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List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a list of adjectival forms of countries and nations in English and their demonymic equivalents. A country adjective describes something as being from that country, for example, "Italian cuisine" is "cuisine of Italy". A country demonym denotes the people or the inhabitants of or from there, for example, "Germans" are people of or from Germany. Note:Demonyms are given in plural forms. Singular forms simply remove the final 's' or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms. The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women(e.g. an Irishman and a Scotswoman). The French terminations ois / ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding 'e' (-oise / aise) makes them singular feminine; 'es' (-oises /aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish termination "-o" usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by dropping the "-o" and adding "-a". The plural forms are usually "-os" and "-as" respectively. Adjectives ending in -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' sound (e.g. the adjective Czech does not qualify). Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) Notable examples are cuisines, cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. (See List of words derived from toponyms.)

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Abkhazia

Abkhaz, Abkhazian

Abkhazians

Afghanistan

Afghan

Afghans

Albania

Albanian

Albanians

Algeria

Algerian

Algerians

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

American Samoa

American Samoan

American Samoans

Andorra

Andorran

Andorrans

Angola

Angolan

Angolans

Anguilla

Anguillan

Anguillans

Antigua and Barbuda

Antiguan, Barbudan

Antiguans, Barbudans

Argentina

Argentine, Argentinean, Argentinian

Argentines, Argentineans, Argentinians

Armenia

Armenian

Armenians

Aruba

Aruban

Arubans

Australia

Australian

Australians

"Aussies"

Austria

Austrian

Austrians

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijani, Azeri

Azerbaijanis, Azeris

Bahamas

Bahamian

Bahamians

Bahrain

Bahraini

Bahrainis

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Bangladesh

Bangladeshi

Bangladeshis

Barbados

Barbadian ("Bajan")

Barbadians

"Bajans"

Belarus

Belarusian

Belarusians

Belgium

Belgian

Belgians

Belize

Belizean

Belizeans

Benin

Beninese, Beninois

Beninese, Beninois

Bermuda

Bermudian, Bermudan

Bermudians, Bermudans

Bhutan

Bhutanese

Bhutanese

Bolivia

Bolivian

Bolivians

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnian, Bosniak, Herzegovinian

Bosnians, Bosniaks, Herzegovinians

Botswana

Motswana (pl. Batswana), Botswanan

Batswana, Botswanans

Brazil

Brazilian

Brazilians

British Virgin Islands

British Virgin Island

British Virgin Islanders

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Brunei

Bruneian

Bruneians

Bulgaria

Bulgarian

Bulgarians

Burkina Fasoa

Burkinab/Burkinab

Burkinab/Burkinab

Burmab

Burmese

Bamar, Burmese

Burundi

Burundian

Burundians, Barundi

Cambodia

Cambodian

Cambodians

Cameroon

Cameroonian

Cameroonians

Canada

Canadian

Canadians

"Canucks"c

Cape Verde

Cape Verdean

Cape Verdeans

Cayman Islands

Caymanian

Caymanians

Central African Republic

Central African

Central Africans

Chad

Chadian

Chadians

Chile

Chilean

Chileans

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

People's Republic of Chinese China

Chinese

Republic of China

See Taiwan, below

Christmas Island

Christmas Island

Christmas Islanders

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Cocos Island

Cocos Islanders

Colombia

Colombian

Colombians

Comoros

Comorian

Comorians

Dem. Republic of the Congo Congolese, Congo[citation needed] Republic of the Congo Congolese

Cook Islands

Cook Island, Cook Islands

Cook Islanders

Costa Rica

Costa Rican

Costa Ricans

"Ticos"

Cte d'Ivoire

Ivorian

Ivorians

Croatia

Croatian

Croatians, Croats

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Cuba

Cuban

Cubans

Cyprus

Cypriot

Cypriots

Czech Republic

Czech

Czechs

Denmark

Danish

Danes

Djibouti

Djiboutian

Djiboutians

Dominica

Dominicand

Dominicansd

Dominican Republic

Dominicane

Dominicanse

"Quisqueyanos"

East Timor

Timorese

Timorese

"Maubere"

Ecuador

Ecuadorian

Ecuadorians

Egypt

Egyptian

Egyptians

El Salvador

Salvadoranf

Salvadoransf

England

English

English

Equatorial Guinea

Equatorial Guinean, Equatoguinean

Equatorial Guineans, Equatoguineans

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Eritrea

Eritrean

Eritreans

Estonia

Estonian

Estonians

Ethiopia

Ethiopian

Ethiopians

Falkland Islands

Falkland Island

Falkland Islanders

"Belongers"

Faroe Islands

Faroese

Faroese

Fiji

Fijian

Fijians

Finland

Finnish

Finns

France

French

French (or Frenchman/Frenchwoman)

French Guiana

French Guianese

French Guianese

French Polynesia

French Polynesian

French Polynesians, Tahitians[1]

