i0

i
n O
_
1
n
3
_
_
n
_
_
kp1

p
1 n
kp1

p

kp1

i0

i
n O
_
1
n
3
_
_
_
n
_
k
_
p
_
n S
_
p
_

i0

i
n O
_
1
n
3
_
_
n
_
k
_
p
_
n S
_
p
_
q

i0

i
n
_
O
_
n
n
3
_
.
A.19
18 Abstract and Applied Analysis
A.7. Asymptotic Decomposition of V

n p
Lemma A.7. For xed p N
0
and q N
0
, the asymptotic representation
V

_
n p
_
n
_
k 1

_
p
_
n S

_
p
_
q

i0

i
n
_
O
_
n
n
3
_
A.20
holds for n .
Proof. By A.5, A.13, A.17, A.10, and A.7, we get
V

_
n p
_
: V
_
n p
_

_
n p k
_
n
_
k
_
p
_
n S
_
p
_
q

i0

i
n
_
O
_
n
n
3
_

_
n p k
_
n
_
k
_
p
_
n S
_
p
_
q

i0

i
n
_
O
_
n
n
3
_
n
_
1
_
k p
_
n
_
k p
_
2

0
n
_
k p
_
2

1
n

_
k p
_
2

q1
n
_
k p
_
2

q
n O
_
1
n
3
__
n
_
k 1
_

_
p
_

_
k p
__
n
_
S
_
p
_

_
k p
_
2
_
q

i0

i
n
_
O
_
n
n
3
_
n
_
k 1

_
p
_
n S

_
p
_
q

i0

i
n
_
O
_
n
n
3
_
.
A.21
A.8. Formula for

k
p1
p
Lemma A.8. For the above sum, the following formula holds:
k

p1

_
p
_
k
2
. A.22
Proof. Using formula A.9, we get
k

p1

_
p
_
1 2 3 k

k
2
k 3 k 5 k 7 k 2k 1

k
2
2k k
2
.
A.23
Abstract and Applied Analysis 19
A.9. Formula for

k
p1

2
p
Lemma A.9. For the above sum, the following formula holds:
k

p1

2
_
p
_

k
3
12
_
k
2
11
_
. A.24
Proof. Using formula A.9, we get
k

p1

2
_
p
_

k
2
4
k

p1
_
k 2p 1
_
2

k
2
4

_
k 3
2
k 5
2
k 7
2
k 2k 1
2
_
.
A.25
We compute the sum in the square brackets. We use formula A.12. In our case,
r k, u
1
k 3
2
, u
2
k 5
2
, u
3
k 7
2
, . . . , u
k
k 2k 1
2
k 1
2
,
d

1
u
2
u
1
k 5
2
k 3
2
4k 16,
d

2
u
3
u
2
k 7
2
k 5
2
4k 24,
A.26
the second dierences are constant, and
d

1
d

2
d

1
4k 24 4k 16 8. A.27
Then the sum in the square brackets equals
k!
k 1! 1!
k 3
2

k!4
k 2! 2!
k 4
k!
k 3! 3!
8
k
3
_
k
2
11
_
, A.28
and formula A.24 is proved.
A.10. Formula for 2

k
i,j 0,i >j
ij
Lemma A.10. For the above product, the following formula holds:
2
k

i,j0
i>j
i
_
j
_
k
4

k
3
12
_
k
2
11
_
. A.29
20 Abstract and Applied Analysis
Proof. We have
2
k

i,j0
i>j
i
_
j
_

_
_
k

p1

_
p
_
_
_
2

p1
_

_
p
__
2
. A.30
Then, using formulas A.22, and A.24, we get
_
_
k

p1

_
p
_
_
_
2

p1
_

_
p
__
2

_
k
2
_
2

k
3
12
_
k
2
11
_
k
4

k
3
12
_
k
2
11
_
. A.31
A.11. Formula for

k
p0

p
Lemma A.11. For the above sum, the following formula holds:
k

p0

_
p
_
0. A.32
Proof. Using formulas A.9, A.10, and A.22, we get
k

p0

_
p
_
0
k

p1

_
p
_

p0
_
k p
_

k
2
k 1 k
2

k
2
k 1 0. A.33
A.12. Formula for

k
p0

p
2
Lemma A.12. For the above sum, the following formula holds:
k

p0
_

_
p
__
2

k 1
2
k
12

_
k
2
3k 2
_
. A.34
Proof. Using formula A.10, we get
k

p0
_

_
p
__
2

k 1
2
4
_
k 0
2
k 2
2
k 4
2
k 2k
2
_
. A.35
We compute the sum in the square brackets. We use formula A.12. In our case,
r k 1, u
1
k
2
, u
2
k 2
2
, u
3
k 4
2
, . . . , u
k1
k 2k
2
k
2
,
d

