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THE GREAT IDEAS

INTRODUCTION
Chapter30: GOOD AND EVIL
theology'-righteousness and sin, salvation and
damnation-are, like virtue and vice, happi-
ness and tnisery, conceptions of good and evil
in the condition of man. (Their special theo'"
logical significance . comes from .the fact . that
they consider the goodness ore"il of man in
terms of his relation to God.) But the theologi..
cal problem which is traditionally. called "the
problemof evil" concerns the \vhole universe in
its relation to the divine perfection.
That problem, which is. further discussed in
the chapter on WORLD, can beforn1ulated in a
number of \vays.How are we to understandthe
existence of evil in a world created by a God
who is omnipotent and perfectly good? Since
God is good and since everything \vhich hap-
pens is within God's power, how can we ac-
count for the sin of Satan or the fall of n1an,
with all the evil consequent thereupon,with-
out limiting God's po\ver or absolving the err-
ing creature from responsibility? Can itbe said
that this is the best of all possible worlds, if it is
also true that this world is far from perfectly
good, and if, as certain theologians hold,. ";God
could make other things, or add something to
the present creation, and then there would. be
another and a .better universe"?
THE CONTEMPORARY discussion of good and evil
draws its terminology from econolnics rather
than theology. ""[he word "value" has almost re-
placed "good" and "evil." What in other cen-
turies were the various moral sciences are now
treated as parts of the general theory of value.
The substitution of "value" for "good." or of
"value judgment" for "moral judgment" re-
flects the influence of economics.
According to Marx, Aristotle "was the first
to analyse ... the form of value." As indicated
in the. chapter on WEALTH, economics at its
origin \vas treated by Aristotle, along with eth..
HE theory of good and evil crosses the
boundaries of many sciences or subject
atters. It occupies a place in metaphysics. It
.of fundamental irrlportance in all the moral
iences-ethics, economics, politics, jurispru'"
nce. It appears in all the descriptive sciences
human behavior, such as psychology and so'"
ology, though there it is of less importance
utI is differently treated.
[he relation of good and evil to ttuth and
lsity, beauty and ugliness, carries the discus-
n into logic, aesthetics, and the philosophy
art. The true, it has been said, is the good in
of our thinking. So it may be said of
that it is a quality which things
ave when they are good as objects of contem'"
ation and love, or good as productions. It is
less possible to understand goodness and
uty in terms of truth, of.truth and goodness
ternlS of beauty.
ne aim of analysis, \vith respect to the true,
egood, and the beautiful, is to preserve their
istinctness without rendering each less univer...
I./This has been attempted by writers "vho
eat these three terms as having a kind of par'"
lelism in their application to everything, but
hoalso insist that each of the three notions
nc:eives things under a different aspect or ina
Hferent relation. "As good adds to being the
tion of the desirable," Aquinas writes, "so
adds a relation to the intellect"; and it
also said that the end "oftheappetite,nalne-
ood, is in the desirable thing," whereas the
"of the intellect, namely the true, is in the
ellect itself."
In' that part of theology which goes beyond
etaphysics and moral philosophy, we meet
ith the concept of infinite goodness-the
odness of an infinite being-and we then face
problem of how God's goodness is to be
LllQiers:toold by man. The basic terms of moral
605
VOLTAIRE. "Faith," "Final Causes,"
"Grace," "Power-Omnipotence,"
"Theism," "Theist," "Polytheism," in
sophical Dictionary
--. The Ignorant Philosopher, CH 26
--. The Sage and the Atheist
LESSING. Nathan the Wise
HERDER. God, Some Conversations
PALEY. Natural Theology, CH 23-26
BRo\vN. Lectures on the Philosophy of the
A1ind, VOL II, pp 134-152
SCHLEIERMACHER. The Christian Faith, par
79-112, 157-172
COMTE. System ofPositive Polity, VOL IV,
Future of Man, CH I
LOTZE. Microcosmos, BK IX, Cll 2, 4-5
WHEWELL. The Philosophy ofthe Inductive
VOL I, BK X, CH 5
--. On the Philosophy of Discovery, CH
J. H. NE\VMAN. An Essay in Aid of a '-"""/H/fllLr
Assent
L. STEPHEN. An Agnostic's Apology
ROMANES. A Candid Exanzination of Theism
T. H. GREEN. Prolegomena to Ethics, BK I,
C. S PEIRCE. Collected Papers, VOL VI, par
F. THOMPSON. The Hound of Heaven
BOSANQUET. Science and Philosophy, 8
WARD. The Realm of Ends
ROYCE. The Conception of God
--. The World and the Individual,
--. The Problem of Christianity, VOL II
BRADLEY. Appearance and Reality, BK II, CH
--. Essays on Truth and Reality, CH IS
COOK. Zeus
GARRIGOu-LAGRANGE. God, His
ture, PART I; PART II, CH 1-3
OTTO. The Idea ofthe ]/oly
BUBER. Hasidism
McTAGGART. Some Dogmas of Religion, CH
--. The Nature of Existence, CH 43
FRAZER. The Golden Bough
--. Man, God, and Immortality, PART III
EDDINGTON. Science and the Unseen World
TENNANT. Philosophical Theology, VOL II, CH
WHITEHEAD. Science and the Modern
--. Process and
PENIDO. Le role de
BERGSON. Two
MARITAIN. An to
--. The Degrees of Knowledge, CH 4;
WEYL. The Open TVorld, LECT I
LOVEJOY. The Great Chain of Being
MANN Joseph and His Brothers
B. RUSSELL. Religion and Science, CH 8
GILSON. Reason and Revelation in the
--. God and Philosophy
HARTSHORNE. Man's Vision of God
ASCH. The Nazarene
--. The Apostle
A. E. TAYLOR. Does God Exist?
SANTAYANA. The Genteel Tradition at Bay,
--. The Idea of Christ in the Gospels
E. T. WHITTAKER. Space and Spirit
604
GAON. The Book of Beliefs and Opinions,
TREATISE I-II, IV, VII
ANSELM OF CANTERBURY. Monologium
--.Proslogium
--. Cur Deus lloma?
GAUNILON. In Behalf ofthe Fool
BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX. On the Love of God
HUGH OF SAINT VICTOR. De Sacramentis
JUDAH HA-LEVI. Kitab al Khazari
NIAIMONIDES. The Guide for the Perplexed, PART I,
CH 46-47,5-60,73-76; PART II, CH I, 13-16, 22-
23, 25-30, 48; PART III, CH 13-16, 20-21
Iiolsung Saga
Nibelungenlied
BONAVENTURA. On the Reduction of the Arts to
Theology
--. Breviloquium, PART I, IV-V
--. Itinerarium Mentis in Deum (The Itinerary of
the Mind to God)
R. BACON. Opus Majus, PART VII
ALBERTUS MAGNUS. On Union with God
DUNS Tractatus de Primo Principio (A
Tract Concerning the Ftrst Principle), CH III-IV
ECKHART. Sermons and Collations, xv
The Cloud of Unknowing
ALBO. Book of Principles (Sefer ha-Ikkarim), BK II
THOMAS AKEMPIS. The Imitation of Christ, BKIII
NICOLAS OF CUSA. The Vision of God
LUTHER. Trinity Sunday
CALVIN. Institutes ofthe Christian Religion, BK I, CH
1-14, 16-18; BK II, CH 4, 7-17
KNOX. An Answer to the Cavillations ofan Adversarie
Respecting the Doctrine ofPredestination
TERESA OF JESUS. The Way of Perfection
--. Book of the Foundations
--. Interior Castle
JOHN OF THE CROSS. Spiritual Canticle
--. Dark Night ofthe Soul
--. The Living Flame of Love
SUAREZ. Disputationes Metaphysicae, X (3), XI (3-
4), XII (I), xv (9), XIX (3), XX-XXII, XXIII (9),
XXIV, XXVIII-XXX, XXXI (14)' XLVII (IS)
BOEHME. The Aurora
--. De Electione Gratiae (On the Election ofGrace)
I-IERBERT. The Temple
BRO\VNE. Refigio Medici
BOSSUET. De fa connaissance de Dieu et de soi-meme
CUDWORTH. The True Intellectual System ofthe Uni-
verse, VOL I, CH 4-5
MALEBRANCHE. De la recherche de la verite
--. Dialogues on Metaphysics and Religion, II, VII-
XIV
FENELON. A Demonstration ofthe Existence and At-
tributes of God
LEIBNITZ. Discourse on Metaphysics, I-VII, XIV,
XXXVI-XXXVII
---. Philosophical vVorks, CH 34 (The Principles of
Nature and of Grace)
--. New Essays Concerning Human Understanding,
BK IV, CH 10, 18; APPENDIX, CH 10
--. Theodicy
---. Monadology, par
J. BUTLER. The Analogy ofReligion, PART I, CH 2-8
THE GREAT IDEi\S CHAPTER 30: GOOD AND EVIL 606
ics and politics, as a moral discipline. But he
made it subordinate to them because it dealt
not with the whole ofh,uman only
,vith wealth-one of the 'goods.
In the modern development of economics,
the word "goods" comes to have a special sig-
nificance. It referstb commodities or utilities,
as in the phrase "goods and services." More
generally, anything which is useful or exchange..;
able has the character ofan economic good. This
general sense is usually conveyed by theecono-
mist's use of the word "value." According to
Adam Smith, "the word value . .. has two dif-
ferent meanings, and i sometimes expresses the
utility of some particular object, and sometimes
the power of purchasing othergoods which the
possessor of that object conveys." These two
meanings are distinguished as ."value in use"
and "value in exchange." Marx accepts this
distinction, but thinks that there is a more
fundamental notion of value. He thinks it is
possible to abstract from both use-value and
exchange-value,and to discover the underlying
property which gives value to all exchangeable
things, namely, that they are products of labor.
With Smith and Marx, as "vith Aristotle, the
theory of value does not deal with every type
of good, but only with that type which earlier
moralists called "external goods" or "goods of
fortune." But more recently the concept of
value has been extended, by.economists and
others, to the evaluation of everything which
men think of as desirable ihany way. In con-
sequence, the age-old controversy about the
objectivity or subjectivity of good and evil is
now stated in terms of the difference between
facts and values, or between judgments of fact
and judgments of value.
The issue, as currently stated, is whether
questions of value can be answered in the same
way as questions of fact. One position main-
tains that, unlike questions offact whichcan be
answered by scientific investigation and can be
objectively solved, questions of value elicit no
more than expressions of opinion, relative to
the individual's subjective response or to the
conventions of his society at a given time. The
other side of the issue is held by those who in-
sist that the norms 'of value areas objective and;
as scientifically determinable as the criteria of
fact or existence.
THE WORD "VALUE" does not
lem in any way; for what does p'r'll',."t-.....
thing mean except judging it as good
betteror worse? The problem, which has
tory as long as the tradilion of the great
is the problem of how we can defend such
ments and what they signify about
judged. Are good and evil determined
ture orconvention? Are they objects of
edge or opinion?
The title of an essay
the .. taste for good and evil depeIlc1s
part upon the opinion we
dicates one set of answers to these
"If evils have no admission into us,"
"but by the. judgment we ourselves
them, it should seem that it is,
power to despise them or to turn them
... If what we call evil and torment
evil nor torment of itself, but only
fancy gives it that quality, it is in us to
it." Echoing Montaigne, Hamlet
"there is nothing either good or bad but th
ing makes it so." The Greek sophists, cent
earlier, appear to take the same view. Theist
ment of Protagoras that "man is the meas
of all things," PIato thinks, does not signif1ca
ly apply to all. things, but only to suchtHi
as the good or the right, the true or the hea.
fuL In the Theaetetus, Protagoras is made to
that as "to the sick man his food appearstp
bitter, and to the healthy man the opposite
bitter," so in general men estimate or judge
things .. according to their o,vn tion
the way things affect them. This theoryofg
and evil necessarily. denies the possibiliu'
moral science. Socrates calls it "a higlial:'
ment in which all things are said to
relative."
PIato and Aristotle respond to the sophists
arguing in the opposite vein. For Plat0;
good is not a rnatter of opinion, but anabj
of knowledge. Knowledge of good andev
the best fruit of the tree of knowledge.>'
each one of us leave every other kind ofkri
edge," Socrates says at the end of the Rep
"and seek and follow one thing only,"th
"to learn and discern between good and e
Aristotle does not think that ethics,.or
science which deals with good and evil,ca
as much precision as mathematics. "OurdlS
n will be adequate," he writes, "if it has as
eh clearness as the subject matter admits of,
precision is not to besought for alike in all
ussions." This, however, does not exclude
possibility of our kno\ving "vith great ex-
itude the first principles of moral science,
has the nature of happiness and virtue. In-
nireness and even a certain kind ofrelativi-
ceur only "vhen these principles are applied
particular cases. Hence, in Aristotle's view,
,n'loral sciences, such as ethics and politics,
have objective and universal validity no
than physics or mathematics, at least on the
el of principles.
Inmodern times, Locke and Kant alsoaffirm
scientific character of ethics, but ,vlithout
qualification which Aristotle insists upon
en \ve go from principles to practice. Locke
lains the grounds on which he.is "bold. to
.p.k that morality is capable of demonstra-
n,as well as mathematics".; for, he says, "the
eise real essence ofrhe i things moral words
fud for may be perfectly known, and so the
ngruityand incongruity of the things them-
s maybe certainly discovered; in which
ists perfect knowledge."He is confident
t"from self-evident.propositions, by neces-
consequences, as incontestible as those in
thematics, the measures of right and wrong
ght be made out, to any one that will apply
self \vi th .the same indifferency and atten-
to the one as he does to the other of these
nces." But Locke adds, "this is not to be
ected, whilst the desire of esteem,.riches,or
wer makes men espouse the. well-endowed
inions in fashion." He himself seems to tend
opposite direction when he identifies the
cLwith the pleasant and makes it relative to
ividual desires.
or Kant the t\VO major parts of philosophy
hysics and ethics-are on equal footing, the
concerned ,,"vith the "laws of nature," the
rwiththe "laws offreedom." In each case
both empirical and a priori knowledge.
the latterin each case "metaphysics"
of "a metaphysic of nature and a
morals." The nature .of science,
requires us to "separate the empirical
the rational part, and prefix to physics
(or empirical physics) a metaphysic of
and to practical anthropology a meta-
607
physic of morals, which must be carefully
cleared of everything empirical."
This partial inventory of thinkers who stand
against skepticism or relativism in the field of
morals indicates that agreement on this point is
accompanied by some disagreement about the
reasons for holding \vhat appears to be the same
view. The opposite vie'v seems also to be.shared
by thinkers of quite different cast, such as
Spinoza and Mill, \vho differ from each other as
well as from Montaigne and the ancient sophists.
The terms "good and evil," Spinoza writes,
"indicate nothing positive in things considered
in themselves, nor are they anything else than
modes of thought ... One and the same thing
may at the same time be both go()d and evil or
indifferent"-according to the person who
makes the judgment of it. Spinoza therefore
defines "good" as "that which \ve
kno\v is useful to us." Apart frolu. society, he
says, "there is nothing which by universal con-
sent is good or evil, since everyone in a natural
state consults only his own profit." Only when
men live together in a civil society under law
can it be "decided by universal consent what is
good and what is evil."
I-Iolding that all men seek happiness .and that
they determine what is good and evil in par..
ticular cases by reference to this end, Mill seems
to offer the standard of utility as an objective
principle of morality. But insofar as heidenti-
fies happiness\vith a sum total of pleasur,es or
satisfactions, it tends to become relative to the
individual or the group. If competent judges
disagree concerning which of two pleasures is
the greater or higher, there can be no appeal,
Mill says, except to the verdict of the majority.
To this extent at least, judgments of value are
expressions of opinion, not determinations of
science. Nor does Mill hesitate to say that "the
ultimate sanction ofall morality" is "a subjec-
tive feeling in our minds."
IN ORDER to clarify this basic issue it is neces-
sary to take note of other terms which are
usually involved in the discussion of good
and evil-such terms as pleasure and pain,
desire and aversion, being, nature, and reason.
In the course of doing this, we will perceive
the. relevance of the chapters which deal with
those ideas.
THE GREAT IDEAS
CHAPTER 30: GOOD AND EVIL
608
It has been said, for example, that the good is
identical \vith the pleasant; that the good is
\vhat men desire; that the good is a property of
being or existence; that the good is that \vhich
conforms to the nature ofa thing; that the good
is that \vhich is approved by reason. It is pos-
sible to see SOIne truth in each of these state-
ments. But each, taken by itself, may be too
great a simplification. Searching questions can
be asked by those vvho refuse to equate the good
\vith the pleasant or the desirable, the real, the
natural, or the reasonable. Are there no pleas-
ures in any way bad, no pains in any way good?
Are all desires themselves good, or are all
equally good? Ho\v does calling a thing "good"
add anything to its being or existence? Does
not evil exist or qualify existence? By what
standards can the natural and the rational be
judged good, if the good is that which con-
fonns to nature and reason?
These questions call for more analysis of each
of these factors in the discussion of good and
evil and suggest that no one of these factors by
itselfis sufficient to solve the problem of defin-
ing good and evil or formulating their criteria.
Of the five things mentioned, two particularly
-pleasure and desire-seem to leave open the
question vvhether good and evil are obj ective or
subjective. 1'hey require us to decide whether
things please us because they are good or are
good because they please us; whether we desire
things because they are good or simply call
them "good" when \ve desire them. On this is-
sue Spinoza flatly declares that "we do not
desire a thing because we adjudge it good, but,
on the contrary, we call it good because .we
desire it." In saying that "a thing is good so far
as it is desirable," Aquinas takes the opposite
position, for according to hilu "a thing is desir-
able only in so far as it is perfect." It can be
desirable, therefore, without being actually de-
sired by this or that individual.
The other three terms-unlike pleasure and
desire-seem to favor the objectivity of good
and evil, at least for those \vho regard the order
of existence, the nature of things, and the laws
of reason as independent of our desires or pref-
erences. Thus for Spinoza the nature of man
and his reason seeln to provide an objective
standard for determining \vhat is good alike for
all men. Nothing, he ,vrites, "can be good ex-
cept in so far as it agrees \vith our nature, a
therefore the more an object agrees ,vith 0
nature the more profitable it \vill be." And i
another place he says, "By good I understan:
... everything which \ve are certain is a meafl
by which \ve may approach nearer and nea s
to the model of hun1an nature \Ve set he
us."1"'hat model, he tells us, is the man of re
son, the man "vho ahvays acts "according to t
dictates of reason," for "those desires which are
determined by man's po\ver or reason are al-
\vays good."
Nevertheless, if desire and pleasure cannot
be eliminated frolll the consideration of go(')(:i
and evil'-at least not the good and evil \vhich
enter into human life-then the problem of
finding a purely objective foundation for OUr
moral judgments is not solved simply by afl
appeal to being, nature, and reason.
Some help toward a solution may be found in
one often reiterated fact about the relation be-
tween the good and human desire. The an-
cients insist that no luan desires anything but
what at the tinle seems good to him in some
\vay. "No man," Socrates observes, "volun-
tarily pursues evil, or that which he thinks to
be evil. To prefer evil to good is not in human
nature; and when a man is compelled to choose
one of t\yO evils, no one will choose the greater
when he may have the less." This, ho\vever,
does not prevent men from desiring "whatthey
suppose to be goods although they are really
evils." Since they are mistaken in their judg-
ment "and suppose the evils to be goods, they
really desire goods."
The object consciously desired is ahvaysat
least apparently good. When men are mistaken
in their estimate of things as beneficial orin-
jurious to themselves, the apparent good---.the
good actually desired-will be really an evil,
that is, something actually undesirable. Anob-
ject which is really good may not appear to be
so, and so it will not be desired although it is de-
sirable. The deception of appearances, Socrates
says. tricks us into taking "at one time the
things of which \ve repent at another, both in
our actions and in our choice of things great
and small."
THE DISTINCTION between the real and the ap-
parent good is, of course, connected \vith the
oblem of the objective and the subjective
oel. The apparent good varies from individual
individual and from time to time. If there
re a real good, it would be free from such
ativity and variability. Unless there are
1, as distinct from merely apparent, goods,
ralists cannot distinguish between \vhat
en should desire and ,vhat in fact they do
esire.
Since moral science deals with human be-
vlor, its province can be separated from that
other sciences \vhich treat the same subject
atter-such as psychology and sociology-
nly in terms of a different treatment of that
bjeet matter. Moral science must be norma-
e or prescriptive rather than descriptive. It
rnust determine what luen shouldseek, not what
tney do seek. The very existence of normative
sciences, as well as their validity, would thus
seem to depend on the establishment of a real,
as opposed to a merely apparent, good.
This creates no special difficulty for moralists
who think that man knows what is really good
f0r him, both in general and in particular, by
intuition or rational deduction, through the
t0mmandments of the divine law, or through
the precepts of the law of reason. But for those
wno insist that the good is always someho\v
relative to desire and always involves pleasure,
tne distinction bet\veen the real and the ap-
parent good raises an extremely difficult prob-
lem.
To say that an apparent good is not really
good suggests, as we have seen, that what is
called "good" may not be in itself desirable.
rhat something \vhich is really good may not in
fact appear to be so, seems to imply that the
word "good" can be significantly applied to
something which is not actually desired-at
least not consciously. 110\\T, then, is the good
always relative to desire ?The traditional an-
swer to this question must appeal to the dis-
tinction bet,veen natural and conscious desire,
which is discussed in the chapter on DESIRE. It
is by reference to natural desire that the good
is said to be in itself ahvays desirable-even
when the really good thing is not consciously
desired.
The relation of good and evil to pleasure and
pain can also be clarified by a basic distinction
oet\\Teen the pleasure \vhich is an object of de-
609
sire and pleasure conceived as the satisfaction of
desire. This is discussed in the chapter on
PLEASURE AND PAIN. If obtaining a desired
good is satisfying, then there is certainly a sense
in \vhich the good and the pleasant (or the
satisfying) are ahvays associated; but it may
also be true that pleasure is only one kind of
good among various obj ects of desire and that
certain pleasures \vhich nlen desire appear to be,
but are not really good.
THE FOREGOING considerations apply to the
good in the sphere of human conduct. But the
human good, the practicable good, the good for
man, does not exhaust the meaning of the term
good. The idea of the good is, for Piato, the
measure of perfection in all things; it is "not
only the author of kno\vledge to all things
known, but of their being and essence, and yet
the good is not essence, but far exceeds essence
in dignity and po\\rer."
The absolute good is also, as in the Divine
Co1nedy, the final cause or ultimate end of the
motions of the universe. It is "the Alpha and
Omega," Dante says, "of every scripture that
Love reads to me . . . the Essence \vherein is
such supremacy that every good which is found
outside of It is naught else than a beam of Its
o\vn radiance ... the IJove which moves the
sun and the other stars."
So too, in Aristotle's cosmology, the circular
motions of the celestial spheres, and through
thelu all other cycles of natural change, are
sustained eternally by the prime mover, which
moves all things by the attraction of its perfect
being. It therefore "moves without being
moved," for it "produces motion through being
loved."
Though desire and love enter into the con-
ception of the good as a cosn1ic final cause, they
are not human desire or love. Though the good-
ness which inheres in things according to the
degree of their perfection may make them
desirable, it is not dependent on their being
consciously desired by men.
