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Terrorists And Freedom Fighters


Sam Vaknin, Ph.D.

Editing and Design:

Lidija Rangelovska

Lidija Rangelovska A Narcissus Publications Imprint, Skopje !!" First published b# $entral %urope Revie& Not 'or Sale( Non)commercial edition*

2002-4 Co !"ight #idi$a %ange&o'ska. (&& "ights "ese"'ed. This )ook, o" an! a"t the"eo*, ma! not )e +sed o" "e "od+,ed in an! manne" -itho+t -"itten e"mission *"om: #idi$a %ange&o'ska . -"ite to: a&ma/+net.,om.mk o" to 'aknin/&ink.,om.mk

Visit the (+tho" (",hi'e o* D". Sam Vaknin in 0Cent"a& E+"o e %e'ie-0: htt :11---.,e-"e'ie-.o"g1a+tho"a",hi'es1'aknin2a",hi'e1'aknin2main.htm& Visit m! 3nited P"ess Inte"nationa& 43PI5 ("ti,&e (",hi'e . C&i,k 6E%E7 ISBN: 9989-929-29-7 htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1g+ide.htm& htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1a*te".htm&

C"eated )!:

#IDI8( %(N9E#OVS:( %EP3;#IC O< =(CEDONI(

I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. Te""o"ists and <"eedom <ighte"s =a,edonia to the =a,edonians The ;&a,k 6and The Ins+"gents and the S-astika :#( . The ("m! o* #i)e"ation ( endi>: Patho&ogi,a& Na",issism, 9"o+ ;eha'io+" and Te""o"ism ( endi>: The C"es,ent and the C"oss ( endi> . Te""o"ism as a Ps!,hod!nami, Phenomenon The (+tho" ()o+t 0(*te" the %ain0

Terrorists and Freedom Fighters 0?3n)o+nded? mo"a&it! +&timate&! )e,omes ,o+nte" "od+,ti'e e'en in te"ms o* the same mo"a& "in,i &es )eing so+ght. The &a- o* diminishing "et+"ns a &ies to mo"a&it!.0 Thomas Sowell The"e?s a sto"! a)o+t %o)es ie""e that has the "eeminent "a))&e-"o+se" o* the <"en,h %e'o&+tion &ea ing + *"om his ,hai" as soon as he sa- a mo) assem)&ing o+tside. 0I m+st see -hi,h -a! the ,"o-d is headed,0 he is "e +ted to ha'e said: 0<o" I am thei" &eade".0 htt :11---.sa&on.,om1te,h1)ooks1@AAA1@@1041ne-2o timi sm1 Peo &e -ho e>e",ise 'io&en,e in the +"s+it o* -hat the! ho&d to )e $+st ,a+ses a"e a&te"nate&! kno-n as 0te""o"ists0 o" 0*"eedom *ighte"s0. The! a&& sha"e a *e- ,ommon ,ha"a,te"isti,s: @. ( ha"d ,o"e o* idea&ists ado t a ,a+se 4in most ,ases, the *"eedom o* a g"o+ o* eo &e5. The! )ase thei" ,&aims on histo"! - "ea& o" hasti&! ,on,o,ted, on a ,ommon he"itage, on a &ang+age sha"ed )! the mem)e"s o* the g"o+ and, most im o"tant, on hate and ,ontem t di"e,ted at an 0enem!0. The &atte" is, a&most in'a"ia)&!, the h!si,a& o" ,+&t+"a& o,,+ ie" o* s a,e the idea&ists ,&aim as thei" o-n.

