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Você está na página 1de 28

Volume 2011, Article ID 586328, 28 pages

doi:10.1155/2011/586328

Research Article

A Final Result on the Oscillation of

Solutions of the Linear Discrete Delayed Equation

xn pnxn k with a Positive Coefcient

J. Ba stinec,

1

L. Berezansky,

2

J. Dibl k,

1, 3

and Z.

Smarda

1

1

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication,

Brno University of Technology, 61600 Brno, Czech Republic

2

Department of Mathematics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 84105 Beer-Sheva, Israel

3

Department of Mathematics and Descriptive Geometry, Faculty of Civil Engineering,

Brno University of Technology, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic

Correspondence should be addressed to J. Diblk, diblik@feec.vutbr.cz

Received 15 January 2011; Accepted 6 June 2011

Academic Editor: Yuri V. Rogovchenko

Copyright q 2011 J. Ba stinec et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative

Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in

any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

A linear k 1th-order discrete delayed equation xn pnxn k where pn a positive

sequence is considered for n . This equation is known to have a positive solution if the

sequence pn satises an inequality. Our aim is to show that, in the case of the opposite inequality

for pn, all solutions of the equation considered are oscillating for n .

1. Introduction

The existence of positive solutions of dierence equations is often encountered when

analysing mathematical models describing various processes. This is a motivation for an

intensive study of the conditions for the existence of positive solutions of discrete or

continuous equations. Such analysis is related to investigating the case of all solutions being

oscillating for investigation in both directions, we refer, e.g., to 130 and to the references

therein. The existence of monotonous and nontrivial solutions of nonlinear dierence

equations the rst one implies the existence of solutions of the same sign also has attracted

some attention recently see, e.g., several, mostly asymptotic methods in 3142 and the

related references therein. In this paper, sharp conditions are derived for all the solutions

being oscillating for a class of linear k 1-order delayed discrete equations.

We consider the delayed k 1-order linear discrete equation

xn pnxn k, 1.1

2 Abstract and Applied Analysis

where n Z

a

: {a, a1, . . .}, a N : {1, 2, . . .} is xed, xn xn1xn, p : Z

a

R,

k N. In what follows, we will also use the sets N

0

{0} N and Z

b

a

: {a, a 1, . . . , b} for

a, b N, a < b. A solution x xn : Z

a

R of 1.1 is positive negative on Z

a

if xn > 0

xn < 0 for every n Z

a

. A solution x xn : Z

a

R of 1.1 is oscillating on Z

a

if it is

not positive or negative on Z

a

1

for an arbitrary a

1

Z

a

.

Denition 1.1. Let us dene the expression ln

q

t, q 1, by ln

q

t lnln

q1

t, ln

0

t t, where t >

exp

q2

1 and exp

s

t expexp

s1

t, s 1, exp

0

t t, and exp

1

t 0 instead of ln

0

t, ln

1

t, we

will only write t and lnt.

In 4 dierence equation 1.1 is considered and the following result on the existence

of a positive solution is proved.

Theorem 1.2 see 4. Let q N

0

be a xed integer, let a N be suciently large and

0 < pn

_

k

k 1

_

k

_

1

k 1

k

8n

2

k

8nlnn

2

k

8

_

nlnn ln

q

n

_

2

_

1.2

for every n Z

a

. Then there exists a positive integer a

1

a and a solution x xn, n Z

a

1

of

equation 1.1 such that

0 < xn

_

k

k 1

_

n

_

nlnnln

2

n ln

q

n 1.3

holds for every n Z

a

1

.

Our goal is to answer the open question whether all solutions of 1.1 are oscillating if

inequality 1.2 is replaced with the opposite inequality

pn

_

k

k 1

_

k

_

1

k 1

k

8n

2

k

8nlnn

2

k

8

_

nlnn ln

q

n

_

2

_

1.4

assuming > 1, and n is suciently large. Below we prove that if 1.4 holds and > 1, then

all solutions of 1.1 are oscillatory. This means that the result given by Theorem 1.2 is a nal

in a sense. This is discussed in Section 4. Moreover, in Section 3, we show that all solutions of

1.1 will be oscillating if 1.4 holds only on an innite sequence of subintervals of Z

a

.

Because of its simple form, equation 1.1 as well as its continuous analogue attracts

permanent attention of investigators. Therefore, in Section 4 we also discuss some of the

known results.

The proof of our main result will use the next consequence of one of Domshlaks results

13, Theorem 4, page 66.

Lemma 1.3. Let s and r be xed natural numbers such that r s > k. Let {n}

1

be a bounded

sequence of real numbers and

0

be a positive number such that there exists a number 0,

0

satisfying

0

i

ns1

n

, i Z

r

s1

,

ns1

n

2

, i Z

rk

r1

, 1.5

i 0, i Z

r

r1k

,

ik

ni1

n > 0, i Z

a

,

ik

ni

n > 0, i Z

a

. 1.6

Then, if pn 0 for n Z

sk

s1

and

pn R :

_

_

_

n

nk

sin

_

k

i1

i

_

sin

_

k

i

i

_

_

_

_

sin

_

n k

_

sin

_

n

in1k

i

_ 1.7

for n Z

r

sk1

, any solution of 1.1 has at least one change of sign on Z

r

sk

.

Throughout the paper, symbols o and O for n will denote the well-known

Landau order symbols.

2. Main Result

In this section, we give sucient conditions for all solutions of 1.1 to be oscillatory as n

. It will be necessary to develop asymptotic decompositions of some auxiliary expressions.

As the computations needed are rather cumbersome, some auxiliary computations are

collected in the appendix to be utilized in the proof of the main result Theorem 2.1

below.