In }e,vish and Christian theology, for ex-
aluple, the goodness of God is in 110 \vay meas-
uredby human desires, purposes, or pleasures;
nor is the goodness of created things which, ac-
cording to Genesis, God surveyed and found
"very good." The order of creation, moreover,
THEGR.EAT IDEAS
CHAPTER 30: GOOD AND EVIL
610
involves a hierarchy of inequalities in being and
goodness. Even when each thing is. perfect in
its kind, all things are not equally good, for ac-
cording to the differences in their natures,
diverse kinds are capable of greater or less
perfection.
In the metaphysical conception of goodness,
that which has more actuality either in exist-
ence or po\ver has more perfection. God's in-
fini te goodness is therefore said to follow from
the fact that he is completely actual-infinite
in being and po\ver. Things '\vhich have life,"
Augustine "are ranked above those
which have none ... f\nd among those that
have life, the sentient are higher than those
\vhich have no sensation ... and among the
sentient, the intelligent above those that have
no intelligence."
Augustine contrasts these gradations of
fection which are "according to the order of
nature" with the "standards of value" \vhich
are" according to the utili ty each man finds in a
thing." l'hat which is less good in a metaphys-
ical sense may be preferred on moral grounds as
being better for man. "Who," he asks, "would
notrather have bread in his house than mice,
gold than fleas?" Is it not true that "more is
often given for a horse than. for a slave, fora
jewel than for a maid"?
According to Augustine, as well as to ..I\quinas
later, metaphysical goodness consists in "the
value a thing has in itself in .. the scale of erea-
tion," yvhile moral goodness depends upon the
relation in which a thing stands to human need
or desire, and according to the estimation
placed upon it by human reason: It is in the
moral, not the metaphysical sense that \ve
speak of a good man, a good will, a good life,
and a good society; or of all the things, such as
health, wealth, pleasure,. virtue, or knowledge,
which it may be goadfo! man toseek and
sess. Only in the Inetaphysical sense can things
be thought of as good entirely apart from l1lall;
only then can we find a hierarchy of perfections
in the \vorld which accords \vi th a hierarchy of
beings. Thus Spinoza declares that "the per-
fection of things is tobe judged by their nature
and povver alone; nor are:they !110re or less per-
feet because they delight or offend the human
senses, or. because they are beneficial or pre-
judicial to human nature."
THE METAPHYSICAL conception of gooa
raises peculiarly difficult problems. Are th.
as many meanings of "good" as there are
"being"? \Vhen we say God is good, are
making a moral or a metaphysical judgeme
Are \ve attributing perfection of being or g
ness of will to God? If goodness is a property
being, then must not all evil becon1e a pri
tion of being? Conceiving evil in this w
Augustine points out that if things "be
prived of all good, they shall cease to be,"
that there is "nothing \vhatsoever evil" in
self; and j-\quinasmaintains that "no being
said to be evil, considered as being, but only
far as it lacks being."
If to understand \vhat the notion of go
ness adds to the notion of being it is necess
to .say that being has goodness in relation
appetite, the question inevitably arises, "Wh
appetite?" Not man's certainly, for thent
moral and the metaphysical good become ide
tical. IfGod's, then not appetite in the fa
of desire, but in the form oflove, for thedivi
perfection is usually thought to preclude desi
Problems of this sort confront. those \v
conceiving the good both apart from and
relative to man, are obligated to connect
metaphysical and the moral meanings of g
and to saywhether they have a common thre
Some writers, however, limit their conside
tion to the strictly moral good, and deny, as
the Stoics, goodness or evil to anything b
man's free acts of will.
We should, says Marcus Aurelius, "jud
only those things which are in our po\ver,. to
good or bad." In this "ve are entirely free,f!
"things thernselves have no natural power
fonn our judgments . . . If thou art pained
any external thing, it is not this thingwh'
disturbs thee, but thy own judgment about
And it is in thy power to wipe out this ju
ment now ... Suppose that men kill thee,
thee in pieces, curse thee. What then can th
things do to prevent thy mind from rernaini.
pure, wise, sober, just?"
Though Kant develops what he calls a
physic of ethics," he does not seem to hay
metaphysical as opposed to a moral conceRt
of the good; .. unless in SaIne analogous..
lies in his distinction between "value"
"dignity," according to \vhich "whatever
erence to the general inclinations and wants
mankind has a market value," whereas "what-
r ... is above all value, and therefore admits
equivalent, has a dignity"- "not a merely
lative worth, but an intrinsic \vorth."
But since Kant thinks that only men, or ra-
nal beings, can have intrinsic worth, he finds
dness only in the moral order. He agrees
th the Stoics that good and evil occur only in
realm of freedom, not at all in the realm of
istence or nature. "Good or evil," he writes,
lways implies a reference to the will,as de-
mined by the law o/reason" which isthe la\v
According to Kant, "nothing can
sibly be conceived in the \vorld, oreven out.
it, which can be called good.withoutquali-
ation, except a Good \tVill" ; and in another
ace he says, "If anything is to be good orevil
olutely ... it can only be the lnanner of
ting, the maxiln of the \vill." In this sense, the
e will complying wi th. or resisting the im-
ratives of duty is either the seat or the source
all the goodness or evil. that there is. "Men
ylaugh," Kant says, "at the Stoic, \vho in
severest paroxysms ofgout cried out: Pain,
ever thou torn1entest Ine,: I will never .ad-
that thou art an evil: he "'as right ... for
,n did not in the least diminish the worth of
person, but only that oEhis condition."
THE SPHERE of moral conduct, and especially
those who make desire ,or pleasure rather
n duty the principle, there seen1S to be a
rali ty of goods \vhich .require classification
order.
orne things, it would appear, are not de-
ci for themselves, but for the sake ofsome-
g else. They are good only as n1eans to be
sed. Some thip.gs. are desired for their own
ke, and are good. as ends, to be .possessed or
njoyed. This division of goods into means and
useful and the enjoyable or pleasant
ermits a third type of good \vhich is an end
ne respect, and a means in another. Analysis
this sort leads to the concept of a summum
qnum-that good \vhich is not a means in any
pect, but entirely an end, the supreme or
hest good for which all else is sought.
he chief question with respect to the sum-
..1:2 bonum is whether it is a good or the good
hether it is merely one type of good, more
611
desirable than any other, or the sum of all
good things which, when possessed, leaves noth-
ing to be desired. Aristotle and Mill seem to
take the latter view in their conception of hap-
piness as the SU1nmum bontt1n. "Human na-
ture," Mill says, "is so constituted as to desire
nothing which is not either a part of happiness
or a means of happiness." Happiness, he in-
sists, is "not an abstract idea, but a concrete
whole" including all other goods \vithin itself.
Itis the only good which is desired entirely for
its own sake. Aristotle treats virtue and knowl-
edge asintrinslc goods, but he also regards them
as means to happiness. In Nfill's terms, their
goodness remains subject to the criterion of
utility, from which happiness alone is exempt
since it lneasures the utility of allother goods.
If the evaluation of all things by reference to
their contribution to happiness as the ultimate
good constitutes utilitarianism in ethics, then
Aristotle noless than Mill is a utilitarian, even
though Aristotle does not .refer to the principle
of utility, does not
ure, and conceives the virtues as intrinsically
good, not 111erelyas lueans. I{ant )vould .regard
then1 as in fundamental agreement despite all
their differences-or at least he would regard
them as committing the salne fundamental
error.
l'oI(ant any discussion ofhurnan conduct
\;vhich involves the calculation ofmeans to ends
is pragmatic or utilitarian, even\vhen the con:-
trolling end is the summum bonum orhappi-
ness. I{ant makes a sharp distinction between
what he calls "pragn1atical rules" of conduct
which consider what should be done by one who
wishes to be happy, and what heregards as the
strictly "moral,ar ethical law" which "has no
other motive than the Qf being
happy." Morality, he says in
not .. properly .the doctrine of how
make ourselves happy, but how we should be-
come tlJorthy of happiness"-through doing our
duty.
Kant's criticism of Aristotle's ethics of hap-
piness is therefore applicable to the utilitarian-
ismof Mill; and l\1ill's rejoinder to Kant serves
as a. defense of This. basic. issue con-
cerning the primacy of happiness oeputy-of
desire or law-'-is discussed in the chapters on
DUTY and HAPPINEss,where,it is suggested
THE GREAT IDEAS
OUTLINE OF TOPICS
by an invisible hand to promote an end \vhich
,vas no part of his intention" (i.e., the general
prosperity of society) does not excuse the in-
dividual's failure to aim at the common good.
The several meanings of the COlumon good
also complicate the statement of the issue be-
t\veen those ,vho seeln to say that the \velfare
of the community ahvays takes precedence
over individual well-being or happiness-that
the good of the \vhole is ahvays greater than
the good of its parts-and those who seem to
say that the state is n1ade for man, not man
for the state, or that the prosperity of the so-
ciety in which men live is good primarily be-
cause it enables each of them to live ,veIl. This
issue, \vhich runs through all the great books
of political theory from Plato and Aristotle
to Hegel and Mill, is discussed in the chapters
on CITIZEN and STATE.
The opposition between collectivism and
individualism in economics and politics does
not exhaust the issue which, stated in its broad-
est moral terms, is a conflict bet\veen self-
interest and altruism. The primary problem
to consider here is whether the issue is itself
genuine, or only an opposition between false
extrelnes which needlessly exclude the half-
truth that each contains.
The collective aspect of the COlnmon good
may not need to be emphasized at the expense
of its distributive aspect. The good of each
n1an and the good of mankind may be insep-
arable. It may be the same good \vhich, in dif-
ferent respects, is individual and common. It
may be that no good can be supreme which is
not both imnlanent and transcendent-at once
the highest perfection of the individual and a
good greater than his whole being and his life.
613
61
5
616
61
7
PAGE
CHAPTER 30: GOOD i\ND EVIL
I. The general theory of good and evil
la. The idea of the good: the notion of :finality
lb. Goodness in proportion to being: the grades of perfection and the goodness of
order
IC. The good, the true, and the beautiful
Id. The origin, nature, and existence of evil
because they are all of the saIne nature; but,
most strictly, it is a con1mon good if the happi-
nesS of each individual cannot be separated
rrom the happiness of all.
Aquinas seems to be using this meaning of
com1n0l1 good "vhen, in defining law as a rule of
conduct "directed to the comrnon good," he
rerers not merely to the good of the community
or body politic, but beyond that to "the last
end of hUlTIan life," \vhich is "happiness or
beatitude." Law, he says, "must needs concern
itself properly "vith the order directed to uni-
versal happiness." !vIill also SeelTIS to conceive
happiness as a common good in this sense.
"What the assailants of utili tarianislTI seldom
have the justice to acknowledge," he writes, is
"that the happiness which forms the utilitarian
standard of what is right in conduct, is not the
agent's "o"vn happiness, but that of all con-
cerned.
The several meanings of the common good
create a fundamental issue. Some \vriters use it
in one sense only, rejecting the others. Some
not only use the term in all its meanings, but
also develop a hierarchy of COmlTIOn goods.
They regard universal happiness, for example,
as a common good of a higher order than the
welfare of the political cOffilTIunity. Yet in
every order they insist upon the prilTIacy of the
common over the individual good. In the po-
litical order, for example, they think the \vel-
fare of the community takes precedence over
individual happiness. They ,vould regard
Smith's staten1ent of the way in \vhich in-
dividuals accidentally serve the common good
while seeking their private interests, as a per-
version of the relationship. To say that an in-
dividual considering only his own gain is "led
The phrase "common good" has several
meanings in the tradition of the great
One sense, \vhich some think is the least signifi-
cant, refers to that which 'can be shared or Used
by many, as, for example, land held in common
and worked by a number of persons or families.
Thus we speak of the "commons" of a to\vnor
village. This meaning applies particularly to
economic goods \vhich may either belong to the
community as a whole or be divided into parcels
of private property.
Another sense of common good is that in
which the welfare of a community is a common
good participated in by its melTIbers. The wel-
fare of the family or the state is a good whicn
belongs to a mul ti tude organized for some com-
mon purpose. lEthe individual membersoftne
group derive some benefit frorn their association
with one another, then the prosperity of tne
community is not only a common good vie'wed
collectively, but also a common good vie\ved
distributively, for it is the good of each mem-
ber of the group as well as of the whole.
With this in mind, perhaps, 11ill speaks
"an indissoluble association between [the in-
dividual's] happiness and the practice of sucll
mode of conduct, negative and positive, as re-
gard for the universal happiness prescribes; so
that not only he may be unable to conceive dIe
possibility of happiness to himself, consistently
with conduct opposed to the general good, b
also that a direct impulse to promote the gen..
eral good rIlay be in every individual one of
habitual modes of action." If this statement
Mill is used to interpret Bentham's phras
"the greatest goodEor the greatest number'
then the greatest number cannot be taken
mean a majority, for the good of nothing I
than the whole collectively or of all distri
tively can be taken as the common or gener
good.
Still another conception of the common g
is possible. A good may be common in the se
in which a specific nature is common to
members of the species-not as organized soc
ly in any way, but simply as so many/ike
dividuals. If all men seek happiness, for
ample, then happiness is a common good, e
though each individual seeks his own haf'
ness. In a deeper sense it is a common goo
the happiness each seeks is the same for all
612
that in an ethics of duty, right and wrong sup-
plant good and evil as the fundamental terms,
and the summunt bonum becomes a derivative
notion rather than the first principle ofmorality.
At the other extreme are those ,vho deny
duty entirely, and ,vith it any meaning to right
and wrong as distinct from good and evil. A
middle ground is held by those who employ
right and ,vrang as subordinate terms in the
analysis of good and evil, finding their special
significance in the consideration of the good of
others or the social good. To do right is to do
good to others; to do \vrongis to injure them.
The question which Plato so insistently raises,
whether it is better to do injustice or to suffer
it, can also be stated in terms of good and evil,
or right and ,vrong. Is it better to suffer evil or
to do it? Is it better to be wronged by others
or to wrong them? As justice for Aristotle is
that one among the virtues which concerns the
good of others and the common good, and as it
is the one virtue which is thought to involve
duty or obligation, so the criteria of right and
\vrong measure the goodness or evil of human
acts by reference to law and society.
THE DIVISION of goods into means and ends is
not the only distinction made by moralists who
recognize the plurality and inequality of goods.
Goods have been divided into the limi ted
and the unlimited with respect to quantity;
the pure and the mixed with respect to quality;
sensible and intelligible goods or particular
goods and the good in general; external goods,
goods of the body, and goods of the soul; the
pleasant, the useful, and the virtuous. More
specific enumeradons of the variety of goods
list wealth, health, strength, beauty, longevity,
pleasure, honor (or fame), virtue, knowledge,
friendship.
All of the foregoing classifications can be com-
bined with one another, but there is one distinc-
tion which stands by itself, although it affects
all the others. That is the distinction between
the individual and the common good, or be-
t\veen private and public good, the good for
this one man and the good of all others and of
the \vhole comtnunity. In the language of mod-
ern utilitarianism, it is the distinction between
individual happiness and what Bentham called
"the greatest good for the greatest number."
5. The order of human goods
sa. The supreme good or summum bonum: its existence and nature
Sb. The judgment of diverse types of good: their subordination to one another
sc. The dialectic of means and ends: mere means and ultimate ends
Sd. The supremacy of the individual or the common good: the relation of the good
of the individual person to the good of other persons and to the good of the
state
6. Knovvledge and the good
6a. I(no\vledge, wisdom, and virtue: the relation of being good and knowing what
is good
6b. The need for experience of evil
6c. The goodness of knowledge or wisdom: the use of knowledge
6d. The possibility of moral knowledge: subjectivity or conventionality of
judgments of good and evil
2. The goodness or perfection of God: the plenitude of the divine being
2a. God's goodness as diffusive, causing the goodness of things: God's love
2b. The divine goodness and the problem of evil
3. The moral theory of the good: the distinction bet\veen the moral and the n1.etaphysicaI
good
3a. Human nature and the determination of the goog for man: the real and the
apparent good; particular goods and the good In general
3b. Goodness in the order of freedom and will
(I) The prescriptions of duty
(2) The good will: its conditions and consequences
3C. The good and desire: goodness causing movements of desire and desire causing
estimations of goodness
3d. Pleasure as the good, a good, or feeling good
3e. Right and wrong: the social incidence of the good; doing or suffering good and
evil
31 The sources of evil in human life
4. Divisions of the human good
4a. Sensible and intelligible goods
4b. Useful and enjoyable goods: good for an end and good in itself
4C. Goods of the body and goods of the soul
4d. Intrinsic and external goods: intrinsic ,vorth and extrinsic value
4e. Individual and common goods
615
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, QQ 4-
6
20e-30d;Q 21, A I, REP 4 124b-125b; A3, ANS
I26a-e; QQ 48-49 259b-268a,c; PART I-II, Q I,
A 4, REP 1 6I2a-6I3a;A 8 6I5a-e; Q 2, A 5
6I8d-619c; Q 18, A I, ANS 694a-d; A 2, ANS
694d-695c; A 3, ANS 695d-696b
23 I-IOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 6Id-62a
26 SHAKESPEARE: Romeo and Juliet, ACT II,
SC III [I-30] 296b-e
31 SPINOZA:Ethics, PART I, APPENDIX 369b-372d;
PART III, PROP 9, SCHOL 39ge; PROP 39, SCHOL
408b-d; PART IV, PREF-DEF 2 422b,d-424a;
PROP 8426b-e; PROP 27--28 431b-e
32 MILTON: Areopagitica, 390b-391a
42 KANT: Fund. Prine Metaphysic of Morals,
256a-b / Practical Reason, 314d-32Ib esp 3I6a-
3I7d, 3IBe-321b; 338c-35Sd
la. The idea of the good: the notion of finality
7 PLATO: Protagoras, SOe-d / Syn1posium, I64c-
I6Sb / Phaedo, 240d-242b / Gorgias, 282e-
284b / Republic, BK I, 309b-310a;BK VI-VII,
384a-40Id / Timaeus, 447d-448a I Theaetetus,
53Sb-d / Philebus 609a-639a,c esp 609a-e,
6I4a,
8 ARISTOTLE: Posterior Analytics, BK II, CH I I
[94
b8
-9s
a
9] /Topics, BK I, CH 15
[107a3-II] ISla; BK VI, CH 5 [143a9-I2] I96e;
CHAPTER 30: GOOD AND EVIL
REFERENCES
To find the passages cited, use the numbers in heavy type, which are the volume and page
numbers of the passages referred to. For example, in 4 HOMER: Iliad, BK II [265-283] I2d, the
number 4is the number of the volume in the set; the number 12d indicates that the pas-
sage is in section d of page 12.
PAGE SECTIONS : When the text is printed in one column, the letters a and b to the
upper and lower halves of thepage.Forexample, in 53JAMES: Psychology, 1I6a-lI9b, the passage
begins in the upper halrof page 116 and ends in the lo\ver halfof page 119. When the text is
printed in t\VO columns, the letters b refer to the upper and lower halves ofthe left-
hand side of the page, the letters e and d to the upper and lower halves of the right-hand side of
thepage. For example, in 7 PLAro: Symposium, I63b-1'64e, the passage begins in the lower half
of the left-hand side of page 163 and ends in the upper halfo( theright-'hand side of page
AUTHOR'S DIVISIONS : One or 'more of the main divisions of a work (such as PART,
SECT) are sometimes included i.n the reference; line numbers, in brackets, are given in cer-
tain cases; e.g., Iliad, BK II [265-283] 12d.
BIBLE REFERENCES: The referencesareto book, chapter, and verse. When the King Tames
and Douay versions differ in title of books or in the numberingof chapters or verses, the King
James version is cited first and the Douay, indicated by a CD), follows; e.g., OLD TESTA-
MENT: Nehemiah, ILEsdras, 7:46.
SYMBOLS: The "esp" calls the reader's attention to one or especially
relevant parts of a whole reference; "passim" signifies that the topicis discussed intermit-
tently rather than continuously in the work or passage cited.
For additional information concerning the style of the nJerences, see the Explanation of
Reference Style; for general guidance in the use of The Great Ideas, consult the Preface.
1. general theory of good and evil
OLD TESTAMENT: Isaiah, 4S:7-(D) Isaias, 45:7
/Lamentations, 3:38
ApOCRYPHA: Ecclesiasticus, 33 :14'-15; 39:2S-(D)
'; cOT, Ecclesiasticus, 3.3:15; 39:30
7 PLATO: Euthydemus, 83b-84a / Gorgias, 282e-
284b / Republic, BK II, 322d-323a; BK VII,
389b-e / Theaetetus, 518a-b
8 ARISTOTLE: Heavens, BK II, CH 12 383b-384e /
Metaphysics, BK I, CH 6 [988a8'-I6] 506a-b; CH
7 [988b6-I6] 506e-d; BK. v, CH I [IoI3a20-241
533b; BK XII, CH 7602a-603b
9 ARISTOTLE : Ethics, BK I, CH I 339a-b; CH 6-7
341b-344a
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, CH 29, 134d-
135b; BK II, CH 8 146a-147c
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK V, SECT 8 269d-
270b; BK VI, SECT 40-45 277d-278e; BK VIII,
SECT 19 286d-287a
17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR VIII 27b-34a /
Third Ennead, TR IX, CH 3, 138a,c / Fifth
Ennead, TR I-VI 208a-237d passim; TR IX, C'H
10, 250c / Sixth Ennead, TR V, CH 10 309a-d;
TR VII, CH 24-26 333d-334d; GH 28335b-d;
TR IX 353d-360d
18 AUGUSTINE : Confessions, BK v, par 20 32d-
33a / City ofGod, BK XII, eH 1-5 342b,d-345b
THE GREAT IDEl\.S 614
,ld. The origin, nature, and existence of evil
OLD Isaiah, 45:7-'-(D) Isaias, 45:7
/ Lanlentatlons, 3:38
.ApOCRYPHA: Ecclesiasticus, 33 :14'-15; 39:25-(.1))
OT, Ecclesiasticus, 33 :15; 39:.30
7 PLATO: Gorgias, 282c-284b / Republic, BK x,
434d-435a / Theaetetus, 518a- b; 530b-d /
Statesman, 587a-58ge / Laws, BK X, 763b.