1
u
2
u
1
k 2
2
k
2
4k 4,
d

2
u
3
u
2
k 4
2
k 2
2
4k 12,
A.36
Abstract and Applied Analysis 21
the second dierences are constant, and
d

1
d

2
d

1
4k 12 4k 4 8. A.37
Then, the sum in the square brackets equals
k 1!
k! 1!
k
2

4k 1!
k 1! 2!
k 1
k 1!
k 2! 3!
8
k
3
_
k
2
3k 2
_
, A.38
and formula A.34 is proved.
A.13. Formula for 2

k
i,j0, i>j

j
Lemma A.13. For the above product, the following formula holds:
2
k

i,j0
i>j

_
j
_

k 1
2
k
12
_
k
2
3k 2
_
. A.39
Proof. We have
2
k

i,j0
i>j

_
j
_

_
_
k

p0

_
p
_
_
_
2

p0
_

_
p
__
2
. A.40
Then, using formulas A.32, and A.34, we get
_
_
k

p1

_
p
_
_
_
2

p1
_

_
p
__
2

k

p1
_

_
p
__
2

k 1
2
k
12

_
k
2
3k 2
_
. A.41
A.14. Formula for Sp
Lemma A.14. For a xed integer p, the formula
S
_
p
_

k
6
_
2k
2
3
_
1 2p
_
k
_
6p
2
6p 1
__
A.42
holds.
22 Abstract and Applied Analysis
Proof. We use formula A.12. In our case
r k, u
1

_
k p 1
_
2
, . . . , u
k

_
k p k
_
2
p
2
,
d

1
u
2
u
1

_
k p 2
_
2

_
k p 1
_
2

_
2k 2p 3
_
1,
d

2
u
3
u
2

_
k p 3
_
2

_
k p 2
_
2

_
2k 2p 5
_
1,
A.43
the second dierences are constant, and
d

1
d

2
d

1

_
2k 2p 5
_
1
_
2k 2p 3
_
1 2. A.44
Then the formula
S
_
p
_

k!
k 1! 1!

_
k p 1
_
2

k!1
k 2! 2!

_
2k 2p 3
_

k!
k 3! 3!
2 A.45
directly follows from A.12. After some simplication, we get
S
_
p
_
k
_
k p 1
_
2

kk 1
2

_
2k 2p 3
_

kk 1k 2
3

k
6

_
6
_
k
2
2k
_
p 1
_

_
p 1
_
2
_
3
_
2k
2
k
_
2p 5
_

_
2p 3
_
_
2
_
k
2
3k 2
__

k
6
_
2k
2
3
_
1 2p
_
k
_
6p
2
6p 1
__
.
A.46
Formula A.42 is proved.
A.15. Formula for

k
p1
Sp
Lemma A.15. For a xed integer p, the formula
k

p1
S
_
p
_

k
6
_
k
3
5k
_
A.47
holds.
Proof. Since, by A.42,
6
k
S
_
p
_
2k
2
3
_
1 2p
_
k
_
6p
2
6p 1
_
, A.48
Abstract and Applied Analysis 23
we get
6
k
k

p1
S
_
p
_
2
k

p1
k
2
3k
k

p1
_
1 2p
_
6
k

p1
p
2
6
k

p1
p
k

p1
1
2k
3
3k
_
k
2
2k
_
k
_
2k
2
3k 1
_
3
_
k
2
k
_
k
k
3
5k.
A.49
This yields A.47.
A.16. Formula for S