Theorem 2.1. Let a N be suciently large, q N

0

and > 1. Assuming that the function p :

Z

a

0, satises inequality 1.4 for every n Z

a

, all solutions of 1.1 are oscillating as

n .

Proof. As emphasized above, in the proof, we will use Lemma 1.3. We dene

n :

1

nlnnln

2

nln

3

n ln

q

n

, 2.1

where n is suciently large, and q 0 is a xed integer. Although the idea of the proof

is simple, it is very technical and we will refer to notations and auxiliary computations

contained in the appendix. We will develop an asymptotic decomposition of the right-hand

side R of inequality 1.7 with the function n dened by 2.1. We show that this will lead

to the desired inequality 1.4. We set

R

1

:

k

i1

Vn i

k

i0

V

n i

n k, 2.2

4 Abstract and Applied Analysis

where V and V

R

sin

_

n

in1k

i

_

n

nk1

sin

_

k

i1

i

_

n

nk

sin

_

k

i

i

_

sin

_

n k

_

sin

_

n

in1k

i

_

n

nk1

sin

_

k

i1

i

_

n

nk

sin

_

k

i

i

_ sin

_

n k

_

k

p1

sin

_

V

_

n p

__

k

p0

sin

_

V

_

n p

__

sin

_

n k

_

.

2.3

Recalling the asymptotic decomposition of sinx when x 0: sinx xOx

3

, we get since

lim

n

nk 0, lim

n

Vnp 0, p 1, . . . , k, and lim

n

V

np 0, p 0, . . . , k

sinn k n k O

_

3

n k

_

,

sinV

_

n p

_

V

_

n p

_

O

_

3

V

3

_

n p

_

_

, p 1, . . . , k,

sinV

_

n p

_

V

_

n p

_

O

_

3

V

3

_

n p

_

_

, p 0, . . . , k

2.4

as n . Then, it is easy to see that, by A.13, we have n On, n for

every R and

R R

1

_

1 O

_

2

n

__

, n . 2.5

Moreover, for R

1

, we will get an asymptotic decomposition as n . Using formulas A.13,

A.57, and A.60, we get

R

1

k

k

k 1

k1

1knk/24

_

k

2

12k 11

_

2

nk/6

_

k

2

5

_

q

i0

i

nO

_

1/n

3

_

1 k/24k

2

3k 2

2

n k/6k

2

3k 2

q

i0

i

n O1/n

3

_

1 kn k

2

q

i0

i

n O

_

1

n

3

_

_

.

2.6

Since lim

n

n 0, lim

n

i

n 0, i 1, . . . , q, we can decompose the denominator of

the second fraction as the sum of the terms of a geometric sequence. Keeping only terms with

Abstract and Applied Analysis 5

the order of accuracy necessary for further analysis i.e. with order O1/n

3

, we get

_

1

k

24

_

k

2

3k 2

_

2

n

k

6

_

k

2

3k 2

_

q

i0

i

n O

_

1

n

3

_

_

1

1

k

24

_

k

2

3k 2

_

2

n

k

6

_

k

2

3k 2

_

q

i0

i

n O

_

1

n

3

_

.

2.7

We perform an auxiliary computation in R

1

,

_

1 kn

k

24

_

k

2

12k 11

_

2

n

k

6

_

k

2

5

_

q

i0

i

n O

_

1

n

3

_

_

_

1

k

24

_

k

2

3k 2

_

2

n

k

6

_

k

2

3k 2

_

q

i0

i

n O

_

1

n

3

_

_

_

1 kn k

2

q

i0

i

n O

_

1

n

3

_

_

_

1 kn

k

24

_

k

2

12k 11

_

2

n

k

6

_

k

2

5

_

q

i0

i

n O

_

1

n

3

_

_

_

1 kn

k

24

_

k

2

3k 2

_

2

n

k

6

_

k

2

3k 2

_

q

i0

i

n O

_

1

n

3

_

_

1

3

8

kk 1

2

n

1

2

kk 1

q

i0

i

n O

_

1

n

3

_

we use formula A.15

1

1

8

kk 1n O

_

1

n

3

_

1

1

8

kk 1

_

1

n

2

1

nlnn

2

1

nlnnln

2

n

2

1

_

nlnnln

2

n ln

q

n

_

2

_

O

_

1

n

3

_

.

2.8

Thus, we have

R

1

k

k

k 1

k1

_

1

1

8

kk 1

_

1

n

2

1

nlnn

2

1

nlnnln

2

n

2

1

_

nlnnln

2

n ln

q

n

_

2

__

O

_

1

n

3

_

_

k

k 1

_

k

_

1

k 1

k

8n

2

k

8nlnn

2

k

8

_

nlnn ln

q

n

_

2

_

O

_

1

n

3

_

.

2.9

6 Abstract and Applied Analysis

Finalizing our decompositions, we see that

R R

1

_

1 O

_

2

n

__

_

_

k

k 1

_

k

_

1

k 1

k

8n

2

k

8nlnn

2

k

8

_

nlnn ln

q

n

_

2

_

O

_

1

n

3

_

_

_

1 O

_

2

n

__

_

k

k 1

_

k

_

1

k 1

k

8n

2

k

8nlnn

2

k

8

_

nlnn ln

q

n

_

2

_

O

_

2

_

nlnn ln

q

n

_

2

_

.