765a
8 ARIST?TLE: Categories, CH II [I.3b36-I4a6] 19c
/ PhySICS, BK I, CH 9 [192U2-24] 268a-e /Meta-
physics, BK I, CH 4 [984b23-985b3] 502d-503e;
CH 6 [988a8-16] 506a-b; BK V, CH 5 [IOI5
b
9:-I6]
536a; BK IX, CH 9 [I05IaI7-22] 577a-b; BK XII,
CH 10 [I07Su2S'-I076a4] 606a-d
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK II, CH 6 [II06
b
28-.35]
352b-e
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, CH 20, 126e-d;
CH 29 134d-138a
17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR VI, CH 6, 24b; TR
VIII 27b-34a I Second Ennead, TR III, ClI
48d-49a; CH 18, 49c-d; TR IV, CH 16, 57c;
TR IX, CH 13 73d-74b / Third Ennead TR II
CH 5-7 85b-86e; CH 10--14 88a-89d;'TR n/
617
8 .ARISTOTLE: li1etaphysics, BK V, CH I
24] 533b; BK XII, CH 7 [I072a23-36] 602b-c;
BK XIII, CH 3 [I078a33-b61609d-610a / Soul,
IlK III, CH 7 [43IbIO-13] 664-b
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK II, CH 2, 141a; BK
III, CH I 175a-177e; BK IV, CH II 240d-242d
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK II, SECT 1 256b,d;
BK IV, SECT 20 265a-b
17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR III, CH 1-2 10a-d:
TR VI, CH 3-9 22b-26a; TR VIII, CH 2, 27e ;
Fifth Ennead, TR I 208a-214e passim; TR V, cn
12 234a-d / Sixth Ennead, TR VII, CH 22 332d-
333b; CH 31--33 336d-338b
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK XI, par 6 90e-d;
BK XIII, par 53 124d-125a,e
19 '\QUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, Q .5, A4,
REP I 25d-26e; Q 16, A I, ANS 94b-95e; A 3,
ANS 96b-d; A 4 97a.:.c; Q 17, A 4, REP 2 l03e-
104b; Q 54, A 2, ANS 285d-286c; Q 79, A II,
REP 2 424d-425b; Q 82, A3, REP I 433c-434e;
A 4, REP I 434e-435e; PART I-II, Q 3, A 5,REP
2 626b-627a; Q9, A I, ANS and REP 2-3 657d-
658d; Q 19, A 3, REP I 704c-705a; Q22, A 2,
ANS 721e-722e; Q26, A I, REP 3 734a-d; Q27,
A I, REP 3 737b-d; A 2, ANS 737d-738e; Q 29,
A 5, ANS 747e-748b
20 AQUINAS: Sumnla Theologica, PART II-II,
Q 180, A 2, REP 3 608e-60ge; PART III SUPPL,
Q 94, A I, REP 2 1040d-104Ib
23 floBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 62a
30 BAcoN: Advancement of Learning, 26e-27a
42 KANT: Judgement, 478a-479d; 480a-482b;
488a-489a; 521b-523e esp 522b-e; 546d-548c
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART II, 266a-
267a
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK VI,
153a-d
Ie to ld CHAPTER. 30: GOOD AND EVIL
136a / Fifth Ennead, TR IX, CH 1-2 246e-247b;
CH 10, 250e / Sixth, Ennead, TR VII,' CH 25
334a-e; CH 28-29 335b-336b
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK vII,par 16-23
48e-50e / City of God, BK VIII, CH 6 268d-
26ge; BK XI, CH 16 331a-e; CH 22 333d-334e;
BK XII, CH 1-5 342b,d-345b; BK XIV, CH 13
387e-388e / Christian Doctrine, BK I,'CH 8 626e-
627a; CH 633e-d
19 AQUINAS :JSumma Theologica, PART I, Q2, A I,
REP 2 10d-lld; A3 12e-14a; Q.3, A I, ANS 14b-
15b; A2, ANS 15e-16a; A7, REP 2 19a-e; QQ 4-6
20e-30d passim; Q 16, A 3, ANS96b-d; Q 18,
A 3 106b-l07e; Q 19, A I, ANS 108d-10ge; A 8,
ANS 116a-d;Q 22, A 4, ANS 131e-132b; Q 23,
AS, REP 3 135d-137d; Q 25, A I, REP 2143d-
144e; A 6 149a-150a; Q 42, A I, REP 1-2 224b-
225d; Q 44, A I, ANS238b-239a; Q 47, AA 2-3
257b-259a; QQ 48""49 259b-268a,s passim; Q
So, A I, ANS and, REP I 269b-270a;A 3, ANS
and REP 2 272a-273b; Q57, AI, ANS 295a-d;
Q 65, A 2, ANS and REP 3 340b-341b; Q 70,
A 3, REP 2 365b-367a; Q 73, A I, ANS 370a-
371a; Q 75, A 7 384d-385c; Q 76, A 3, ANS
39Ia-393a; A 4, REP 3 393a-394e; Q 77, A 2
401b-d; A 4, REP I 403a-d;Q 82, A 3, ANS
433e-434e; Q 103 528a-534b passinl, esp A 3
530a-e, AA 6-8 532b-534b; Q 106, A 4, ANS
548b-549a; PART I-II, Q I, A 4, REP I 612a-
613a; A8 615a-e; Q2, A5, REP 2 618d-61ge; Q
18 693b,d-703a passim, esp AA 1-4 694a-696d;
Q 22, A 2, REP I 721e-722e; Q 29, A I, REP I
745a--e; A.5, ANS 747e-748b
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-II, Q 52,
AI, ANS 15d-18a; Q54, A3, REP 2 24e-25b; Q55,
A 4, REP 1-2 28e-29d; Q 85, A 4 181b-d; PART
II-II, Q2, A3, ANS 392d-393e; Q23, A3, REP 3
485a-d; PART III, Q 7, A 9, ANS 751d-752e;
PART III SUPPL, Q 74, A I, REP 3 925e-926e
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, I .[13-142]
107b-d; II [112-148] 109a-b; VII [64-75] 115d-
1I6a; [121-148] 116b-e; XIII [52-87] 126a-b;
XXVIII [I]-XXIX [66] 148d,..151a esp XXVIII
[64-72] 149b-e
31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART IV, 52d I J.V1edi-
tations, III, 84a-b
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART I, APPENDIX, 372e-d;
PAR.T II, DEF 6 373e; PART IV, PREF 422b,d-
424a; PART V, PROP 40, DEMONST 462c
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK V [468-49] 185b-
I86a
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK III, CH VI,
SECT 12 271d-272b
42 I(ANT: Pure Reason, 187e-188c; 206d-207e /
Fund. Prin. Metaphysic of Morals, /
Practical Reason, 307a-d
Ie. The good, the true, and the beautiful
7 PLATO: Lysis, 21b-e / Phaedrus, 124e-129d /
Symposium, 162d-163a; 167a-d / Republic,
BK V, 357d-358a; BK VI, 383d-388a / Philebus,
637c-638a
la to Ih
341b; Q70,.A 3, ANS 365b-367a; Q78, A I, R.EP
3 407b-409a; Q 82, A 4, ANS and REP 1 434c,,:
435c; Q 91, A 3 486b-487d; Q 92, A I, REP 1
488d-489d; Q 98, A I, ANS 516d-5I7e; Q 103
528a-534b passim; Q 105, A ), ANS 542a-S43b;
PART I-II, Q I, A2 610b611b; A 6, ANS 614a-c;
A 8 Q 2, A 4, REP I 618a-d; A 5, REP 3
618d-61ge; Q 8, A I, ANS 655b-656a; Q 9, A I,
ANS 657d-658d; Q 12, A 5, ANS 672a-e
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I--II, Q 49,
A2, ANS and REP I 2b-4a
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, XVII
[125-136] 79d; XVIII [19-39] 80a-b; PAR.A-
DISE, 1[94-142] 107b-d; III [82-90] 110a-b; IV
[II5]-V [12] I11d-112b; XXVI [1-69] 145d.
146e; XXXII [I39]-xXXIII [145] 156a-157d
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 50a; PART IV, 271d
281-IARVEY: On Aninzal Generation, 355e-d;
442d-443e
30 BAcoN: Advancement of Learning, 45a-46a I
Novum Organum, BK I, APH 48 110d-l11a
31 DESCARTES: Meditations, IV, 90a-b / Objec-
tions and Replies, 215a-b
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PARTI, APPENDIX 369b-372d;
PART IV, PREF 422b,d-424a
33 PASCAL: Pensees, 425-426 243b-244b;
245a-247b; 438 25Ia
35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT
433d-434a
35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT V, DIV 44,
469b-c; SECT XI, DIV III 501b-e
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 187a-190a; 205a-209b
/ Judgement, 467d-470b; 473a-474b; 478a;
550a-613a,e esp 550a-562a,e, 568c-570b,
575b-578a, 587a-588a, 592a-e
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 157b-c;
160b-178a esp 168d-169d
49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 40e-d; 41e-42a;
95d-97a esp 96b-c; '217d-218a
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, EPIL0G,UE I, 646c-
647b; 6S0b-e
53 JAMES: Psychology, 4a-6b; 671b [fn I]
lb. Goodness in proportion to being: the grades
of perfection and the goodness of order
OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, I
7 PLATO: Phaedrus, I24e-126a / Symposium,
167a-d / Gorgias, 282e-284b / Timaeus, 447a-
455c / Philebus, 635b-639a,e
8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK I, CH 9 [I92aI6-24]
268b-e / Heavens, BK I, CH 2 359d-360d; BK
II, cH 12 383b-384e / Generation and Corrup-
tion, BK II, CH 10 [336b25-34] 438d / Meta...
physics, BK IX, CH 9 577a-b; BK
XII, CH 7 602a-603b; CH 10 [175311-24] 60Sd-
606a; BK XIV, CH 4 624a-d
9 ARISTOTLE: Generation of Animals, BK II
CH I [73Ib24-33] 272a-b / Ethics, BK I, CH
[I096aI7-b7] 341b-d
17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR VII, CH 1--2 26a-
TR VIn 27b-34a / Second Ennead, TR IX, elI
67b-e / Third Ennead, TR VIII, CH 8-10 132
THE 'GREAT IDEAS
(1. The general theory of good and evil. la. The
idea of the good: the notion ojfinality.)
CH 6 [145819-27] 198d-199a; CH 8 [14
6b
9-
I47aII ] 200e-201a; CH 12 [I49b3I-39] 204b-e /
Physics, BK I, CH 9 [19232-.,24] 268a-e; BK a, CH
2 [I94827-b8] 270d-271a; CH 3 [I94
b
33-I95
a2
]
271b-c; [I 95a22-26] 271d; CH 8 275d-277b;
BK VII, CH 3 [2468IO-248a8] 32ge-330d /
Heavens, BK II-, CH 12 383b-384e / Generation
and Corruption, BK II, CH 6 [333a35-b20] 434b-e
/ Metaphysics, BK I, CH 2 [982b4-IO] SOOd;
CH 3 [984b8]_'CH 4 [985328] 502d-S03e; CH 6
[98838-16] S06a-b; CH 7 [988b6-16] 506c-d;
CH 9 [992a29-34] 510e; BK II, CH 2 [994
b
9-'
I6
]
S12d-S13a; BK III, CH 2 [99682I_bI3] 514d-
5I5a; BK V, CH 2 [IOI3832-b3] 533e; [IOI3
b2
5-
28] 533d534a; cn 14 [1020bI4--25] 54Id-542a;
BK IX, CH 8 [105oa3-bl] 575d-576b; BK X:I,
CH 7 [10723I8-b4] 602a-e;cH 10 [1075
32
5- 7]
606a-b; BK XIV, CH 4 [I091829-1092a8] 624a-d;
CH 6 625d626d / Soul, BK II, CH 4 [415
a
22--
b
8] 645e-d; [4I5bI5-22] 645d-646a; BK III,
CH 9 [432b21-26] 665b-e /' Sleep, CH 2 [455
b
13-28] 698b-c
9 l'\RISTOTLE: Parts of Ani1nals, BK I, CH I [639
b
8--64812] 161d-162b; [64Iblo-642b4] 164e-
165d; CH 5 [64582.3-26] 169a / Gait ofAnimals,
CH 2 [704bI2-18] 243c / Generation ofAnimals,
BK I, CH I [715aI-II] 255a; BK V, CH I [77
831
5-
b
19
] 320a-32Ia / Ethics, BK I, CH I 339a-b; CH
6 341b-342c / Politics, BK I, CH 2 [1252b30-
I253al] 446a-b; CH 8 [I256b8-26] 450b-c
10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK I, CH 6, 170b-c;
CH 12 172d-173c; BK II, CH 4, 187c
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature ofThings, BK I [1022-1037]
13c-d; BK II [152-1063] 28b-e; BK IV [823-
857] 55a-b
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK V, SECT 8. 269d-
270b; SECT 16 271c-d; BK VI, SECT 40 277d
17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR VII, CH 1-2 26a-d;
TR VIII, CH 2 27c-d I Third Ennead, TR IX, CH
3, I38a,c / Fifth Ennead, TR V-VI 228b-237d /
Sixth Ennead, TR V, CH I 305e-306a; CH 10
309a-d; TR VII, CH 15-42 329c-342d; TR IX
353d-360d
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK II, par 10 11a-b;
BK XIII, par 53 124d-125a,e / City of God, BK
XI, CH 22 333d-334e; BK XII, CH I 342b,d-
343e; CH 4-5 344b-345b; BK XIV, CH 13 387e-
388e; BK XXII, CH 24, 610e-611e
19 AQUINAS: Sumnza Theologica, PART I, Q 2, A
3, ANS 12e-14a; QQ 5-623b-30d esp Q 5, A 4
25d-26e; Q 16, A I, ANS 94b-95e; A 3, ANS
96b-d; Q 18, A 3, ANS 106b-107e; Q 19, A I,
ANS 108d-10ge; A 4, ANS 111e-112e; Q 22, A, 2
ANS 128d-130d; Q 23, A I, ANS and REP 1-2
132c-133b; Q 36, A 3, ANS 194e-195d; Q 44,
A 4 241a-d; Q 48, A I, REP 4 259b-260e; Q 59,
A I, ANS 306e-307b; A 3, ANS 308b-309a; Q
60, A 5, ANS 313b-314e; Q 63, A 4, ANS 328b-
329a; Q 65, A I, REP 3 339b-340b; A 2340b-
616
THE GREAT IDEAS
CHAPTER.30: GQOD ANDEVIL
618
(1. The general theory of good and evil. Id. The
origin, nature,. and existence oj evil.)
CH 5, 95d-96a;'cH 7, 96d-97a; TRVI, CH II,
113b-c I Fourth Ennead,. TR III, CH 16 150c-d
I Fifth Ennead, TR IX, CH 10, 250c I Sixth En-
nead, TR VII, CH 28 335b-d
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK III, par 11-12
15d-16b; BK IV, par 24 25b-c;BK V, par 20
32d-33a; BK VII, par 3-'7 44a-45d; par 11-23
47a-50d; BK- XIII, par 45 123a .1 Gityof God,
,BK XI, CH q, 32.7c-d; CH 22. 333d-334c; BK XII,
CH 1-9 342b,d-348b;BK XIX, CH 13 519a-
520a
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, Q 5, A
3, REP 225a-d; A5, REP 3--4 2-6c-27c; QQ 48-49
2S9b-268a,c; Q 65, A I, REP 2-3 339b-340b;
PART I-II, Q 18 693b,d-703a passim, esp AA
1-4 694a-696d; Q 29, A I, ANS and REP 1,3
74Sa-c; A5, ANS 747c-748b
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica,PART I-II, Q79,
AA 1:-2156b-158a; Q80 159d-162d; Q81, AA 1-2
163a-165c; A 5 167a-d; PART IIISUPPL, Q 69,
A 7, REP 9 891d-893c; Q 74, A I, REP I 925c-
926c
21 DANTE: Divine Con1edy, PARADISE, I [13-142]
107b-d; VII [19-148] 115b-116e; XIII [52- 87]
126a-b; XIX [40-66] 135c-d; XXIX [49-66]
150d-151a
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART III, 191b-d; 195d-
196a
26 SHAKESPEARE: Romeo and Juliet, ACT II,
SC III [15-30] 296c
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART I, APPENDIX 369b-372d
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK IX [494-1189] 258a-
273a
33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, 116a-b
35 BERKELEY: Hun1an Knowledge, SECT 153-154
443d-444b
35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT VIII, DIV
76-81 485a-487a
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 81b-c
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 330a-b
42 KANT: Practical Reason, 316a-317d
46 HEGEL: Philos,ophy of Right, PART II, par 139
48d-49b; ADDITIONS, 9-91 130b-131d / Phi-
losophy of Illstory, INTRO, 160a; 162a.,163a;
168d; PART I, 237d-238c
48 MELVILLE: Moby Dick esp 30a-36b, 117a-
124b, 131a"145a, 171b, 317a-321a, 411a-419b
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK XI,
344a-d
2. The goodness or perfection of God: the
plenitude of the divine being
NEW TESTAMENT: Matthew, 5:48 I Luke, 18:18-
19 I IJohn, 1:5 I Revelation, 15:4-(D) Apoc-
alypse, 15:4
7 PLATO: Republic, BK II, 321d-323a I Timaeus,
447a-448b I Theaetetus, 530b-d
8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK XII, CH7 602a-
603b
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK VII, CH I [1145aIS""2jl
395a; CH 14 [1154b20-3I ] 406c; BK X, CIl 8
[II78b8- 23] 433b-c I Politics, BK VII, CIl I
[I323b22-25] 527c
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK II, CH 8 146a-
147c
16 KEPLER: Harmonies of the World, 1009a'
1049b-1050b '
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK I, par I24a; BI<
II, par 10 11a-b; BK VII, par 1-7 43b-45d; par
16-23 48c-50c; BK X, par 38 81a; BK XI, par 6
90c-d; BK XIII, par 1--5 110d-111d; par 5.3
124d-125a,c jCity ofGod, BK XI, CH 10327<:1-
328d; BK XII, CH 1-3 342b,d-344b; CH 8346<:1-
347b jChristian Doctrine, BK I, Cll 5-7625<:1
626c; CH 3I-32633b.,d
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, Q 2, A. I
REP 2 10d-l1d; A3, ANS and REP I 12c-14a;
3, A I, ANS 14b-15b; A2, ANS 15c-16a; A7, REP
2 19a-c; Q4 20c-23b; Q 6 28b-30d; Q 13, A2,
ANS 63c-64d; A II, REP2 73c-74b; Q 18, A. .3
106b-107c; Q Ig, A I, REP 1-3 l08d-10ge; Q21,
A I, REP 4 124b-125b; Q 26150a-152a,e; Q 51,
A I, REP 3 275b-276b; Q 54, A 2, ANs285<:1-
286c; Q 60, A 5 313b-314c; Q 61, A 3,REP 2
316a-d; Q62, A8, ANS and REP 1-2 323c-324a'
Q66, A I, CONTRARY 343d-345c; Q84, A 2,
and REP 3 442b-443c; Q gI, A I, ANS484a-
485b; Q 100, A2, ANS 521c-522b; Q 103528a-
534b passim; Q 104, A 3, REP 2 537b-d; A '.h
ANS 538a-c; Q 105, A 4, ANS 541c-542a; A 5,
ANS 542a-543b; PART I-II, Q 2, A 4, REP 1
618a-d; A 5, REP 2 618d-619c; Q 9, A 6, ANS
662a-d; Q18, A I, ANS 694a-d; Q22, A2, REP I
721c-722c
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART 1---11,' Q 49,
A 4, ANS 5a-6a; Q 61, A 5, ANS 58b-59d; Q 64,
A 4, ANS and REP 3 69b-70a; PART U---II, Q 9,
A 4, REP I 425d-426c; Q 13, A I, ANS 4440-
44Sa; Q 17, A I, ANS 457a-d; Q 23, A 4,A:NS
485d..486b; Q 34, A I, ANS 559a-c; Q 39, A 2
REP 3 575b-576b; Q 184, A2, ANS 629d-630d
PART III, Q I, A I, ANS 701d-703a; Q 23, A I
ANS 833a-d
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, XV [40
81] 75d-76a; XXVIII [91-96] 97a; PARADISE
VII [64-148] 115d..116c esp [64-66] 115d; xu
[52-87] 126a-b; XIX [40-'-90] 135c-136a
22 CHAUCER: Merchant's Tale [10,160-164] 33
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 300c-d
31 DESCARTES: _Discourse, PART IV, 52a-d; 53d
Meditations, I, 77b-c; III, 86a-88d; IV 8
93a passim I Objections and Replies, 123
124c; DEF VIII 130d; 228a-c; 229c-d
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART I, DEF 6 355
PROP 8-9 356d-357d; PROP 10, SCHOL 358a-
PROP 14 359d-360a; PROP 16 362a; PROP
SCHOr... 2 367d-369a
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK III [135-166] 13
139a; BK VII [170-173] 220b-221a
33 PASCAL: Pensees, 425-426 243b-244b;
245a-247b
34 NEWTON: Principles, BK III, GENERALSCHOL,
370a-371a
35 LOCKE: HumanUnderstanding,BK II, CH
XXIII, SECT 34-35 213a-c; BK III, CHVI, SECT
11-12 271b-272l>. passim
35 HUME: HumanUnderstanding,sEcT XI, DIV
106-107, 499c-500a passim; DIV 113, 502a-b
41 GIBBON: DecHne and Fall, 230a-b
42 KANT: Pure Reason,205a-b; 237d-239a /
Fund. Prin. Aletaphysic of Morals, 263a-b;
278b-d I Practical Reason, 307a-d; 325d-
326a; 342c;345a-c; 351b-352c I Judgement,
592a-c
God's goodness as diffusive, causing .. the
goodness of things: God's love
OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, I I Exodus, 20:4-6
esp 20:6; 33:19; 34:5-10 I Deuteronomy, 4: 1-
40 esp 4:6-8,4:31,4:37; 5:7-10 esp 5:10 ; 7:6-
I I / fob, 33:13-33 I Psalms passim, esp 8-10,
16-18,20, 22-23, 25, 68, 97:10, 114:1-115:18,
1I8:1-119:176-(D) Psalms passim, esp8-g, 15-
17, 19,21--22, 24, 67, 96 :10, 113:1- 18,117:1-
118 :176 I Proverbs, 3 :11-12 I SongofSolornon-
(D) Canticle ofeanticles I Isaiah, 40-66 passim,
esp 42-44, 46:3-4, 4g: I- 26, 52 :1- 15, 56 :1--8,
63 :8-9-(D) Isaias, 40.....66 passim, esp 42-44,
46:3-4,49:1- 26, 52 :1-15, 56:1.....8, 63 :8-9/ Jere-
miah, 3I-33-(D) Jeremias, 31-33 I Lamenta-
tions, 3 :22-39 esp 3:25, 3 :38 I Ezekiel, 16 esp
16:6-14, 16:59-63-(D) Ezechiel, 16 esp 16:6-
14, 16:5g-63 I Hosea esp 2 :14-23, 3:1 , 3 :5,
6:1-3, 11:1-4, 13:16- 14:9-(D) Osee esp 2:14-
23, 3 :1, 3 :5, 6:1.;,...3, I I a-4, 14:1-10/ Joel, 2
esp 2 :18-32 I Zechariah,g:17-(D) Zacharias,
9:17 I Malachi, I :1-3-(D) Malachias, 1:1-3
ApOCRYPHA: Tobit, 13:IO-(D) OT,Tobias,
13:12 I Wisdonz of Solomon, II :22"':'26; 16:20-
2g-(D) OT, Book of Wisdon1, 11:2.3-27;
16:20-29 I Ecclesiasticus, 11:14-.....17; 16:26-
18:14 esp 16:2g-30; 39:16,25-34-(D) OT,
Ecclesiasticus, 11:14-17; 16:26-18:14 esp 16:30-
31; 39:21,30-4
NEW TESTAMENT: Matthew, 6:25-34; 7:7-11 /
Luke, II :1-13; 12:6-7,16-33 I john, 1:1-5;
3:16- 21 ; 13:31-35; 14:21 ; 15:g-16; 17:21- 26 I
Romans, 2:4; 8:31-39 I Galatians, 2:20 /
Ephesians, 3 :14--21 ; 5 :1-2 I I fohn, 3-4 esp
3: 1, 3:16, 4:7-12 I Revelation, 3: I9-(D)
Apocalypse, 3:19
7 PLATO: Republic, BK II, 321d-322d; BK VI--VII,
384a-389c I Timaeus, 447a-448a
8 ARISTOTLE: Generation and Corruption, BK II,
CH 10 L336b25-34] 438d I Metaphysics, BK XII,
CH 7 602a-603b; CH 10 [1075aII-24] 605d-
606a
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK II, CH 8 146a-147c
16 KEPLER: Hannonies of the World, l049b-
1050b; 1071b
17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR VII, CH 1-2 26a-d
/ Fifth Ennead, TR V228b-235hI Sixth Ennead,
TR IX, ClI 9 358d-359c
619
18 AUGUSTINE: C;onfes$ions, BK I,par 7 2c-d; .BK
II, par 10 11a-b;BK VII, par 4 par 16-
23 48c-50c; BK XI, par 6 90c-d; .. BKXIII, par
1-5 110d-111dl City of GOd,BKVII, CH 31
261d-262a; BK XI, CH 21-24 BKXII,
CH I 342h,d-343c;CH 9 347b-348b; BK XIV,
CH 13 387c-388c; BK XXII, CH 24 609a-612a /
Christian Doctrine, BK I, CH 3I-32633b-d
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, Q 2,
A 3, ANS and REP I 12c-14a; Q 3, A I, REP I
14b-15b; A 2, ANS 15c-16a; Q 6 28b-30d;
Q 13, A 2, ANS 63c-64d; Q 19, A 2, ANS and
REP 2-4 109c-110b; A 4, ANS and REP I 111c-
112c; Q 20 119d-124a; Q 21, A 3, ANS 126a-c;
Q25, A6149a-150a; Q50, A I, ANS269b-270a;
A 3, ANS 272a-273b; Q 51, A I, REP 3 275b-
276b; Q59, AI, ANS 306c-307b; A2, ANS 307c-
308b; Q60, A5 313b-314c; Q91, AI, ANS 484a-
485b; Q 103 528a-534b; Q 104, A 3, REP 2
537b-d; A4, ANS 538a-c; Q 105, A4, ANS 541c-
542a; Q 106, A 4, ANS 548b-549a; PART I-II, Q
I,A 4, REP I 612a-613a; Q2, AS, REP 3 618d-
619c; Q 9; A 6, ANS 662a-d; Q Ig, A 4, ANS
705b-c; Q28, A3, CONTRARY 742a-d
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY,XV [40-
81] 75d-76a; PARADISE, II [112-148] 109a-b;
VII [16-148] 115b-116c esp [64-75] 115d-116a;
XIII [52-87] 126a-b; XIX [4o-go1135c-136a;
XXVI [1-69] 145d-146c; XXVIII 148d-150b;
XXIX [13-36] 150b-c; [127-145J 151c-d
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART III, 185d
31 DESCARTES: Objections and Replies, 229c-d
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK III [135-143] 138b;
BK V [153-208] 178b"-179b; BK VII [170-173]
220b-221a
35 BERKELEY: Hunzan Knowledge, INTRO, SECT
3 405b-c;SECT 154 444a.,b
37 FIELDING: Tom Jones, 186c-d
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 169d-
170a
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov,BK v,
127b-137c; BK VI, 167b-168c; BK VIi, 189a-
191a,c
2b. The divine goodness and the problem of
evil
OLD TESTAMENT: Deuteronomy, 3:15-20 esp
30:15 I I Samuel, 16:14-23-(D) 11(ings,
16:14-23 I Job I Psalms, 5 esp 5:4...:6; 9-10 ;
13; 22 esp 22:7-8; 37; 39 esp 3g:8- 12; 44;
73; 88-(D) Psalms, 5 esp 5:5-7; g; 12; 21
esp 21 :8-9; 36; 38esP 38:9-1.3; 43; 72; 87
/ Proverbs, 8:13 I Ecclesiastes, 8:I-g:I2 esp
8:10-14, 9: 1-.3 I Isaiah, 45:7-(D) Isaias,
45:7 / Jerelniah, 12 esp 12 :1"':2- (D) Jeren1ias,
12 esp 12 :1-2 I Lamentations, 3 :38 I Amos,
3:6 / Micah, I :I2-(D) Micheas, 1:12
ApOCRYPHA: JVisdom of Solon10n, 1:13-16; 2:23-
24; II :24-(.D) OT, Bool{ o..rrVisdom, 1 :13-16;
2:23-25; 11:25 I Ecclesiasticus, 11:14-'-16; 15:11-
20; 33:10-15; 39:25-31-(D) Ecclesiasti-
cus, II :14-16; 15:11- 22 ; 33:10--15; 39 :30-37
(2. The goodness or perfection of God: the pleni-
tude of the divine being. 2b. The divine
goodness and the prohlem of evil.)
