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EEM1026:

EEM1026 Engineering Mathematics II


Tutorial: Partial Differential Equations

1. In each of the following, classify the equation according to their order and linearity. (a) u2 uxx + uy = cos(u) (b) x2ux + y2uy + uxy = 2xy 2 (c) (x y ) ux + uxy = 1 (d) uy / ux = x2 (e) ux uxuy uy = 0 2. In each of the following, classify the given partial differential equations as hyperbolic, parabolic, or elliptic. (a)
u x2 u x2
2 2

u x y 6 u x y
2

u y2
2

u (c) xy 2 x2
0

2x
2

u y x y

u y2

xyu

(b)

u y2

(d) 3a 2

u x2

t2

, a is a constant.

3. Set up the initial-value problem for the vibration of an infinite string. Initially, the string is undisplaced but has the initial velocity sin( x). 4. A string of length L coincides with the interval [0, L] on the x-axis. Set up the initial boundary-value problem for the displacement u(x, t). (a) The ends are secured to the x-axis. The string is released from rest from the initial displacement x(L x). (b) The left end is secured to the x-axis, but the right end moves in a transverse manner according to sin( t). The string is released from rest from the initial displacement f(x). 5. A rod of length L coincides with the interval [0, L] on the x-axis. Set up the initial boundary-value problem for the temperature u(x, t) for the following conditions: (a) The left end is held at temperature u0, and the right end is held at temperature u1. The initial temperature is zero throughout. (b) The left end is held at temperature zero, and the right end is insulated. The initial temperature is f(x) throughout. 6. Set up the boundary-value problem for the steady-state temperature u(x, y). (a) A thin rectangular plate coincides with the region defined by 0 x 4, 0 y 2. The left end and the bottom of the plate are insulated. The top of the plate is held at temperature zero, and the right end of the plate is held at temperature f(y). (b) A semi-infinite plate coincides with the region defined by 0 x , y 0. The y left end is held at temperature e , and the right end is held at temperature 100 for 0 < y 1 and temperature zero for y > 1. The bottom of the plate is held at temperature f(x).

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7. Solve (a)

utt = 92 uxx for < x < , t > 0, u(x, 0) = cos(2x), ut (x, 0) = x for utt = 36 uxx for < x < , t > 0, u(x, 0) = 3x, ut (x, 0) = 3x2 for (ans: (a) u x, t

<x< .

(b)

<x< .
3x 3x 2t 36 t 3 )

cos(2 x) cos(18t ) xt , (b) u x, t

8. Solve the following initial boundary value problem: utt = 9 uxx for x > 0, t > 0 u(x,0) = x2 , ut (x, 0) = e-x, for x 0, u(0, t) = 0, for t > 0. (ans: u x, t
x2 x2 9t 2 9t 2
1 3 1 3

e x sinh 3t , x 3t e
3t

0 0

sinh x , x 3t

9. Solve the following IVBP. utt = c2 uxx for x > 0, t > 0 u(x, 0) = f(x), ut(x, 0) = g(x), for x u(0, t) = s(t) for t > 0
x ct 1 2

0.

f x ct
x c 1 2

f x ct f x ct f

1 2c

g s ds, x ct
x ct x ct

0
)

(ans: u x, t

st

x ct

1 2c

g s ds, x ct
x ct

10. Use separation of variables to find, if possible, product solutions of the given PDE. (a) ux = uy (b) xux = yuy 2 2 2 2 2 u u u u u 0 u (c) 2 (d) 2 2 x x y y x y2 (ans: (a) u ( x, y )
Ce
(x y)

, (b) u ( x, y )

C ( xy ) , (c) not separable )

11. A string is fixed at x=0 and x=a and lies initially along the x axis. If it is set in motion by giving all points 0 < x < a a constant transverse velocity ut = V0 at t=0, by using the separable solution, show that the subsequent motion is given by 2V0 a n x n ct n u 1 1 sin sin . 2 2 c a a n 1 n If the initial conditions for the string are changed to
x u x,0 a x
2

in in

0 1 a 2

x x

1 a 2 a

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and the string is released from rest in this position, determine the displacement at any subsequent time. (ans: u ( x, t )
n

4a n n c n sin( ) cos( t ) sin( x) ) 2 2 2 a a 1 n

12. The vibrating string problem


a 2 u xx utt 0, 0 u 1, t 0, u x,0 0, x 1, t t 0 0 x 1 0 u 0, t 0, ut x,0 1,

has solution of the form


u x, t X xT t.
2
n 1 n 2 2

Find the formal solution of the above problem. (ans: u ( x, t )


a 1 ( 1) n sin(n at ) sin(n x) )

13. Consider a bar of length L. The face at x = 0 is insulated so that the heat flow across is zero, and the face at x = L is held at the temperature u = 0. The temperature distribution is governed by the heat equation ut = k2 uxx. Show that the normal modes of u(x, t) are
un x, t 2n 1 x Bn cos e 2L
2n 1
2 2 2

k t

4 L2

14. Solve the following IVBP governed by the diffusion equation. ut = 7uxx for 0 < x < 5, t > 0 u(0,t) = 1, u(5,t) = 4 for t > 0

u x,0

f x

3 x 10 x 3
4 n

for 0

3 x 5
n x sin e 5
n 5
2

for 3

(ans: u x, t

3 x 1 5

n 1

32 ( 1) n n

110 3 sin n 2 2 5 n

7t

15. Solve the following initial boundary value problem: utt u xx Ax, 0 x L, t

u 0, t u x,0

u L, t 0, ut x,0 0,
A x( L2 6
3

0 x L, t 0.
x2 )
n

(ans: u x, t

2 AL3 ( 1) n n x n t sin cos ) 3 3 L L n 1