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Primary Sources A Look Back at the Fall. 1989. Photograph. Huffington Post, Berlin. Web. <http://www.huffing tonpost.com/2009/11/08/berlin-wall-photos-a-look_n_350263.html>.

This image was from the Huffington Post. The image is President Ronald Reagan during his speech in front of the Brandenburg Gate in West Berlin. The picture was used in the website because President Reagans speech in 1987 was believed to be one of the reasons for the destruction of the wall since the speech was directed primarily at Mr. Gorbachev. Berlin Wall. Photograph. Construction Begins, 1961. August 1961. <http://www.griffini.lo.it/ laScuola/prodotti/esami2007/LaGuerraFredda(Cremonesi)/berlinwall.htm>. This image of the Berlin Wall was used as the opening image in the slide show on the home page. The giant wall enclosed West Berlin and cut the people off from interactions with people in East Berlin. The wall restricted many people from their family, friends, and jobs on the opposite side of Berlin. Berlin Wall 1961. Photograph. Life and Time. Paul Schutzer. <http://life.time.com/history/berlin- wall-photos-from-the-early-days-of-a-brutal-cold-warsymbol/attachment/31-2/>. This photograph depicts the concrete blocks and barbed wire of the Berlin Wall. The picture was used as the opening black and white image of the website. Berlin Wall Tumbles. Newspaper Article. London Herald. 11 November 1989. <http://www.go historygo.com/?_escaped_fragment_=the-wall-comes-down-/c1del>. This is the front page of a newspaper article written just two days after the Berlin Wall was opened. As the heading says, the fall of the wall is the beginning of the end of communism. The fall of the wall unified the two sides of Berlin, which unified two different sides of people who had not seen each other in over 28 years. This article was used to portray that the opening of the wall was an extremely big deal because it gave citizens their freedom of movement again. Berstein, Rose Sue. "Berlin Traffic Treaty Unites Split Germany." The Michigan Daily. Newspaper Article. 27 May 1972. Web. <http://news.google.comnewspapersnid=aGxtz YPGyQEC&dat=19720527&printsec=frontpage&hl=en>. This newspaper article was used in the project to exemplify how German government was being influenced by the citizens of Berlin. The article showed that this one treaty, known as the Traffic Treaty, largely effects the unification of Germany between multiple powers and sides of the country. The article was also used to show that throughout the time that the Berlin Wall remained standing, the East German government made com promises and agreements with other countries, including the Traffic Treaty.

Borneman, John. Photograph. The Berlin Wall. Citizen Zoo. <https://citizenzoo.wordpress. com/category/berlin/>. This image is of the long stretches of barbed wire that covered the tall, concrete wall. The picture also showed that there were buildings and checkpoints in close areas to the wall. This picture helped show that the wall actually cut the city in half, sometimes even forcing the construction workers to knock down buildings in order to continue the wall. Brokaw, Tom, dir. "The Berlin Wall Falls 1989 NBC Coverage." NBC News. NBC. 10 Nov. 1989. Television. This newscast was used to provide authentic view of the Berlin Wall and the information within Berlin on the day the wall began to be destroyed. This newscast was cut and used in one of the videos in the website to show the lengths citizens and soldiers were going to in order to destroy the Berlin Wall as quickly as possible. The video provided interviews with citizens and firefighters, and offered a first-hand reaction to the take-down of this dividing wall. Construction Begins. Photograph. Construction Begins August 1961. <itguidedhealer.com/ Russia/berlinwall.html>. The construction of the Berlin Wall began on the morning of August 13, 1961. This picture, used in the Historical Context section of the website, shows two men adding concrete blocks to the wall to try to keep West Berliners from escaping. The main reason the East German government constructed the Berlin Wall was to gain a prosperous economy. West Berlin had a strong economy, so millions of East Berliners left to go live in the West to gain a better living. The East Berlin government wanted to keep their doctors, teachers, factory workers, and other laborers in East Berlin so that the economy did not completely fall apart. Destroying a Wall. Photograph. The Independent. November 1989. <http://www.independent. co.uk/news/world/europe/20th-anniversary-special-two-days-that-destroyed-a-wallndash-and-a-world-order-1816843.html>. This image was taken of a man who was helping in destroying the Berlin Wall. Although no exact date was found with this picture, it can be assumed that this man took this hammer to the Berlin Wall soon after the announcement of its opening on November 9, 1989. This image was used to show the eagerness of the people of Berlin to destroy this wall and reunite the two sides of the city. Drawing the Wall. Photograph. Ministry of State Security. Grenztruppen. <http://www.conserva pedia.com/File:Berlin_Wall_layout.jpg>. This drawing shows the structural layout of the Berlin Wall. It is representing part of the wall in the late 1970s. In the drawing, West Berlin is depicted on the left while East Berlin is show on the right.