2. The &o!a&ties and a&&ian,es o* these eo &e shi*t e**o"t&ess&! as e'e" es,a&ating means $+sti*! an e'e" sh"inking ,a+se. The initia& )+"st o* g"andiosit! inhe"ent in e'e"! s+,h +nde"taking gi'es -a! to ,!ni,a& and )itte" "agmatism as )oth enem! and eo &e ti"e o* the ,on*&i,t. B. (n ine'ita)&e "es+&t o* the "ea& o&itik o* te""o"ism is the ,o&&a)o"ation -ith the &ess sa'o+"! e&ements o* so,iet!. %e&egated to the *"inges )! the ine>o"a)&e ma",h o* ,ommon sense, the *"eedom *ighte"s nat+"a&&! g"a'itate to-a"ds &ike minded non-,on*o"mists and o+t,asts. The o"ganiCation is ,"imina&iCed. D"+g dea&ing, )ank "o))ing and othe" manne" o* o"ganiCed and ,ont+ma,io+s ,"imina&it! )e,ome integ"a& e>tensions o* the st"+gg&e. ( ,"imina& ,o" o"atism eme"ges, st"+,t+"ed )+t 'o&ati&e and gi'en to inte"ne,ine donn!)"ooks. 4. Ve"! o*ten an +n-ho&! ,o-de enden,e de'e&o s )et-een the o"ganiCation and its "e!. It is the inte"est o* the *"eedom *ighte"s to ha'e a ,ontem ti)&e and t!"anni,a& "egime as thei" o onent. I* not "one to s+ "ession and ,on'+&si'e massa,"es )! nat+"e - a,ts o* te""o" -i&& de&i)e"ate&! "o'oke e'en the most )enign "+&e to a)ho""ent e)+&&ition.

D. The te""o"ist o"ganiCation -i&& tend to em+&ate the 'e"! ,ha"a,te"isti,s o* its enem! it *+&minates against the most. Th+s, a&& s+,h g"o+ s a"e "e)a")ati'e&! a+tho"ita"ian, e>e,"a)&! 'io&ent, de'oid o* h+man em ath! o" emotions, s+ "essi'e, ostentatio+s, t"en,hant and o*ten m+"de"o+s. E. It is o*ten the *"eedom *ighte"s -ho ,om "omise thei" *"eedom and the *"eedom o* thei" eo &e in the most eg"egio+s manne". This is +s+a&&! done eithe" )! ,o&&a)o"ating -ith the de"ided enem! against anothe", ,om eting set o* *"eedom *ighte"s - o" )! in'iting a *o"eign o-e" to a")ite". Th+s, the! o*ten ,ata&!se the "e &a,ement o* one "egime o* o "essi'e ho""o" -ith anothe", mo"e te""i)&e and ent"en,hed. F. =ost *"eedom *ighte"s a"e assimi&ated and digested )! the 'e"! esta)&ishment the! *o+ght against o" as the *o+nde"s o* ne-, "i'i&eged nomenk&at+"as. It is then that thei" t"+e nat+"e is e> osed, mi"ed in g+&osit! and s+ e",i&io+sness as the! )e,ome. In'ete"ate 'io&ato"s o* )asi, h+man "ights, the! o*ten t"ans*o"m into the 'e"! demons the! he& ed to e>o",ise. =ost *"eedom *ighte"s a"e disg"+nt&ed mem)e"s o* the midd&e ,&asses o" the inte&&igentsia. The! )"ing to thei" a**ai"s the me",i&ess "+th&essness o* she&te"ed &i'es. =istaking ,om assion *o" -eakness, the! sho- none as the! +ns,"+ +&o+s&! +"s+e thei" se&*-agg"andiCement, the ego t"i o* sending othe"s to thei" death.

The! a"e the st+** ma"t!"s a"e made o*. ;o"ne on the ,"ests o* ,i",+mstantia& -a'es, the! &e'e" thei" +n)a&an,ed e"sona&ities and "o$e,t them to g"eat e**e,t. The! a"e the *ootnotes o* histo"! that ass+me the "o&e o* te>t. (nd the! "a"e&! en$o! the +nmitigated s+ o"t o* the 'e"! eo &e the! "o**e" to &i)e"ate. E'en the most ha"ang+ed and s+)$+gated eo &e *ind it ha"d to *o&&o- o" a,,e t the 'i,issit+dina& )eha'io+" o* thei" se&*-a ointed &i)e"ato"s, thei" shi*ting *"iendshi s and enmities and thei" asi&a&! o* 'io&en,e. In this se"ies o* a"ti,&es, I -i&& attem t to st+d! *o+" s+,h g"o+ s -hi,h o e"ated in the to"t+"ed "egion o* the ;a&kans. I -i&& sta"t -ith the I=%O 4V=%O5 in =a,edonia and ;+&ga"ia, "o,eed to Se")ia and its +nion -ith death 403nion o" Death0, aka the ;&a,k 6and5, st+d! the 3stasha in detai& and end -ith the ,+""ent m+tation o* ;a&kan s asms, the :#( 43C:5. %et+"n

