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HUMAN BIOLOGY II SUBJECT CODE: HUB 1622

CARDIVASCULAR SYSTEM : THE HEART

R.Nurjanah, MN

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this lecture, the student will able to;
1. state the location of the heart. 2. describe the structure of the heart, including the heart wall, chambers, great vessels, and valves. 3. identify the major blood vessels that enter and exit the heart. 4. describe the blood and nerve supply of the heart. 5. explain the heart conduction system. 6. describe the stages of the cardiac cycle. 7. describe the flow terms in the heart.

INTRODUCTION

Cardiovascular system;
HEART BLOOD BLOOD VESSELS

CONT
For blood to reach body cells and exchange materials with them, it must be constantly PUMP by the HEART through the bodys BLOOD VESSELS. Heart beats about 100,000 times a day.
CARDIOLOGY is
The scientific study of the normal heart and the diseases associated with the heart.

LOCATION OF THE HEART

Thoracic cavity between two lungs.

Shaped like a blunt cone.


Size = 12cm (L) x 9cm (W) x 6cm (T)

CONT

CONT

Surrounded and protected by pericardium:


1.Fibrous pericardium
Outer layer Inelastic and anchors heart in place.

CONT

2. Serous pericardium
inner layer thinner, double layer around heart.
Parietal layer is fused to fibrous pericardium. Inner visceral layer (epicardium) adheres tightly to heart.

Between the parietal and visceral layer is a thin film of fluid reduces friction during beat.

CONT Pericardium

CONT

HEART WALL

The heart wall is composed of 3 layers;


1. Epicardium: external layer
2. Myocardium: middle layer

3. Endocardium: inner layer

CONT

Epicardium Also known as the VISCERAL LAYER of serous pericardium. Thin.

Transparent outer layer of wall.


Composed of mesothelium and connective tissue.

Myocardium

Myo = muscle Consist of cardiac muscle bulk of the heart. Specialized muscle structure and function. Responsible for pumping action. Form 2 separate networks via gap junctions intercalated discs atrial and ventricular. The networks contract as 1 unit.

Cardiac muscle fibers

Endocardium

Thin layer of simple squamous epithelium.

Lines inside of myocardium.


Also covers the valves and the tendons attached to the valves of the heart.

Endocardium

endocardium

CHAMBERS OF THE HEART

4 chambers Divided by vertical septa into;


Rt and Lt ATRIA
Upper chambers separated by INTERATRIAL SEPTUM

Rt and Lt VERTRICLES
Lower chambers separated by INTERVENTRICULAR SEPTUM

CONT

Rt atria

Lt atria

Rt ventricle

Lt ventricle

CONT

The wall thickness depends on the work load


Atria thinnest

Rt ventricle pumps to lungs and thinner than left

Anterior external; surface features

Posterior external; surface features

GREAT VESSELS OF THE HEART- Rt. heart Superior & inferior Vena Cavae
Delivers deoxygenated blood to Rt atrium from body. Superior vena cava from parts of body above heart.

Inferior vena cava from parts of body below the heart. Coronary sinus drains heart muscle veins.

CONT

Rt Atrium (deoxgenated blood) Rt Ventricle (pumps through PULMONARY TRUNK) Rt & Lt PULMONARY ARTERIES lungs

GREAT VESSELS OF THE HEART- Lt heart Pulmonary Veins from lungs deliver oxygenated
blood

Pulmonary vein Lt atrium Lt ventricle ascending aorta body

VALVES

Valves

Main function to prevent back flow in response to pressure changes. TRICUSPID VALVES
Between Rt atria dan Rt ventricle 3 cups

Chordae tendineae
connect the pointed ends to papillary muscles. Prevent the valves cups from pushing up into the atria when ventricle contract.

CONT

BICUSPID/ MITRAL VALVES


Between Lt atria and Lt ventricle 2 cups

The opening and closing of the valves are due to pressure differences across the valves. The closure of tricuspid and mitral valves 1st heart sound LUBB

CONTbicuspid valves

CONT

Semilunar/ pulmonary valves


Near the origin of pulmonary trunk Closure of the valves produce 2nd heart sound DUBB

Aortic valves
Near the origin of aorta

These valves prevent the blood to flow back into the heart.

