, EFSTATHIOS VELENIS
SUMMARY
The LuGre dynamic point contact friction model for the twodimensional translation of
a body on a surface has been used to derive a model for the friction forces and moments
at the contact patch of a tire. The resulting tire friction model is distributed, i.e., is
described by a set of partial dierential equations. Several approximations have been
used in the literature to approximate this distributed model using a set of ordinary
dierential equations, making the model more appropriate for control design and on
line estimation. In this paper the method of moments is used to derive a set of ordinary
dierential equations to describe the exact average dynamics of the distributed model.
Three cases of normal load distribution are considered and compared with each other:
uniform, trapezoidal and quartic load distribution. Simulations are also presented to
compare with existing approximate lumped models.
1 INTRODUCTION
In the past several years, the problem of modeling and predicting tire friction has
become an area of intense research in the automotive community. Knowledge of
the friction characteristics is necessary for the development of control systems
such as ABS, TCS, ESP, etc. which have enhanced safety and maneuverability
of modern passenger vehicles.
Recently, a new class of tire friction models has been developed that cap
tures the dynamic behavior of friction forcesthe socalled dynamic tire friction
models. In [1] dynamic models that handle the rateindependent hysteresis phe
nomena observed in practice were proposed. As an application to this work, a
dynamic elastoplastic friction model was developed in [2]. This friction model
Corresponding author.
= v
ri
(t) C
0i
(v
r
)z
i
(t, ), i = x, y (1)
i
(t, ) =
0i
z
i
(t, )
1i
z
i
(t, )
t
2
v
ri
(t), i = x, y (2)
F
i
(t) =
_
L
0
i
(t, )f
n
()d, i = x, y (3)
M
z
(t) =
_
L
0
y
(t, )f
n
()
_
L
2
_
d (4)
By z
i
(t, ), i = x, y, we denote the internal friction states [12] which correspond
to the elastic deformations of the tire element at time t and position on the
contact patch, along the longitudinal x and lateral y directions. In accordance
to the above discussion, the boundary condition for equations (1) is z
i
(t, 0) = 0.
4 P.Tsiotras, E.Velenis and M. Sorine
This imposes the condition that the tire ber is undeected as it enters the patch.
The constants
0i
, i = x, y, correspond to the stiness of the tire elements
in the x and y directions, while
1i
and
2i
are damping constants for the
friction coecient
i
(t, ). The functions C
0i
(v
r
) characterize the steadystate
characteristics of the model (for more details the reader is referred to [12]). For
a tire with the same static friction characteristics along the longitudinal and
lateral directions, as the one considered in [11], C
0i
(v
r
) is given by
C
0i
(v
r
) =
v
r

0i
g(v
r
)
, i = x, y (5)
where,
g(v
r
) =
k
+
_
k
_
e
(
vr
vs
)
. (6)
In (6)
k
and
s
denote the kinetic and static Coulomb friction coecients,
respectively, and v
s
denotes the Stribeck characteristic velocity [9]. The param
eter is used to achieve desirable steadystate behavior of the tire friction [8].
The function f
n
() in (3) denotes the normal load distribution along the contact
patch. The relative velocity components of the contact patch with respect to
the road v
ri
, i = x, y, appear as inputs in the system of equations (1)(4) and
are given by
v
rx
= r v cos() (7)
v
ry
= v sin() (8)
where is the angular rate of the tire and r its radius. By v we denote the
magnitude of the translational speed of the wheel and by the slip angle (Fig. 1).
The relative velocity vector between the tire and the surface is v
r
= [v
rx
, v
ry
]
T
and v
r
 =
_
v
2
rx
+ v
2
ry
. The output of the model is the longitudinal F
x
(t) and
lateral F
y
(t) friction forces at the center of the patch as well as the aligning
moment M
z
(t).
In the following sections we present a methodology for expressing the exact
dynamics of the distributed model (1)(4) by a set of ordinary dierential equa
tions instead of the partial dierential equation (1), for several special cases of
the normal load distribution f
n
().