Macedonia to the Macedonians

0T-o h+nd"ed and *o"t! *i'e )ands -e"e in the mo+ntains. Se")ian and ;+&ga"ian ,omitad$is, 9"eek anda"tes, (&)anians and V&a,hs... a&& -aging a te""o"ist -a"0 Leon Sciaky in "Farewell to Salonica: Portrait of an Era" 049o,e De&,e' died5 ,&oak *&+ng o'e" his &e*t sho+&de", his -hite *eC, -"a ed in a )&+ish s,a"*, +&&ed do-n and his g+n s&+ng a,"oss his &e*t e&)o-0 Mihail Chakov, who was near y !elcev at the moment of his death, "#oted in "$alkan %hosts" y &o ert !' (a)lan 0I -i&& t"! and te&& this sto"! ,o&d&!, ,a&m&!, dis assionate&! ... one m+st tone the ho""o"s do-n, *o" in thei" nakedness, the! a"e +n "inta)&e...0 *'%' +ales re)orting a o#t the ,llinden -)rising in the London "!aily .ews" of /cto er 01, 1234

0The Inte"na& =a,edonian %e'o&+tiona"! O"ganiCation di"e,ts its e!es neithe" to the Gest, no" to the East,no" to an!-he"e e&seH it "e&ies "ima"i&! on its o-n o-e"s, does not t+"n into an!)od!?s -ea on, and -i&& not a&&oan!)od! to +se its name and "estige *o" e"sona& and othe" +" oses. It has demonst"ated ti&& no- and -i&& "o'e in the *+t+"e that it esta)&ishes its a,ti'ities on the inte"ests and -o"ks *o" the idea&s o* st"+gg&ing =a,edonia and the ;+&ga"ian "a,e.0 T/!/& *LE5*.!&/6, The Leader of the ,M&/ from 1211 to 1207 The T"eat! o* ;e"&in ki&&ed Pete" #aCo'. ( T+"kish so&die" *i"st go+ged his e!es o+t, some sa! -ith a s oon, othe"s insist it -as a kni*e. (s the s,"eam-im)+ed )&ood t"i,k&ed do-n his *a,e, the T+"k ,+t )oth his ea"s and the enti"et! o* his nose -ith his s-o"d. Th+s maimed and in de)i&itating agon!, he -as &e*t to die *o" a *e- da!s. Ghen he *ai&ed to do so, the T+"ks disem)o-e&&ed him to death and de,a itated the -"ithing "+m . The Ottomans g"anted inde enden,e to ;+&ga"ia in the @IFI T"eat! o* San Ste*ano +n-i&&ing&!, *o&&o-ing a te"mina& de*eat at the hands o* a -"ath*+& %+ssian a"m!. The ne-&! "e-in'ented nation in,o" o"ated a h+ge s-athe o* =a,edonia, not in,&+ding Thessa&oniki and the Cha&,idi,e Penins+&a. (nothe" t"eat! *o&&o-ed, in ;e"&in, "esto"ing the 0)a&an,e0 )! "et+"ning =a,edonia to T+"kish "+&e.

