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Annotated Bibliography Primary Sources: Andrew Jackson Speaks: Indian Removal. Accessed ebruary !" #$%&. http:''www.synaptic.bc.ca'e(ournal'(ackson.htm).*vaI+kJd,-J. .

his source contains summaries o/ Andrew Jackson0s eight addresses to -ongress regarding Indian Removal. .his source provided in/ormation with the year o/ each address. .his source also contained in/ormation on how Jackson applied and developed the Indian Removal in each o/ the addresses. .his site helped to summari1e and identi/y the importance o/ each o/ his addresses to -ongress. It also contained e2perts /rom each address he ever addressed to -ongress regarding Indian Removal. Benjamin Hawkins and the Creek Indians. Illustration. Smithsonian American Art 3useum. Accessed January #!" #$%&. http:''siris4artinventories.si.edu'ipac#$'ipac.(sp5 uri6/ull67%$$$$%897:#%;$9$)/ocus. .his painting by an unknown author completed in %!$: is a primary source depicting Ben(amin <awkins showing -reek Indians how to plow. .his is relevant because it shows that the government was implementing a =civili1ation program= /or Indians by teaching them how to /arm. .his was used on the =Prior >ative Policy= page. -ass" ?ewis. =Report o/ the Secretary o/ ,ar.= Speech" >ovember #%" %!7%. Andrew Jackson: @ood" Avil and the Presidency. ?ast modi/ied #$$;. Accessed ebruary &" #$%&. http:''www4tc.pbs.org'kcet'andrew(ackson'edu'psBdocBsecretaryBcass.pd/. .his transcript o/ a speech by the Secretary o/ ,ar" ?ewis -ass" was use/ul in providing the standpoint o/ those in /avor o/ the Indian Removal Act. -ass set /orth his reasons /or believing that the removal o/ the Indians was in the best interest o/ the Indian >ations. -ass also argues that >ative Americans were doomed to e2tinction unless the state and /ederal government sei1ed the land /rom the Indians and the opportunity to relocate the tribes be/ore the Indians relapsed into barbarians. -ass was also responsible /or overseeing the relocation o/ tribes that had signed removal treaties to their new lands ,est o/ the 3ississippi. inally" it was a common belie/ by those in /avor o/ removal that Indians were e2tremely la1y" and there/ore" it was the responsibility o/ the government to rid the land o/ them in order to actually gain something out o/ the land. ,ithin the speech he states" =Indolent in his habits" the Indian is opposed to laborC improvident in his mode o/ li/e" he has little /oresight in providing" or care in preserving.= -herokee >ation v. State o/ @eorgia" 7$ *.S. D%!7%E. Accessed January #:" #$%&. http:''www.law.cornell.edu'supremecourt'te2t'7$'%. .his primary source court case between the -herokee Indians and the state o/ @eorgia was to determine how much (urisdiction @eorgia had o/ the Indians. .he Supreme -ourt ruled that the -herokee Indian >ation was not a /oreign nation and" there/ore" the Supreme -ourt did not have (urisdiction to hear the case. .he result was that the -herokee >ation0s land cessions

were allowed to stand" and they were denied the right to sue in /ederal court to prevent their removal /rom tribal lands. .his court case set up the ,orcester v. @eorgia case" where the -ourt decided that @eorgia didn0t have the right to make laws regarding the Indian0s land. -ompact o/ %!$#. ?ast modi/ied #$$!. Accessed ebruary F" #$%&. http:''dlg.galileo.usg.edu'meta'html'dlg'1lna'metaBdlgB1lnaBtcc&!%.html5,elcome. .his source contains the complete te2t o/ the -ompact o/ %!$#. .his in/ormation was vital to our pro(ect because the -ompact o/ %!$# served as a precursor to Indian Removal. .he -ompact o/ %!