3 EXACT LUMPED MODEL USING
THE METHOD OF MOMENTS
Dene the pth moment of z
i
(t, ) for [a, b] as follows
M
ab
p,i
(t) :=
_
b
a
z
i
(t, )
p
d, i = x, y (9)
A LuGre Tire Friction Model with Exact Aggregate Dynamics 5
Taking the time derivative of M
ab
p,i
yields,
M
ab
p,i
(t) =
_
b
a
z
i
(t, )
t
p
d
=
_
b
a
_
v
ri
C
0i
(v
r
)z
i
(t, ) r
z
i
(t, )
p
d
=
b
p+1
a
p+1
p + 1
v
ri
C
0i
(v
r
)
_
b
a
z
i
(t, )
p
d
r
_
b
a
z
i
(t, )
p
d. (10)
Integrating by parts, (10) gives a recursive formula for the calculation of all
moments M
ab
p,i
for p 1
M
ab
p,i
=
b
p+1
a
p+1
p + 1
v
ri
C
0i
(v
r
)M
ab
p,i
rz
i
(t, )
p
b
a
+ rpM
ab
p1,i
(11)
For p = 0 equation (10) yields
M
ab
0,i
= (b a)v
ri
C
0i
(v
r
)M
ab
0,i
r
_
z
i
(t, b) z
i
(t, a)
_
(12)
Given any suciently smooth normal load distribution f
n
(), we can approxi
mate f
n
with its Taylor series expansion as follows
f
n
()
m
k=0
c
k
k
(13)
for some constants c
0
, c
1
, ..., c
m
. Note that the total normal load on the contact
patch is given by
F
n
=
_
L
0
f
n
()d. (14)
Using the denition of the moments M
ab
p,i
, and using (13) the friction forces
F
i
(t), i = x, y in (3) can then be written as follows
F
i
(t) =
_
L
0
_
0i
z
i
+
1i
z
i
t
+
2i
v
ri
_
f
n
()d
=
0i
m
k=0
c
k
M
0L
k,i
1i
m
k=0
c
k
M
0L
k,i
2i
v
ri
F
n
(15)
Finally, the aligning torque M
z
(t) in (4) can be written in terms of the moments
M
ab
p,i
as
M
z
(t) =
_
L
0
_
0y
z
y
+
1y
z
y
t
+
2y
v
ry
_
f
n
()
_
L
2
_
d
6 P.Tsiotras, E.Velenis and M. Sorine
=
L
2
F
y
(t) +
2y
v
ry
_
L
0
f
n
()d
+
0y
m
k=0
c
k
M
0L
k+1,y
+
1y
m
k=0
c
k
M
0L
k+1,y
(16)
3.1 Closure Relationship
Equations (11), (12) require the time history of the internal friction states z
i
(t, )
for xed positions on the contact patch, namely, = a and = b. In this section
we discuss the calculation of these terms.
Going back to the original partial dierential equation (1) let us consider
the characteristics given by
t = t(s) , = (s)
with
t
s
= 1 ,
s
= r.
Let the characteristic y(s) = (t(s)) starting from = 0 at time t for some
(still unknown) and ending at =
0
at time t. Then
0
0
z
i
(t , 0) = 0
z
i
(t(s), (s))
z
i
(t,
0
)
t
t
Figure 2: Solution z
i
(t, ) along the characteristic y(s) = (t(s)).
y(t
) =
_
t
t
r()d (17)
A LuGre Tire Friction Model with Exact Aggregate Dynamics 7
and y(t) =
0
. Hence,
0
=
_
t
t
r()d (18)
Let us follow the solution along the characteristic (Fig. 2). To this end, dene
i
(t) := z
i
(t, y(t)). Thus,
i
(t) =
z
i
t
+
z
i
y
y
t
= v
ri
C
0i
(v
r
)
i
(t) (19)
with initial condition
i
(t ) = z
i
(t , y(t )) = z
i
(t , 0) = 0 .