NEw TESTAMENT: Matthew, 13 :24-3,36-43 esp
13:38-39 I john, 3 :16-21 / Romans, 3 :1-10;
51 James, 1:12-15/ I john, I esp 1:5-6
5 AESCHYLUS: Eumenides 81a-g1d
7 PLATO: Republic, BK II, 321d-322d / Timaeus,
452c-453b
8 ARISTOTLE: lvfetaphysics, BK IX, CH 9 [l0S I
a
17-22] 57?a-b
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, CH 12 118d-120b
14 PLUTARCH: Pericles, 140d
17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR VIII 27b-34a
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK III, par II
16a; BK IV, par 24 25b-c; BK v, par 20 32d-
33a; BK VII, par 3--7 44a-45d; par 11-:-23 47a-
50d; BK XIII, par 45 123a / City of God, BK
VIII, CH 24, 283a-b; BK x, CH 21 311c-312a;
BK XI, CH 9 326d-327d; CH 13-15 329c-331a;
CH22 333d-334c; BK XII, ClI 1-9 342b,d-348b;
ClI 21-22 357a-c; CH 27 359c-360a,c; BK XIII,
CH 13-15 366a-d; BK XIV, CH 10-IS 385b-
390a; BK XIX, CH 13 519a-520a; BK XXII,
CH I 586b,d-587b I Christian Doctrine, .BK II,
CH 23 648a-c; BK III, CH 37, 673d-674a
19 AQUINAS: Sunzma Theologica, PART I, Q 2, A
3, REP I 12c-14a; Q 8, A I, REP 4 34d-35c; A
3, ANS 36b-37c; Q 14, A 10 83d-84c; Q IS, A3,
REP I 93b-94a; Q 17, A I 100d-101d; Q 18, A4,
REP 4 107d-108c; Q 19, A 9 116d-117d; A 12,
ANS and REP 4 118d-119d; Q 20, A 2, REP 4
121b-122a; Q 22, A 2, REP 2 128d-130d; A 3,
REP 3 130d-131c; Q23, A 5, REP 3 135d-137d;
A 7, REP 3 138d-140a; Q 2S, A 3, REP 2 145b-
147a; Q48, A2, REP 3 260c-261b; Q49, AA 2'-3
266a-268a,c; Q 63, A 4 328b-329a; A S, ANS
329a-330c; A 7, REP 2 331c-332b; Q 64, A 4
337d-338d; Q 6s, A I, REP 2-3 339b-340b; Q
66, A3, ANS 347b-348d; Q72, A I, REP 6368b-
369d; Q 92, A I, REP 3 488d-489d; Q 103, A3,
REP 2 530a-c; A 7, REP I 533b-d; A 8 533d-
534b; Q 114, A I, ANS 581d-582c; PART I--U, Q
39, A2, REP 3 790d..,791b
20 AQUINAS: SU1nlna Theologica, PART I-II, Q 79
156a-159c; PART III SUPPL, Q 74, A I, REP I
925c-926c
21 DANTE: Divine Colnedy, HELL, XXXIV [28-36]
5Ic; PARADISE, I [13-142] 107b-d; VII [19-
148] 115b-116c; VIII [91-148] 117d-118c; XIII
[S2-87] 126a-b; XIX [40-90] 135c-136a; XXIX
[49-66] 150d-151a
22 CHAUCER: Friar's Tale [756-785] 281a-b
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, 160d-161a
30 BACON: Advancenzent of Learning, 17d-18a;
80b-81a
31 DESCARTES: Meditations, IV 89a-93a
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART I, PROP 33, SClIOL 2
367d-369a; APPENDIX 369b-372d
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost 93a-333a esp BK I [128-
168] 96a-97a, [29-220] 98a, BK III [56-343]
CHAPTER 30: GOOD AND EVIL 620 THE GREAT IDE..J\S 2bto 3
IV [32- 113] 153a-155a, BKYl
[262-295] 202a-b, BK VII [519-549] 228b-229a
BK VIII [316-337] 239a-b, "BK 'IX [679-'779i'
262a.. 264a, BK X [585-64] 287a-288b, BK XI
[84-98] 301a I Samso.n.Agonistes [1156-1177]
364b-365a / ,Areopagttlca, 394h-395b
33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, 1I6a-b / Pensees
7.3S-736317b; 820 33Ib '
35 BERKELEY: Htunan Knowledge, SECT 154-
444a-b
35 HUME:Human Understanding, SECT VIII, DIV
78-81 485c-487a; SECT XI, DIV I06-I07,499c_
SOOa passilTI
40 C;IBBON: Decline and Fall, 81b-c
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 230b; 330a-b
44 BOSWELL: johnson, 401a-b; 482a-d; 539d-
540a;S49c
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, ADDITIONS, 90
130b-d / Philosophy of History, INTRO, I60a;
PART III, 304d-306a
47 GOETHE: Faust, PROLOGUE 7a-9b
48 MELVILLE: Moby Dick, 38Ia
51 TOLSTOY: TVar and Peace, BK VI, 272a-b
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karalnazov, BK v,
I20d-121c; 122c-123b; 132a-135d; BK XI,
337a-346a
54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 790d I
New Introductory Lectures, 877d-878b
3. The moral theory of the good: the distinction
between the moral and the metaphysical
good
7 PLATO: Protagoras, 58b-62d / Gorgias, 262a-
263c; 280d-285a / Theaetetus, 530b-531a I
Philebus 609a-639a,c
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK I 339a-348d esp CH 6
341b-342c / Rhetoric, BK I, ClI 6 [I362b2-6]
603b; CH 9 [I366a23-I367b27] 608c-610c
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses 105a-245a,c esp BK I,
CH I 105a-106c, CH 6 110c-112b, CH r I 116d-
118d, CH IS 12Ic-d, ClI 18 124a-125a, CH 22
127c-128c, CH 25 I29d-131b, CH 27-29.l32b-
I38a, BK II, ClI 5 142c-144a, CH 10-II 148c-
151b, BK III, CH r 175a-177c, CH 3 178d-180a,
CH 10 185d-187a, ell 24 203c-210a, BK IV, CH
I 2I3a-223d, CH 6 230b-232c
12 AURELIUS: Meditations 253a-310d esp BK II,
SECT I 2S6b,d, SECT 9 257d, SECT 11-12
258a-c, BK IV, SECT 10 264c, SECT 24 265c-d,
SECT 32 266b-c, SECT 37 266d-267a, SECT 39
267a, BK V, SECT 2 269a, SECT 6 269b-d, SECT
10 270c-d, SECT 12 271a, SECT 15-16
BK VI, SECT 2 274a, SECT 51 279b-c, BK VII,
SECT 36 282b, SECT 44 282b-c, SECT 55 283b-c,
BK VIII, SECT I 285a-b, SECT 10 286b, SECT
19 286d-287a, SECT 32 287d-288a, SECT 3
288c, SECT 41 288d, SECT 51 289d-290a
HK IX, SECT I 291a-c, SECT 16 293a, SECT 42
295c-296a,c
18 A.UGUSTINE: City of God, BK XI, ClI 16 331a-
19 AQUINAS: Sumlna Theologica, PART I-II, Q
1'-5 609a-643d; QQ 18-21 693b,d-720a,c
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, XVI [52-
114] 77b-78a; XVII [82]-XVIII [75] 79b-80c
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 69d-76a;
80a-81a
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BKII, CH
XXVIII, SECT 4-17 229b-232d
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 114d-115a; 149d-150a;
169b [fn I]; 173b-174a / Fund. Prine Metaphys-
ic of Morals 253a-287d esp 256a-261d, 263d-
264a, 282d-287d / Practical Reason 291a-36Id
esp 297a-307d, 314d-321b, 325c, 337a-353a I
Prif. Metaphysical Elements of Ethics 36Sa-
379d esp 366d-373d / Intro. of
Morals, 387bj Judgement, 594d [fn I]; S95a-d
43 11ILL: Utilitarianism 44Sa-476a,c
46 HEGEL: . Philosophy of Right, PART II, par
129-140 45d-54a
49 DARWIN: Descent ofMan, 304a-319a esp 304a-
305a, 310a-319a
54 FREUD: War and Death, 757b-760a esp 757d-
758c, 759d-760a
3a. Human nature and the determination of the
good for man: the real and the apparent
good; particular goods and the good in
general
NEW TESTAMENT: R01"nans, 7:15-2 5
5 SOPHOCLES: Antigone 136b-c /
Phi/octetes [895-903] 190a
7 PLATO: Channides, 2d-3b esp 3a I Protagoras,
S7d-62d I Euthydemus, 69a-71a; 74b-76b I
Meno, 177d-178b / Gorgias, 26Ia-270c;282b-
284b / Republic, BK I-IV 295a-356a; BK VIII,
410a-c; BK IX, 421a-425b; BK X, 439b-441a,c
/ Timaeus, 474b-476b / Theaetetus, 528c-
531a / Sophist, 557b-d I Philebus, 619d-6.20b I
Seventh Letter, 805d-806a
8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK VII, CH 3 [246aIO-248a
6] 329c-330d I Metaphysics, BK I, Cli I [980Q
22-28] 499a; BK XII, CH 7 602b
9 ARISTOTLE: Motion ofAnimals, CH 6 [700bI5-
29] 235d-236a / Ethics, BK I, CH 6 341b-342c;
CH 7 [I097b22-I098aI9] 343a-c; BK I, CH 13-
BK II, CH 6 347b-352d; BK III, CH 4 359a-c;
CH 5 [III4a22-IIISa3] 360b-361a; BK V, CH I
[II29bI-IO] 376d-377a; BK VI, CH 5 389a-c;
BK x, CH 6-8 430d-434a I Politics, BK I, CH 2
[I253a2-38] 446b-d; CH 5-6 447d-449b; BK
III, CH 6 [I278bI5-29] 475d-476a; BK VII, CH
1.3 [IJ32a39-bIO] 537a-b; CH 14 [I3.33aI7--.37]
53Ba- b I Rhetoric, BK I, CH 6-7 602d-607d;
CH 10 [I369bI9-27] 613a
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK II [1-61]
15a-d; BK V [III3-cII35] 75c-d; [1412- 1435]
79b-d; BK VI [I-42J 80a-d
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, CH 6 110c..,112b;
cn II 116d-118d; CH IS 12Ic-d; ClI 27 132b-
133b; BK III, ClI I 175a-177c; CH 3 178d-180a;
BK IV, CH 6 230b-232c
12 AURELIUS: Aleditations, BK II, SECT 9 257d;
SECT II 258a-b; BK IV, SECT 24265c-d; SECT
32 266b-c; SECT 39 267a; BK v, SECT 15-16
621
271b-d; BK VI, SECT 13 274d; BK VII, SECT 20
281h; SECT 55 283b-c; BK VIII, SECT 1 285a-b;
BK IX, SECT I 291a-c; SECT 42 295c-296a,c
14 PLUTARCH: Pericles, 121a-122b
IS TACITUS: Histories, BK IV, 267c
17 PLOTINUS: Fourth, Ennead, TR IV, CH 43-44
181b-182b I Sixth Ennead, TR VII, CH 26 334c-d
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK X, par 29-34 78d-
80c I City of God, BK XII, CH 3 343d-344b;
BK XIX, ClI I-9507a-516c I Christian Doctrine,
BK I, CH 38 635c-d
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, Q 12,
A I, ANS 50c-51c; Q 26, A 2, ANS 150c-15Ia; A
4, ANS and REP I 151c-152a,c; Q 59, A I, ANS
306c-307b; A3, ANS 308b-30ga; A4, ANS 309a-
3I0a; Q60, A5 313b-314c; Q62, AI,
318c; Q80, A2, REP 2 428a-d; Q82, A4, REP I
434c-435c; A 5, ANS 435c-436c; Q 92, A I, ANS
488d;..489d; Q 105, A 4, ANS 541c-542a; PART
I-II, QQ 1-5 609a-643d; Q 9, A 6, REP 3
662a-d; Q 18 693b,d-703a; Q 19, A I,REP I
703b-d; Q22, A3, REP 2 722d-723b; Q34, A4
771c-772b
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I....,II, Q54.
A 3 24c-2Sb; QQ 5S-56 26a-35a; Q63, A I
64a; Q71, A2 106d-107c; Q91, A2 208d-209d;
Q 94 220d-226b; PART II-H, Q 29, A 2, REP 3
531a-d; A 3, REP 1 53Id-532c
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy,. PURGATORY, XVI [85-
114] 77d-78a; XVII [82]-XVIII [75] 79b-80c
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 61a-62c; 65a;
96a-b
24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK I,
65c-d
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 149b-d; 231d-233a;489b-
490c
27 SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet, ACT III, SC I [103-'134]
48a-b I Measure for Measure, ACT II, SC IV
[1-17] 184c-d / Othello, ACT II, SC III [342-368]
220c-d
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 70d-71b
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, PREF, 423c-d; PROP
18-28 428d-431c; PROP 31 432a-b; PROP 35,
COROL 1-2 433c-d; APPENDIX, V 447c
33 PASCAL: Pensees, 42S-426 243b-244b; 430
24Sa-247b; 438 251a; 463-468 2S5a-256a
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, 90a-d; BK I,
CH II, SECT 5-6 105a-c; SECT 13, 10Bb-c; BK
II, CH XXI, SECT 52-53 191d..,192b; SECT 55-56
192c-193b; SECT 60-70 194a-197b passim; ClI
XXVIII, SECT I I 230c-231a
36 STERNE: Tristranz Shandy, 2S7a-268a
37 FIELDING: Tom fones, 38c-40a; 41a-43b; 53b-
54d; 82c-83b; 88b-8gc
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 343a-346d; 35Ic-352a
42 KANT: Pure 169b [fn I] / Fund. Prine
Metaphysic of Morals, 253d-254d; 263d-264a;
270c-d I Intro. Metaphysic of Morals, 387d-
388a I judgement, 584d-587a
43 MILL: Liberty, 295d-296d I Representative
Government, 367a-369a I Utilitarianism,
455a; 456d-457b; 458b-464d
(3. The moral theory of good: the distinction
bettiJeen the moral and the" metaphysical
good. 3a. Human nature and, the deter-
mination 0) the good/or man: the rea/and
the apparent ,good; particular, goodsttnd
the good in general.)
44 BOSW'ELL: Johnson, 130b
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, ADDITIONS, 78
128c-d / Philosophy of History, INTRO, 166b;
182d-184d; PART I, 236a"c; PART II, 280b-c
48 MELVILLE: Moby Dick, 36a-b
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 310a-317d passim,
esp 311d-313a; 592d
50 MARX: Capital, 301d [fn 3]
51 TOLSTGY: War and Peace,EPILOGUE 1I,689b
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Kara111azov, BK V, 127b-
137c; BK VI, 164b-d
53 JAMES : ,Psychology, 198b.. 209b esp 198b-200a,
202a-204b, 208b-209b
54 FREUD: Origin and Development of Psycho-
Analysis, 20c-d / General Introduction", 624a-
625b / Civilization and Its Discontents,
767a; 785c-802a,c esp 786d-'787a, 788d-789b,
792b-c, 800c-801b
to 3c CHAPTER 30: GOOD 623
56a-b; ADDITIONS, 84 129b; 86 129c / Philoso- 8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK XII, CH 7 [I072a
phy ofHistory, PART IV, 362c-d 26-29] 602b / Soul, BK III, CH 10-1 I 665d-667a
49 DAR\VIN: Descent of Man, 304a; 310d; 313d- 9 ARISTOTLE: Motion of Animals, CH 6 235d-
314a; 592b-c 236b / Ethics, BK I, CH I [1094al -3] 339a;
CH 2 [1094aI7-22J 339b; BK III, ClI 4 359a-c;
BK V, CH I [II29br-IO] 376d-377a; BK VI, CH
2 387d-388b; BK IX, CH 9 [II7oaI3-25] 423d-
424a; BK X, CH 2 426c-427b esp [II72b35-
1I73
a
4] 427a; CH 6 [II76a3o_b8] 430d-43la /
Rhetoric, BK I, CH 6-7 602d-607d; CH 10
[I3
6
9
a
3-4] 612b; [1369b7-12] 612d; [I369bI 9-
27] 613a
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK II, CH 22 167d-170a
14 PLUTARCH: Pericles, 121a-122b
17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR V, Cll 3 102a-c;
CH 10 105d-l06b / Sixth Ennead, TR VII, CH
19 332a-b; TR VIII, CH 7, 345d; CH 13, 349b-c
19 ,AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, Q5, A I,
ANS 23c-24a; A2, REP 4 24b-25a; A4, ANS 25d-
26c; A 6, ANS 27c-28b; Q 6, A I, REP 2 28b-d;
Q 20, A 2, ANS 121b-122a; PART I-II, Q 5, A 8
642d-643d; Q 8 655a-657c; Q II, A 3 667d-
668d; Q 12, AA 2-4 670b-672a; Q 22, A 3,
REP 2 722d-723b; Q 23 723c-727a; Q 27, A I
737b-d; Q 4I, A 3 799c-800b
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-II, Q 58,
A4 esp REP 3 44a-d
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, XV [40-
81] 75d-76a; XVI [85-114] 77d-78a; XVII [82]-
XVIII [75] 79b-80c esp XVIII [19-39] 80a-b;
PARADISE, I [13-142] 107b-d; IV [II5]-V [12]
I11d-112b; VII [139-144] 116c; XXVI [1-69]
145d-146c
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 61d-62a; 96a-b;
PART IV, 272c
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 149b-d; 297d-300c
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 67a-b
31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART III, SOb / Objec-
dons and Replies, AXIOM VII 132a
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART I, APPENDIX 369b-372d;
PART III, PROP 6-9 398d-399c esp PROP
SCHOL 399c; PROP 12-13 400b-d; PROP 39,
SCHOL 408b-d; PROP 54 413a-b; PART IV,
PREF-DEF 2 422b,d-424a; PROP 8-13 426b-
428a; PROP 19 429d; PROP 27-28 431b-c; PROP
63443d-444a
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK II, CH XX,
SECT 6 177a-b; CH XXI, SECT 29-54 184d-192c
passim; SECT 61-62 194b-d; SECT 70 197a-b
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 338c-339a
42I(ANT: Fund. Prin. Metaphysic of Morals,
259a-c; 264d-265b / Practical Reason, 293c-d
[En 3]; 298a-300a; 301a; 304a-d; 330c-331a;
341c-342a / Intro. Metaphysic of Alorals,
385a-c / Judgement, 60Sd-606b [fn 2]
43 l\1ILL:Utilitarianis1n, 461c-464d
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART II, par
12
3
ADDITIONS, 78 128c-d / Philosophy of
Hlstory, INTRO, 166b
53 JAMES: Psychology, 810b-811a
54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 792b-c;
BOld
3b(2) The good will: its conditions and conse-
quences
7 PLATO: Gorgias, 262a-263c / Timaeus, 474b-d
/ Laws, BK v, 688d-689a
8 ARISTOTLE: Topics, BK IV, CH 5 [126a30-37]
17sc-d
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK III, CHI-5 355b,d-361a;
BK IV, CH .9 [II28b20-30] 376a,c
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, CH I 105a-l06c;
CH II 116d-118d; CHI8 124a-125a; CH 22
127c-128c; CH 25 129d-131b; CH 29 134d-
138a; BK II, ClI 5 142c-144a; CH 13 152c-153d;
CH 16 156b-158d; CH 23 170a-172d; BK III,
CH 10 185d-187a; BK IV, CH 10 238d-240d
17 PLOTINUS: Fourth Ennead, TR IV, CH 35, 177d-
178a
18 AUGUSTINE: City ofGod, BK XII, CH 3-9 343d
348b; BK XIV, CHII 385d-387a
19 AQUINAS: Sum1na Theologica, PART I, Q 5,
A 4, REP 3 25d-26c; Q 48, AA 5-6 263a-264d;
Q49, A I, REP 1 264d-265d;PART I-II, Q3, A4,
REP 5 625a-626b; Q4, A4 631d-632c; Q9, A6,
REP 3 662a-d; QQ 18-21 693b,d-720a,c esp Q
I9703a-711d
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, XV [I-I2J
128b-c
23 HOBBES: Let/iathan, PART I, 62d
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 13d-14c; 115b-119d;
124c-125a; 146b-d
30 BACON: Advancement ofLearning, 72a
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK IX [342-375J 254b-
255b / Sa1nson Agonistes [1334-1379] 368b-
36gb
38 ROUSSEAU: Political Economy, 372a-373b I
Social Contract, BK II, 396b-d; 400a-c
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 16gb [fnl] / Fund. Prin.