$# was an agreement between @eorgia and the ederal government in which @eorgia promised to cede most o/ its western land to the government in e2change /or its help with removing the Indians. .his source showed the beginning o/ the issues that the Indians would have with the state government o/ @eorgia. It made clear the stance that @eorgia had and the willingness o/ the /ederal government to help. Averett" Adward. =Speech o/ 3r. Averett" o/ 3assachusetts" on the Bill /or Removing the Indians /rom the Aast to the ,est Side o/ the 3ississippi.= Speech presented at <ouse o/ Representatives" ,ashington" G.-." 3ay %H" %!7$. Abraham ?incoln <istorical Gigiti1ation Pro(ect. ?ast modi/ied #$$#. Accessed ebruary &" #$%&. http:''lincoln.lib.niu.edu'teachers'lesson:4groupb.html. In this speech by Adward Averett" a ma(or proponent against Indian Removal" the viewpoint o/ -ongressmen against the Act is seen. <e" like others who shared his belie/s" saw the violation o/ Indian rights at stake that were caused by the Act and the /orced removal rather than voluntary. <e" too" pointed out that the =civili1ation program= put in place by the government was so /ar success/ul and thought that there was no need to move the Indians. inally" he calls on @eorgia to stop the removal plan" saying @eorgia =will do more /or the *nion" and more /or hersel/" than i/ she would add to her domain the lands o/ all the Indians...= Indian Removal Act" <.R. %&!" #%st -ong." %st Sess. D%!7$E. Accessed ebruary %" #$%&. https:''www.mtholyoke.edu'acad'intrel'removal.htm. .his transcript o/ the Indian Removal Act o/ %!7$ was help/ul in analy1ing Jackson0s /inal achievement in his plan to remove Indians: he was able to =law/ully= negotiate with tribes. In essence" the passage o/ the Act meant the inevitable removal o/ the ma(ority o/ Indians living east o/ the 3ississippi River because it gave the president power and right to /orm treaties o/ cession with the Indians in e2change /or western lands. 3any tribes were given money by the government or o//ered an annuity. Jackson" Andrew. =3essage to -ongress 0In Indian Removal.0= Speech" Gecember ;" %!7$. Iur Gocuments. Accessed January ##" #$%&. http:''www.ourdocuments.gov'doc.php5 /lash6trueJdoc6#:Jpage6transcript. .his source is a manuscript o/ President Andrew Jackson0s address o/ the so4called =Indian problem= in his annual message to -ongress. In the speech" he e2plains the success he

has already encountered as well as his reasoning /or the removal o/ the Indians. <is main point was that removal was actually protecting the Indians and saving them /rom e2tinction. Je//erson" .homas. .homas Je//erson to John Adams" June %%" %!%#. ?ibrary o/ -ongress. Accessed January #!" #$%&. http:''www.loc.gov'e2hibits'(e//erson'%F!.html. .his primary source letter /rom .homas Je//erson written to John Adams is an account o/ Je//erson0s encounter with the -herokee tribe as well as a detailed summary o/ how the -herokee are advancing in sel/4government. <e goes on to talk about how this advance will result in a relapse" /orcing Je//erson to remove the Indians. .here/ore" it becomes his responsibility to protect the white settlers /rom these dangerous neighbors. .his is why he believes it is his right to relocate the Indians. It is use/ul because it shows how Je//erson is willing to /orcibly remove Indians i/ necessary. ?indneu2" Robert. The Trail of Tears. Illustration. PBS Inline. Accessed January #&" #$%&. http:''www.pbs.org'wgbh'aia'part&'&h%:;F.html. .his painting by ?indneu2 depicts the su//ering o/ the -herokee people under /orced removal. .he -herokee nation was /orced to give up its lands east o/ the 3ississippi River and to migrate to an area in present4day Iklahoma" this move was called the .rail o/ .ears. 3adison" James. =Inaugural Address.= Speech presented at <ouse o/ Representatives -hamber" ,ashington" G.-." 3arch &" %!$H. .he American Presidency Pro(ect. Accessed January #!" #$%&. http:''www.presidency.ucsb.edu'ws'5pid6#:!