Finally, z
i
(t,
0
) =
i
(t) and is such that (18) holds. By setting
0
= a and
0
= b we now have an expression for the last term in (12).
4 THE EFFECT OF NORMAL FORCE DISTRIBUTION
In this section we derive the exact aggregate LuGre tire friction model for sev
eral specic cases of normal force distribution f
n
(). Namely, we provide the
moment calculations for several simple load distributions commonly used in the
literature (e.g., uniform, trapezoidal) [16, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12], as well as for the
more realistic load distribution with quartic dependence. A quartic polyno
mial produces normal load proles for f
n
which are very close to empirical ones
(Fig. 3(b)). At any rate, the methodology developed here may be used to incor
porate any smooth or piecewise smooth f
n
() load distribution along the patch.
Figure 3(a) shows a comparison between several normal load distributions.
4.1 Exact Lumped Model for Uniform Load Distribution
The uniform load distribution f
n
() = c
0
is derived from (13) with m = 0 while
in equations (11) and (12) we substitute a = 0 and b = L. The dynamics of
friction are described by ve ordinary dierential equations with states M
0L
0,x
,
M
0L
0,y
from equation (12), M
0L
1,y
from equation (11) with p = 1 and z
x
(t, L),
z
y
(t, L) from equation (19). A methodology for choosing appropriate initial
conditions to integrate these odes is discussed in Section 4.4.
4.2 Exact Lumped Model for Trapezoidal Load Distribution
In [11] it was shown that the LuGre tire friction model with uniform load distri
bution reproduced the longitudinal and lateral forces matching very well other
empirical models (at least at steadystate). However, this model failed to repro
duce realistic aligning torque characteristics. In order to accurately capture the
behavior of the aligning moment one needs to introduce the eects of pneumatic
8 P.Tsiotras, E.Velenis and M. Sorine
trail. This was achieved in [11] with the introduction of a trapezoidal normal
load distribution (Fig. 3).
For a trapezoidal distribution the function f
n
() is given by
f
n
() =
_
_
_
C
1
for 0 a,
f
max
for a b,
C
2
+ C
3
for b L.
(20)
The normal load distribution above is only piecewise smooth and the approx
imation (13) cannot be used directly. In this case, it is necessary to consider
dierent moments of z
i
(t, ) for dierent parts of the contact patch. To this end
let M
0a
p,i
(t) for [0, a], M
ab
p,i
(t) for (a, b) and M
bL
p,i
(t) for [b, L]. Thus,
the dynamics of friction are described by a set of nineteen ordinary dierential
equations with states z
i
(t, a), z
i
(t, b) and z
i
(t, L), M
0a
0,i
, M
ab
0,i
and M
bL
0,i
from
equation (12), M
0a
1,i
and M
bL
1,i
from equation (11), with i = x, y and nally M
0a
2,y
,
M
ab
1,y
and M
bL
2,y
again from equation (11). The calculation of z
i
(t, a), z
i
(t, b) and
z
i
(t, L) is done in accordance to the discussion of Section 3.1 using equation
(19). The choice of initial conditions is discussed in Section 4.4.