Metaphysic of Morals, 253d-254d;2s6a-2s7d
esp 256a-b, 2S7c-d; 260a-261d; 265c; 268c-
270c; 272a-b; 279b,d-287d esp 281c-282d /
Practical Reason, 297a-319besp 307d-314d,
316a-3.17d; 321b-329a; 330c-331a / Intro.
Metaphys-ic of Morals, 386b-387a,c; 388b-c;
392b-393a / Judgement, 59sa-d;' 605d-606b
[n 2J
43' NfILL: Utilitarianism, 453c-d
44 BOSWELL:]ohnson, 112a-b; 145c-d
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART II, par 105
40a; par 114 42a-b; ADDITIONS, 90 130b-d
3c. The good and desire: goodness causing
movements of desire and desire causing
estimations of goodness
NEW TESTAMENT: Ronzans, 7:15-2 5
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK III, 10Sc-d
'1 PLATO: Lysis, 21b-25a / Phaedrus, 120b-c;
128a-d / Symposiu1n, 164c-16Sc jMeno, 177d-
178b / Philebus, 614a / Laws, TIK v, 689b
3b(1) The prescriptions of duty
5 EURIPIDES: Hippolytus [373-430] 228b-d
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK III, CH 10 185d-
187a
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK VI" SECT 2 274a;
BK VII,SECT 44 282b-c; BK VIII, SECT 32 287d-
288a
14 PLUTARCH: Pericles, 121a422b
18 AUGUST1NE : City of God, BK XIX,
520a-522a; CH 19 523b..d
30 BACON: Advancement ofLearning, 71a-76a esp
74b-76a
31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART III, 48b-49d;
PART VI, 62d-63a
38 ROUSSEAU: Political Economy, 372b-373b t
Social Contract, BK I, 393b-c
42 I(ANT: Pure Reason, 114d-115a; 149d-150a;
190c-d; 236d.. 237a / Fund. Prin. Metaphysic of
Morals, 253d-254d; 256a-b; 260a-26Id;
266d; 268c-270c; 272a-b; 273d-287d esp277d-
279d, 281c-282d / Practical Reason, 297a-
314d esp 307d-314d; 321b-329a esp 325c;
330d-331a; 338c-35Sd / Pref. Metaphysica
Elements of Ethics, 366d-367a
373d / Intro. Metaphysic of Morals, 383a-
390a,c esp 383a-384d, 388b,c, 389a-390a,c;
391a-c; 392b-393a / Science of
398a; 416b-417b / Judgement, 571c-S72a;
593a-d; 595a-d; 599b-d; 605d-606b [fn2]
43 MILL: Liberty, 296b-c / Utilitarianism, 446a-d;
453c-d; 458b-459b; 468b-469b; 469d-4700;
475a-476a,c
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART I, par 3
6
21b-c;.par 79 33a-c; PART II, par 129-13545
47d esp par 133 47a; PART III, par 148- 14
THE GREA.T IDEAS 3b to
138a;' BK v 180a-b; [506-543)
187a; BK IX 254b-255b / Areop_ ,
agitica, 390b-391a; 394b-395b'
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 337d-338a
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 164a-171a; 236d-237a A
Fund. Prin.'Metaphysic of l\.10rals, 253d-2s4d.
256a-261d;265b; 271d-287d /
son, 298a-300a; 304a-d; 310b-311d; 31sb-c.
318c-d; 331c-337a,c / Pref. Metaphysical
ments of Ethics, 378a-b / Intro. Metaphysic of
Morals, 391a-c; 393d I Science of Right, 397b-
398a; 400b,d-402a; 403b-404a / judgeraent,
571c-572a; 605d-606b [fn 2]
44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 112a-b
46 HEGEL: Philosophy ofRight, INTRO, par 814c;
PART II, par 114 42a-b; PART III, par 142:":'157
55a-57d; ADDITIONS, 68 126d-127a; 82-86
129a-c; 92-100 131d-133a
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 311a-d
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov; BKV,
127b-137c
53 /?sychology, 794a-808a esp 797b-798a,
799a-b" 807a-808a; 816a-8l9a esp 817a-818a;
825a-8Z7a esp827a
54 FREUD: Interpretation of Dreams, 164d-168d;
386c-387a
622
3b. Goodness in the order offreedom and will
NEW TESTAMENT: Romans, 7:15-25
9 ARISTOTLE.: Ethics, BK III, eH 1-5 355b,d-361a;
BK IV, CH 9 [II28
b
20-30]376a,c
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses 105a-245a,c :esp HK I,
CH I 105a-l06c, CH II 116d-118d, CH i 18124a-
125a, CH 22 ,127c-128c,CH 25129d-131b,
CH 29 134d-138a, BK II, CH 5 142c... 144a, BK
III, CH 2 177c-178d,CHIO 185d-187a, CHI8
192a-c, CH 26 210d-213a,c, BK IV, CH I 213a-
223d
12 AURE'LIUS: Meditations 253a.,.310d esp BK IV,
SECT 37266d-267a, SECT 39267a, BK v, SECT
2 269a, SECT 10 270c-d, BK VI, SECT 2 274a,
BK VII, SECT44 282b-c, BKVIII, SECT 32 287d-
288a, SECT 41 288d, SECT 5 I 289d-290a
18 AUGUSTINE: Conftssiol1S,BK VIII, par 19-24
58b-60a / City ofGod, BKXII, CH 1-9 342b,d-
348b
19 AQUINAS: Summa, Theologica, l?ARTI, Q 48,
A 6, ANS 264a-d; Q 49, A I, REP I 264d-265d;
Q 82, AA 1-2 431d-433c; Q 83, A 1436d-438a;
Q87,A 4, REP 2 468b-d; Q 105, A 4, ANS 541c-
542a; PART I-II, Q 10, AA 2-4 663d-666a,c
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-II, Q 79,
AA 1-2 156b-158a; Q 80, AA 1-3 159d-162b
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, XVI
[58-129] 77c-78a; XVIII [19-75] 80a-c; [40-
72] 85b-d; PARADISE, IV [64-114] I11b-d
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 87c; 93c
24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel" BK I,
6Sc-66b
30 BACON: Advancement ofLearning, 69d-81c
31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART III, SOb / Objec-
tions and Replies, AXIOM VII 132a; 228a-c
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK III (80-134] 137a-
THE GREAT IDEAS 625
3f. The sources of evil in human life
OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 3 / Exodus, 23:8 I
Deuteronomy, 16:19; 3:15--20 esp .30:15 / Job
/ Ecclesiastes, 9:3 / Isaiah, 45 :7-(D) Isaias,
45:7 /;La1nentations, 3 :38 / Amos, 3:6
ApOCRYPHA: Wisdom of Sol01non, 1:12-16; 2 esp
2:23-2 4; 14:2 7-(D) OT, Book of Wisdom,
1:12-16; 2esp 2:23-25; 14:27 / Ecclesiasticus,
8:2; 10:9; 11:16; 14:1-10; 15:10-20; 20:29;
27: 1- 2; 31 :5-11-(D) OT, Ecclesiasticus, 8:2-3;
10:9-10; 11:16; 14:1-10; 15:10-21; ,20:31;
27 :1--2; 31 :5-11
NEW TESTAMENT: Matthew, 6:13,19-24; 13 :24-
3,36-43,47-51; 15 :10--20; 16:26; 19:16-3 /
A,lark, 1:13; 4:1- 20 ; 7:14-23; 8:36; 10:21-30 /
Luke, 4:1- 13; 8:1-15; 9:2 5; I2:IJ-21; 16:1-13;
18:22-30 I Romans, S:12-19; 7:15-25 / I Co-
rinthians, 6:10 / Ephesians, 5:5 / II Thessaloni-
ans, 2:1-12-(D) II Thessalonians, 2:1-11 I
I Timothy, 6 :9-10 / ja1nes, 1:12-15 / I Peter,
5:8-9/ I John, 2:7-23 esp 2:15-17 / Retlelation,
I2-(D) Apocalypse, 12
5 SOPHOCLES: Antigone [284--308] 133c.. d
5 ARISTOPHANES: Plutus [77--185] 630a-631a
7 PLATO: Euthyden1us, 69a-71a / Republic, BK II,
318c-319a; BK IV, 354d-355c; BK VI, 377a-
379c; BK VII, 389d-390b; BK X, /
Timaeus, 466a-b / Theaetetus, 530b-531a /
Laws, BK III, 669a-670c; BK VIII, 733a-734a;
BK IX, 751b-d
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK III [31-93]
30b-31b; BK V[1412-1435] 79b-d; BK VI [1-42]
80a-d
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, CH 25 129d-
131b; BK II, CH 22167d-170a; CH 26174c-d
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK II, SECT I 256b,d;
BK VII, SECT 22 281b; BK IX, SECT 42 295c-
296a,c; BK XII, SECT 12 308b-c
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK III, 51b
17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR VIII, CH 5, 29a-c I
Second Ennead, TR IX, cn 13 73d-74b / Third
3e to 3/ CHAPTER 30: GOOD AND EVIL
1684] 392b-d / Orestes [491-715] 399a-401a / 44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 315b-c
Iphigenia at Aulis 425a439d 46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART I, par 81
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK III, 93c-d; BK VI, 34c-d; par 89 35c-d; par 92 35d-36a; PART II,
201d-202c; BK VII, 217d par 112 41c-d; par 129-132 45d-47a; par 138
6 THUCYDIDES: Pelopon12esian War, BK v, 505b-c 48c-d; par 140 49b-54a; PART III, par 218
7 PLATO: Apology, 203c-204c; 206d / Crito, 72c-d; par 223 73c-d; par 233 75d; ADDITIONS,
213d-214a; 215d-216c / Gorgias, 262a-267c / 59 125c-d; 71 127b-c; 89 129d-130a; 92-100
Republic 295a-441a,cesp BK I-II, 300b;..315a, 138 139a-b / Philosophy ofHistory,
BK x, 436c-437c / Laws, BK II, 656d-658b; INTRO, 165c-166b
BK v, 687c-689a; BK IX, 747b-d / Seventh Let- 48 MELVILLE: Moby Dick, 292a-297a; 375a-
ftr,805d-806a 376b
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK V376a-387a,c / Poetics, 49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 310a-316a; 317c-d;
CH 25 [I46Ia4-9] 697b-c 319d; 322c;592d-593a
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, CH 28 133b- 51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK V, 194a-195a;
134d; BK II, CH 10 148c-150a; BK III, CH 3 214c-216d; BK VIII, 304b-305a; BK XIV, 611a-c
178d-180a; eH 18 192a-c; CH 24 203c-210a; 52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Kara111azov, BK II, 33c-
BK IV, eH I 213a-223d; CH 5 228a-230b 34b; BK III, 73a-b; BK V, BK VI,
12 AURELIUS: Aleditations, BKII, SECT I 256b,d; 153d-157b; 165c; 168c-169c; BK XII, 398a-d
SECT 16 259a; BK IV, SECT 10 264c;BK V,SECT 54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 792a-
6 269b-d; BK VII, SECT 36 282b; BK VIII, SECT 793a
55 290b; BK IX, SECT 4 292a; SECT 16 293a;
SECT 38 295a
18 AUGUSTINE: Conftssions, BK I, par 19 5d /
ChriStian Doctrine, BK I, CH 36 634d-635b
19 AQUINAS :Sumlna Theologica, PART I, Q 21,
A I 124b-125b; PART Q 21, AA 718d-
720a,c
20 AQUINAS: SununaTheologica, PART 1-'-11, Q59,
AA 4-5 48c-49d; Q 60, A 2 SOd-SIb; Q 97, A I,
REP 3 236a-d
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, XI 15a-16b;
PURGATORY. XVI [58-129] 77c-78a; XVII [91-
I39179b-d
22 CHAUCER: Tale oflYfelibeus, par 3-31, 413b-
414a
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 78b-c;86b; PART
II, 1491rc; PART IV, 272c
26 SHAKESPEARE: 1st Henry VI, ACT II, SC V
14a I 2nd Henry VI, ACT III, SC I [223-281] 49c-
50a / Richard II, ACT II, SC III [140-147] 334b
27 SHAKESPEARE: Troilus and Cressida, ACT II,
SC II [163-188] 115b-c; ACT V, SC III [16-24]
137b / King Lear, ACT IV, SC II [2--68] 270b-
271b / llenry VIII, ACT III, sc II [428-45]
573c-d
29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART I, 68b-73a
30 BACON: Advancement ofLearning, 74b-c; 81d-
82a; 93c-94a
32 MILTON: Comus 33a-56b
35 LOCKE: Iluman Understanding, BK I, CH II,
SECT 5-6 105a-c; BK II, CH XXVIII, SECT 9-13
230b-231c
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK III, 11c-d
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 351b-c
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 149d-150a / Practical
Reason, 306b-c ! Intro. Aletaphysic of Morals,
391d-392a I Science of Right, 397a-399c;
400b,d-401b
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 41, 132b-c
43 MILL: Liberty, 302d-323a,c passim
anism, 448a; 452b-455a; 455c-456a;
471h passim
3d to 3e
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART III,PROP 39, SCHOL
408b-d; PART IV, PROP 8 426h-c; PROP 41-43,
437a-c
32 MILTON: Paradise LOJt, BK IV [877-9451 171b-
173a
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK II, CH xx,
SECT 1-2 176b-c; CH XXI, SECT 43 188d; SECT
55-56 192c-193b; SECT 63 194d-195a; ClI
XXVIII, SECT 5 229c-d
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 173b-174a / Fund. Prin.
Aletaphysic ofjUorals, 259a-b; 265b / Prackical
Reason, 298a-300a; 304a-307d; 314d-319b
esp 315c; 330c-331a; 33&-355d esp 341c-
342a / Intro. Metaphysic of Alorals, 387b-388a
/ Judgelnent, 478a-479d; 584d-587a; 588b
[fn 2]; 591b-592a; 594c-596c
43 MILL: [ltilitarianis171 445a-476a,c paSSilTI, esp
447b-457b, 461c-464d
44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 216c; 378a-b
49 DARWIN: Descent ofNIan, 316b-c
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK IV,
88d; BK XI, 343d-344a
53 JAMES: Psychology, 94a-b; 808b-814b esp
810a, 812b-814b
54 FREUD: Instincts, 418d-420b / Civilization and
Its Discontents, 772a-c; 792b-c
3e.Right and wrong: the social incidence of
the good; doing or suffering good and
evil
OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 18 :17--33 / Exodus,
20:12--17; 22:21-28; 2.3:1-9 / Leviticus, 19:9-
18,33-36/ l.Vumbers, 15:15/ Deuteron0111Y,5:I6-
21;' 10:17-19/ I Samuel, 24; 26-(D) I Kings,
24; 26 / Proverbs, 3 :27-35; 12 :21; 15:1; 17:131
Isaiah, 3:13-15; IO:I-3-(D) isaias, 3:13-15;
10:1-3 ; Ezekiel, I8:5-22--(D) Ezechiel, 18:5-
22 / Hosea, 4:1-3; 7:I-7-(D) Osee, 4: 1-3;
7: 1--7 / Amos, 2:6--8; 4: 1- 2 ; 8:4-7 / Alicah,
6:8-(D) Alicheas, 6:8 / 7:9-10-
(D) Zacharias, 7 :9-10
ApOCRYPHA: Tobit, 1:1-2:9; 4:1-20-(D) OT,
Tobias, 1:1--2:9; 4:1-20 / Ecclesiasticus, 7-8;
12-14 esp 12:.3, 14:5-7; 28; 34:2I - 22-(D)
OT, Ecclesiasticus, 7-8; 12-14 esp 12 :3, 14:5--7;
28; 34 :25-27 / Susanna-(D) OT, Daniel, 13
NE\V TESTAMENT: .L\{atthew, 5-7 passim, esp 7: r2
/ Luke, 6 :27-38 / ROlnans, 12 :17-21 / I Corin-
thians, 6:1-11 / I Peter, 2:IJ-21; 3:8- 18
5 AESCHYLUS: Prol'netheus Bound 40a-51d esp
[941- 19.3] SOb-SId / Agamelnnon 52a-69d esp
[li31- 1673] 66b-69d / Choephoroe 70a-80d
esp [235-651] 72c-76b / Eumenides 81a-91d
5 SOPHOCLES: Oedipus the King 99a-113a,c /
Oedipus at Colonus [255-291] 116c-d;
1207] 124d-125b / Antigone 131a-142d / Ajax
143a-155a-c esp [145-1421] 152a-155a,c 1
Electra 156a-169a,c / Philocletes 182a-195a,c
5 EURIPIDES: Alcestis 237a-247a,c / Suppliants
[195-25] 260a-c 1 Electra esp
[880-1359] 335a-339a,c / Phoentctan
378a-393d esp [260-645] 380b-383d, [1628-
(3. The moral theory of the good: the distinction
betwee11 the mot
4
al and the metaphysical
good.)
3d. Pleasure as the good, a good, or feeling
good
7 PLATO: Protagoras, 59a-62d / Gorgias, 275b-
280d / Republic, BK VI, 384b;..d; BK IX, 421a-
425b / Philebus 609a-639a,c / Laws, BK II,
656d-658b; 660a-d; BK V, 689c-690c
8 ARISTOTLE: Prior Analytics, BK I, CH 40 68b /
Topics, BK III, CH 2 [II7
a2
3-25] 163d; CH 3
[II8
b
27'-36] 165d-166a; CH 6 [II9a37-bI] 166d;
BK IV, CH 4 [I24aI5.:--20] 172d; [I24
b
7-14] 173b;
BK VI, CH 8 [I46bI3-19] 200c; BK VIII, CH 9
[160
b
r6-23] 218a-b / Physics, BK.VII, CH 3
[246b20-2473,19] 330a- b / MetaphysIcs, BK XII,
CH 7 [Io72bIJ-29] 602d-603a / Soul, BK III,
CH 7 [4.3
Ia8
_
b
9] 6?3c-664a. '" b...