$:. .his speech by James 3adison is a primary source that e2plains 3adison0s thoughts and plans /or the American Indians in the *nited States. <e speaks about how he will continue to implement a policy o/ assimilation through the use o/ education" specially saying the continuation o/ education o/ /arming. =3ap o/ the Indian and Iklahoma .erritories.= 3ap. ?ibrary o/ -ongress. Accessed ebruary !" #$%&. http:''www.loc.gov'item'H!;!F%%$'. .his primary source map shows the land that was made into Indian Reservation in present4day Iklahoma. 3any tribes had no say in where they were to be located" and this map shows how the land was distributed to the various tribes. .here is an orange line indicating that the ive -ivili1ed .ribes were relocated to the right o/ the orange line. =3ap Showing the ?ands Assigned to Amigrant Indians ,est o/ Arkansas and 3issouri.= 3ap. ?ibrary o/ -ongress. Accessed January #7" #$%&. http:''memory.loc.gov'cgi4 bin'mapBitem.pl5 data6'home'www'data'gmd'gmd&$:'g&$:%'g&$:%e'm/$$$$&&.(p#Jstyle6gmdJitem?in k6r5ammem'gmd:K/ieldL#!>*3BARMKband L#!g&$:%eMm/$$$$&&L#HL#HJtitle63apL#$showingL#$theL#$landsL#$assigned L#$toL#$emigrantL#$IndiansL#$westL#$o/L#$ArkansasL#$andL#$3issouri.

.his primary source map drawn in %!7; shows the land assigned to American Indian tribes by the *nited States government west o/ Arkansas and 3issouri. .he map reiterates the /act that the Indian had no choice in where they were to move" it was assigned to them. It is seen in the N<omeO page slideshow. 3onroe" James. =Annual 3essage to -ongress.= Speech presented at <ouse o/ Representatives -hamber" ,ashington" G.-." January #F" %!#:. Statements /rom the Gebate on Indian Removal. Accessed January #H" #$%&. http:''www.columbia.edu'8lmg#%'B-7%!$'removal.html. .his speech made by James 3onroe is a primary source that /urther e2plains 3onroe0s attitude toward Indians and Indian Removal. <e states that removal is the only way to protect the Indians /rom being e2tinguished by the ever4advancing white settlers" and by moving" the Indians will be sa/e and happy. <owever" he notes that removal must be voluntary. .reaty with -hickasaw" F *.S. D%!$:E. Accessed January #$" #$%&. http:''digital.library.okstate.edu'kappler'Pol#'treaties'chi$$FH.htm. .his treaty was used to prove one method that .homas Je//erson hoped to use in order to sei1e Indian land. In this treaty" it is stated that =the -hickasaw nation o/ Indians have been /or some time embarrassed by heavy debts due to their merchants and traders" and being destitute o/ /unds to e//ect important improvements in their country" they have agreed and do hereby agree to cede to the *nited StatesQ=. Je//erson wrote that he would use debt as a means o/ obtaining Indian land" and this treaty was used as an e2ample o/ this. .reaty o/ -usseta" F *.S. D%!7#E. Accessed ebruary &" #$%&. http:''digital.library.okstate.edu'kappler'vol#'treaties'cre$7&%.htm. .his te2t o/ a treaty with the -reek Indians was important to the pro(ect because it was a treaty that was a result o/ the Indian Removal Act o/ %!7$. Although it was not technically a removal treaty" it included a section that stated that they were e2pected to sell their tribal land in order to move west in e2change /or an annuity. .reaty o/ Gancing Rabbit -reek" F *.S. D%!7%E. Accessed ebruary &" #$%&. http:''digital.library.okstate.edu'kappler'vol#'treaties'cho$7%$.htm. .he .reaty o/ Gancing Rabbit -reek was a removal treaty the ceded all land belonging to the -hoctaw >ation in e2change /or land in present4day Iklahoma. .his source provides the te2t o/ the treaty and shows the responsibility the /ederal government had /or the -hoctaw Indians a/ter removal. .his responsibility involved an annuity" protection /or the -hoctaw" and the provision o/ schools. .his was the /irst removal treaty" and Jackson hoped that it would serve as a model /or other nations. %F!; .reaty o/ <opewell. ?ast modi/ied #$%$. Accessed ebruary 7" #$%&. http:''s7.ama1onaws.com'choctaw4 msldigital'assets'%&!'%F!;B.reatyBo/B<opewellBoriginal.pd/.