Germany. Federal Republic of Germany. Freedom of Movement within State Territory, n.d. Legislation Online. <http://legislationline.org/topics/subtopic/44/topic/10/country/28>. This official article from the German government laid out the right for citizens to move freely throughout Germany. This article was used to show that by building the Berlin Wall, the Germany government was violating this right that was owed to all citizens of Germany. It was the governments responsibility to maintain this freedom of movement for all citizens, not block the freedom by building a wall between two sides of Berlin. Kennedy, John F. Ich bin ein Berliner Speech. 26 June 1963. Text/Video. Miller Center <http://millercenter.org/president/speeches/detail/3376>. John F. Kennedy spoke in Berlin less than two years after the wall began being construct ed. Kennedy gave this speech to offer Americas support to the people of Berlin and to tell them that America will assist them if they can. Kennedy made a strong point that he did not agree with the building of the Berlin Wall, for it restricted many rights of Berlin citizens, including the right to travel and make a free choice. The speech was cut and put into the website to demonstrate a portion of Kennedys thoughts towards the German government while Berlin was divided. Keystone. Photograph. Separated. Getty Images. NBC News. <http://www.nbcnews.com/ slideshow/news/the-rise-and-fall-of-the-berlin-wall-33587033>. This was an image of two mothers waving to their children and grandchildren. The mothers were in East Berlin while the their children and grandchildren were trapped in West Berlin. The picture was used in the Rights section of the website to exemplify the fact that the wall separated families and loved ones from each other. Lacke, Robert. Photograph. Divided. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images. <http://content.time. com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1631993_1383211,00.html>. This image depicted the wall with a woman who was looking through a small opening of the wall to try to see what was on the other side. This woman could have been separated from her family and was attempting to find or communicate with them. The image was used in the slide show on the home page of the website. Potsdam Agreement. The Potsdam Conference. Stalin, Truman, and Attlee. 1 August 1945. Yale Law School. <http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/decade17.asp>. At the Potsdam Conference, from July 17 to August 2, 1945, General Secretary Joseph Stalin, President Harry S. Truman, and Prime Minister Clement Attlee met to discuss the fate of western Europe after World War II. They developed the Potsdam Agreement which divided Germany into four sectors. It was a plan for future German military development and the reconstruction of the country.

Querrec, Guy Le. Photograph. The Wall. Magnum. <http://www.altraottica.it/author/admin/ page/3/>. This photograph was of two soldiers watching a crowd to ensure there was no rebellions. During the twenty-eight years that the wall stood, soldiers were told to patrol and possibly shoot from watchtowers. They would shoot to kill any person from West Berlin who attempted to escape over the wall or tried to damage the wall. Reagan, Ronald. "Ronald Reagan Remarks at the Brandenburg Gate." Speech. 12 June 1987. American Rhetoric. <http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/ronaldreaganbran denburggate.htm>. President Ronald Reagan gave this speech to inform the people of East Berlin that the United States, along with many other allying countries, were on their side, and hoped to destroy the Berlin Wall. With this information, the speech demonstrated that the United States supported the destruction of the wall and the unification of Berlin again. This unification was demonstrated especially when President Reagan said to the global audience, Es gibt nur ein Berlin (There is only one Berlin). President Reagan also stated that the people of East Berlin had lost their rights to freely travel across Berlin and that the U.S., along with British and French forces, felt that they had the responsibility to assist the people of East Berlin, to bring freedom, hope, and unity to all of Berlin, and to enlighten the minds of young Berliners. This speech directly offered the United States outlook on the presence of the Berlin Wall until it was finally destroyed in 1989, which allowed a distinction to be made between these views and those of the German governments. Sanders, Walter. Berlin Blockade and Airlift. Photograph. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images. <http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/classes/133c/133cproj/08proj/ Shlaim1983Thomson08z.htm>. The people of Berlin in this picture are waiting for cargo planes to come to West Berlin during the Berlin blockade to drop them food and supplies. The blockade cut off re sources for the people of West Berlin, requiring the people to either get necessities in Berlin or wait to receive items from cargo planes, such as the one in this picture.

East

Schutzer, Paul. Photograph. Broken Glass. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images. <berlin-wallphotos-from-the-early-days-of-a-brutal-cold-war-symbol/?iid=lb-gal-viewagn#1>. People often attempted to climb over the Berlin Wall to escape from West Berlin. Few succeeded. A failed escape attempt could have been the result of being stopped at the top of the wall by broken glass. When barbed wire was not at the top of the wall, broken glass was a common alternative. Between broken glass, barbed wire, and armed soldiers, few people escaped over the giant wall to make it into East Berlin. Schutzer, Paul. Photograph. No Mans Land. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images. <http://content. time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1631993_1383212,00.html>.