9 ARISTOTLE: Iv!otzon ofAnzmals, CH b [700 :.::.3-
29] 236a / Ethics, BK I, CH 5 [1095bI4-22] 340d;
CH 8 [1099a7-30] 344c-d; BK II, CH 3 350a-c;
BK III, CH 4 359a-c; BK VII, CH 4 398a-399a
esp [II4sa22-b4] 398c-d; CH 11-:-1.4 403c-406a,c;
BK x, CH 1-5 426a-430d / PolttlcS, BK VIII, CH
5 [I339bll-38] 545a-c / Rhetoric, BK I, CH 6
[1362bS-9] 603b; CH 7 [1364b23-27] 606c;
[1365bl 1--13] 607d
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK II [14-
21
]
15a-b; BK V [1412-1436] 79b-d
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK II, CH II 150a-
151b; BK III, eH 24 203c-210a
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK II, SECT 11-12
258a-c; BK VI, SECT 51 279b-c; BK VII, SECT 27
281d; SECT 64 BK VIII, SECT 10 286b;
SECT 19 286d-287a; SECT 39 288c; SECT 47
289b-c; BK IX, SECT I 291a-c; BK X, SECT 34-
35301a-b
17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR IV, CH 12 17d /
Second Ennead, TR IX, CH 15, 74d-75a / Sixth
Ennead, TR VII, CH 26 334c-d; CH 29-30 335d-
336d
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK v, CH 20 225b-
226a; BK X, CH 18 310b-d; BK XIX, CH 1-3
507a-511a
19 AQUINAS: SU1nfna Theologica, PART I, Q5, A6,
ANS and REP 2 27c-28b; PART I--II, Q I, A 6,
REP I 614a-c; A 7, ANS 614c-615a; Q 2, A 6
619d-620d; Q 3, A 4 625a-626b; Q 4, AA 1--2
629d-631a; Q II 666b,d-669b; Q 27, A 3, ANS
738c-739c; Q30, A4, REP 3 751c-752b; QQ 31-
34 752b-772b; Q39 790a-792d
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART II-II, QQ
28-29 527b-533a
21 DANTE: Divine C0111edy, PURGATORY, XVII
[127-139] 79d; XVIII [19-39] 80a-b
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 61d-62c
24 RABELAIS: Gargal1tua and Pantagruel, BK I,
6Sc-66b
25 Essays, 28a-d; 70d-72a;
237d
30 BACON: Advancelnent of Learning, 71a-74a
624
THE GREAT IDEAS
4d. Intrinsic and external goods: intrinsic
worth and extrinsic value
7 PLATO: Apology, 206a.. d
9 ARISTOTLE : Ethics, BK I, cn 8 [1098bI2,-19]
344a; BK VII, CH 13 [IIS3bI3-24] 405a; BK IX,
CH I [1163b3I-II64aI3]416b,d; CH 9423a-424b;
BK X, CH 8 432d-434a esp [II78b33-1179aI6]
433e-d / Politics, BK IV, CH II [I29Sb2-34]
495c-496a; BK VII, CH 1 527a-d; ClI 13 [1332a
18-27] 536d-537a / Rhetoric, BK I, CH S 600d-
602d
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK II [1-61]
lSa-d; BK V [III3--IIJS] 75c-d
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK II,CH 16 156b-
158d; BK III, CH 20 192d-193d; CH 24 203c-
210a; BK IV, CH 4 225a-228a; CH 10 238d-240d
12 AURELIUS: MeditationJ, BK VI, SECT SI 279b-c;
BK VII, SECT 3 279d-280a
14 PLUTARCH: Solon, 74c-7Sc / Pericles, 121a-
122b
18 .AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK II, par 10 l1a- b /
City of God, BKI, CH 10 135b'-136c; BK VIII,
CH 8 270a-d; BK XV,CH22 416a-c; BKXIX, ClI
3, SlOe; CH 20 523d-524a
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, Q 103,
A2, REP 1--2 529a-530a; PART I-II, Q2, AA 1-4
615d-618d esp A 4, ANS 618a-d; Q 4, AA 5-7
632e-636a esp A7,ANS 635b-636a
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, VII [1-66]9c-
lOb
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 93b-c
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 107a-112desp 108c-109c;
126b-128e; 300c-306a
30 BACON: Advancement ofLearning, 74b-c; 81d-
82a
Ie to 4d CHAPTER 30: GOOD AND EVIL 627
9 ..ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK I, CH 1-2 339a-d;cH 12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, CH 20 126c-127b;
S [I096aS-IO] 34la-b;cH 6 [I096b8-26] 341d- BK IV, CH I 2l3a-223d
342a; CH 7 [I097aIS_b22] 342c-343a; CH 9 17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR IV 12b-19b esp
[I099b2S-32] 345b; BK VIII, CH 2 [II5SbI6-22] CH 2-7 l2d-16a, CH 14-1618a-19b; TR VII, CH
407a-b;BK x, CH 6 [1176a30_b8] 430d-431a / 3 26d-27a
Politics, BK VII, CH I [I323a23-bI3] 527a-c; 18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK X, par 43-6682a-
CH 13 [I332aI0-25] 536d; CH 15 [1334aI2-b7] 88b / City of God, BK I, CH 11-19 136d-142a;
539a-b; BK VIII, CH 2-3 542b-543d passim / BK VIII, CH 8270a-d; BK XV, CH 22 416a-e;uK
Rhetoric, BK 1, CH I [I35S
a
39.,...b8jS94d; CH 5 XIX, CH 1-3 507a-5lla
[I36IaI2-24] 60lc-d; CH 6-7 602d-607d 19 A.QUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I--II, Q 2,
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK III, CH 14, 189c-d; AA S-7 618d-621c; Q 3, A 3 624b-625a; Q 31,
CH 24 203c-210a A 5 755e-756c
17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR II, CH 3-4 7e-Be 21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, XVI [8s-
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions,BK II, par 9-1810d- 114] 77d-78a; xxx [S5]"'-xXXI [90]100a-lOld
13a / City of God, BK VIII, CH 4 266d-267c; 23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 62c
CH 8-9 270a-271a; BK XIX, GH I-S 24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK IV,
eH 17-20 522b-524a I Christian Doctrine, BK I, 234a-235a
CH35634c-d 25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 538a-d
19 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART I, Q5, A6 31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART I, 41d-42a
27e-28b; Q62, A9, REP 2 324a-325b; PART I-II, 37 FIELDING: T01n Jones, 263e-d
Q 2, A I 615d-616e; Q 3, A I; ANS622e-623a; 38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality,338c-d
Q7, A 2, REP I 652d-653c; Q 8, AA 2-3 656a- 43tvIILL: Utilitarianism, 448a-450a; 47la-b
6S7c 44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 378a-b
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 62a 52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov,BKv,130b-
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 27c-d; 132b; BK VI, 164b-165a
7la-b 53 JAMES: Psychology, 19Bb,.199b
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, APPENDIX, V447c
35 LOCKE: HU111an Understanding, BK II,CH XXI,
SECT 63 194d-195a
36 STERNE: Tristraln Shandy, 538a-539a
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 236d-237a / Fund. Prine
Metaphysic of Morals, 256a-b; 257c-d; 266a-
267d; 268b; 271e-279d esp 273d-277b /
Practical Reason, 3l4d,.315e; 327d-329a /
Pref. Metaphysical Elements of Ethics, 367c /
Intro. Metaphysic of Morals, 387b,.388a /
Judgement, 477b-c; 478a.. 479d; 586a-b; 59lb-
592d; 595a-d
43 MILL: Utilitarianism, 446d-448a; 461c-464d
46 HEGEL: PhlosophyofRight, PART III, par 183
64a / Philosophy ofHistory, PART n,267a-26Bb
53 JAMES: Psychology, 725h-726a
54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 779d-
780b
4c. Goods of the body and goods ofthe soul
7. PLATO: Protagoras, 40b,.4la / Symposium,
162d-167d / lv/en0, l78c-d /Apology, 205d-
206d; 209b-212a,c / Crito, 215a-d / Phaedo,
224a-c I Gorgias, 26Qa.. 270c / Republic, BK I,
295d-296c; 309b-3l0b; BK III, 334b-339a;BK
IX, 42la-425b I Timaeus, 474h-476b/ Sophist,
S56d-558d / Laws, BK I, 643c-d; BK II, 65.6d-
658b
8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK VII, CH 3 [246aIO-
248a6] 329c-330d
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK I, ClI 7 [1097b23--:-1098a
17] 343a,.c / Politics, BK VII, CH I
527a-c / Rhetoric, BK I, CH 5
60la-c;
12 LUCRETIUS: lVatlfreof Things, BK II [1-61]
l5a-d
4a. Sensible and intelligible goods
7 PLATO: Euthydemus,69a-71a IPhaedrus, 120a-
122a / Symposium, l62d..167d / Pha'eao,
224a-c; 230c; 242c-243a / Republic, BK VI,
386b-d; BK VII, 397e-398b; BK IX, 423b-
. 424d / Laws, BK v, 689c-690c; BK VIII, 73$c-
736c
17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR VI,CH 6-9 24a-
26a passim; TR VIII, CH 227c-d / Second'lfn-
nead, TR IX, CI-I 15:-18 74d.. 77d / Third Ennead,
TR V, CH 7 104a-l0Sa / Fifth Ennead, TR V, CH
12-13 234a-23Sb
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK IV, par 20 24b-c;
par 24 25b-e; BK VI, par 26 42d-43a; BKMn,
par 23 50b-e; BKX, par 43-7"66 82a-88b
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART
A 4, ANS 328h-329a; Q 80, A 2, REP 2 428a-d;
Q,82, A 5, ANS 435e-436c; PART Q 2, A
6, ANS619d-620d; Q 3, A 4, ANS 625a-62Bb;
Q4, A 2, REP 2 630b-631a;Q II, A 2, ANS
667b-d;Q 13, A 2, ANS673c-674c;Q 30,
A I, ANS 749a-d; Q 31, A 5 75Sc-756c; A 6,
ANS 7S6d-757c
46 HEGEL: Philosophy ofI-listory, PART IV, 36211-c
4b. Useful and enjoyable goods: good for an
end and good in itself
5 AESCHYLUS: Persians [IS3-171] 16d-17a
7 PLATO: Lysis, 22e-24a / Protagoras, 60d'-62d I
Euthydemus, 69a-7la; 74b-76b / Meno,I83d..
184b / ,Gorgias, 262a-264b; 266d-267a ..
public, BK I, BK II, 310c-d
8 ARISTOTLE: Topics, BK I, CH IS [lo6al-9l149Ci;
BK III, CH I [II6
a
28-
b
7] l62d-163a; [I
I6b
37-
II7
a
4] 163e; CH 2 [II8
a
6-I6] l64d-165a;cH .3
[II8b27-36] 165d-166a; BK IV, CH4 [I 24
al
5-
20
]
172d; BKVI, CI;I 9 [I4iI.33-bI] 201b-e; cH..I.2
[I49b31-39l204b;.c; .BK VII, CH 3 [IS3
b
3
6
-
IL
2] 20gb /l\letaphysics,BK V,CH.2 [IOI3
a
.3
2
_
b
533e; [I013b25-28] 533d-534a
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 338b-c; 347d-348a;
3S0e; 3S1c-352a; 360e-361c; 363a-366d
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 81b-c
43 MILL: Utilitarianisrn, 451b-452b
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, INTRO, par IS
16e-d; PART II, par 139-14 48d-54a; ADDI-
TIONS, 14 Il8e-d; 90 l30b-d / Philosophy oj
History, PART I, 237d-238c; PART IV, 346a-c;
354a-c
48 MELVILLE: Moby Dick, 3b-4a; 204a-205a;
20gb
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK V, 214c-215a esp
2l5a
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK IU,
53b-54b; BKV, 122c-123b; 130b-135d; BK VI,
164b-166a; BK XI, 307c,-310c; 344a-d
54 FREUD: ,. General Introduction, 531d-53'2a I
Civilization and Its Discontents 767a-802a,c
esp 787a-788b
4. Divisions of the human good
(3. The moral theory of the good: the. distinction
between .the moral and the metaphysical
good. 31. The sources oj evil in human life.)
Ennead, TR II, CH 4-10 84c-88b; CH 14-18
89b-93a / Fourth Ennead, TR III, CH 16 150c-d;
TR IV, CH 18, 167b
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK II, par 9-18 10d-
13a; BK VII, par 4 44b-c; BK VIII, par 22-24
59a-60a / City ofGod,BK VIII, CH24, 283a-b;
BK x, CH 21 311c-312a; BK XII,CH 21-22
357a-c; BK XIII, CH 13-15 366a.,.d; BK XIV,
CH 10-15 385b-390a; BK XIX,CH 13 5l9a-520a
19 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART I, Q 17,
A I, ANS 100d-10ld; Q.+8, A 6, ANS 264a-d; Q
49, A I, REP 3 264d-265d; Q 63, A 9, REP I
333b:-d; Q 114, A 3 S83b-d; PART- I-II,Q 20,
AI 712a-d; Q2I,A 2 718a-d
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-II,QQ
7s-84 137c-178a
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, VIII [65]-IX
[103] llc-13b; XXIII [139-144] 34c; XXVII [55-
136] 40a-41b; XXXIV [28-36] SIc; PURGATORY,
V [85-129] 59d-60c; VIn [1-108] 64a-65b; XVI
[58-129] 77c-78a; XVII [82]-XVIII [75] 79b-80c;
XXVIII [91-96] 97a; pARADISE, VII l15a-ll6c;
VIII [91--148] l17d-118c; IX 120a;
XIII [S2-87] XVIII [IIS-136] 134d-
135a; XXIX [49-66] 150d-151a
22 CHAUGER: Knight's Tale [2453---2469] 200a-b
/ Prologue of Pardoner's Tale [12,2, 63-268]
372a / Pardoner's Tale [12,778-828] 380b-38lb
/ Tale of Melibeus, par 18, 408a;par 76--77,
430b-43la / Parson's Tale,. par 20 508b-509a;
par S7-59 528b-S29a;. par 62-64
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART II, 153b
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays,. 2l8c-219a; 231d-238d;
326b-327b; 381b-c
26 SHAKESPEARE: ROlneo and Juliet, ACT II,
SC III [IS-30] 296c
27 SHAKESPEARE: Timon of Athens, ACT IV,
SC III [1-44] 4;10c-411a
30 BACON: . Advancement of Learning, l7d-18a;
BOb-8la
31 SPINOZA: Ethics" PART I, APPENDIX 369b-372d;
PART IV, APPENDIX, VI 447c-d
32 MILTON: Comus 33a-S6b esp '[331""-4891 40b-
44a / Paradise Lost, BK I [157-168] 97a;[209-
220] gSa; BKII [496-soS] 122a; [629-87]
125a-130a; 130b-133a; BK III [S6-
134] 136b-138a; BK IV 163p-164a;
BK vn[SI9-S49] 228b-229a; BK VIII [316'-337]
239a-b; BK IX [679-784] 262a-264b; BKXI [84-
98] 301a; BK XI [334]-BK XII [649] 306b-333a
/ Samson Agonistes [521-S40]
351a-b / Areopagitica, 394b-395b; 409b-4l0a
33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, l16a-b; 140a; 162a
/ Pensees, 850 340a -
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding; BK II, CH XXI,
SECT S8-70 193d-197b
35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT VIII, DIV
76-81 48Sa-487a
626
629
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK IV [158-
178] 57d-58b; BK V [1113-1135] 75c-d
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK II, GH 9 147c-148c;
ClI 19 162c-164b; BK III, CH 14 189c-190a; BK
IV, CH 5 228a-230b
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK III, SECT II 262a-b;
BK V, SECT 16 271c-d
14 PLUTARCH: Solon, 74c-75c / Pericles, 121a-
122b
17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR IV 12b-19b esp
CH 2-7 12d-16a, ClI 14-16 18a-19b / Second
Ennead, TR IX, CH IS 74d-75b
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK II, par 9-18 10d-
13a; BK X, par 43-66 82a-88b / City of God,
BK I, CH 8-10 133a-136c; BK IV, CH 33-34
206c-207a,c; BK XI, CH 16 331a-c; BK XII, CH
8 346d-347b; BK XV, CH 22 416a-c; BK XIX,
Cll 1-3 507a-511a; CH 13-17 519a-523a; CH 20
523d-524a /. Christian Doctrine, BK I, cn 3-4
625b-c
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, Q 5, A 6,
REP 3 27c.. 28b; PART I-II, Q I, A5, REP I 613a-
614a; A6, REP 1....;.2 614a-c;A 7, ANS 614c-615a;
QQ 2-:-4 615c-636c; Q20, AA 1-4 712a-715b
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, XVII [82J
-XVIII [75] 79b-80c; xxx f55]-xXXI [90J 100a-
101d; PARADISE, VI [112-126] 114d-115a; XI
[1-12] 122a
22 CHAUCER: Troilus and Cressida, BK III, STANZA
I97-19980a-b
23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH XVII, 24b-c;CH XIX,
26a-b
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 62a; PART II,
155b-c
24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK IV,
234a-235a
25 MONTAIGNE:Essays,28a-d; 69d-75a esp 70d-
7.2a; 107a-112d passim; 125a-c; 126b-131a pas-
SIm; 216c-219a; 231d-238d; 279c-281a; 300c-
306a esp 300c-d; 368d; 489b-490c; 538a-
543a,c
26 SHAKESPEARE: Richard Ill, ACT III, SC IV [9
6
-
103] 128a-b
27 SHAKESPEARE: Troilus and Cressida, ACT II,
SC II [51-96] 114a-c
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 70b-76a;
86b-c; 91d-92b
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, PROP 65-66 444b-d
33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, 94a-97a / Pensees,
23.3 213b-216a; 793 326b-327a
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK II, CH XXI,
SECT 55-56 192c-193b; SECT 62 194c-d; SECT
72198a-c
38 ROUSSEAU: Political Economy, 373c-374a /
Social Contract, BK II, 396b-d; 400a-c
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 32a
42 KANT: Fund. Prin. Metaphysic of Morals,
256a-b; 257c-d; 266a-b; 271c-272b; 273d-
277b esp 274d-275b / Practical Reason, 316a-
317d; 337a-355d / Pref. Metaphysical Elements
of Ethics, 377d ! judgement, 478a-b;S84d-
587a; 588b [fn 2J; 591b-592a;
CHAPTER 30: GOOD AND EVIL
5 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK II, CH XXI,
SECT 55-56 192c-193b; SECT 62 194c-d
2 KANT: Pure Reason, 236b-240b esp 237d-
238a / Fund. Prin.lvfetaphysic of Morals 253a-
287d esp 256a-257d,258d-259a, 263a-b,
266a-c, 267b-d, 273d-277b, 282b-283d,
286a-c ! Practical Reason, 297a-314d esp
298a-300a, 304d-307d; 338c-355d esp 344c-
348b / Prej. Metaphysical Elements o..lEthics,
365b-366d. / Intro. J.rfetaphysic of lV/orals,
387b-388a / ]udgenlent, 584d-588a; 591b-
592c; 594c-597d esp 595a-c; 604d-605c
43 Utilitarianism 445a-476a,c. esp 448a,
450b-c, 461c-464d
6 HEGEL: Philosophy ofHistory, PART I,
PART III, 307b-308a
4 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 771d-
772c
. The judgment of diverse types of good:
their subordination to one another'
LD TESTAMENT: IKings, 3:5-14-(D) III Kings,
3:5-14 / II Chronicle.', 1 :7-I2-(D) II Parali-
pomenon, 1:7-12 / Psabns, 49; 52; 119:72-
(D) Psalms, 48 ; 51; 118:72 / Proverbs, 10:2;
11:4,23-31 ; 22:.1-5 / Ecclesiastes,s :10-19; 6:2-
7-(D) Ecclesiastes, 5:9-18;6:2-7 / jeremiah,
9:2 .3-2 4; 17: II ,-(D) Jeremias, 17:11
POCRYPHA: Ecclesiasticus, 1.3:24-26-(D) OT,
Ecclesiasticus, 13:3-32
NEW TESTAMENT: Matthew, 8:21-22; 10:34-39;
13 :22,44-46; 16:24-28/ Mark, 8 :34-38; 10:17-
31 / Luke, 9:23-27,59,-:62; 12:51-53; 18:18-30
/ john, john, 6:64/ Romans, 8:1-2 7
/ Galatians, 5:16-26 / Philippians, 3 :7-21 /
I Timothy, 6:9-12 / ja111es, 4:1-10 / IJohn,
2:15-17 / jude
6 HERODOTUS: /-b.story, BK I, 6c-8a
7 PLATO: Eutlzydemus, 69a-71a / Symposiunt,
165b-167d / Meno, 183b-184c / Gorgias, 254d-
255c; 262a-264b / Republic, BK II, 310c-311a;
BK VII, 401b; BK IX, 421a-427b / Philebus,
635b-639a,c / Laws, BK I, 643b-644a; BK II,
656d-658d; 660b-662a; BK III, 674b; BK V,
686d-688c; 689c-690c; 694d-695a; BK IX,
751b-d
8 ARISTOTLE:. Prior AnaZvtics, BK II, cn 22 [68
a
25-
b8
] 89d-90a / Topics, BK I, CH 5 [102bI4-2I]
145c; BK III, CH 1--4 162a-166b; BK VIII, CH 2
[I57
bI
7-24] 214a / Metaphysics, BK XII, CH 7
[I072bI3-29] 602d-603a
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK I, CH 1-2 339a-d; CH
4 [I0951l14-29] 340b-c; CH 5 340d-341b; CH 6
[1096b8-26] 341d-342a; CH 7 342c-344a; BK V,
CH I [II29bI--IO] 376d-377a; BK X,CH 6-7
430d-432c / Politics, BK I, elI 1 [I252aI-6]
445a; ell 9 [I258a2-18] 452a-b; BK II, CH 9
[I27IbI-9] 467d; BK III, CH 12 480c-481b; BK
VII, CH I [I323a22-b21] 527a-c; CH 13 [1332a8-
27] 536d-537a; CH 14 [1333aI7-37] 538a-b; CH
IS [1334
bI
4-28] 539c-d / Rhetoric, BK I, CH .3
[1359
81
7-25J 599b; cn 7 604c-607d
Sa. The supreme good or summum bOtlU1n: its
existence and nature
7 PLATO: Symposizun, 164c-167d/ Gorgias,254d_
255c / Republic, BK VI-VII,383d-401d esp BI<.
VI, 383d-386c / Philebus, 635b-639a,c
8 ARISTOTLE: lvfetaphysics, BK v, CH 16 543a-h'
BK XII, CH 7 [I072bI3--29] 602d-603a '
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK I, CH 1-12 339a-347h
esp ClI 7 342c-344a; BK VII, CH 11'-13 403c-
405b passim, esp CH 13 404d-405b; BKX, Cli
1-8 426a-434a esp CH 6-8 430d-434a / Politic.
BK I, CH I [I252aI-6] 445a; BK III, CH 12 [128
15.-18] 480c; BK VII, elI 1-3 527a-530a passi
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n[I-6
15a-,d; BK VI [I-42]80a-d
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, CH 3 108b-,c; B
II, CH II 150a-151b; CH 19 162c"'164b; BKitI
CH 2 177c-178d; CH 10 185d-187a; CH 24 203
210a
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK V, SECT 34 273
BK VI, SECT 14 274d-275a
17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR II, eH 4,8a-b;
VIII, CH 2 27c-d / Sixth Ennead, TR IX 353
360d esp CH 6-1 I 357a-360d
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK IV, par 24 25b-c
BK VII, par 7 45a-d; BK X, par 29--34 78d-80
/ City of (;od, BK VIII, CH 8-10 270a-271d;
x, CH 1"'-3 298b,d-301a; CH 18 310b-d;BK x
CH I 342b,d-343c; BK XIX 507a-530a,c
19 AQUINAS: Sumlna Theologica, PART I, Q,12,
I, ANS 50c-51c; Q 26 150a-152a,c; Q62, A
ANS 317d-318c; PART I--II, QQ 1-5609a-643
Q 34, A .3 770c-771c
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, x
[127--139] 79d; PARADISE, I [13-142] 107b-
III [82-90] 110a-b; XXVI [r-691 145d-146
XXXII [I.39]---XXXIII [145] 156a-157d
22 CHAUCER: Troilus and Cressida, BK III, STAN
1-7 54b-55b; STANZA 25--25.3 87a-b
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 76c-d
24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Palltagruel,
65c-66b
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 28a-d; 149b-d; 279
281a
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 70b,d
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, PROP 28 43
PROP 36 434a-b; APPENDIX, IV xx
450c-d; PART V, PROP 42 463b-d
33 PASCAL: Pensees, 73 185a-b; 462 255a
5. The order of human goods
THE GREAT IDEAS 4e to
43 MILL: Liberty, 297a / Utilitarianistn, 461d
44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 393a-c
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART I, par
23d-24a; PART III, par 170 60d; par 199 6
par 249 78c; par 287 97a; ADDITIONS, 27121
127 137b; 145 140b
47 GOETHE: Faust, PART II [11,559-572J 281h
49 DARWIN: Descent of Alan, 316c-317a; 592d
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Kararrwzov, DI<.
158b-159a
(4. Divisions of the human good. 4d. Intrinsic and
external goods: intrinsic worth and ex-
trinsic value.)