Gabon

Gabonese

Gabonese

Gambia

Gambian

Gambians

Georgia

Georgian

Georgians

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Germany

German

Germans

Ghana

Ghanaian

Ghanaians

Gibraltar

Gibraltar

Gibraltarians

Llanitos

Great Britain

British

Britons

see Other words for "British"

Greece

Greek, Greciang, Hellenic

Greeks, Greciansg, Hellenes

Greenland

Greenlandic

Greenlanders

Grenada

Grenadian

Grenadians

Guadeloupe

Guadeloupe

Guadeloupians

Guam

Guamanian, Guambat

Guamanians

Guatemala

Guatemalan

Guatemalans

Guinea Guinean Guinea-Bissau Guineans

Guyana

Guyanese

Guyanese

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Haiti

Haitian

Haitians

Ayisyen

Honduras

Honduran

Hondurans

"Catrachos"

Hong Kong

Hong Kong, Hongkongese

Hongkongers, Hongkongese

"Hongkies" "Hongers"

Hungary

Hungarian, Magyar

Hungarians, Magyars

Iceland

Icelandic

Icelanders

India

Indian

Indians

Indonesia

Indonesian

Indonesians

Iran

Iranian, Persian

Iranians, Persians

Iraq

Iraqi

Iraqis

Ireland

Irish

Irish

Isle of Man

Manx

Manx

Israel

Israeli

Israelis

Italy

Italian, Italicf

Italians, Italicsf

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Jamaica

Jamaican

Jamaicans

Japan

Japanese

Japanese

Jordan

Jordanian

Jordanians

Kazakhstan

Kazakh, Kazakhstani

Kazakhstanis, Kazakhs

Kenya

Kenyan

Kenyans

Kiribati

I-Kiribati

I-Kiribati

North Korea

North Korean Koreans

South Korea

South Korean

Kosovo

Kosovar, Kosovan

Kosovars

Kuwait

Kuwaiti

Kuwaitis

Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstani, Kyrgyz, Kirgiz, Kirghiz

Kyrgyzstanis, Kyrgyz, Kirgiz, Kirghiz

Laos

Laotian, Lao

Laotians, Laos

Latvia

Latvian

Latvians, Letts

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Lebanon

Lebanese

Lebanese

Lesotho

Basotho

Basotho

Liberia

Liberian

Liberians

Libya

Libyan

Libyans

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein

Liechtensteiners

Lithuania

Lithuanian

Lithuanians

Luxembourg

Luxembourg, Luxembourgish

Luxembourgers

Macau

Macanese, Chinese

Macanese, Chinese

Republic of Macedonia

Macedonian

Macedonians

Madagascar

Malagasy

Malagasy

Malawi

Malawian

Malawians

Malaysia

Malaysian

Malaysians

Maldives

Maldivian

Maldivians

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Mali

Malian

Malians

Malta

Maltese

Maltese

Marshall Islands

Marshallese

Marshallese

Martinique

Martiniquais, Martinican

Martiniquais

Mauritania

Mauritanian

Mauritanians

Mauritius

Mauritian

Mauritians

Mayotte

Mahoran

Mahorais

Mexico

Mexican

Mexicans

Micronesia, Federated States of

Micronesian

Micronesians

Moldova

Moldovan

Moldovans

Monaco

Mongasque, Monacan

Mongasques, Monacans

Mongolia

Mongolian

Mongolians, Mongols

Montenegro

Montenegrin

Montenegrins

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Montserrat

Montserratian

Montserratians

Morocco

Moroccan

Moroccans

Mozambique

Mozambican

Mozambicans

Namibia

Namibian

Namibians

Nauru

Nauruan

Nauruans

Nepal

Nepalese, Nepali

Nepalese, Nepali

Netherlands

Dutch

Dutch

New Caledonia

New Caledonian

New Caledonians

New Zealand

New Zealand

New Zealanders

"Kiwis"