.his source contains the complete te2t o/ the .reaty o/ <opewell. .he .reaty o/ <opewell was an attempt o/ the Indians to settle border disputes between the land o/ the Indians and the people living in @eorgia. It pertains to our topic because it was the IndiansR /irst e//ort to keep the land hungry @eorgians o// their land. It was signed by the leaders o/ the tribe and the senators /rom the state. .his treaty was completely violated when @eorgia began to demand /or the land /rom the tribes. .reaty o/ >ew Achota" F *.S. D%!7;E. Accessed ebruary &" #$%&. http:''digital.library.okstate.edu'kappler'vol#'treaties'che$&7H.htm. .he .reaty o/ >ew Achota is an illegal removal treaty signed by a small /action o/ the -herokee tribe. .his treaty was not recogni1ed by the ma(ority o/ the tribe" yet Jackson carried out the details o/ removal cited in the treaty despite this. .his shows a violation o/ rights" seeing as the treaty was signed by the chie/ o/ the -herokees. All -herokee land was ceded in this treaty and the tribe was given a time /rame to relocate. .reaty o/ Payne0s ?anding" F *.S. D%!7&E. Accessed ebruary &" #$%&. http:''digital.library.okstate.edu'kappler'vol#'treaties'sem$7&&.htm. .his te2t o/ the Seminole tribe0s removal treaty was relevant to the topic o/ Indian Removal because it provided in/ormation on the removal o/ the Seminoles. In this treaty" the Seminole >ation ceded all land to the *.S. to move to land occupied by the -reeks. In return" the government gave them an annuity. <owever" the Seminole claim that they were tricked by this treaty" so they never /ully recogni1ed it as legal. Instead" they saw it as a violation o/ the right to their lorida land. .reaty o/ Pontotoc -reek" F *.S. D%!77E. Accessed ebruary &" #$%&. http:''digital.library.okstate.edu'kappler'vol#'treaties'chi$7:;.htm. .his te2t o/ the -hickasaw removal treaty provided use/ul in/ormation to the topic o/ Indian Removal. .his treaty ceded all -hickasaw land and moved the tribe to a reservation in Iklahoma. Although they were given a choice o/ losing their tribal identity or moving" they decided to move. .his could be interpreted as the -hickasaws0 responsibility to preserve their culture and heritage. Smith" Satie" and -ourtney Parker. =Song about the departure o/ Seminole Indians /rom lorida /or Iklahoma.= lorida olkli/e. 3P7 audio /ile" $7:##. Accessed ebruary %#" #$%&. http:''memory.loc.gov'ammem'collections'/lorida'. .his source is an audio clip we /ound online sung about the Seminoles0 departure. .his is a song about the Seminoles departure /rom lorida /or Iklahoma. It is sung in the 3uskogee language and helped capture the sorrow the Indians /elt on the removal. Sprague" Peleg. =Speech o/ 3r. Peleg Sprague" o/ 3aine: Gelivered in the Senate o/ the *nited States" in Reply to 3essrs. ,hite" 3cSiney" and orsyth" *pon the Sub(ect o/ the

Removal o/ the Indians.= Speech presented in ,ashington" G.-." April %;" %!7$. Abraham ?incoln <istorical Gigiti1ation Pro(ect. ?ast modi/ied #$$#. Accessed ebruary F" #$%&. http:''lincoln.lib.niu.edu'teachers'lesson:4groupb.html. .his speech by Peleg Sprague shows the viewpoint o/ someone who was against Indian Removal. In this speech" he uses treaties between the Indians and the /ederal and states governments to prove that by removing the Indians" the *.S. would be breaking the law by breaking the treaties. <e also mentions how the Indians have an unalienable right to their land" as they were the ones who discovered it and then continued to thrive upon it. <e then went on to talk about how the Indians had complied with all the government had asked o/ them" which was assimilation" and stated that they had taken the responsibility into their own hands by creating their own sel/4government. .his viewpoint seemed to be held constant by most people who opposed Indian Removal. ,orcester v. State o/ @eorgia" 7% S. -t. :%: D%!7#E. .he case ,orcester v. @eorgia