T+"ke! o)&iging&! a,,e ted a 0one ,o+nt"!, t-o s!stems0 a "oa,h )! ag"eeing to a Ch"istian administ"ation o* the "egion and )! e"mitting ed+,ation in *o"eign &ang+ages, )! *o"eign o-e"s in *o"eign-"+n and o-ned s,hoo&s. Then the! set a)o+t a t! i,a& in*ando+s Ottoman o"g! o* sh"edded ent"ai&s, gang "a ed ,o" ses o* !o+ng gi"&s and maiming and de,a itation. The ho""o"s this time t"ans,ended an!thing )e*o"e. In Oh"id, the! )+"ied eo &e in igst! m+d *o" 0not a!ing ta>es0. 8oined )! T+"ks -ho es,a ed the ad'an,ing %+ssian a"mies in No"th ;+&ga"ia and )! ;osnian =os&ems, -ho *&ed the in,e" mo'ement o* the *o",es o* (+st"o-6+nga"!, the! em)a"ked on the *aith*+& "e,"eation o* a ;os,h-&ike he&&. <ee)&e attem ts at "esistan,e 4"ea&&!, se&* de*en,e5 - s+,h as the one o"ganiCed )! Natanai&, the ;isho o* Oh"id - ended in the e'e" es,a&ating *e"o,it! o* the o,,+ ie"s. ( ,o&&a)o"ation eme"ged )et-een the Ch+",h and the &ess than ho&! mem)e"s o* so,iet!. Natanai& himse&* "o'ided 0Chetis0 4g+e"i&&a )ands5 -ith -ea ons and s+ &ies. In O,to)e" @IFI, an + "ising took &a,e in :"esna. It -as d+&! s+ "essed )! the T+"ks, tho+gh -ith some di**i,+&t!. It -as not the *i"st one, ha'ing )een "e,eded )! the %aC&o',i + "ising in @IFE. ;+t it -as mo"e -e&& o"ganiCed and e> &i,it in its goa&s. ;+t no one - -ith the e>,e tion o* the T+"ks - -as ,ontent -ith the sit+ation and e'en the! -e"e a"anoid and an>io+s. The *&i -*&o o&i,ies o* the 9"eat Po-e"s t+"ned =a,edonia into the *o,+s o* shatte"ed nationa& as i"ations g"o+nded in some histo"i,a& "e,edent o* at &east th"ee nations: the 9"eeks, the ;+&ga"ians, and the Se")s. Ea,h in'oked ethni,it! and histo"! and a&& ,on$+"ed + the a a"ition o* the de*+n,t T"eat! o* San Ste*ano. Se")ia ,o&&+ded -ith the 6a)s)+"gs: ;osnia to the &atte" in "et+"n *o" a *"ee hand in =a,edonia to the *o"me".

The -i&! (+st"o-6+nga"ians "ega"ded the Se")s as ,annon *odde" in the att"ition -a" against the %+ssians and the T+"ks. In @IID, ;+&ga"ia -as at &ast +nited - no"th and *o"me"&! T+"k-o,,+ ied so+th - +nde" the :"em&in?s "ess+"e. The T+"ks s-it,hed sides and a&&ied -ith the Se")s against the s e,t"e o* a 9"eat ;+&ga"ia. (gain, the )att&eg"o+nd -as =a,edonia and its ;+&ga"ian-&eaning 4and to man!, +"e ;+&ga"ian5 inha)itants. <+"the" ,on*+sion a-aited. In @IAF, *o&&o-ing the C"ete + "ising against the Ottoman "+&e and in *a'o+" o* 9"eek enosis 4+ni*i,ation5, T+"ke! 4to "e'ent ;+&ga"ia *"om $oining its 9"eek enem!5 en,o+"aged :ing <e"dinand to he& the Se")s *ight the 9"eeks. Th+s, the ;a&kanian ka&eidos,o e o* &o!a&ties, a&&ian,es and e'e"&asting *"iendshi -as ti&ted mo"e sa'age&! than e'e" )e*o"e )! the a"anoia and the -hims o* nationa&ism gone )e"se"k. In this -o"&d o* se&* "e*&e,ting &ooking g&asses, in this )ed&am o* geo o&iti,s, in this seam&ess and *&+id +ni'e"se, de'oid o* an! ,e"taint! )+t the ,e"taint! o* 'oid, an anomie inside an a)no"ma&it! - a =a,edonian se&* identit!, tentati'e and me"e&! ,+&t+"a& at *i"st, )egan to eme"ge. Voi'ode 9o"gi$a P+&e'ski +)&ished a oem 0=a,edonian <ai"!0 in @IFI. The Jo+ng =a,edonian #ite"a"! So,iet! -as esta)&ished in @IA@ and sta"ted +)&ishing 0#oCa0, its $o+"na& a !ea" the"ea*te". :"ste =isi"ko', Dimit"i$a C+ o'ski, the Va"da" So,iet! and the =a,edonian C&+) in ;e&g"ade *o+nded the =a,edonian S,ho&a"&!-#ite"a"! So,iet! in @A02 4in %+ssia5. Thei" 0=a,edonian Nationa& P"og"am0 demanded a "e,ognition o* a =a,edonian nation -ith its o-n &ang+age and ,+&t+"e. The! sto ed sho"t o* insisting on an inde endent state, sett&ing instead *o" an a+tonom! and an inde endent ,h+",h. =isi"ko' -ent on to +)&ish his semina& -o"k, 0On =a,edonian =atte"s0 in @A0B in So*ia.