2.10

It is easy to see that inequality 1.7 becomes

pn

_

k

k 1

_

k

_

1

k 1

k

8n

2

k

8nlnn

2

k

8

_

nlnn ln

q

n

_

2

_

O

_

2

_

nlnn ln

q

n

_

2

_

2.11

and will be valid if see 1.4

1

k 1

k

8n

2

k

8nlnn

2

k

8

_

nlnn ln

q

n

_

2

1

k 1

k

8n

2

k

8nlnn

2

k

8

_

nlnn ln

q

n

_

2

O

_

2

_

nlnn ln

q

n

_

2

_

2.12

or

1 O

_

2

_

2.13

for n . If n n

0

, where n

0

is suciently large, 2.13 holds for 0,

0

with

0

suciently small because > 1. Consequently, 2.11 is satised and the assumption 1.7

of Lemma 1.3 holds for n Z

n

0

. Let s n

0

in Lemma 1.3 be xed, r > s k 1 be so large

and

0

so small if necessary that inequalities 1.5 hold. Such choice is always possible since

the series

ns1

n is divergent. Then Lemma 1.3 holds and any solution of 1.1 has at

least one change of sign on Z

r

sk

. Obviously, inequalities 1.5 can be satised for another pair

of s, r, say s

1

, r

1

with s

1

> r and r

1

> s

1

k suciently large and, by Lemma 1.3, any

solution of 1.1 has at least one change of sign on Z

r

1

s

1

k

. Continuing this process, we will get

a sequence of pairs s

j

, r

j

with lim

j

s

j

such that any solution of 1.1 has at least one

change of sign on Z

r

j

s

j

k

. This concludes the proof.

Abstract and Applied Analysis 7

3. A Generalization

The coecient p in Theorem 2.1 is supposed to be positive on Z

a

. For all suciently large

n, the expression R, as can easily be seen from 2.10, is positive. Then, as follows from

Lemma 1.3, any solution of 1.1 has at least one change of sign on Z

r

sk

if p is nonnegative on

Z

sk

s1

and satises inequality 1.4 on Z

r

sk1

.

Owing to this remark, Theorem 2.1 can be generalized because and the following

argumentation was used at the end of the proof of Theorem 2.1 all solutions of 1.1 will be

oscillating as n if a sequence of numbers {s

i

, r

i

}, r

i

> s

i

k 1, s

1

a, i 1, 2, . . . exists

such that s

i1

> r

i

i.e., the sets Z

r

i

s

i

, Z

r

i1

s

i1

are disjoint and lim

i

s

i

, and, for every pair

s

i

, r

i

, all assumptions of Lemma 1.3 are satised because of the specication of function

by 2.1, inequalities 1.6 are obviously satised. This means that, on the set

M : Z

a

\

i1

Z

r

i

s

i

, 3.1

function p can assume even negative values, and, moreover, there is no restriction on the

behavior of pn for n M. This leads to the following generalization of Theorem 2.1 with a

proof similar to that of Theorem 2.1 and, therefore, omitted.

Theorem 3.1. Let a N be suciently large, q N

0

,

0

be a positive number, > 1 and p : Z

a

R. Let there exists a sequence on integers {s

j

, r

j

}, r

j

> s

j

k 1, j 1, 2, . . ., s

1

a, s

1

suciently

large and s

j1

> r

j

such that, for function (dened by 2.1) and for each pair s

j

, r

j

, j 1, 2, . . .,

there exists a number

j

0,

0

such that

0

i

ns

j

1

n

j

, i Z

r

j

s

j

1

,

ns

j

1

n

2

j

, i Z

r

j

k

r

j

1

,

3.2

pn 0 for n Z

s

j

k

s

j

1

, and 1.4 holds for n Z

r

j

s

j

k1

, then all solutions of 1.1 are oscillating as

n .

4. Comparisons, Concluding Remarks, and Open Problems

Equation 1.1 with k 1 was considered in 5, where a particular case of Theorem 2.1 is

proved. In 4, a hypothesis is formulated together with the proof of Theorem 1.2 Conjecture

1 about the oscillation of all solutions of 1.1 almost coinciding with the formulation of

Theorem 2.1. For its simple form, 1.1 is often used for testing new results and is very

frequently investigated.

Theorems 1.2 and 2.1 obviously generalize several classical results. We mention at least

some of the simplest ones see, e.g., 16, Theorem 7.7 or 19, Theorem 7.5.1,

Theorem 4.1. Let pn p = const. Then every solution of 1.1 oscillates if and only if

p >

k

k

k 1

k1

. 4.1

Or the following result holds as well see, e.g., 16, Theorem 7.6 18, 19.

8 Abstract and Applied Analysis

Theorem 4.2. Let pn 0 and

sup

n

pn <

k

k

k 1

k1

. 4.2

Then 1.1 has a nonoscillatory solution.

In 9 a problem on oscillation of all solutions of equation

un pnun 0, n N 4.3

is considered where p : N R

, : N N, and lim

n

n . Since in 4.3 delay is

variable, we can formulate

Open Problem 1. It is an interesting open question whether Theorems 1.2 and 2.1 can be

extended to linear dierence equations with a variable delay argument of the form, for

example,

un pnuhn, n Z

a

, 4.4

where 0 n hn k. For some of the related results for the dierential equation

xt ptxht, 4.5

see the results in 3, 12 that are described below.

Open Problem 2. It is well known 19, 22 that the following condition is also sucient for the

oscillation of all solutions of 4.5 with hn n k:

liminf

n

1

k

n1

ink

p

i

>

k

k

k 1

k1

. 4.6

The right-hand side of 4.6 is a critical value for this criterion since this number cannot be

replaced with a smaller one.