Nicaragua

Nicaraguan

Nicaraguans

Niue

Niuean

Niueans

Niger

Nigerien

Nigeriens

Nigeria

Nigerian

Nigerians

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Norway

Norwegian

Norwegians

Northern Ireland

Northern Irish / British / Irish

British / Irish / Northern Irish

Northern Marianas

Northern Marianan

Northern Marianans

Oman

Omani

Omanis

Pakistan

Pakistani

Pakistanis

Palestine

Palestinian

Palestinians

Palau

Palauan

Palauans

Panama

Panamanian

Panamanians

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinean, Papuan

Papua New Guineans, Papuans

Paraguay

Paraguayan

Paraguayans

Peru

Peruvian

Peruvians

Philippines

Philippine, Filipino

Filipinos, Filipinas

Pinoys

Pitcairn Island

Pitcairn Island

Pitcairn Islanders

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Poland

Polish

Poles

Portugal

Portuguese

Portuguese

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rican

Puerto Ricans, Boricuas

Qatar

Qatari

Qataris

Republic of Ireland

Irish / Southern Irish h

Irish / Southern Irish h

Runion

Runionese, Runionnais

Runionese, Runionnais

Romania

Romanian

Romanians

Russia

Russian

Russians

Rwanda

Rwandan

Rwandans, Banyarwanda

St. Helena

St. Helenian

St. Helenians

St. Kitts and Nevis

Kittitian, Nevisian

Kittitians, Nevisians

St. Lucia

St. Lucian

St. Lucians

Saint-Pierre and Miquelon

Saint-Pierrais, Miquelonnais

Saint-Pierrais, Miquelonnais

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

St. Vincent and the Grenadines

St. Vincentian, Vincentian

St. Vincentians, Vincentians

Samoa

Samoan

Samoans

San Marino

Sammarinese

Sammarinese

So Tom and Prncipe

So Toman

So Tomans

Saudi Arabia

Saudi, Saudi Arabian

Saudis, Saudi Arabians

Scotland

Scots, Scottish, Scotchi

Scots, Scotsmen

Senegal

Senegalese

Senegalese

Serbia

Serbian

Serbians, Serbs

Seychelles

Seychellois

Seychellois

Sierra Leone

Sierra Leonean

Sierra Leoneans

Singapore

Singaporean[2] [3]

Singaporeans[4] [5]

Slovakia

Slovak

Slovaks

Slovenia

Slovenian, Slovene

Slovenians, Slovenes

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Solomon Islands

Solomon Island

Solomon Islanders

Somalia

Somali; Somalian

Somalis; Somalians

South Africa

South African

South Africans

South Ossetia

South Ossetian

South Ossetians

South Sudan

South Sudanese

South Sudanese

Spain

Spanish

Spaniards

Sri Lanka

Sri Lankan

Sri Lankans

Sudan

Sudanese

Sudanese

Surinam

Surinamese

Surinamers

Swaziland

Swazi

Swazis

Sweden

Swedish

Swedes

Switzerland

Swiss

Swiss

Syria

Syrian

Syrians

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Taiwan

Taiwanese

Taiwanese

Tajikistan

Tajikistani

Tajikistanis, Tajiks

Tanzania

Tanzanian

Tanzanians

Thailand

Thai

Thai

Togo

Togolese

Togolese

Tonga

Tongan

Tongans

Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidadian, Tobagonian

Trinidadians, Tobagonians

"Trinis", "Trinibagonians"

Tunisia

Tunisian

Tunisians

Turkey

Turkish

Turks

Turkmenistan

Turkmen

Turkmens

Turks and Caicos Islands

none

Turks and Caicos Islanders

Tuvalu

Tuvaluan

Tuvaluans

Uganda

Ugandan

Ugandans

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Ukraine

Ukrainian

Ukrainians

United Arab Emirates

Emirati, Emirian

Emiratis, Emirians

United Kingdom

British

Britons

see Other words for "British"

United States

Americanj, U.S.

Americansj

Uruguay

Uruguayan

Uruguayans

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistani, Uzbek

Uzbekistanis, Uzbeks

Vanuatu

Ni-Vanuatu, Vanuatuan

Ni-Vanuatu

Venezuela

Venezuelan

Venezuelans

Vietnam

Vietnamese

Vietnamese

Virgin Islands

Virgin Island

Virgin Islanders

Wales

Welsh

Welsh

Wallis and Futuna

Wallisian, Futunan

Wallisians, Futunans

Western Sahara

Sahraw, Sahrawian, Sahraouian

Sahrawis, Sahraouis

Demonyms Country name Adjectivals


colloquial term(s)

Yemen

Yemeni

Yemenis

Zambia

Zambian

Zambians

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwean

Zimbabweans

a b c d e f g h

Formerly known as Upper Volta. Also known as Myanmar. Sometimes considered offensive. The penultimate syllable is stressed. The second syllable is stressed. Salvadorean and Salvadorian are also found, but Salvadoran is the generally preferred form. Rare and/or archaic. There is no adjective or demonym that distinguishes the Republic of Ireland from the entire island of Ireland.

When distinction from Northern Ireland is necessary, the colloquial Southern Irish orSoutherner is sometimes used; some people in the Republic of Ireland may find this offensive, though others in Northern Ireland may find it equally offensive in not distinguishing the Republic of Ireland from the island. As an alternative, an adjectival phrase may be used for instance, "a law of the Republic of Ireland" or, as a last resort, the name "Republic of Ireland" may be used as if it were an adjective (as in "a Republic of Ireland law").
i

Scotch is only normally used for manufactured products of Scotland, most commonly food and drink - in most

other contexts it is archaic and often considered mildly derogatory. Scottish is used for everything else.
j

In near-universal use, though many names for United States citizens have been proposed.