It -as a s,athing ,"itiK+e o* the n+m)ing and o**-handed mind games =a,edonia -as s+)$e,ted to )! the ;ig Po-e"s. =isi"ko' )e&ie'ed in ,+&t+"e as an identit! "ese"'ing *o",e. (nd the +"'e!o"s and ,on'e!o"s o* ,+&t+"e -e"e the tea,he"s. 0So the tea,he" in J+gos&a'ia is o*ten a he"o and *anati, as -e&& as a se"'ant o* the mindH )+t as the! -a&ked a&ong the ;e&g"ade st"eets it ,o+&d easi&! )e seen that none o* them had K+ite eno+gh to eat o" -a"m eno+gh ,&othing o" handsome &odgings o" a&& the )ooks the! needed0 - -"ote Dame %e)e,,a Gest in he" ete"na& 0;&a,k #am) and 9"e! <a&,on0 in @A40. 9o,e De&,e' 49otse De&t,he'5 -as a tea,he". 6e -as )o"n in @IF2 in :+k+sh 4the ;+&ga"ian name o* the to-n5, no"th o* Thessa&oniki 4Sa&oni,a, So&+n, Sa&oniki5. The"e is no do+)t a)o+t his ,+&t+"a& )a,kg"o+nd 4as o osed to his ,on'i,tions &ate" in &i*e5 - it -as ;+&ga"ian to the ,o"e. 6e st+died at a ;+&ga"ian g!mnasi+m in Sa&oniki. 6e *+"the"ed his ed+,ation at a mi&ita"! a,adem! in So*ia. 6e -as a s,hoo&tea,he" and a g+e"i&&a *ighte" and in )oth ,a a,ities he o e"ated in the a"eas that a"e toda! No"thCent"a& 9"ee,e, So+th-este"n ;+&ga"ia and the %e +)&i, o* =a,edonia. 6e *e&t eK+a&&! ,om*o"ta)&e in a&& th"ee "egions. 6e -as shot to death )! the T+"ks in ;anitsa, then a ;+&ga"ian 'i&&age, toda!, a 9"eek one. It -as in a s "ing da! in =a! @A0B. The death o* this sad )+t stee&! e!ed, hea'i&! mo+sta,hed !o+th -as s+**i,ient to ignite the I&&inden + "ising th"ee months &ate". It e"+ ted on the *east o* Saint I&&i!a 4S'eti I&i$a5. Peasants so&d thei" sa,"i*i,ia& )+&&s - the *"+its o* months o* &a)o+" - and )o+ght g+ns -ith the "o,eeds.

It sta"ted "athe" inno,+o+s&! in the hot)ed o* ethni, +n"est, Geste"n =a,edonia - te&eg"a h -i"es -e"e ,+t, some ta> "egiste"s in,ine"ated. The I=%O ,o&&a)o"ated in this -ith the "o-;+&ga"ian o"ganiCation VCho'its. In :"+se'o 4:"+she'o5 a "e +)&i, -as "o,&aimed, "e &ete -ith 0%+&es o* the =a,edonian 3 "ising Committee0 4aka the 0Constit+tion o* the 3 "ising05. This do,+ment dea&t -ith the &i)e"ation o* =a,edonia and the esta)&ishment o* a =a,edonian State. ( s e,ia& ,ha te" -as dedi,ated to *o"eign a**ai"s and neigh)o+"&! "e&ationshi s. It -as a&& hea"t-a,hing&! nai'e and it &asted @0 )&ood! da!s. C"+shed )! 2000 t"ained so&die"s and ho"se )o+nd a"ti&&e"!, the o+tn+m)e"ed @200 "e)e&s s+""ende"ed. <o"t! o* them kissed ea,h othe" good)!e and )&e- thei" )"ains o+t. The +s+a& "a ing and )&ood thi,k massa,"es ens+ed. (,,o"ding to T+"kish "e,o"ds, these i&&&anned and i""es onsi)&e moments o* g&o"! and *"eedom ,ost the &i'es o* 4,EA4 ,i'i&ians, AA4 0te""o"ists0. The "a e o* B,000 -omen -as not do,+mented. In No"th-este"n =a,edonia, an ado&es,ent gi"& -as "a ed )! D0 so&die"s and m+"de"ed a*te"-a"ds. In anothe" 'i&&age, the! ,+t a gi"&?s a"m to se,+"e he" )"a,e&ets. The mo"e one is e> osed to these at"o,ities, the mo"e one is "one to s+)s,"i)e to the 'ie- that the Ottoman Em i"e - its ha&ting and ha&* hea"ted e**o"ts at "e*o"m not-ithstanding - -as the sing&e most im o"tant agent o* "eta"dation and +t"id stagnation in its ,o&onies, a sti*&ing in*&+en,e o* t"a+mati, "o o"tions, the ,a+se o* mass menta& si,kness amongst its s+)$e,ts. (s is +s+a&&! the ,ase in the )&oodied geo o&iti,a& sand)o> kno-n as the ;a&kans, an inte"nationa& ea,ekee ing *o",e inte"'ened. Jet it -as - again, ha)it+a&&! - too &ate, too &itt&e.