In 30 equation 1.1 is considered as well. The authors prove that all solutions

oscillate if pn 0, > 0 and

limsup

n

pn >

k

k

k 1

k1

k

4k

1/4

, 4.7

where

_

k

k 1

_

k1

liminf

n

n1

ink

p

i

. 4.8

Abstract and Applied Analysis 9

An open problem is to obtain conditions similar to Theorem 2.1 for this kind of oscillation

criteria. Some results on this problem for delay dierential equations were also obtained in

paper 3.

In 26 the authors establish an equivalence between the oscillation of 1.1 and the

equation

2

yn 1

2k 1

k

k

k1

_

pn

k

k

k 1

k1

_

yn 0 4.9

under the critical state

liminf

n

pn

k

k

k 1

k1

, 4.10

pn

k

k

k 1

k1

. 4.11

Then they obtain some sharp oscillation and nonoscillation criteria for 1.1. One of the results

obtained there is the following.

Theorem 4.3. Assume that, for suciently large n, inequality 4.11 holds. Then the following

statements are valid.

i If

liminf

n

__

pn

k

k

k 1

k1

_

n

2

_

>

k

k1

8k 1

k

, 4.12

then every solution of 1.1 is oscillatory.

ii If, on the other hand,

_

pn

k

k

k 1

k1

_

n

2

k

k1

8k 1

k

, 4.13

then 1.1 has a nonoscillatory solution.

Regarding our results, it is easy to see that statement i is a particular case of

Theorem 2.1 while statement ii is a particular case of Theorem 1.2.

In 27, the authors investigate 1.1 for n n

0

and prove that 1.1 is oscillatory if

in

0

pi

_

_

_

k 1

k

k1

ik

ji1

p

_

j

_

1

_

_

_

. 4.14

10 Abstract and Applied Analysis

Comparing 4.14 with Theorem 2.1, we can see that 4.14 gives not sharp sucient

condition. Set, for example, k 1, > 1 and

pn

1

2

_

1

2

8n

2

_

. 4.15

Then,

k 1

k

k1

ik

ji1

p

_

j

_

1 2

1

4

_

1

4i 1

2

_

1

/4i 1

2

1

_

1 /4i 1

2

4.16

and the series in the left-hand side of 4.14 converges since

in

0

pi

_

_

_

k 1

k

k1

ik

ji1

p

_

j

_

1

_

_

_

in

0

1

2

_

1

2

8i

2

_

/4i 1

2

1

_

1 /4i 1

2

in

0

1

i

2

_

1

i

2

_

< .

4.17

But, by Theorem 2.1 all solutions of 1.1 are oscillating as n . Nevertheless 4.14 is not

a consequence of Theorem 2.1.

Let us consider a continuous variant of 1.1: a delayed dierential linear equation of

the form

xt atxt , 4.18

where > 0 is a constant delay and a : t

0

, 0, or a : t

0

, R, t

0

R. This

equation, too, for its simple form, is often used for testing new results and is very frequently

investigated. It is, for example, well known that a scalar linear equation with delay

xt

1

e

xt 1 0 4.19

has a nonoscillatory solution as t . This means that there exists an eventually positive

solution. The coecient 1/e is called critical with the following meaning: for any > 1/e,

all solutions of the equation

xt xt 1 0 4.20

are oscillatory while, for 1/e, there exists an eventually positive solution. In 10, the

third author considered 4.18, where a : t

0

, 0, is a continuous function, and t

0

is

suciently large. For the critical case, he obtained the following result being a continuous

variant of Theorems 1.2 and 2.1.

Abstract and Applied Analysis 11

Theorem 4.4. (a) Let an integer k 0 exist such that at a

k

t if t where

a

k

t :

1

e

8et

2

8et lnt

2

8et lnt ln

2

t ln

k

t

2

. 4.21

Then there exists an eventually positive solution x of 4.18.

(b) Let an integer k 2 and > 1, R exist such that

at > a

k2

t

8et lnt ln

2

t ln

k1

t

2

, 4.22

if t . Then all solutions of 4.18 oscillate.

Further results on the critical case for 4.18 can be found in 1, 11, 14, 17, 24.

In 12, Theorem 7 was generalized for equations with a variable delay

xt atxt t 0, 4.23

where a : t

0

, 0, and : t

0

, 0, are continuous functions. The main

results of this paper include the following.

Theorem 4.5 see 12. Let t t t

0

t

0

if t t

0

. Let an integer k 0 exist such that

at a

k

t for t , where

a

k

t :

1

et

t

8et

2

t

8et lnt

2

t

8et lnt ln

2

t ln

k

t

2

. 4.24

If moreover

_

t

tt

1

d 1 when t ,

lim

t

t

_

1

t

lnt ln

2

t ln

k

t

_

0,

4.25

then there exists an eventually positive solution x of 4.23 for t .

Finally, the last results were generalized in 3. We reproduce some of the results given

there.

Theorem 4.6. (A) Let > 0, 0 t for t , and let condition (a) of Theorem 4.4 holds.

Then 4.23 has a nonoscillatory solution.

(B) Let t > 0 for t , and let condition (b) of Theorem 4.4 holds. Then all solutions

of 4.23 oscillate.

For every integer k 0, > 0 and t , we dene

A

k

t :

1

et

8ets

2

8ets lns

2

8ets lns ln

2

s ln

k

s

2

, 4.26

12 Abstract and Applied Analysis

where

s pt :

_

t

t

0

1

d. 4.27

Theorem 4.7. Let for t

0

suciently large and t t

0

: t > 0 a.e., 1/t be a locally integrable

function,

lim

t

t t ,

_

t

0

1

d , 4.28

and let there exists t

1

> t

0

such that t t t

0

, t t

1

.

a If there exists a 0, such that

_

t

tt

1

d , t t

1

, 4.29

and, for a xed integer k 0,

at A

k

t, t t

1

, 4.30

then there exists an eventually positive solution of 4.23.

b If there exists a 0, such that

_

t

tt

1

d , t t

1

, 4.31

and, for a xed integer k 2 and > 1, R,

at > A

k2

t

8ets lns ln

2

s ln

k1

s

2

, 4.32

if t t

1

, then all solutions of 4.23 oscillate.