was the second case to try to determine the limits" i/ any" that @eorgia has over the -herokee Indians. .his source is the actual document containing speci/ics on the plainti//" de/endant" and how the -ourt ruled this case. .he 3arshall -ourt ruled that @eorgia does not have (urisdiction to pass laws and en/orce them on the -herokee Indian0s land. .his is important because" though he court decided that @eorgia did not have this right" President Jackson and the state o/ @eorgia passed a law e2pelling the -herokee /rom their homeland. .his /urther highlights Jackson0s re/usal to listen to the Supreme -ourt and honor its decisions. Secondary Sources: Boulware" .yler. =-herokee Indians.= >ew @eorgia Ancyclopedia. ?ast modi/ied January %F" #$%&. Accessed January #:" #$%&. http:''www.georgiaencyclopedia.org'articles'history4 archaeology'cherokee4indians. .his secondary source website was used to access a /ew di//erent pages o/ in/ormation regarding the -herokee Indians. Ine page contained a summary o/ the history o/ the -herokee Indians. It provides in4depth in/ormation on their background and important events. Another page provided more in/ormation on the court case ,orcester v. @eorgia. .his page helped gain background on the case to support the idea that Jackson did not listen to the -ourt. Brinkley" Alan. The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People. ;th ed. >ew Tork: 3c@raw4<ill" #$%$. .his book by Brinkley is a use/ul secondary source that provides help/ul in/ormation on the general removal o/ the Indians" /ocusing mainly on Andrew Jackson0s part in removal and the .rail o/ .ears. .he basic views o/ past presidents are also cited within this book" including Je//erson" 3adison" and 3onroe. It e2plains how they originally planned the assimilation o/ Indians into the white culture" yet overtime" the plan turned into Jackson0s responsibility to

remove the Indians completely. Also" the book has relevant pictures" maps" charts" and Uuotes pertaining to Indian Removal. Burnstein" Andrew. The Passions of Andrew Jackson. >ew Tork" >T: Al/red A. Snop/" #$$7. The Passions of Andrew Jackson by Andrew Burstein contains an e2tensive account o/ the presidency o/ Andrew Jackson. It begins with his campaign and includes all his policies as president. .he chapter Political Instincts contained the most in/ormation pertaining to the topic o/ Indian Removal. It clearly stated JacksonRs stance on the issue as well as his plan o/ action. Jackson did not oppose Indian Removal only because he hoped to save the Aastern .ribes. -alloway" -olin @. Pen and Ink itchcraft: Treaties and Treaty !akin" in American Indian History. >ew Tork" >T: I2/ord *niversity Press" #$%7. .his book provides in/ormation on treaties and the making o/ them by Indians in the *nited States. or this pro(ect" the chapter on the .reaty o/ >ew Achota was re/erenced. .his section gave more in/ormation /rom be/ore the removal o/ the -herokees was implemented and what happened a/ter the treaty was signed. It goes in to detail on the speci/ics o/ the treaty" how it a//ected the -herokee tribe" and it0s resulting in the .rail o/ .ears. .his chapter o/ the book contains #$ pages worth o/ in/ormation regarding the .reaty o/ >ew Achota. -arlisle" Je//ery G. =Seminole Indians.= <andbook o/ .e2as Inline. Accessed January #;" #$%&. http:''www.tshaonline.org'handbook'online'articles'bms%H. .his secondary source provides an overview o/ the history o/ the Seminole Indians /rom their origins in >orth America to where the Seminole >ation currently resides today. .he source is a webpage that is meant to in/orm readers about the Seminole tribe. Ahle" John. Trail of Tears: The #ise and $all of the Cherokee Nation. >ew Tork: Goubleday" %H!!. .his secondary source book by Ahle is a detailed account o/ the history o/ the -herokee >ation. It provides use/ul in/ormation on important people and events involved in Indian Removal" such