Ghat made De&,e', "athe" his death, the t"igge" o* s+,h an o+t o+"ing o* emotions -as the I=%O 4V=%O in =a,edonian and in ;+&ga"ian5. The I&&inden + "ising -as the *+ne"a& o* a man -ho -as a ho e. It -as the +&+&ating g"ie'ing o* a ,o&&e,ti'e de "i'ed o* 'engean,e o" "e,o+"se. It -as a s asmodi, )"eath taken in the most s+**o,ating o* en'i"onments. This is not to sa! that I=%O -as mono&ithi, o" that De&,e' -as an ( ost&e 4as some o* his hagiog"a he"s -o+&d ha'e him5. It -as not and he -as *a" *"om it. ;+t he and his t-o ,om"ades, 8ane 4Jane5 Sandanski and Dam!an 4Dame5 9"+e' had a 'ision. The! had a d"eam. The I=%O is the sto"! o* a d"eam t+"ned nightma"e, o* the a)so&+te ,o""+ tion o* a)so&+te o-e" and o* the dange"s o* in'iting the *o> to *ight the -o&*. The o"igina& 0=a,edonian %e'o&+tiona"! O"ganiCation0 4=%O5 -as esta)&ished in So*ia. The distin,tion )et-een )eing a =a,edonian and )eing a =a,edonian-;+&ga"ian -as not sha" , to +se a o&ite +nde"statement. The ;+&ga"ians 0 "o e"0 "ega"ded the =a,edonians as se,ond ,&ass, "imiti'e and +n,+&t+"ed ;+&ga"ian "e&ati'es -ho inha)it a a"t o* ;+&ga"ia to the east. The =a,edonians themse&'es -e"e di'ided. Some -ished to )e in,o" o"ated in ;+&ga"ia, the ,i'i&iCed and ad'an,ed so,iet! and ,+&t+"e. Othe"s -anted an inde endent state - tho+gh the!, too, )e&ie'ed that the sa&'ation o* s+,h an entit! - )oth demog"a hi, and *inan,ia& - &ies a)"oad, -ith the dias o"a and )ene'o&ent *o"eign o-e"s. ( thi"d g"o+ 4and De&,e' -as, *o" a time, among them5 -anted a *ede"ation o* a&& states ;a&kan -ith an eK+a& standing *o" a =a,edonian o&it! 4a+tonom!5.

The o"igina& =%O o ted *o" the ;+&ga"ian o tion and "est"i,ted its aims to the &i)e"ation and immediate anne>ation o* -hat the! so&emn&! ,onside"ed to )e a T+"kish-o,,+ ied ;+&ga"ian te""ito"!. To disting+ish themse&'es *"om this =%O, the E *o+nde"s o* the =a,edonian 'e"sion - a&& mem)e"s o* the inte&&igentsia added the -o"d 0Inte"na&0 to thei" name. Th+s, the! )e,ame, in No'em)e" @IAB, I=%O. ( meas+"e o* the dis +tatio+sness o* a&& matte"s ;a&kanian ,an )e *o+nd in the -ide&! and -i&d&! di**e"ing 'e"sions a)o+t the ,i",+mstan,es o* the esta)&ishment o* I=%O. Some sa! it -as esta)&ished in Thessa&oniki 4this is the o**i,ia& 'e"sion, th+s s+ o"ting its 0=a,edonian0ness5. Othe"s - &ike %o)e"t :a &an - sa! it -as in Sti 4Shti 5 and the En,!,&o aedia ;"itanni,a ,&aims it -as in ... %esen 4%esana5. #et it )e ,&ea": this a+tho" ha")o+"s no s!m ath! to-a"ds the Ottoman Em i"e. The I=%O -as *ighting *o" &o*t! idea&s 4;a&kanian *ede"ation5 and -o"th! goa&s 4&i)e"ation *"om as h!>iating T+"kish "+&e5. ;+t to man! o+tside o)se"'e"s 4-ith the e>,e tion o* $o+"na&ists &ike 8ohn Soni>en o" 8ohn smith5, the I=%O -as indisting+isha)&e in its methods o* o e"ation *"om the gene"a& &ands,a e o* ma!hem, ,"ime, disinteg"ation o* the so,ia& *a)"i,, ,o&&a se o* a+tho"it!, so,ia& anomie, te""o" and )andit"!. <"om Ste'en So-a"ds? 0T-ent! <i'e #e,t+"es on =ode"n ;a&kan 6isto"!, The ;a&kans in an (ge o* Nationa&ism0, @AAE a'ai&a)&e 6E%E: htt :11---.&i).ms+.ed+1so-a"ds1)a&kan1&e,t@@.htm 0=ean-hi&e, the TanCimat "e*o"ms "emained +n*+&*i&&ed