The forces are given by
F
i
(t) =
0i
_
C
1
M
0a
1,i
+ f
max
M
ab
0,i
+ C
2
M
bL
1,i
+ C
3
M
bL
0,i
_
1i
_
C
1
M
0a
1,i
+ f
max
M
ab
0,i
+ C
2
M
bL
1,i
+ C
3
M
bL
0,i
_
2i
v
ri
F
n
, i = x, y (21)
and the aligning torque by
M
z
(t) =
L
2
F
y
+
2y
v
ry
_
L
0
f
n
()d
+
0y
_
C
1
M
0a
2,y
+ f
max
M
ab
1,y
+ C
2
M
bL
2,y
+ C
3
M
bL
1,y
_
+
1y
_
C
1
M
0a
2,y
+ f
max
M
ab
1,y
+ C
2
M
bL
2,y
+ C
3
M
bL
1,y
_
. (22)
4.3 Exact Lumped Model for a Quartic Load Distribution
In this section we introduce another approximation for the normal load distri
bution at the contact patch. The quartic normal load distribution (Fig. 3) is
derived from (13) for m = 4:
f
n
() = c
4
4
+ c
3
3
+ c
2
2
+ c
1
+ c
0
(23)
Using this approximation, one is able to incorporate the eects of the pneumatic
trail, resulting to realistic aligning torque predictions, as well as the natural
boundary conditions of the normal load distribution, i.e. f
n
( = 0) = f
n
( =
L) = 0. In addition, the proposed expression is smooth along the whole length
of the contact patch and the pth moment of z
i
(t, ) from = 0 to = L, M
0L
p,i
,
may be used. Thus, we avoid splitting the integral (10) as was done for the
A LuGre Tire Friction Model with Exact Aggregate Dynamics 9
trapezoidal distribution. This also results in a smaller number of states (and
dierential equations).
It can be easily shown that in this case the dynamics of the tire friction
are described by a set of thirteen ordinary dierential equations with states
z
x
(t, L) and z
y
(t, L) from equation (19), M
0L
p,x
and M
0L
p,y
with p = 0, 1, ..., 4 from
equations (11) and (12) and M
0L
5,y
from equation (11). Once again, the choice
of initial conditions is discussed in Section 4.4.
f
n
(
)
cubic
trapezoid
trapezoid (nonparallelogram)
quartic
a b
0 L
(a) (b)
Figure 3: (a) Possible choices of f
n
(); (b) Empirical plots of normal load
distribution taken from [20].
4.4 Initial Conditions
The initial condition
i
(0) = z
i
(0,
0
) required in (19) can be calculated easily
by integrating (19) from t = to t = 0, where
=
0
r
. (24)
Under the assumption that during this period v, and are constant, one
obtains
(t = 0) =
v
ri
C
0i
(v
r
)
_
1 e
C0i(vr)
_
(25)
Substituting from (24) in (25) one obtains
(t = 0) =
v
ri
C
0i
(v
r
)
_
1 e
C
0i
(vr)
0
r
_
= z
i
(0,
0
) (26)
The same result can also be obtained by assuming that the tire is initially at
steadystate with constant , v and . To this end, we may enforce
zi(t,)
t
= 0
in equation (1) to obtain
z
i
(t, )
=
1
r
_
v
ri
C
0i
(v
r
)z
i
(t, )
_
, i = x, y (27)
10 P.Tsiotras, E.Velenis and M. Sorine
Taking into consideration the boundary condition z
i
(t, 0) = 0 (no deection
at the entry point of the contact patch) and the steadystate conditions of
constant , v and , we may integrate (27) to obtain the distribution z
ss
i
() of
z
i
(i = x, y), along the contact patch length at steadystate, as in [11] and [12].
z
ss
i
() =
v
ri
C
0i
(v
r
)
_
1 e
C
0i
(vr)
r
_
, i = x, y (28)
Note that for =
0
the previous expression coincides with (26).
Using the expression (28), equivalently (26), in (9) we can then calculate the
initial conditions M
ab
pi
(0) for all the moment equations (11), (12).
5 NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS
In this section we present numerical simulations of the previously developed
lumped LuGre tire friction models [10, 11, 12] and compare the results with
the exact lumped model developed in this paper. The tire friction models under
consideration are subject to the same excitation, consisting of a linearly decreas
ing angular rate from 32 rad/sec to zero within 2 sec, and constant velocity
v and slip angle (Fig. 1). It should be pointed out that this is a controlled
excitation that can be achieved only in a laboratory environment. For a wheeled
vehicle, reduction in is normally accompanied by a reduction in the vehicle
speed v as well.