This image, used in the slide show on the home page, showed the barbed wire and wall that split the city. The land that surrounded the wall was all torn up and destroyed due to the fact that so much land had to be dug up and displaced to construct the wall. Schutzer, Paul. Photograph. The Watchful Crowd. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images. <http:// life.time.com/history/berlin-wall-photos-from-the-early-days-of-a-brutal-cold-war-sym bol/?iid=lb-gal-viewagn#6>. This watchful crowd was observing this one soldier. The crowd appeared to be in West Berlin while the soldier seems to be on the opposite side of the city. The picture was taken in August of 1961, so the crowd was most likely attempted to question or rebel against the soldier and wall. The Wall. Photograph. Berlin Wall from West Berlin. <http://www.english-online.at/places/ berlin-wall/berlin-wall.htm>. This famous image of the Berlin Wall was taken from West Berlin. The graffiti-covered, concrete wall was lined with soldiers to make sure that no one succeeded in escaping from West Berlin. The image was used in the slide show on the home page of the website. Ulbricht, Walter. Letter from Ulbricht to Khrushchev. 18 January, 1961. <http://digita larchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/117140>. This letter from Walter Ulbricht to Nikita Khrushchev discusses the question of whether peace treaty or non-aggression pact should be made in order to help solve problems involving West Berlin. Ulbricht is aware that West Berlin has a far more advanced and prosperous economy than East Berlin. This letter also discusses steps that can be taken to try to help East Berlin increase their economy to try to reach the same level as West Berlin.

Ulbricht, Walter. "Letter from Ulbricht to Khrushchev on Closing the Border around West Berlin." Letter to Nikita Khrushchev. 15 Sept. 1961. <http://legacy.wilsoncenter.org/ coldwarfiles/files/Documents/19610915_Ulbricht_Khrushchev.pdf>. This letter from German communist politician Walter Ulbricht to Soviet Union leader Nikita Khrushchev was written on September 15, 1961, about one month after the Berlin Wall began construction. The letter was written to inform Khrushchev of the progress that was being made in Berlin with the recent separation of East and West Berlin. Ulbricht included a list of achievements that were gained by constructing the wall, which gave the responsibilities that German governments felt they needed to offer to the Germans, including the protection of the German Democratic Republic from military actions and civil war of West Berlin. This letter allowed a contrast to be made between the Germans and opposing countries viewpoints to better explain the responsibilities that the German government felt they owed to their citizens. The section that states information about the factories and workers helped to draw in the German citizens views on the Ber-

lin Wall and how it was effecting them and the whole economic system of both sides of Berlin. Wilds, J. Photograph. East German Guards. Getty Images. 29 May 1965. <http://history.how stuffworks.com/historical-events/berlin-wall3.htm>. The guards along the East Berlin side of the wall patrolled the surrounding areas to make sure there were no escapees. This image of two guards with binoculars was taken in May, 1965 after a visit from Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip. The image was used in the Responsibilities section of the website. Yalta Conference. Photograph. United States Army. February 1945. <http://www.shmoop.com/ wwii/photo-yalta.html>. This photo shows Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin at the Yalta Conference in Russia in 1945. This conference was just about seven months before the end of World War II. These three men were the government heads of their country (Churchill-United Kingdom, Roosevelt-United States, Stalin-Soviet Union). The Big Three also met at the Tehran Conference and Potsdam Conference. The purposes of these conferences were to create post-WWII negotiations and boundaries. These boundaries included divided control of the Balkans, Germany, and eastern Europe. Secondary Sources Artzybasheff, Boris. Picture. The Wall. Time: The Weekly Magazine. 31 August 1962. <http:// content.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,19620831,00.html>. This was a magazine cover from August of 1962, over one year after the wall began being constructed. The cover picture was a drawing that depicted the struggle people were going through to try to escape the trapped life in West Berlin. Many people lost their lives trying to escape into East Berlin. Some were shot while others bled to death after getting tangled in barbed wire or broken glass. Berlin Airlift. Animated Map. History.com. Poster. <http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/mar cuse/classes/133c/133cPrevYears/133c06/133c06l09CausesDivision1953.htm>. This is a poster used by East Germans to display the different air routes to get into West Berlin during the Berlin Blockade. The poster depicts the situation around mid-1948. These were thought to be the only three air routes that spanned from East Berlin going in to West Berlin.