Appendix

A. Auxiliary Computations

This part includes auxiliary results with several technical lemmas proved. Part of them

is related to the asymptotic decomposition of certain functions and the rest deals with

computing the sums of some algebraic expressions. The computations are referred to in the

proof of the main result Theorem 2.1 in Section 2.

Abstract and Applied Analysis 13

First we dene auxiliary functions recalling also the denition of function given by

2.1:

n :

1

nlnnln

2

nln

3

n ln

q

n

,

n :

1

n

1

nlnn

1

nlnnln

2

n

1

nlnnln

2

n ln

q

n

,

0

n :

1

n

2

3

2n

2

lnn

3

2n

2

lnnln

2

n

3

2n

2

lnnln

2

n ln

q

n

,

1

n :

1

nlnn

2

3

2nlnn

2

ln

2

n

3

2nlnn

2

ln

2

n ln

q

n

,

.

.

.

q1

n :

1

_

nlnn ln

q1

n

_

2

3

2

_

nlnn ln

q1

n

_

2

ln

q

n

,

q

n :

1

_

nlnn ln

q

n

_

2

,

n :

1

n

2

1

nlnn

2

1

nlnnln

2

n

2

1

_

nlnnln

2

n ln

q

n

_

2

,

A.1

where n is suciently large and q N

0

. Moreover, we set for admissible values of

arguments

_

p

_

:

k

1

_

k p

_

, A.2

_

p

_

:

_

p

_

_

k p

_

, A.3

V

_

n p

_

:

k

_

n p k

_

, A.4

V

_

n p

_

: V

_

n p

_

_

n p k

_

, A.5

S

_

p

_

:

k

1

_

k p

_

2

, A.6

S

_

p

_

: S

_

p

_

_

k p

_

2

. A.7

A.1. Asymptotic Decomposition of Iterative Logarithms

In the proof of the main result, we use auxiliary results giving asymptotic decompositions of

iterative logarithms. The following lemma is proved in 11.

14 Abstract and Applied Analysis

Lemma A.1. For xed r, R \ {0} and a xed integer s 1, the asymptotic representation

ln

s

n r

ln

s

n

1

r

nlnn ln

s

n

r

2

2n

2

lnn ln

s

n

r

2

2nlnn

2

ln

2

n ln

s

n

r

2

2nlnn ln

s1

n

2

ln

s

n

r

2

1

2nlnn ln

s

n

2

r

3

1 o1

3n

3

lnn ln

s

n

A.8

holds for n .

A.2. Formulas for p and for

p

Lemma A.2. The following formulas hold:

_

p

_

k

2

_

k 2p 1

_

,

A.9

_

p

_

k 1

2

_

k 2p

_

.

A.10

Proof. It is easy to see that

_

p

_

kp1

p

_

k p 1

_

_

k p 2

_

_

p

_

_

k

_

p 1

__

_

k

_

p 2

__

_

k

_

p k

__

k

2

_

k 2p 1

_

,

_

p

_

_

p

_

_

k p

_

k 1

2

_

k 2p

_

.

A.11

A.3. Formula for the Sum of the Terms of an Arithmetical Sequence

Denote by u

1

, u

2

, . . . , u

r

the terms of an arithmetical sequence of kth order kth dierences

are constant, d

1

, d

2

, d

3

, . . ., the rst dierences d

1

u

2

u

1

, d

2

u

3

u

2

,. . ., d

1

, d

2

, d

3

, . . .,

the second dierences d

1

d

2

d

1

,. . ., and so forth. Then the following result holds see,

e.g., 43.

Lemma A.3. For the sum of r terms of an arithmetical sequence of kth order, the following formula

holds

r

i1

u

i

r!

r 1! 1!

u

1

r!

r 2! 2!

d

1

r!

r 3! 3!

d

1

. A.12

Abstract and Applied Analysis 15

A.4. Asymptotic Decomposition of n l

Lemma A.4. For xed R and q N

0

, the asymptotic representation

n n

_

1 n

2

q

i0

q

n

_

O

_

n

n

3

_

A.13

holds for n .

Proof. The function n is dened by 2.1. We develop the asymptotic decomposition of

n when n is suciently large and R. Applying Lemma A.1 for 1, r and

s 1, 2, . . . , q, we get

n

1

n lnn ln

2

n ln

3

n ln

q

n

1

n1 /n lnn ln

2

n ln

3

n ln

q

n

n

1

1 /n

lnn

lnn

ln

2

n

ln

2

n

ln

3

n

ln

3

n

ln

q

n

ln

q

n

n

_

1

n

2

n

2

O

_

1

n

3

_

_

_

1

nlnn

2

2n

2

lnn

2

nlnn

2

O

_

1

n

3

_

_

_

1

nlnnln

2

n

2

2n

2

lnnln

2

n

2

2nlnn

2

ln

2

n

2

nlnnln

2

n

2

O

_

1

n

3

_

_

_

1

nlnnln

2

nln

3

n

2

2n

2

lnnln

2

nln

3

n

2

2nlnn

2

ln

2

nln

3

n

2

2nlnnln

2

n

2

ln

3

n

2

nlnnln

2

nln

3

n

2

O

_

1

n

3

_

_

_

1

nlnnln

2

nln

3

n ln

q

n

2

2n

2

lnn ln

q

n

2

2nlnn

2

ln

2

nln

q

n

2

2

_

nlnn ln

q1

n

_

2

ln

q

n

2

_

nlnn ln

q

n

_

2

O

_

1

n

3

_

_

.