as John Ross" 3a(or Ridge" treaties" and the .rail o/ .ears. .his book is also /ull o/ e2tremely help/ul primary source Uuotes that aid in the e2planation o/ topics such as opposing viewpoints in -ongress and accounts o/ the .rail o/ .ears that prove that harsh and inhumane conditions that the Indians e2perienced. It is a reliable source with a plethora o/ in/ormation and in4depth detailing o/ the -herokee Indians. .his book also provided the group with the Uuote by John Burnett on the .rail o/ .ears page" giving the prospective o/ a *.S. soldier viewing the /orced removal. <olland Braund" Sathryn A. =-reek ,ar o/ %!%74%&.= In %ncyclopedia of Ala&ama. ?ast modi/ied Ictober #!" #$$!. Accessed ebruary 7" #$%&. http:''encyclopediao/alabama.org'/ace'Article.(sp5id6h4%!#$. .his encyclopedia article is about the -reek ,ar o/ %!%74%&. .he article provides in/ormation on the roots o/ the war" the development o/ the con/lict" the /ighting" the a/termath"

and other relevant in/ormation. Also provided on this article are numerous primary source drawing and photographs relevant to the -reek ,ar o/ %!%74%&. .his in/ormation was used on the background page to depict previous con/licts with Indians. <urt" R. Gouglas. The Indian $rontier' ()*+,(-.*. AlbuUuerUue: *niversity o/ >ew 3e2ico Press" #$$#. .his book was a very use/ul source o/ in/ormation /or the history o/ >ative Americans" as well as other ma(or part portions o/ the pro(ect. .his secondary source provided much needed details on the a/termath o/ the Indian Removal Act" including the treaties o/ land cession /or each o/ the ive -ivili1ed .ribes. urthermore" this book showed that Indian movement was not voluntary" contrary to the law cited in the Removal Act. In other words" this book proved that the rights o/ the Indians to a peace/ul" voluntary removal were ignored" and the tribes were /orcibly moved ,est. In addition" this book provided primary source Uuotes along with help/ul visuals. Sidwell" -lara. =.he A//ects o/ Removal on American Indian .ribes.= >ative Americans and the ?and. Accessed ebruary %#" #$%&. http:''nationalhumanitiescenter.org'tserve'nattrans'ntecoindian'essays'indianremoval.htm . .his source helped identi/y how the Indians /elt about the Indian Removal" and the e//ects that removal had on the di//erent tribes" such as what land they were granted a/ter relocation and how the land was o/ poor Uuality. .he Indians /elt pressure in %!#H and %!7$ when the 3ississippi and @eorgia legislatures passed legislation to e2tend their control over the -hoctaw" -hickasaw" and -herokee >ations. .his /orced the Indians to /eel con/licted" and they /aced the dilemma o/ obeying the laws o/ a /oreign government or moving west to retain their autonomy. .his source also contained a Uuote said by @eorge <icks" a -herokee that e2pressed the sorrow he /elt being /orced by the government to leave his homeland along with relevant visual aids" maps" and pictures. ?aws.com =,orcester P. @eorgia.= ?aws.com. ?ast modi/ied #$%7. Accessed ebruary %" #$%&. http:''kids.laws.com'worcester4v4georgia. .his website contains the summary and te2t o/ the court case ,orcester P. @eorgia. .his site was used to look at the background o/ the de/endant and plainti// in this court case" along with the issue they were debating. .he case deals with @eorgia0s state laws that /ollow and agreement reached between them and the -herokees. .hese laws reserve the Indian territories /or them alone" e2cept when granted by the government. .he -ourt ruled that @eorgia did not have the right to keep this law over the -herokees. <owever" Jackson ended up signing the treaty that e2pelled the Indians" supporting the /act that Jackson did not listen to the Supreme -ourt0s decision. ?evy" Jacob .. =Indians in 3adison0s -onstitutional Irder.= In James !adison and the $/t/re of 0imited 1o2ernment" edited by John -urtis Samples" %#%4#H. ,ashington" G-: -ato Institute" #$$#.