Division of Germany. Animated Map. Global Research. <www.globalresearch.ca/frenzy-inthe -gold-market-the-repatriation-of-germanys-post-world-war-ii-gold-reserves/5319287>.

This map is of the divided Germany that resulted after the Potsdam Agreement in July of 1945. The division was between the Soviet Union, France, United States, and Britain. Berlin was also divided between these four powers. However, Berlin was in the Soviet Unions sector of Germany. Kempe, Frederick. Berlin 1961: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Most Dangerous Place on Earth. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 2011. Print. This book offers insight and information about the Cold War and other events leading up to the construction of the Berlin Wall. The book highlights information and events involving Ulbricht, Kennedy, Konrad Adenauer, and Khrushchev, who called Berlin the most dangerous place on Earth in 1961. The book was also extremely helpful in providing quotes about various events. Each chapter of the book began with two or more quotes, most of which were by the four men highlighted throughout the book. Kenny, Jack. "The Wall, Hiding Shame." 22 Aug. 2011. <http://morganhighhistoryacadety.org/ The%20Wall%20Hiding%20Shame%20TNA%20August%2022,%202011.pdf>. This article was written by Jack Kenny, an American historical writer, about the importance of the Berlin Wall to the Germans. One of the main arguments made in the article was that the Berlin Wall was originally created by the German government to prevent the continual fleeing of Germans from East Berlin to the West. Also, the article described that the working conditions in East Berlin after the wall was created were much harsher than those of West Berlin. The specific information about how the Germans received permission to build the wall and how the Americans and other countries came to the aid of East Berlin offered an incite into the reasons behind the wall and how it had dramatically effected not only the lives of Berliners, but also those of allying countries, including America. The section titled A Strategy Reworked stated information about the original responsibility of the German government with the Berlin Wall, which was to protect the Germans from military powers of the West. The author stated that with the destruction of the wall, Germany became a reunified country and a free republic. Sebestyen, Victor. Revolution 1989: The Fall of the Soviet Empire. New York: Pantheon, 2009. Print. This book was very useful in providing information about the Soviet Unions opinions. The book was mostly used to provide detailed information about the fall of the Berlin Wall. Quotes and descriptions about the government and Berlin Wall were used from the book in the website. This book focused much more on the fall of the wall and the consequences that came with that, rather than the walls construction. Sectors of Berlin. Animated Map. Landscape Architecture Study Tour. <http://people.umass.e du/latour/Germany/ljennings/>. Berlin, in 1945, was divided into these four sectors. The four powers that control the different sectors are France, Great Britain, United States, and Soviet Union. This

animated map was used in the Historical Context section to show the ruling powers of Berlin. This great influenced the construction of the Berlin Wall since the majority of the land was controlled by the Soviet Union, leading to a greater influence on the outcome of the city. Selvage, Douglas, trans. "New Evidence on the Berlin Crisis 1958-1962." Cold War International History Project Bulletin 11 (n.d.): 200-29. Wilson Center. <http:// www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/CWIHPBulletin11_p5.pdf>. Douglas Selvage translated, annotated, and wrote the introduction to this article in the Cold War International History Project Bulletin. Selvage is currently a research specialist in the history of Berlin, the Soviet Union, and Germany, with major publications of articles including reports on Soviet-American Relations. This article by Selvage described events in German before the Berlin Wall was built, which included the initial announcement by Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, to turn control of Berlin by the Soviet Union over to the German Democratic Republic. The article described that Khrushchev seemed unmotivated and unwilling to negotiate the control by Western powers over Berlin. The description of a conference with Polish party members allowed the outlook of German government to be seen. Also, the article described the West German reaction to the possible war and control of Berlin. The article overall provided German opinions of the Cold War and the possible solutions and peace treaties that the country would need to initiate to avoid a civil war. Taylor, Fred. The Berlin Wall: A World Divided, 1961-1989. New York: Harper Perennial, 2008. Print. This book captures the complete story of the Berlin Wall, from its reasoning to its rise to its fall. The book focuses on the reasoning behind many events, including the Berlin Blockade. Information about other sources was another great use for this book. The back of the book had a bibliography to list the authors sources, so some of those sources were researched and put into the website. A few illustrations from the book were further looked up and a couple were used in the website. This book was extremely helpful at the beginning of the project because it helped guide further research into other sources. The Berlin Wall. 1961. Emerson Kent. Cartoon. <http://www.emersonkent.com/history_dic tionary/berlin_wall.htm>. This picture was used to show the separation that the Berlin Wall caused, along with the different crossing points between the two sides of Berlin. The crossing points were opened to a limited number of people who had official visas and other documents authorizing their venturing into the opposite side.