CONT

BLOOD FLOW THROUGH HEART

CONT

BLOOD SUPPLY OF HEART

Blood flow through vessels in myocardium = coronary circulation. Left & right coronary arteries branch from aorta branch to carry blood throughout muscle Deoxygenated blood collected by coronary sinus (posterior) Empties into right atrium

ARTERIAL SUPPLY OF THE HEART

RIGHT ARTERY

LEFT ARTERY

Venous drainage

NERVES SUPPLY OF THE HEART

From cardiac plexus

Consists of sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers

CONDUCTION SYSTEM

1% of cardiac muscle fibers can generate action potential in a rhythmical pattern. These cells have 2 important function;
1. PEACEMAKER
Setting the rhythm for the entire heart. Sinoatrial (SA) node

2. CONDUCTION SYSTEM
The route for action potentials throughout the heart muscle. Ensures that cardiac chambers are stimulated to contract in a coordinated manner.

CONT
Frontal plane

Left atrium
Right atrium

1 SINOATRIAL (SA) NODE 2 ATRIOVENTRICULAR (AV) NODE


3 ATRIOVENTRICULAR (AV) BUNDLE (BUNDLE OF HIS)

4 RIGHT AND LEFT BUNDLE BRANCHES


Right ventricle 5 PURKINJE FIBERS Anterior view of frontal section

Left ventricle

CONT

Begins at SA node (atria contract)


Atrioventricular node

Bundle of His Purkinje Fibers (ventricle contract)

ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG)
ECG is a recording of the electrical changes that accompany the heartbeat.

P wave
Small upward deflection on the ECG atrial depolarization Contraction begins right after peak

QRS complex
Begins as a downward deflection Ventricular depolarization Contraction of ventricle

T-wave
ventricular repolarization Just after ventricles relax

ECG

CARDIAC CYCLE

Includes all the events associated with 1 heartbeat.

Systole: contraction
Diastole: dilation/ relaxation

CONT

1. Relaxation period
Begins at the end of a cardiac when the ventricles start to relax . All 4 chambers are in diastole.

2. Atrial systole
Due to an action potential from SA node. P wave

3. Ventricular systole
QRS complex Pushes blood against AV valves

CONT

HEART SOUND

1st sound
LUBB Produce from the AV valves closing after ventricular systole.

2nd sound
DUBB Produce from the semilunar valves closing at the end of ventricular systole.

FLOW TERMS

Cardiac output (CO)


The volume of blood ejected per minute from the left ventricle into the aorta CO = Stroke volume (SV) x heart rate (HR) = 70ml/beat x 75 beats/min = 5.25 L/min

STROKE VOLUME
Sometimes some blood will be left in the ventricle at the end of their contraction. A healthy heart will pump out all blood from the previous diastole. 3 factor the regulate the SV and ensure that the Lt and Rt ventricle pump equal volumes of blood;
1. The degree of stretch in the heart before in contract 2. The frocefulness of contraction of individual ventricular muscle fibers 3. The pressure required to eject blood from the ventricle.

STROKE VOLUME (SV)

1. Degree of stretch using Frank-Starling law


diastolic Volume strength of contraction SV.
venous return SV.

2. sympathetic activity 3. High back pressure in artery SV.

HEART RATE (HR) CONTROL

Pacemaker adjusted by nerves


Cardiovascular center in medulla oblongata

parasympathetic- ACh slows


Via vagus nerve

Sympathetic - norepinephrine speeds Sensory input for control:


baroreceptors (aortic arch & carotid sinus)B.P. Chemoreceptors- O2, CO2, pH

Autonomic nervous system regulation of HR

CONT
Hormones Epinephrine & norepinephrine increase HR. Thyroid hormones stimulate HR. Called tachycardia Ions Increased Na+ or K+ decrease HR. & contraction force Increased Ca2+ increases HR. & contraction force