p
Lemma A.16. The above expression equals
S

_
p
_

k 1
6
_
2k
2

_
6p 1
_
k 6p
2
_
. A.50
Proof. We have the following:
S

_
p
_

_
k p
_
2
S
_
p
_

_
_
k p
_
2

k
6
_
2k
2
3
_
1 2p
_
k
_
6p
2
6p 1
__

k 1
6
_
2k
2

_
6p 1
_
k 6p
2
_
_

k 1
6
_
2k
2

_
6p 1
_
k 6p
2
_

1
6
_
6k
2
12kp 6p
2
k
_
4k 6p 1
_
2k
2

_
6p 1
_
k 6p
2
_

k 1
6
_
2k
2

_
6p 1
_
k 6p
2
_

k 1
6
_
2k
2

_
6p 1
_
k 6p
2
_
.
A.51
This yields A.50.
A.17. Formula for

k
p0
S

p
Lemma A.17. The above expression equals
k

p0
S

_
p
_

k 1k
6
_
k
2
3k 2
_
. A.52
Proof. Since, by A.50,
6
k 1
S

_
p
_
2k
2

_
6p 1
_
k 6p
2
, A.53
24 Abstract and Applied Analysis
we get
6
k 1
k

p0
S

_
p
_
2
k

p0
k
2
k
k

p0
_
6p 1
_
6
k

p0
p
2
2k
2
k 1 k3kk 1 k 1 k
_
2k
2
3k 1
_
k
3
3k
2
2k.
A.54
This yields A.52.
A.18. Formula for 1/k

k
p1
Sp 1/k 1

k
p0
S

p
Lemma A.18. The above expression equals
1
k
k

p1
S
_
p
_

1
k 1
k

p0
S

_
p
_

1
2

_
k
2
k
_
. A.55
Proof. By A.47 and A.50, we obtain
1
k
k

p1
S
_
p
_

1
k 1
k

p0
S

_
p
_

1
6

_
k
3
5k
_

1
6

_
k
3
3k
2
2k
_

1
6

_
3k
2
3k
_

1
2

_
k
2
k
_
.
A.56
This yields A.55.
A.19. Asymptotic Decomposition of

k
p1
Vn p
Lemma A.19. For a xed q N
0
, the asymptotic representation
k

p1
V
_
n p
_
k
k

k
n
_
1 kn
k
24
_
k
2
12k 11
_

2
n
k
6
_
k
2
5
_
q

i0

i
n
_
O
_

k
n
n
3
_
A.57
holds for n .
Abstract and Applied Analysis 25
Proof. Using formula A.17, we get
k

p1
V
_
n p
_

p1
_
n
_
k
_
p
_
n S
_
p
_
q

i0

i
n
_
O
_
n
n
3
_
_

k
n
_
_
_
_
k
k
k
k1
n
k

i1
i k
k2

2
n
k

i,j0
i>j
i
_
j
_
k
k1
k

i1
Si
q

j0

j
n
_
_
_
_
O
_

k
n
n
3
_
.
A.58
Now, by A.22, A.29, and A.47

k
n
_
_
_
_
k
k
k
k1
k
2
n
1
2
k
k2
_
k
4

k
3
12
_
k
2
11
_
_

2
n

1
6
k
k1
k
_
k
3
5k
_
q

j0

j
n
_
_
_
_
O
_

k
n
n
3
_
k
k

k
n
_
_
_
_
1 kn
k
24
_
k
2
12k 11
_

2
n

k
6
_
k
2
5
_
q

j0

j
n
_
_
_
_
O
_

k
n
n
3
_
.
A.59
A.20. Asymptotic Decomposition of

k
p0
V

n p
Lemma A.20. For a xed q N
0
, the asymptotic representation
k

p0
V

_
n p
_
k 1
k1

k1
n
_
1
k
24
_
k
2
3k 2
_

2
n
k
6
_
k
2
3k 2
_
q

i0

i
n
_
O
_

k1
n
n
3
_
A.60
holds for n .
26 Abstract and Applied Analysis
Proof. Using formula A.20, we get
k

p0
V

_
n p
_

p0
_
n
_
k 1

_
p
_
n S

_
p
_
q

i0

i
n
_
O
_
n
n
3
_
_

k1
n
_
_
_
_
k 1
k1
k 1
k
n
k

i0

i
k 1
k1

2
n
k

i,j 0
i > j

_
j
_
k 1
k
k

i0
S

i
q

j0

j
n
_
_
_
_
O
_

k1
n
n
3
_
.
A.61
Now, by A.32, A.39, and A.52, we derive

k1
n
_
_
_
_
k 1
k1
k 1
k1
k 1
2
k
24
_
k
2
3k 2
_

2
n
k 1
k
k 1k
6
_
k
2
3k 2
_
q

j0

j
n
_
_
_
_
O
_

k1
n
n
3
_
k 1
k1

k1
n
_
_
1
k
24
_
k
2
3k 2
_

2
n
k
6
_
k
2
3k 2
_
q

j0

j
n
_
_
O
_

k1
n
n
3
_
.
A.62
Acknowledgment
This research was supported by Grants P201/10/1032 and P201/11/0768 of the Czech Grant
Agency Prague, by the Council of Czech Government MSM 00216 30503 and by the project
FEKT-S-11-2921 Brno University of Technology.
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