.his section written by ?evy covers President James 3adison0s stance and dealings with >ative Americans during his time in o//ice. .his secondary source goes in4depth to in/orm readers about 3adison0s policies that agreed with Je//erson0s agrarian plan" and provides use/ul Uuotes by 3adison regarding Indians. 3cBride" Ale2. =-herokee Indian -ases.= .he Supreme -ourt. ?ast modi/ied Gecember #$$;. Accessed ebruary %#" #$%&. http:''www.pbs.org'wnet'supremecourt'antebellum'landmarkBcherokee.html. .his site gives in/ormation on the -herokee Indians and the Supreme -ourt cases they partook in. .he cases o/ ,orcester v. @eorgia and -herokee >ation v. @eorgia were looked at speci/ically. .he case o/ ,orcester v. @eorgia ruled that @eorgia couldn0t pass laws governing the -herokee .ribe. .he case -herokee >ation v. @eorgia ended with the -ourt ruling that it couldn0t hear the case because it didn0t have the (urisdiction to. Both these cases set up the stage /or Jackson0s dismissal o/ responsibility as he signs the treaty that /orces the Indians to leave their homeland. .he -herokee0s re/usal leads to the .rail o/ .ears. 3eacham" Jon. American 0ion: Andrew Jackson in the ?arge Print" #$$!. hite Ho/se. >ew Tork: Random <ouse

In this source identi/ied Jackson0s /ear o/ the Indians threatening the *nited States0 national security. Jackson /irmly believed in Indian Removal and was not going to let anything stand in his way o/ achieving it. In this book" there was an important Uuote that was" =,ell John 3arshall has made his decision" not let him en/orce it= said by Jackson. .his site also contained in/ormation that said Jackson viewed the tribes as a threat o/ violence either in their own hands or in alliance with America /orces. .o anyone who opposed him" Jackson would (usti/y his course by arguing that removal would guarantee survival o/ the tribes and that coe2istence is impossible. 3elt1er" 3ilton. H/nted like a Press" #$$&. olf: The 3tory of the 3eminole ar. Sarasota" la.: Pineapple

.his book written by 3elt1er is a use/ul secondary source that has valuable in/ormation on the Seminole ,ars. Along with in4depth details about background" war action and a//airs" and a/termath" the book also provides important Uuotes and pictures that are relevant to the topic o/ Indian Removal. A Uuote /rom this book was used on the =,ars ,ith Indians= page o/ our website" as it pertains to Jackson0s stance towards the Seminole Indians. 3int1" S." and S. 3c>eil. =Indian Removal.= Gigital <istory. Accessed ebruary %$" #$%&. http:''www.digitalhistory.uh.edu'dispBte2tbook.c/m5smtIG6#Jpsid67:&:. .his source provided in/ormation about the Black <awk ,ar. It provided basic in/ormation including the /act that the Sauk and o2 Indians /ought the Black <awk ,ar. .hey /ought to recover lands in Illinois and ,isconsin. .he Indians signed the treaty trading their land over without knowing the implications o/ the action. .here was also a Uuote by -hie/ Black <awk saying" NI touched the goose Uuill to the treaty not knowing" however" that by that act I