5.1 Uniform Normal Load Distribution
In [11] two approximate lumped LuGre tire friction models were developed.
These models are summarized in the equations below:
z
i
(t) = v
ri
_
C
0i
(v
r
) +
i
L
r
_
z
i
(t), i = x, y (29)
F
i
(t) = F
n
_
0i
z
i
+
1i
z
i
+
2i
v
ri
_
, i = x, y (30)
The two dierent lumped models correspond to dierent choices (approxima
tions) of
i
. This term is either approximated as constant, i.e.,
i
[1.1 1.4],
or as a function of and v
r
, i.e.,
i
=
ss
i
(v
r
, ), such that the steadystate
solution of the lumped model captures exactly the steadystate solution of the
distributed model. In the latter case the expression for
i
is given as follows
[11]
ss
i
=
1 e
L/Zi
1
Zi
L
_
1 e
L/Zi
_ , Z
i
=
r
C
0i
(v
r
)
(31)
It is shown in [11] that the approximate lumped model captures the steadystate
characteristics of the distributed friction very well, while no guarantees for the
accuracy of the model during transient were available. Evaluation of the eect
A LuGre Tire Friction Model with Exact Aggregate Dynamics 11
of these transients is now possible via comparison with the exact lumped model
presented in Section 4.1.
Two cases are investigated in this section. The rst case assumes low tire
stiness (
0i
= 150 m
1
, i = x, y) while the second case assumes a higher tire
stiness (
0i
= 500 m
1
, i = x, y). The time histories of the friction forces
(Fig. 4) show that the approximations for
i
made in [11] are more realistic
when the stiness of the tire is higher. In this case the steadystate is reached
faster. As already mentioned, the approximate lumped models in [11, 12] were
derived having only the accuracy of the steadystate behavior in mind.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
t (sec)
F
x
(
N
)
= 1.2
ss
exact lumped
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
t (sec)
F
x
(
N
)
= 1.2
ss
exact lumped
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
t (sec)
F
y
(
N
)
= 1.2
ss
exact lumped
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
t (sec)
F
y
(
N
)
= 1.2
ss
exact lumped
Figure 4: Time histories for longitudinal and lateral forces for uniform load
distribution (left column:
0i
= 150 m
1
, right column:
0i
= 500 m
1
, i =
x, y)
5.2 Trapezoidal and Quartic Load Distribution
In [12] an approximate average lumped model was developed for the case of
the trapezoidal normal load distribution. The dynamics of the friction forces
are given by (29) and (30). In [12] the term
i
was approximated by
ss
i
such
that the force prediction of the lumped model matches the one from the dis
tributed model at steadystate. The aligning torque predictions of the LuGre
tire friction model with a trapezoidal normal load distribution are compara
ble to experimental data [11], [12]. The dynamics of the aligning torque that
completes the approximate average lumped model in [11], [12] are summarized
12 P.Tsiotras, E.Velenis and M. Sorine
below:
z
y
(t) =
G
F
n
L
v
ry
C
0y
z
y
(t) (t)r z
y
(t) +
r
L
z
y
(t) (32)
M
z
(t) = F
n
L
_
0y
_
1
2
z
y
z
y
_
+
1y
_
1
2
z
y
z
y
_
+
2y
_
1
2
v
ry
G
F
n
L
__
(33)
where
G =
_
L
0
f
n
()d
Similarly to the approximation of the
i
term for the friction forces, the (t)
term in (32) was approximated in [12] by a function
ss
, such that the aligning
torque predictions of the average lumped and the distributed model agree at
steadystate.
Next, we compare the dynamic behavior of the average lumped model devel
oped in [12] with the behavior of the model presented in Sections 4.2 and 4.3. In
order to make a fair comparison between the trapezoidal and the quartic normal
load distribution models we have selected the parameters of the two expressions
(20) and (23) such that they produce the same total normal force F
n
and the
same pneumatic trail.