33 PASCAL: Pensees, 462 255a
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH V, SECT 37 33a-b
36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 538a-539a
37 FIELDING: Tom jones, 263c-d
42 KANT: Fund. Prine Metaphysic ofMoraIs, 256b;
274d--275b/ Intro. Metaphysic ofMoraIs, 387d-
388a / judgen'1ent, 591b-592a
43 MILL: Utilitarianism, 462c.. d
44 BOS\VELL: johnson, 349a-c
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART I, par 45
23c-d; par 49 24c-25a; par 63-65 28b-29a; par
67-69 29c-31a; ADDITIONS, 29121c
51 TOLSTOY: WarandPeace,BKv,194d
53 JAMES: Psychology, 826a
628
4e. Individual and COlnmon goods
7 PLATO: Crito 213a-219a,c / Republic, BK IV,
342a-d; BK V, 364c-365d / Critias, 480a /
Statesraan, 588a-b
8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK XII, CH 10 [1075a
11-24] 605d-606a
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK VI, CH 8 [I 14Ib28-I 142a
II] 390d-391a / Politics, BK I, CH I [I252aI-6]
445a; BK II, ClI I-5455b,d-460a; BK III, ClI 6-7
475d-477a; BK IV, ClI II [1295a25-_bI] 495b-c
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, ClI 19 125b-126c
12 AURELIUS: Meditations; BK III, SECT 4 260b-
261a; BK VII, SECT 5 280a-b
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica,PART I, Q 60,
AS, ANS 313b-314c; Q65, A2, ANS 340b-341b;
Q 92, A I, REP 1,3 488d-489d; Q 96, A 4 S12d-
513c; PART I-II, Q I, A 5, ANS 613a-614a;
AA 7--8 614c-615c; Q 19, A 10, ANS 710b-711d;
Q21, AA 3-4 718d-720a,c
20 AQUINAS: Sumlna Theologica, PART I-II, Q 90,
A 2 206b-207a; A 3, ANS and REP 3 207ac;
A 4, ANS 207d-208b; Q 91, A5, ANS 211c-212c;
A 6, REP 3 212c-213c; Q93, A I, REP I 215b,d-
216c; Q 94, A 2, ANS 221d-223a; A 3, REP I
223a-c; Q 95, A 4, ANS 229b-230c; Q 96, A 3,
ANS and REP 3 232b-233a; A 4, ANS 233a-d; Q
97, A4 238b-239b; Q100, A2, ANS 252b-253a;
A 8, ANS and REP 3 259d-261a; Q III, A 5, REP
I PART II-II, Q39, A2, REP 3 575b-
576b; Q 187, A3, REP 1,3 666a-669b; PART III
SUPPL, Q 96, A 6, REP II 1058a-1061b
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, XV [40-
81] 75d-76a
23 HOBBES: Leviatllan, PART I, 87c-d
30 BACON: Advancen'1ent ofLearning, 71a-b
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, PROP 36 434a-b
35 LOCKE: Toleration, 15d / Civil Governl1zcnt,
CH V 30b-36a passim
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART III, 112a-113a
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 114a-d / Pref. Afetaphysi-
cal Elements of Ethics, 369c-373b / Science of
Right, 438d-439a
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 64, 197d
THE GREAT IDEAS CHAPTER 30: GOOD'AND EVIL
630
(5. The order of human goods. 5b. The judgment
of diverse types of good: their subordination
to one another.)
43 MILL: Utilitarianism, 448a-450c; 455c-456a;
461c-464d; 471a-b
44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 378a-b
46 HEGEL: Philosophy ofl-listory, PART III, 307b-
308a; PART IV, 365b-c
51 TOLSTOY; War and Peace, BK v, 194d
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK VI,
164b-165a
53 JAMES: Psychology, 198b-204b esp 199b-203a
Se. The dialectic of means and ends: mere
means and ultimate ends
5 SOPHOCLES: Philoctetes 182a;..195a,c esp [50 -
127] 182d-183c
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK v,504c-
507c
7 PLATO: Lysis, 22c-24a I Laches., 29c I Euthy-
demus, 69a-71a I Crito 213a-219a,c I Gorgias,
262a-264b; 280b-d I Republic, BK I-II, 300d-
315d esp BK II, 310c-d I' Philebus, 632a-d I
Laws, BK v, 694d;..695a; BK IX, 751c
8 ARISTOTLE: Topics, BK III, ClI I [II6
b
22-36J
163b-c I lleavens, BK II, CH 12' [29iaIij._b26J
383d-384b I Metaphysics, BK II, CH 2 [994b8-
16J512d-513a; BK V, CH 2 [IOI3a32-b3] 533c;
[IOI3
b2
5-28] 533d-534a I Soul, BK III, CR 10
[433aI2-17] 665d
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK I, CH 1-2 339a-d; CH 5
340d-341b esp [I096a5-IO] 341a-b; CH6 [I096b
8-26J 341d-342a; CH 7 [I097aI5.;...b22] 342c-
343a; CH 9 [I099b25-32] 345b; BK III, CR 3
[III2bI2-III3a2] 3S8c-359a; BK VI,CH 2 [II39
a
17-
b
5] 387d-388a; CR 5389a-c passim; ell 9
[114
2bI
7-35] 391d-392b I Politics, BI( VII, CH
..1 [I323a22-b21] 527a-c; CH 13 [I33Ib26-I332a
27J 536b-537a /. Rhetoric, BK I, CH 6-7 602d-
607d; CH 8 [1366a3--I6] 608b-c
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses,BK III, CR 10 .185d-
187a; CH 13-14 188b-190a; CH 24 203c-2IOa;
BK IV, CH 4 225a-228a
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK V, SECT 16 271c-d;
BK VI, SECT 40:-45 277d-278c;BK VII, SECT 44
282b-c; BK VIII, SECT 19-20 286d-287a
14 PLUTARCH: Alcibiades, '160b-161b I Lysander,
357a-b I Crassus-Nicias, 456d-457c I Agesilaus,
491a-b I Cleonlenes, 660b-661a
17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR II, CH 3-4 7c-8c ;
TR IV, CH 6 15a-b I Second Ennead, TR IX, CH
I574d-75b
18 AUGUSTINE: CIty of God, BK VIII, CH 4. 266d-
267c; CII 8-g270a-271a; BK XIX, CH 1-3 507a-
511a; CR 11-17 516d-523a; CH 20 523d-524a I
Christian Doctrine, BK I, CH3-4 625b-c; CH
22 629b-630a; CH 31-33 633b-634h;cH 35
634c-d
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I,Q 18, A3,
ANS 106b-107c; Q 19, A 2, REP 2 109c-110b; A
5, ANS and REP I,J 112d-113c; Q22, A I,-REP 3
127d-128d; Q 23, A 7, ANS 138d-140a; Q 65,
A2, ANS and REP 1-2 340b-341b; Q 82, AA
431d-435c; Q 83, A 4, ANS 439c-440b; 13
I-II, Q I 609a-615c; Q 4 629c-636c; Q 5,
REP I 641a-642a; Q 8, AA 2-3 656a-657c; Q
A3 667d-668d; Q I2,AA 2-4 670b-672a; Q I
A 3 674c-675a; Q 14, A 2 678b-c; Q IS, A.
682c-683b; Q 16, A 3 685b-686a;Q 20, AA I
712a-715b
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-II, Q
A 2, REP 3 23d-24c; Q 17, A I, ANS 325c-327
Q 114, A4, REP I 373a-d; PART II-II, Q27, A.
ANS 524c-525c
22 CHAUCER: Tale of Melibeus 401a-432a
23 Prince, CH XVIII, 25d-26a
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 53a-b; 76c-
gOa; PART III, 237d
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 28a-d; 52c-53c; 330b
332a; 368d; 381a-388c passim, esp 381c-a
388a-c '
26 SHAKESPEARE: Richard II, ACT II, SC III [14
0
-
147] 334b
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 750.-7
91d-92a
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART I, APPENDIX, 371o-c.
PART IV, PREF. 422b,d-424a passim; DEF ;
424b; PROP 65-66 444b-d; APPENDIX, V 447c
33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, 94a-97a I Pensees
98 190b; 505 261a-b '
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK II, CH XXI,
SECT 52-53 191d-192b; SECT 62 194c-d
36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 53Ba-539a
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 245a
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 234c-240b esp 235a-b,
236c.. d, 238c-239a I Fund. Prin. Metaphysic of
Morals, 256a-b; 257c-d; 265c-267o.;
268b; 271c-279d esp 273d-277b; 282b-283o.r
Practical Reason, 307a-d; 315b-317b;318c-
321b esp 320c-321b; 327d-329a; 337a-355d
357c-360d / Prej. Metaphysical Elements 0
Ethics, 367c I Intro. Metaphysic of Morals,
387d-388a I Science of Right, 397b-398a r
Judgement, 477b-c; 478a.. b; 557d [fn 2];
586a-b; 588b [En 2]; 591b-592d; 594b-595d;
605d-606b [fn 2]
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 23 85a-87a passim, esp
85b-c; NUMBER .31, 103c-d; l04b-c; NUMBER
40, 129a-b; NUMBER 41, 132b-c
43 MILL: Utilitarianis111, 445c-d; 446d-447a;461c..
464d
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART I, par 45
23c-d; par 61 27b-c; PART II, par 119.-128430...
45d esp par 122 44a; par 140 49b-54a; PARTIII,
par 182 64a; par I9166b; par 223 73c-d; par
328 108b-c; par 340 110b-c; par 348 1110.;
ADDITIONS, 122c-d; 76-81 128a-129a;
116 135c-d / Philosophy of History, .INTRO,
162a-164c; 166b-168d; PART II, 267a-268b
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK XIII, 586d..
587d
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK v,
127b-137c
53 JAMES: Psychology, 4a-6b passim; 14b-15a;
199b-201b; 203a; 381b-382a; 788a-789a
The supremacy. of the the
common good: the relation of the good
of the individual person to .the good of
other persons and to the good of the
state
OLD TESTAMENT: Proverbs, 11:10-11
5 AESCHYLUS: Seven Against Thebes 27a-39a,c
esp [1048-1084] 38d-c39a,c
5 SOPHOCLES: Oedipus the King 99a-113a,c esp
[1-76] 99a-d / Antigone 131a-142d esp [158-
210] 132c-d I Ajax 143a-155a,c esp [145-1421]
152a-155a,c / Philoctetes 182a-195a,c
5 EURIPIDES: Phoenician Maidens [834-1018]
385c-387b; [1582-1684] 391d-392d I Iphigenia
at Aulis 425a-439d
5 ARISTOPHANES: Acharnians 45Sa-469a,c
6 HERODOTUS: .History, BK III, 99a;BK VII,
253b-257c
6 THUCYDIDES :Peloponnesian War, BK II, 397d..
398c; 402b-C;BK VI, 511c-d; 520c-d
7 PLATO: Euthydemus, 75c-76b I Apology 200a-
212a,cesp 207a-208a/ Crito 213a-219a,c esp
216d-219a,c ./ Republic,
BK I, 302c.:.306a; BK IV,' 342a-d; BK V, 364c-
365d; BK VI, 379d-380b; BK VII, 390b-391b;
401a-b I Laws, BK v, 692d-693a; BK VI, 707c-
708a; BK VII, 721d; BK IX, 7S4d-
755c; BK XI, 775d-778a I Seventh Letter, 814b-c
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK I,CH 2 [I094b7-9J
339c-d; BK V, CH I 377a-c;
BK VI, CH 8 [II4Ib28-II42aII] 390d-391a; BK
IX, CH 6 [1167b5-15] 420d-421a; CH 8 [II68
b
28-
l169all) 422b-d; CH9 423a-424b; CHII 425a-d
I Politics, BK I, CR I [I252aI-6] 445a; CH 2
[I253aI8-38] BK II, CHI-5 455b,d-
460a; BK III, CH 4 473c-475a; CH 7476c-477a;
CH 12 [I282bI5-18] 480c;CHIJ 481b-483a; CH
17 486d-487a; BK VII,' CH 1-3
527a-530aesp CH 2 [I324a5-24] 528a-b; CH
13 [I33
2a
32-38] 537a; CR 14 [I333
b2
9-37]
538c-d; BK VIII,CHI [1337a28-30] 542b
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, CH 19, 125d; BK
II, CH 5, 143d-144a; CH 10, 148c-149a;BKIII,
CH 7 182b-184a; CH 22 198c-199d
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK Ill, SECT 4 260b-
261a; BK IV,SECT4 264a; BK V,SECT 6269b-d;
SECT 16 271c-d; SECT 22 272b; BK VI, SECT 14
274d-275a; SECT 45 278c; SECT 54 279c; BK
VIII, SECT 12 286b.-C; SECT 23 287b; BK IX,
SECT I 291a-c; SECT 23 293c; SECT 42 295c-
296a,c; BK x, SECT 6 297a-b;BK XI, SECT 21
305d-306a
14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus 32a-48d esp 44d-45c /
Solon, 7Ib; 71d ICato the Younger, 626d-627b;
632b-c; 646b / Demosthenes, 699c,-700a
1STACITUS: Histories, BK II, 226d-228a
18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK XIX, CH 5:513d-
514b; CH 8 515c-516a; CH
CH 16-17 521d-523a; CH 19 523b-d; CH 26
528d-529a
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, Q 60,
A5 313b-314c; Q65, A2 340b-341b; Q92, A I,
631
REP 3 488d-489d;. Q 96, A 4 512ci-513c;.PART
1-11, Q 4, A 8636a.;.c; Q 19, .. A.10, ANS 710b-
711d; Q21, A3718d-719c; A4, ANS .and REP 3
719d-720a,c; Q 32, AA 5-6762a-763c
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-II, Q 90,
A 2 206b-207a; A .3, ANS and REP3 207a-c; Q
9I,A 5, ANS 211c-212c; A 6, REP 3 212c-213c;
Q 92, A I, ANS and REP I,,3-4213c.:.214c; Q 93,
A I, REP I 215b,d-216c; Q 94, A 2, ANS 221d-
223a; Q95, A4, ANS229b-230c; Q 96, A3, ANS
and REP 3 232b-233a; A 4, ANS 233a-d; A 6,
ANS 235a-d; Q 97, A I, ANS and REP 3236a-d;
A2, ANS and REP 2 236d-237b; A4238b-239b;
Q98, A I, ANS 239b-240c; Q99, A3, ANS 247a-
248a; Q 100, A2,ANS- 252b-253a; A8, ANS and
REP 3259d-261a; A II, REP 3 263c-264d; Q
105, A2, ANS and REP 1,4 309d.;.316a; A3, ANS
and REPS 316a-318b; Q III, A 5, REP I 355d-
356c; PART .II-II, Q 17, A 3 458c-459a; Q 26
510b-520d passim; Q39, A2, REP 3 575b-576b;
Q 187, A3, REP 1,,3 666a-669b; PART III SUPPL,
Q 71 900d-917b; Q94 1040d-1042c; Q96, A6,
REP II 1058a-1061b; A7, REP3 1061b-1062a
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, XV [40-
81] 75d-76a
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, 91b-92b; 93d-94a;
PART II, lOSc-d; 157b-c
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 381a-388c esp 381c-d,
388a-c; 480b-482b; 487b-488b
26 SHAKESPEARE: 2nd :Henry VI, ACT III, sc I
[223-281] 49c.;.50a I Henry V, ACT I, sc II [183-
213] 535d-536a
27 SHAKESPEARE: Troilus andCressida 103a-
141a,c esp ACT I,SCIU[78-I34] l09a-c/ Corio-
lanus, ACT I, sc 1[67-167] 352a-353a
30 BACON: AdvancC1nent ofLearning, 71a;..75a esp
74b-d; 81d-82a;94b';95b
31SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, PROP 35,COROL 1-2
433c-d; PROP 37, SCHOL 2 435b-436a
32 MILTON: Samson Agonistes. [843-902] 358a-
359a esp [843-87] 358a-b
33 PASCAL: Pensees, 456 254a; 474-481 256b-
257b
-35 LOCKE: Toleration, 15d-16a;16d-17b / Civil
Government, CH VII, SECT 87-89 44a-d; CH
VIII, SECT 46c-47c;CH IX 53c-54d; CH
XI 55b-58b passim; CH XIV 62b-64c; CR XV,
SECT 171 65a-b / Human Understanding, BK I,
CH II, SECT 2 104a-b; SECT 6 10Sb-c
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART I, 29b; PART III, 112a-
115b esp 112a-113a
37 FIELDING: Tom fones, 291d-292a; 330b-c
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spint of Laws, BK V, 21a; BK
XIII, 96a-b; BK XXIV, 203a; BK XXVI, 221c-
222a
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 323a-328a,c esp 323b-
325b; 343d-345c; 363a-366d esp 363b-364a I
Political Economy, 368d-377b r Social Contract,
BK I-II, 391b-400c; BK II, 405a-c; BK III, 417c-
418a; BK IV, 425a-d
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK I, 109d-110d;
BK II, 140b; BK IV, 193a-194b esp194a-b
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 193c-194a
6a. Knowledge, wisdom, and virtue: the rela-
tion of being good and knowing what
is good
OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 3 / Proverbs, 1-2; 7'-8;
9:9; 10:8,]1; 11:12; 14:16- 18,22,29; 15:21;
28:7; 29:8
633
6c. The goodness ofknowledge or wisdom: the
use of knowledge
OLD TESTAMENT: I Kings, 3:5'-15;IO---(D) III
Kings, 3 :5-15; 10 / II Chronicles, 1:7-12 ; 9:1-
7-(D) II Paralipomenon, 1:7-12; 9:1-7 / fob,
28 :12-20 / Proverbs, 1-4; 8; 9:10-12; 10:1;
12:8; 14:24; 15:24; 16:16; 17:16; 19:2,8;
20:15; 23: 15-16,2.3-2 5; 24:1-14; 27:11; 28:2
/ Ecclesiastes, 1:17-18; 2:12-26; 6:8; 7:11-
12,16-19; 9: 11,13-18-(D) Ecclesiastes, 1:17-
18; 2:12-26; 6:8; 7:12-1.3,17-20; 9:11, 13-18
/ Ezekiel, 28 :2-7--(D) Ezechiel, 28 :2-7
ApOCRYPHA: Wisdom ofSolomon, 6-IO-(D) OT,
Book ofrVisdom, 6-10/ Ecclesiasticus, 1:16-19;
4:11-19; 6:18--37; 11:1; 14:20-15:8; 21:12-
13,21; 24:1- 22 ; 25: 10; 34:8; 37:24,26; 40:25;
41:14-15; 51 :13-28-(D) OT, Ecclesiasticus,
1:20-24; 4:12--22 ; 6:18-37; II:r; 14:22-.15:8;
21:14-16,24; 24: 1-3; 25:13; 34:8; 37:27,29;
40 :25; 41:17-18 ; 51 :18-36
NEW TESTAMENT: I Corinthians, 1:17-31
5 SOPHOCLES: Oedipus the King [30-462] 102a-
103c / Antigone [632-:-765] 136c-137d; [1348-
1353] 142d
7 PLATO: Charmides, 8b I Lysis, J6c.:.18b f
Laches, 28a-b / Protagoras, 40a-41a; 61d-62b
/ Euthydemus, 69a-71a; 74b-76b / Men,
183d-184c f Phaedo, 226a-b I Gorgias, 272b-
273b; 291c-292b / Republic, BK VII 388a-
401d esp 389d-398c; BK IX, 421a-425b /
Timaeus, 476a-b / Theaetetus, 525c-526a;
528c-531a / Philebus 609a-639a,c esp 635c-
639a,c / Laws, BK I, 643c; BK III, 669d-670c;
BK XII, 792c-d; 794c-799a,c / Seventh Letter,
801h
8 ARISTOTLE: Topics, BKIII, CH I [116BI3-23]
162b-c / Metaphysics, BK I, CH I [980a22-28]
499a; CH 2 500b-SOlc esp [982b4'--983all] 500d-
501b; BK XII, CH 7 [I072bI3-29] 602d-603a /
Soul, BK I, CH I [402BI--7] 631a
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK VI, CH 12 [II43bI7-
II44a6] 393b-c; BK X, CH 2 [II72b28-32] 426d-
427a; CH 7-8 431d-434a / Rhetoric, BK I, CH 6
[1362bI0-26] 603b-c
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK I [62-79] 1d-
2a; BK II [48-61] 15c-d; BK V [1--54] 61a-d; BK
VI [1-42] 80a-d
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK III, CH 20, 192d-
193a
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK V, SECT 9 270b-c;
BK X, SECT 12 298c-d
14 PLUTARCH: Pericles, 121a-122b
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK x, par 54-57 85a-
86a / City ofGod, BK VIII, CH 8 270a-d
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, Q 5, A
4, REP 3 25d-26c; PART I-II, Q I, A 6, REP 1-2
614a-c; Q2, A I, REP 2 615d-616c
20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART n'-II, Q45,
A .3, REP 3 600c-601a; PART III SUPPL, Q 96,
A7 1061b-1062a; A II, ANS and REP 5 1063d-
1064d; A12 1064d-1065b
CHAPTER 30: GOOD AND EVIL to 6c
27 SHAKESPEARE: Measure for Measure, ACT
I, SC I [3.3-41] 174d; ACT II, SC IV [2-17]
184d
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 26c-27a
31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART I, 43c; PART III,
49d-50b
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, PROP 14-17 428a-d;
PROP 18, SCHOL 429a-d; PROP 23-24 430c-d
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK VII [519-549] 228b-
229a; BK VIn [316-337] 239a-b; BK IX [679-
779] 262a-264a; BK XI [84-98] 301a / Samson
Agonutes[38-59]340b
35 LOCKE: Htunan Understanding, BK I, CH III,
SECT 16, 117a; BK II, CH XXI, SECT 35 186b-d;
SECT 64 195a-b
35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 100
432b-c
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART I, 28b-29a; PART IV,
159b-160a
37 FIELDING: Tom fones, 182a-c
38 Rouss EAU: Inequality, 343b-345c esp 345a-c /
Social Contract, BK IV, 434c
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 149d / Fund. Prin. Meta-
physic of Morals, 265b; 282b-283d / Practical
Reason, 326b-327a
43 MILL: Utilitarianism, 458b-459b
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART II, par 139-
140 48d-54a / Philosophy of l/istory, INTRO,
168b-d; PART II, 280b-c
53 JAMES: Psychology, 82a-b; 806a-808a
54 FREUD: General Introduction, 560c-d; 625a-b
6b. The need for experience of evil
7 PLATO: Republic, BK III, 337b-d fLaws, BK
VII, 727c-d
14 PLUTARCH: Demetrius, 726a-d
17 PLOTINUS: Fourth Ennead, TR VIII, CH 7,
204b-c
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK X, par 54-:-57 85a-
86a
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theo'logica, PART I, Q 22, A
3, REP 3 130d-131c
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL 1a-52d esp I
[112-136] 2b-c, XXVIII [43-51] 41d; PURGA-
TORY, I 53a-54c
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 167a-169a passim; 200d-
203b; 235c-236a; 509b-d
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 75b-c
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK IV [505-535] 163b-
164a; BK vn [519-549] 228b-229a; BKVIII
[316-337] 239a-b; BK IX [679-779] 262a-264a;
BK XI [84-98] 301a / Areopagitica, 389a-396a
esp 390b-391a, 394b-39Sa
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of HistolY, PART I, 237d-
238c; PART IV, 354a-c
47 GOETHE: Faust, PROLOGUE [340-343] 9a
48 MELVILLE: Moby Dick, 4b-Sa
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK XI, 481a-
482a
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK III,
53b-54b; BK V, 122c-125a; 132a-13Sa; BK XI,
344a-d
THE GREAT IDEf\S 6 to"
ApOCRYPHA: lVisdom Of Sol0'?l0n., 1:1-7 esp 1:
6; 8-IO--(D) OT, Bo.ok?J Wzsdom, 1:1-7 e
1:4; 6; 8-'-10 / Eccleszastlcus, 19:22- 2 4; 39:1-
II; 43:33; aT, Ecclesiasticus
39:1- 15; 43:37; 5:3-31 '
NEW TESTAMENT: fohn, 3 :17-21 / Romans, 7:15-
25 / fames, 4:17
5 EURIPIDES: Hippolytus [375-43] 228b-d
7 PLATO: Charnzides, 7b-c; 12a-13c / Laches 26a-
37d / Protagoras 38a-64d j Euthydemus, 69a-
71a / Cratylus, 86c-d / Meno 174a-190a,c esp
183b-190a,c / Phaedo, 225d-226c; 230d-234c
/ Republic, BK I, 306c-308a; BK II, 314d-315a.