A.14

Finally, gathering the same functional terms and omitting the terms having a higher order of

accuracy than is necessary, we obtain the asymptotic decomposition A.13.

16 Abstract and Applied Analysis

A.5. Formula for

2

n

Lemma A.5. For xed q N

0

, the formula

2

n

4

3

q

i0

i

n

1

3

n A.15

holds for all suciently large n.

Proof. It is easy to see that

2

n

1

n

2

2

n

2

lnn

2

n

2

lnnln

2

n

2

n

2

lnnln

2

n ln

q

n

1

nlnn

2

2

nlnn

2

ln

2

n

2

nlnn

2

ln

2

n ln

q

n

1

nlnnln

2

n

2

2

nlnnln

2

n

2

ln

3

n

2

nlnnln

2

n

2

ln

q

n

1

_

nlnnln

2

n ln

q

n

_

2

4

3

_

1

n

2

3

2n

2

lnn

3

2n

2

lnnln

2

n

3

2n

2

lnnln

2

n ln

q

n

1

nlnn

2

3

2nlnn

2

ln

2

n

3

2nlnn

2

ln

2

n ln

q

n

1

nlnnln

2

n

2

2

nlnnln

2

n

2

ln

3

n

2

nlnnln

2

n

2

ln

q

n

1

_

nlnnln

2

n ln

q

n

_

2

_

1

3

_

1

n

2

1

n lnn

2

1

nlnnln

2

n

2

1

_

nlnnln

2

n ln

q

n

_

2

_

4

3

q

i0

i

n

1

3

n.

A.16

A.6. Asymptotic Decomposition of Vn p

Lemma A.6. For xed p N and q N

0

, the asymptotic representation

V

_

n p

_

n

_

k

_

p

_

n S

_

p

_

q

i0

i

n

_

O

_

n

n

3

_

A.17

holds for n .

Abstract and Applied Analysis 17

Proof. It is easy to deduce from formula A.13 with k p 1, k p 2, . . . , p that

V

_

n p

_

:

_

n p k 1

_

_

n p k 2

_

_

n p

_

kp1

p

n n

kp1

p

_

1

n

nlnn

nlnnln

2

n

nlnnln

2

n ln

q

n

2

n

2

3

2

2n

2

lnn

3

2

2n

2

lnnln

2

n ln

q

n

2

nlnn

2

3

2

2nlnn

2

ln

2

n

3

2

2nlnn

2

ln

3

n

3

2

2nlnn

2

ln

3

n ln

q

n

2

nlnnln

2

n

2

3

2

2nlnnln

2

n

2

ln

3

n

3

2

2nlnnln

2

n

2

ln

3

n ln

q

n

2

nlnnln

2

nln

3

n

2

3

2

2nlnnln

2

nln

3

n

2

ln

4

n ln

q

n

2

_

nlnnln

2

n ln

q1

n

_

2

3

2

2

_

nlnnln

2

n ln

q1

n

_

2

ln

q

n

2

_

nlnnln

2

n ln

q

n

_

2

O

_

1

n

3

_

_

.

A.18

Then

V

_

n p

_

: n

kp1

p

_

1 n

2

q

i0

i

n O

_

1

n

3

_

_

n

_

_

kp1

p

1 n

kp1

p

kp1

i0

i

n O

_

1

n

3

_

_

_

n

_

k

_

p

_

n S

_

p

_

i0

i

n O

_

1

n

3

_

_

n

_

k

_

p

_

n S

_

p

_

q

i0

i

n

_

O

_

n

n

3

_

.

A.19

18 Abstract and Applied Analysis

A.7. Asymptotic Decomposition of V

n p

Lemma A.7. For xed p N

0

and q N

0

, the asymptotic representation

V

_

n p

_

n

_

k 1

_

p

_

n S

_

p

_

q

i0

i

n

_

O

_

n

n

3

_

A.20

holds for n .

Proof. By A.5, A.13, A.17, A.10, and A.7, we get

V

_

n p

_

: V

_

n p

_

_

n p k

_

n

_

k

_

p

_

n S

_

p

_

q

i0

i

n

_

O

_

n

n

3

_

_

n p k

_

n

_

k

_

p

_

n S

_

p

_

q

i0

i

n

_

O

_

n

n

3

_

n

_

1

_

k p

_

n

_

k p

_

2

0

n

_

k p

_

2

1

n

_

k p

_

2

q1

n

_

k p

_

2

q

n O

_

1

n

3

__

n

_

k 1

_

_

p

_

_

k p

__

n

_

S

_

p

_

_

k p

_

2

_

q

i0

i

n

_

O

_

n

n

3

_

n

_

k 1

_

p

_

n S

_

p

_

q

i0

i

n

_

O

_

n

n

3

_

.

A.21

A.8. Formula for

k

p1

p

Lemma A.8. For the above sum, the following formula holds:

k

p1

_

p

_

k

2

. A.22

Proof. Using formula A.9, we get

k

p1

_

p

_

1 2 3 k

k

2

k 3 k 5 k 7 k 2k 1

k

2

2k k

2

.

A.23

Abstract and Applied Analysis 19

A.9. Formula for

k

p1

2

p

Lemma A.9. For the above sum, the following formula holds:

k

p1

2

_

p

_

k

3

12

_

k

2

11

_

. A.24

Proof. Using formula A.9, we get

k

p1

2

_

p

_

k

2

4

k

p1

_

k 2p 1

_

2

k

2

4

_

k 3

2

k 5

2

k 7

2

k 2k 1

2

_

.