We consider the case of a tire with stiness
0i
= 500 m
1
, i = x, y. The
excitation of the system remains the same as before. The results are shown
on the left column of Fig. 5. In Fig. 5 the time histories of the friction forces
and the aligning torque are shown. We observe that the three models converge
to the same steadystate, as expected. However, signicant dierences in the
transient behavior of the three models are also evident. These dierences are
more apparent in the lateral force F
y
and aligning torque M
z
. The discrep
ancy is due to the fact that the normal load distribution f
n
(), along with the
distribution of the contact patch deection z
i
(t, ), determine the amount of
the total friction generated by each tire element along the contact patch length
(see equations (2), (3)) at each time t. In the case of the approximate lumped
model of [12] the use of the states z
i
(t), i = x, y and z
y
(t) averages out the
individual contribution to the total friction of each tire element, thus result
ing in smoother transient behavior of the friction forces and aligning torque.
In the case of the exact lumped model on the other hand, the product of the
individual contact patch deection z
i
(t, ) with f
n
() determines the amount
of friction generated by each tire element in the contact patch; see equations
(2)(3). This is true both for the distributed and the exact lumped models.
In Fig. 3(a) one observes that the trapezoidal normal load distribution weights
more the tire elements close to the entry point of the contact patch (especially
in the area < a) when compared to the quartic distribution. Similarly, the
quartic distribution places more emphasis than the trapezoidal on the part of
the patch > a. Observing the initial distribution of z
ss
y
in Fig. 6 we notice
that the tire elements close to = 0 are less deformed compared to the tire
A LuGre Tire Friction Model with Exact Aggregate Dynamics 13
elements for larger values of . As a result, the quartic distribution gives higher
values for F
y
than the trapezoidal distribution at the initial time. As the time
progresses, and is reduced, (for example, = 20 rad/sec) the distribution of
z
ss
y
tends to a uniform one. Since the total normal load is the same for both the
quartic and the trapezoidal distributions, the two distributions will give similar
values after the transients have receded. This is veried from the results shown
in Fig. 5.
To provide an additional conrmation of these observations, a second set of
numerical simulations was performed, using the approximate model in [12] and
the exact trapezoidal and quartic models of Sections 4.2, 4.3 respectively, but
with a larger slip angle, namely = 15
the distribution of z
ss
y
is very close to a uniform one,
thus corroborating the earlier observations.
6 CONCLUSIONS
A methodology to compute the exact dynamics of the aggregate distributed
LuGre dynamic tire friction model by a set of ordinary dierential equations is
presented. The results of this work allow one to test/validate the assumptions
introduced in the development of other loworder approximate lumped models.
A comparative analysis shows that, given a suciently high stiness of the tire,
the approximate models reproduce the dynamics of the aggregate distributed
tire model very accurately.
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A LuGre Tire Friction Model with Exact Aggregate Dynamics 15
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
t (sec)
F
x
(
N
)
exact lumped (trapezoidal)
exact lumped (quartic)
approximate lumped (trapezoidal)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
t (sec)
F
x
(
N
)
exact lumped (trapezoidal)
exact lumped (quartic)
approximate lumped (trapezoidal)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
t (sec)
F
y
(
N
)
exact lumped (trapezoidal)
exact lumped (quartic)
approximate lumped (trapezoidal)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
t (sec)
F
y
(
N
)
exact lumped (trapezoidal)
exact lumped (quartic)
approximate lumped (trapezoidal)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
5
t (sec)
M
z
(
N
m
)
exact lumped (trapezoidal)
exact lumped (quartic)
approximate lumped (trapezoidal)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
t (sec)
M
z
(
N
m
)
exact lumped (trapezoidal)
exact lumped (quartic)
approximate lumped (trapezoidal)
Figure 5: Time histories for longitudinal/lateral forces and aligning torque
(trapezoidal and quartic normal load distribution), left column: = 4
, right
column: = 15
,
right column: = 15
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