consented to give away my village.O .he Gigital <istory website also provided a basic overview o/ Indian Removal as a whole" including background in/ormation prior to the Indian Removal Act" Jackson0s stance on >ative Americans" and use/ul Uuotes pertaining to the topic. inally" links were provided to additional primary sources" such as speeches about Indian Removal4 this site was a good starting point. Public Broadcasting Service. =Indian Removal.= A/rican in America: Judgement Gay. Accessed January #:" #$%&. http:''www.pbs.org'wgbh'aia'part&'&p#H:H.html. .his secondary source provides use/ul in/ormation on the sub(ect o/ the legislation called the Indian Removal Act. .his act gave Jackson the presidential power to negotiate treaties o/ the Indian tribeRs removal living east o/ the 3ississippi. .he removal was intended to be peace/ul and voluntary /or tribes that agreed to the conditions. <owever" the southeastern nations resisted and were /orced to leave by Jackson. .his site also helped us determine Jackson0s view o/ the Indians which was paternalistic and patroni1ing. <e believed they were children in need o/ guidance and that Indian Removal would be bene/icial to them. Remini" Robert P. The 0ife of Andrew Jackson. >ew Tork: <arper J Row" %H!!. .his book shows Andrew Jackson0s leadership in the Indian wars. .his provided in/ormation that proved how /rom the beginning the Indians were driven out by Americans. Americans stole land and when needed" murdered the Indians. 3ost Americans /elt Indians were in/erior to them. JacksonRs nationalism and his statesR rights philosophy" a product o/ his concern /or individual libertiesE combined to create the Indian policy. Sturgis" Amy <. Presidents from ashin"ton thro/"h !onroe' ()-4,(-56: 7e&atin" the Iss/es in Pro and Con Primary 7oc/ments. ,estport" -onn.: @reenwood Press" #$$#. .his book written by Amy Sturgis is a secondary source used /or in/ormation on President James 3onroe. It provides in4depth details on his time in o//ice" touching on points relevant to Indian Removal" such as his attitude toward removal as well as his plan and actions. inally" the book has additional primary sources such as 3onroe0s address to -ongress and other use/ul Uuotes. *nger" Irwin" and Robert R. .omes. American Iss/es: A Primary 3o/rce #eader in United 3tates History. #nd ed. *pper Saddle River" >.J.: Prentice <all" %HHH. .his =primary source reader= provided the pro(ect with di//erent viewpoints /rom each side o/ Indian Removal: a -herokee reaction" a supporter o/ removal" and a person opposed to removal. .his was able to enhance the =Ipposing Piewpoints= page on the website because it gave entire te2ts o/ speeches or letters /rom each person. .his book proved that Indians /elt oppressed by the Act" supporters /elt that the Act was overdue and Indians should be removed /or reasons such as sa/ety and land pro/it" and those in opposition noted that the basic rights that the Indians had to their land was being violated as well as previous treaties between the tribes and the government. In addition" be/ore the primary sources were given" there was a help/ul section that provided a little background /or the topic at hand.

Pan Geusen" @lyndon @. The Jacksonian %ra' (-5-,(-.-. Prospect <eights" Ill.: ,aveland Press" %HH#. .his source contained in/ormation about the Indian Removal that took place during Jacksonian Ara. .he source provided in/ormation that said government agents tricked Indians into un/air agreements. State governments de/rauded the Indians. .he /ederal government made small e//orts to protect them. .he attitude o/ the whites was callous and indi//erent towards the Indians.