A.25

We compute the sum in the square brackets. We use formula A.12. In our case,

r k, u

1

k 3

2

, u

2

k 5

2

, u

3

k 7

2

, . . . , u

k

k 2k 1

2

k 1

2

,

d

1

u

2

u

1

k 5

2

k 3

2

4k 16,

d

2

u

3

u

2

k 7

2

k 5

2

4k 24,

A.26

the second dierences are constant, and

d

1

d

2

d

1

4k 24 4k 16 8. A.27

Then the sum in the square brackets equals

k!

k 1! 1!

k 3

2

k!4

k 2! 2!

k 4

k!

k 3! 3!

8

k

3

_

k

2

11

_

, A.28

and formula A.24 is proved.

A.10. Formula for 2

k

i,j 0,i >j

ij

Lemma A.10. For the above product, the following formula holds:

2

k

i,j0

i>j

i

_

j

_

k

4

k

3

12

_

k

2

11

_

. A.29

20 Abstract and Applied Analysis

Proof. We have

2

k

i,j0

i>j

i

_

j

_

_

_

k

p1

_

p

_

_

_

2

p1

_

_

p

__

2

. A.30

Then, using formulas A.22, and A.24, we get

_

_

k

p1

_

p

_

_

_

2

p1

_

_

p

__

2

_

k

2

_

2

k

3

12

_

k

2

11

_

k

4

k

3

12

_

k

2

11

_

. A.31

A.11. Formula for

k

p0

p

Lemma A.11. For the above sum, the following formula holds:

k

p0

_

p

_

0. A.32

Proof. Using formulas A.9, A.10, and A.22, we get

k

p0

_

p

_

0

k

p1

_

p

_

p0

_

k p

_

k

2

k 1 k

2

k

2

k 1 0. A.33

A.12. Formula for

k

p0

p

2

Lemma A.12. For the above sum, the following formula holds:

k

p0

_

_

p

__

2

k 1

2

k

12

_

k

2

3k 2

_

. A.34

Proof. Using formula A.10, we get

k

p0

_

_

p

__

2

k 1

2

4

_

k 0

2

k 2

2

k 4

2

k 2k

2

_

. A.35

We compute the sum in the square brackets. We use formula A.12. In our case,

r k 1, u

1

k

2

, u

2

k 2

2

, u

3

k 4

2

, . . . , u

k1

k 2k

2

k

2

,

d

1

u

2

u

1

k 2

2

k

2

4k 4,

d

2

u

3

u

2

k 4

2

k 2

2

4k 12,

A.36

Abstract and Applied Analysis 21

the second dierences are constant, and

d

1

d

2

d

1

4k 12 4k 4 8. A.37

Then, the sum in the square brackets equals

k 1!

k! 1!

k

2

4k 1!

k 1! 2!

k 1

k 1!

k 2! 3!

8

k

3

_

k

2

3k 2

_

, A.38

and formula A.34 is proved.

A.13. Formula for 2

k

i,j0, i>j

j

Lemma A.13. For the above product, the following formula holds:

2

k

i,j0

i>j

_

j

_

k 1

2

k

12

_

k

2

3k 2

_

. A.39

Proof. We have

2

k

i,j0

i>j

_

j

_

_

_

k

p0

_

p

_

_

_

2

p0

_

_

p

__

2

. A.40

Then, using formulas A.32, and A.34, we get

_

_

k

p1

_

p

_

_

_

2

p1

_

_

p

__

2

k

p1

_

_

p

__

2

k 1

2

k

12

_

k

2

3k 2

_

. A.41

A.14. Formula for Sp

Lemma A.14. For a xed integer p, the formula

S

_

p

_

k

6

_

2k

2

3

_

1 2p

_

k

_

6p

2

6p 1

__

A.42

holds.

22 Abstract and Applied Analysis

Proof. We use formula A.12. In our case

r k, u

1

_

k p 1

_

2

, . . . , u

k

_

k p k

_

2

p

2

,

d

1

u

2

u

1

_

k p 2

_

2

_

k p 1

_

2

_

2k 2p 3

_

1,

d

2

u

3

u

2

_

k p 3

_

2

_

k p 2

_

2

_

2k 2p 5

_

1,

A.43

the second dierences are constant, and

d

1

d

2

d

1

_

2k 2p 5

_

1

_

2k 2p 3

_

1 2. A.44

Then the formula

S

_

p

_

k!

k 1! 1!

_

k p 1

_

2

k!1

k 2! 2!

_

2k 2p 3

_

k!

k 3! 3!

2 A.45

directly follows from A.12. After some simplication, we get

S

_

p

_

k

_

k p 1

_

2

kk 1

2

_

2k 2p 3

_

kk 1k 2

3

k

6

_

6

_

k

2

2k

_

p 1

_

_

p 1

_

2

_

3

_

2k

2

k

_

2p 5

_

_

2p 3

_

_

2

_

k

2

3k 2

__

k

6

_

2k

2

3

_

1 2p

_

k

_

6p

2

6p 1

__

.

A.46

Formula A.42 is proved.

A.15. Formula for

k

p1

Sp

Lemma A.15. For a xed integer p, the formula

k

p1

S

_

p

_

k

6

_

k

3

5k

_

A.47

holds.