BK III, 333b-334b; 337b-d; BK IV, 354d-355a:
BK VI-VII, 383d-401d esp BK VII,
398c; BK x, 439b-441a,c / Critias, 485b-c I
Laws, BK I, 643c-d;BK III, 669a-670c; BK IX,
754a-b; BK XII, 788d-789a / Seventh Letter
806a-c '
8 ..A_RISTOTLE: Topics, BK III, CH 6 [120
a
26-3
1
]
168a; BK IV, CH 2 [I2Ib24-I22&2] 169d-170a.
CH 3 [I24aIO-I4] 172d
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK I, CH 3 339d-340b; BI(
II, CH 4 350d-351b; BK VI, CH 8 390d-391c;
CH 12-13 393b-394d; BK VII, CH 2-3 395c-
398a; CH 10 [II5
2a
7-241 403a-b; BK x, Cli 5
[II7
6aI
5-29] 430c-d; CH 8 [1178aI6-18] 432d'
CH 9 [II79b4-1180aI31434b-d / Politics, BK VII:
CH I [132.3b21-36] S27c-d
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK I, CH 5 110b-c; Cli
17 122d-124a; CH 26 131b-132b; CH 28 133b-
134d; BK II, CH 22 167d-170a; CH 26 174c-d'
BK IV, CH I 213a-223d '
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK II, SECT I 256b,d;
SECT 17 259b-d; BK VII, SECT 22 281b; SECT
26 281c; SECT 62-63 283d-284a; BK VIII, SECT
14 286c; BK IX, SECT 42 295c-296a,c;' BK XII,
SECT 12 308b-c
14 PLUTARCH: Pericles, 121a-122b / Aristides,
265c-d / Agesilaus, 490d-491b / Demetrius,
726a-d
17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR II, CH 6-7 9a-10a;
TR III, CH 6 11d-12b
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK VII, par 27 SId...
52c; BK VIII, par 10-II 55c-56b / City ofGod,.
BK VIII, CH 3 266a-d; CH 8 270a-d; BK IX, CR:
20 296a-b; BK XI, CH 28 338a-d
19 AQUINAS: Summa Tlleologica, PART I, QI, A6,
REP 3 6b-7a; PART I-II, Q 2, A I, REP I 615d-
616c; A2, REP 3 616d-617b
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-II, Q
A 4, ANS 38a-39a; A 5, ANS 39a-40a; Q 58, A2
42a-43a; AA 4-5 44a-45d; Q 65, A I, REP 3-l
PART Q 18, A 4, ANS 464c-465a;
Q24, A I I, ANS 498b-499c
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, XIX [40-
66] 135c-d; XXVI [1-69] 145d-146c; XXVIII.
[106-114] 150a
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 59c-60a; 69d-75a esp
70d-72a; 208a; 478c-480c; 514a-b
26 SHAKESPEARE: l-vferchant of Venice, ACT It
SC II [13-23] 408b-c
632
(5. Theorderofhumangoods. 5d. Thesupremacy
of the individual or the c01Jlmongood: the
relation of the good of the individualperson
to the good of other persons and to the good
of the state.)
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 114b-d / Fund. Prin. Meta-
physic ofMoraIs, 272d-273a / Practical Reason,
304b-305c / Prej. Metaphysical Elements of
Ethics, 369c-373b; 373d; 375d-376b / Science
of Right, 438d-439b
43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.: AMENDMENTS,
I-X 17a-18a
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 45, 147c-148a; NUMBER
64, 197d; NUMBER 85, 256d-2S7a
43 MILL: Liberty, 267b,d-274a;293b-323a,c esp
322d-323a,cf Representative Government, 392b-
396d / Utilitarianis1n, 450b-45Sa; 455c-456a;
460a-461c; 463a-b; 469h-470c; 473c-476a,c
passim
44 BOSWELL: .Johnson, 221d-224a; 261c-d; 304c;
393a-c
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART I, par 46
23d-24a; PART II, par 125-126 44d-45b; par
134 47b; PART III, par 155 57c; par 170 60d;
par 183 64a; par 192 66b-c; par 199 67c; par
240 76d; par 249 78c; par 25479c; par 261
83a-d; par 277 92b-c; par 294 98b-d; par
308 102c.;.103a; par 323 107a; ADDITIONS, 27
121b; 47 124a-b; 117 135d-136a; 127 137b;
141 139c; 145 140b; 148 140c-d; 151 141b-c;
158142d / Philosophy ofHistory, INTRO, 164b;
192d-193a; PART I, 236a-c; PART II, 271c-d;
276a; PART III, 298c-299a; PART IV, 320c-321a;
363c-d; 365b-c; 367d-368a
47 GOETHE: Faust, PART II [11,559-572] 281b
49 DARWIN: Descent ofl-vfan, 310a-319a esp 312a-
313a, 314b-31Sd, 316c-317c; 321b-322d esp
322c-d; 592d
50 MARX: Capital, 237a
50 J\1ARXENGELS: Comlnunistl\.lanifesto, 429b-c
51 TOLSTOY: and Peace, BK II, 67d-68c;72d-
74a; BK V, 214c-216d; BK VI, 260a-262a; BK
XI, 475b-476c; 505a-511b passim, esp 509d-
510a; 514b-515a; BK XII, 537b-S38a; BK XIII,
577b-c; BK XV, 634a-635a; EPILOGUE I, 670d-
671c
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK VI,
158b-159a; 164a-167b; BK XII, 370b-d
54 FREUD: General Introduction, 452c-d; 573b-c /
War and Death, 757b-759d esp 759c-d! Civil-
ization and Its Discontents, 780b-781d; 799a-
800a / New Introductory Lectures, 853a-b
6. Knowledge and the good
THE GREAT IDEAS CHAPTER 30: GOOD AND EVIL
ADDITIONAL READINGS
49 DARWIN: Descent ofMan, 305a; 313b-d; 314c-
315d; 317a-d; 592d-593b passim
50 MARX-ENGELS: Communist 427a;..b;
428b-d
51 TOLSTOY: War andPeace,BKI, lSd-16a; BK
v, 194a.:.195a;214c-"d; BK VIII, 304b-305a; BK
XI, Sl4e-d; BK XII, 542d; HK XIV, 6l1a-c;
EPILOGUE I, 645a-646e; EPILOGUE II, 68gb
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK II, 33c-
34b; BK XI, 3l4b-c
53 JAMES: Psychology, 190a-191a; 886b-888a
54 FREUD: War and Death, 758a-e; 7S9a / Civi-
lization and Its Discontents, 792b-c
AQUINAS. SU1nma Contra Gentiles, BK III, CH 1-16
--. Quaestiones Disputatae, De Veritate, Q 21; De
!vIalo, Q I
F. BACON. "Of Goodness, and Goodness of Na-
ture," in Essays
HOBBES. The Whole Art of Rhetoric, BK I, CH 7
I.
Listed below are works not included in Great Books ofthe Western World, but relevant to the
idea and topics with which this chapter deals. These ,yorks are divided into two groups:
1. Works by authors represented in this collection.
II. Works by authors not represented in this collection.
For the date, place, and other facts concerning the publication of the ,yorks cited, consult
the Bibliography of Additional Readings which follows the last chapter of The Great Ideas.
377e-d I Intro. Metaphysic of Morals, 387a"
3B8a / Science ofRight, 397b-398a
43 MILL: Liberty, 269b-271e / Utilitarianism,
445a-447b; 448a-450a; 4S6d-462a; 463c-d;
471b-476a,c
44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 197a-b;198b-d
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PREF, 2b-c;
INTRO, par 18 16e-d; PART II, par 131-132
46a-47a; par 138 48c-d; par 140 49b-54a;
PART III, par 150-152 56c-57b; par 339 110b;
ADDITIONS, I lI5a-d; 86 12ge; 89129d-130a;
91 131a-d; 96-97 132c-133a / Philosophy of
History, INTRO, 166a-b; PARTU, 280b-281b
PICTETUS. The Manual
GUSTINE. Divine Providence and the Problem of
Evil
Concernng the Nature of Good
for: Other statements of the metaphysical theory of good and evil,see BEING 3-3b; CAUSE 6;
CHANGE 14; DESIRE I; GOD Sb;WORLD 6b, 6d; for the relation of the good to the true and
the beautiful, see BEAUTY Ia; TRUTH IC; and for the theological of the
divine goodness and of the problem of evil, see GOD 4, Sh; JUSTICE IIa;LoVE sa, Sc;
PUNISHNfENT se-se(2); SIN 3-3e, 6-6e; WILL 7d; WORLD 6d.
The consideration of the factors which enter into the moral theory of good and evil, see
DESIRE 2b-2d; DUTY I; MIND 9c; NATURE sa; PLEASURE AND PAIN 6-6e; WILL 8b-8b(2).
Other discussions of right and wrong, see DUTY 3 ; JUSTICE 1--"-2, 4.
The theory of the summum bonum or of happiness, see DUTY 2; HAPPINESS I, 3.
Particular human goods in themselves and in relation to the summum bonum orhappiness,
see HAPPINESS 2b-2b(7); HONOR 2b; KNOWLEDGE 8b(4); LOVE 3a; PLEASURE AND PAIN
6a-6b, 7; VIRTUE AND VICE Id; WEALTH I, loa; WISDOM 2C.
The discussion of evil and its sources in human life, see LABOR Ia; SIN 3-3e; WEALTH Ioe(3).
The general problem of the individualand the common good, or the good of the person and
the good of the state, see CITIZEN I; HAPPINESS S-Sb; STATE 2f.
General discussions of means and ends, see CAUSE 4; RELATION sa(2).
The controversy over the objectivity or subjectivity of judgments of good and evil, see CUS-
TOM AND CONVENTION sa; OPINION 6a-6b; RELATION 6c; UNIVERSAL AND PARTICULAR 7b.
The consideration oEour knowledge of good and evil, and of the nature and method of the
moral sciences, see KNOWLEDGE 8b(I); PHILOSOPHY 2C; SCIENCE 3a; WISDOM 2b.
A fuller treatment of the goodness and use of knowledge, see ART 6c;KNOWLEDGE 8a-8c;
PHILOSOPHY 4b-4c; SCIENCE I b(I).
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK II, CH 7 145b-146
ClI II 150a-151b; BK III, CH 3
IV, CH 5 228a-230b
12 AURELIUS : Meditations, BK IV, SECT 4 264a
SECT 18 264d . ,
14 PLUTARCH: Themistocles, 99b-c
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK III, 58b-d
17PLOTINUS: Fourth Ennead, TR IV,
181b-182b
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK III, par I316c-
/ Christian Doctrine, HK II, CH 39-40 6S4
656a; BK III, CH 10, 661d.:662a; CH 14 663c-
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, Q59,
3, ANS 308b;..309a; PART I-II, Q I, A 7, ANs
614e-615a; Q2, A I, REP I 615d-616c
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica; PART I-II, Q'94,
A 4 223d-224d; PART II-II, Q 24, A II, AN'S
498b-499c
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART I, S7d-58a; 61d-62a;
65a; 75a-b;78b-c; 91a-b; 96a-b; PARr!:n,
140b; l49b-c; PART IV, 272c
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 46b-47c; 93b-e; 102a-
103a; 115b-d; 122a; 124e-d; 146b-e; 1490':'0;
279c-284e; 307b; .424d-426b
27 SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet, ACT II, SC II [248-27
43a-b / Troilus and Cressida, ACT II, SC !If;I
96] 114a-e
28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK V, lOSe
31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART II, 46b-e; PA
III, 48b-50b
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART I, APPENDIX, 3710
PART III, THE AFFECTS, DEF 27 4l9a-b; PA
IV, PREF, 423e-d; PROP 8 426b-c; PROP
444b
32 MILTON: Areopagitica, 390b-391a
33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, 29b-44a I Pensee
309 228b; 312229a; 325 230b-231a; 385 238
239a
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, 90a-d; RIC
CH II, SECT 8-12 105d-107d; SECT 20-2711
112c passim, esp SECT 22-23 111a'-c; BK II,
XXVIII, SECT 10-13 230b-231c;BK III, CH
SECT 15.-18 303b-304b esp SECT
BK IV, CH III, SECT 18-20 317d-319c; CH I
SECT 7-9 325b-326b; CH XII, SECT 8 360e
35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 10
432b-e
35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT XII,
131- 132 S08d-S09d passim, esp DIV 132,509
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART IV, 165a-166a
36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 257a-266b e
261a-b
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 362a-d I Social Co
tract, BK IV,434c
39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK I, 41a;B
346e-347a
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 149d-150a; 236d':2
239a-b / Fund. Prin. Metaphysic of M
253d-2S4b; 260d-261d; 263a; 264b-d;
266d; 270d-271a; 271c-272b; 278a-2
282d-283d / Practical Reason, 301a; 3
305a; 307d-310d; 317a-b; 319c-d; 330d-
/ Pref. Metaphysical Elements of Ethics, 3
(6. Knoutledge and the good. 6c. The goodness of
knowledge or wisdom: the use of knowl-
edge.)
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, IV 5c-7a; PUR-
GATORY, III [r6-45] 56a-b
22 CHAUCER: Prologue [285-308] 164a-b
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 55d-62a; 69d-75a esp
70d-72a; 231d-242d; 502c-S04c; 509a-512a
26 SHAKESPEARE: 2nd Henry VI, ACT IV, SC II
[83-1I7158c-59a; sc VII [26-81] 61c-62a
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 6c':d; 16d-
17a, 26a-27d;30b":c
31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART I, 41d-42a
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART IV, APPENDIX, IV
447b-c; PART V, PROP 25-27 458d-459b
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK IV [505-535] 163b-
164a; BK VII [519-549] 228b-229a; BK VIII
[316-3371 239a-b; BK IX [679-7791262a-264a;
BK XI [84-98] 301a
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, INTR.O, SECT
5-6 94b-95a; BK II, CH XXI, SECT 44.188d-
189b; BK IV, CH XI, SECT 8 356b-d passIm
35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, INTRO, SECT
2-3405b-c
35 I-IUME: Human Understanding, SECT I 451a-
455b passim
36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy,236b-238a
40 GI BBON: Decline and Fall, .. 284a-e
42 KANT: Judgement, 591b-592a
43 MILL: Liberty, 274b-293b passim Illtilitarian-
ism, 455c-456a
44 BOSWELL:Johnson, 118a; 256e
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART II, 280b-
281b; PART III, 304d-305b
47 GOETHE: Faust esp PART I [354-373] 11a-b,
[1022-1067] 26a-b, [I224-I237130b, [ 1851-
2046] 44a-48a
48 MELVILLE: Moby Dick, 255a
54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 777a-
779a esp 777a-b
6d. The possibility of moral knowledge: the
subjectivity or .conventionality .of judg-
ments of good and.evil
5 EURIPIDES: Hecuba [798-805] 359d / Phoeni-
cian Maidens [499-522] 382b-c
5 ARISTOPHANES: Clouds [882-1 I 14] 499b-502b
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK III, 97d-98a
7 PLATO: Protagoras, 58a-62d / Meno, 183b-
184c; 187d-190a,c I Euthyphro, 193d-194b /
Gorgias, 271b-277c passim I Republic, BK V,
357d-358a; BK VI, 383d-386c / Theaetetus,
525c-526a;527b-532a /Statesman, 594a-595a
/ Laws, BK X, 759d-760e / Seventh Letter,809c-
810d esp 810e-d
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK I, CH 3 339d-340b;
eH 7 [I098a25-Q81 343d-344a;BK II, CH 2
[II04aI-9] 349b:..c; BK III, CH 4 359a-c;BK V,
CH 7 [II34bI8-1I35a.4] 382c-d; BKVI, CH 8
390d-391e; CH 9 [rI42bI7-35] 391d-392b;
CH II 392c-393b; BK X, CH 5 [I I 76a3-29]
430e-d
634
THE GREAT IDEAS
636
HUME. An Inquiry Concerningthe Principles ofMorals
A. SMITH. The Theory of Moral Sentiments, PART
VII
KANT. Lectures on Ethics
HEGEL. The Phenomenology of Mind, VI
--. Science ofLogic, VOL II, SECT II, CH3; SECT III,
CH 2(n)
--.. The Philosophy of Mind, SECT II, SUB-SECT B
MELVILLE. Pierre
DOSTOEVSKY. Crime and Punishment
TOLSTOY. Resurrection
II.
EPICURUS. Letter to Menoeceus
CICERO. De Finibus (On the Supreme Good)
SEXTUS EMPIRICUS. Against the Ethicists
--. Outlines of Pyrrhonisrn, BK III, CH 21-32
BOETHIUS. Quon'lodo Substantiae (How Substances
Can Be Good in Virtue of Their Existence Without
Being Absolute Goods)
_.-.The Consolation ofPhilosophy, BK III-IV
MAIMONIDES. Eight Chapters on Ethics
--. The GuideforthePerplexed, PAft.T III, ell 10-12
BONAVENTURA. Breviloquium, PART III (I)
DUNS SCOTUS. Tractatus de Primo Principio (A
Tract Concerning the First Principle)
ALBO. The Book ofPrinciples (Seferha-Ikkarim), VOL
IV, CH 12-1.5
SUAREZ. Disputationes Metaphysicae, III, X-XI,
XXIII-XXIV
MALEBRANCHE. De la recherche de la verite, BK IV,
CH 1-4
LEIBNITZ. Theodicy
HUTCHESON. An Inquiry into the Original of Our
Ideas of Beauty and Virtue, II
VOLTAIRE. Candide
--. "Good-The Sovereign Good-A Chimera,"
"Good," in A Philosophical Dictionary
--. The Ignorant Philosopher, CH 3I, 38
T. REID. Essays on the Active Powers ofthe Human
Mind, III, PART III, CH 1-4; V
BENTHAM. An Introduction to the Principles ofMorals
and Legislation
J. G. FICHTE. The Vocation of Man
T. CARLYLE. Sartor Resartus
DICKENS. Oliver TUlist
WHEWELL. The Elements of Morality, BK I
BAUDELAIRE. FlouJers of Evil
H. SIDGWICK. The Methods of Ethics, BK I, CH 9
CLIFFORD. "On the Scientific Basis of
"Right and Wrong: The Scientific Ground of
Their Distinction," in VOL II, Lectures and Es-
says
T. H. GREEN. Prolegon'lena to Ethics, BK III-IV
NIETZSCHE. Beyond Good and Evil
--. The Genealogy of Morals, I
C. S. PEIRCE. Collected Papers, VOL I, par 573-677;
VOL V, par 120-1.50
BRENTANO. The Origin ofthe Knowledge ofRight and
Wrong, par 14-36
FRAZER. The Golden Bough, PART VI; PART VII, Ca
4-7
\VILDE. The Picture of Dorian Gray
BRADLEY. Ethical Studies
-_.. Appearance and Reality, BK II, en 17,25
H. JAMES. The Turn ofthe Screw
ROYCE. Studies of Good and Evil
--. The World and the Individual, SERIES II (8-9)
SANTAYANA. Reason in Science, CH 8-10
CROCE. The Philosophy ofthe Practical
SCHELER. Der Formalismus in der Ethik und die
materiale Wertethik
WASSERMANN. The fVorld's Illusion
McTAGGART. The Nature of Existence, CH 64-67
MOORE. Principia Ethica, CH 4, 6
--. Ethics, CH 3-4, 7
--. Philosophical Studies, CH 8, 10
GIDE. The Counteifeiters
N. HARTMANN. Ethics
DEWEY. "The Good," "The Ethical '''orId,'' "The
Formation and Growth of Ideals," "The
Struggle," in Outlines of a Critical Theory of
Ethics
--. "Nature and Its Good, A Conversation," in
The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy
--. Reconstruction in Philosophy, CH 5, 7
--. Human Nature and Conduct, PART III-IV
--. Experience and Nature, CH 3-4, 10
--. The Questfor Certainty, CH 10
J. S. HALDANE. The Sciences and Philosophy, LECT xv
Ross. The Right and the Good, III-VII
BERGSON. Two Sources of Moralityalld Religion
WESTERMARCK. Ethical Relativity
MALRAUX. Man's Fate
A. E. TAYLOR. The Faith of a Moralist, SERIES I
(2,4-5)
--. Philosophical Studies, CH I I
LAIRD. An Enquiry into Moral Notions
B. RUSSELL. Philosophical Essays, CH I
--. The Scientific Outlook, CH 17
_.-. Religion and Science, CH 8
ADLER. A Dialectic: of Morals
A. I-IUXLEY. The Perennial Philosophy
C. I. LEWIS. An Analysis of Knowledge and Valu
ation
EWING. The Definition of Good
MARITAIN. Saint Jnomas and the Problelrl ofEvil
--. The Person and the Comn10n Good
Chapter 3I: GOVERNMENT
INTRODUCTION
1-""'...... HE usual connotation o.. f "governmen.t" is... "government" to refer to the way in which it is
>1. political. The \vord is often used inter- politically organized. Yet the two concepts
changeably \vith "state." But there is govern- tend to fuse in traditional political theory. The
ment in a university, in an economic corpora- kinds of states, for exanlple, are usually named
tion, in the church, in any organization of men according to their forms of government. The
associated for a common purpose.. The theo- great books speak of monarchical and repub-
logianspeaks of the divine government of the licanstates, as we today speak of the fascist or
universe, and the moralist speaks of reason as the democratic state.
the ruling power in the soul which governs the Nevertheless, we recognize the distinction
ai?petites or passions. between a state and its government \vhen we
In all these contexts, the notion of govern- observe that the state can maintain its his-
ment involves. the fundamental relations of toric identity while it undergoes fundamental
ruling and being ruled, of command and obe- changes in its form of government. The state
(lienee. Though the character of these relation- is not dissolved by a revolution which replaces
snips varies somewhat with the terms related, a monarchy by a republic, or conversely.
there is enough common meaning throughout There is a sense in \vhich Rome is the same
permit a general consideration of the nature state under the Tarquins, under the Republic,
ogovernment. But that is not the \vay in and under the Caesars. In contrast, some rebel-
wllich government is discussed in the great lions, such as the War of Secession in American
Dooks. For the most part, government is con- history, threaten to dissolve the state itself.
siclered in one or another of its special settings .Despite the fact that government involves a
it functions in the family or the state, in relation between rulers and ruled, the word is
tne soul or the universe. The common thread often used to designate one term in that rela-
of meaning is noted only indirectly, by the way tionship, nanlely, the rulers. When the citizens
inwhich comparisons are made or analogies of a republic speak of "the governlnent,"they
are drawn bet\veen the various modes of gov- usually refer to the officialdom-not the body
ernment. of citizens as a \"hole, but only those \vho for a
In vie,,, of this, \ve have found it convenient time hold public office. But governn1ent can-
to restrict this chapter to government in the not consist of governors alone, any more than
political sense, treating domestic and ecclesias- education can consist of teachers alone. The
tical government under FAMILY and RELIGION, different forms of governluent can be distin-
econolnic governlnent under \VEALTH, divine guished as readily by looking to the condition
governn1ent in the chapters on GOD and of the ruled as to the powers of the rulers. Fur-
'W'ORLD, and government in the soul in the thermore, the same individuals may both "rule
several chapters "vhich consider the relation of and be ruled by turns," as Aristotle observes
reason to the passions, such as DESIRE and of constitutional government.
the notion of government includes
Government and state are often used asif they both rulers and ruled, the word usually appears
were interchangeable terms. Some writers dif- in political literature "vith the more restricted
erentiate their meanings by using "state" to meaning. When writers refer to the branches or
signify the political community itself, and departments of government, or when they
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