Proof. Since, by A.42,

6

k

S

_

p

_

2k

2

3

_

1 2p

_

k

_

6p

2

6p 1

_

, A.48

Abstract and Applied Analysis 23

we get

6

k

k

p1

S

_

p

_

2

k

p1

k

2

3k

k

p1

_

1 2p

_

6

k

p1

p

2

6

k

p1

p

k

p1

1

2k

3

3k

_

k

2

2k

_

k

_

2k

2

3k 1

_

3

_

k

2

k

_

k

k

3

5k.

A.49

This yields A.47.

A.16. Formula for S

p

Lemma A.16. The above expression equals

S

_

p

_

k 1

6

_

2k

2

_

6p 1

_

k 6p

2

_

. A.50

Proof. We have the following:

S

_

p

_

_

k p

_

2

S

_

p

_

_

_

k p

_

2

k

6

_

2k

2

3

_

1 2p

_

k

_

6p

2

6p 1

__

k 1

6

_

2k

2

_

6p 1

_

k 6p

2

_

_

k 1

6

_

2k

2

_

6p 1

_

k 6p

2

_

1

6

_

6k

2

12kp 6p

2

k

_

4k 6p 1

_

2k

2

_

6p 1

_

k 6p

2

_

k 1

6

_

2k

2

_

6p 1

_

k 6p

2

_

k 1

6

_

2k

2

_

6p 1

_

k 6p

2

_

.

A.51

This yields A.50.

A.17. Formula for

k

p0

S

p

Lemma A.17. The above expression equals

k

p0

S

_

p

_

k 1k

6

_

k

2

3k 2

_

. A.52

Proof. Since, by A.50,

6

k 1

S

_

p

_

2k

2

_

6p 1

_

k 6p

2

, A.53

24 Abstract and Applied Analysis

we get

6

k 1

k

p0

S

_

p

_

2

k

p0

k

2

k

k

p0

_

6p 1

_

6

k

p0

p

2

2k

2

k 1 k3kk 1 k 1 k

_

2k

2

3k 1

_

k

3

3k

2

2k.

A.54

This yields A.52.

A.18. Formula for 1/k

k

p1

Sp 1/k 1

k

p0

S

p

Lemma A.18. The above expression equals

1

k

k

p1

S

_

p

_

1

k 1

k

p0

S

_

p

_

1

2

_

k

2

k

_

. A.55

Proof. By A.47 and A.50, we obtain

1

k

k

p1

S

_

p

_

1

k 1

k

p0

S

_

p

_

1

6

_

k

3

5k

_

1

6

_

k

3

3k

2

2k

_

1

6

_

3k

2

3k

_

1

2

_

k

2

k

_

.

A.56

This yields A.55.

A.19. Asymptotic Decomposition of

k

p1

Vn p

Lemma A.19. For a xed q N

0

, the asymptotic representation

k

p1

V

_

n p

_

k

k

k

n

_

1 kn

k

24

_

k

2

12k 11

_

2

n

k

6

_

k

2

5

_

q

i0

i

n

_

O

_

k

n

n

3

_

A.57

holds for n .

Abstract and Applied Analysis 25

Proof. Using formula A.17, we get

k

p1

V

_

n p

_

p1

_

n

_

k

_

p

_

n S

_

p

_

q

i0

i

n

_

O

_

n

n

3

_

_

k

n

_

_

_

_

k

k

k

k1

n

k

i1

i k

k2

2

n

k

i,j0

i>j

i

_

j

_

k

k1

k

i1

Si

q

j0

j

n

_

_

_

_

O

_

k

n

n

3

_

.

A.58

Now, by A.22, A.29, and A.47

k

n

_

_

_

_

k

k

k

k1

k

2

n

1

2

k

k2

_

k

4

k

3

12

_

k

2

11

_

_

2

n

1

6

k

k1

k

_

k

3

5k

_

q

j0

j

n

_

_

_

_

O

_

k

n

n

3

_

k

k

k

n

_

_

_

_

1 kn

k

24

_

k

2

12k 11

_

2

n

k

6

_

k

2

5

_

q

j0

j

n

_

_

_

_

O

_

k

n

n

3

_

.

A.59

A.20. Asymptotic Decomposition of

k

p0

V

n p

Lemma A.20. For a xed q N

0

, the asymptotic representation

k

p0

V

_

n p

_

k 1

k1

k1

n

_

1

k

24

_

k

2

3k 2

_

2

n

k

6

_

k

2

3k 2

_

q

i0

i

n

_

O

_

k1

n

n

3

_

A.60

holds for n .

26 Abstract and Applied Analysis

Proof. Using formula A.20, we get

k

p0

V

_

n p

_

p0

_

n

_

k 1

_

p

_

n S

_

p

_

q

i0

i

n

_

O

_

n

n

3

_

_

k1

n

_

_

_

_

k 1

k1

k 1

k

n

k

i0

i

k 1

k1

2

n

k

i,j 0

i > j

_

j

_

k 1

k

k

i0

S

i

q

j0

j

n

_

_

_

_

O

_

k1

n

n

3

_

.

A.61

Now, by A.32, A.39, and A.52, we derive

k1

n

_

_

_

_

k 1

k1

k 1

k1

k 1

2

k

24

_

k

2

3k 2

_

2

n

k 1

k

k 1k

6

_

k

2

3k 2

_

q

j0

j

n

_

_

_

_

O

_

k1

n

n

3

_

k 1

k1

k1

n

_

_

1

k

24

_

k

2

3k 2

_

2

n

k

6

_

k

2

3k 2

_

q

j0

j

n

_

_

O

_

k1

n

n

3

_

.

A.62

Acknowledgment

This research was supported by Grants P201/10/1032 and P201/11/0768 of the Czech Grant

Agency Prague, by the Council of Czech Government MSM 00216 30503 and by the project

FEKT-S-11-2921 Brno University of Technology.

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