+nde" ()d+& 6amid?s "ea,tiona"! "egime. 6o- e**e,ti'e had a&& these "e*o"ms )een )! the t+"n o* the ,ent+"!L 6o- )ad -as &i*e *o" Ch"istian easants in the ;a&kansL In a @A04 )ook ,a&&ed ?=a,edonia: Its %a,es and Thei" <+t+"e?, 6. N. ;"ai&s*o"d, an Eng&ish "e&ie* -o"ke", des,"i)es &a-&ess ,onditions in =a,edonia, the ,ent"a& ;a&kan dist"i,t )et-een 9"ee,e, Se")ia, (&)ania and ;+&ga"ia. In the a"eas ;"ai&s*o"d kne-, the a+tho"ities had &itt&e o-e". 6e -"ites: ?(n (&)anian -ent )! night into a ;+&ga"ian 'i&&age and *i"ed into the ho+se o* a man -hom he "ega"ded as an enem!. ... The "e*e,t...endea'o"ed to a""est the m+"de"e", )+t Mhis (&)anianN 'i&&age took + his ,a+se, and the genda"mes "et+"ned em t!-handed. The "e*e,t ... ma",hed + on the o**ending 'i&&age at the head o* th"ee h+nd"ed "eg+&a" t"oo s. ... The 'i&&age did not "esist, )+t it sti&& "e*+sed to gi'e e'iden,e against the g+i&t! man. The "e*e,t "et+"ned to O,h"ida -ith *o"t! o" *i*t! "isone"s, ke t them in gao& *o" th"ee o" *o+" da!s, and then "e&eased them a&&. ... To +nish a sim &e o+t)"eak o* "i'ate assion in -hi,h no o&iti,a& e&ement -as in'o&'ed Mthe "e*e,tN had to mo)i&iCe the -ho&e a"med *o",e o* his dist"i,t, and e'en then he *ai&ed.? %o))e"s and )"igands o e"ated -ith im +nit!: ?%iding one da! + on the high-"oad ..., I ,ame + on a )"igand seated on a )o+&de" ... in the midd&e o* the "oad, smoking his ,iga"ette, -ith his "i*&e a,"oss his knees, and ,a&m&! &e'!ing t"i)+te *"om a&& the asse"s-)!.0

E>to"tionists, not o&i,e, -e"e in ,ont"o&: 0( -ise 'i&&age ... MhasN its o-n "esident )"igands. ... The! a"e kno-n as "+"a& g+a"ds. The! a"e ne,essa"! )e,a+se the Ch"istian o +&ation is a)so&+te&! +na"med and de*en,e&ess. To a ,e"tain e>tent the! g+a"antee the 'i&&age against "o))e"s *"om o+tside, and in "et+"n the! ,a""! on a &i,ensed and modi*ied "o))e"! o* thei" o-n.? Se&*-de*ense )! O"thodo> easants -as dange"o+s: ?The 9o'e"nment makes its "esen,e *e&t ... -hen a ?*&!ing ,o&+mn? sa+nte"s o+t to h+nt an e&+si'e "e)e& )and, o" ... to +nish some *&ag"ant a,t o* de*ian,e ... The 'i&&age ma! ha'e ... "esented the 'io&en,e o* the ta>-,o&&e,to" ... Mo"N ha")o+"ed an a"med )and o* ins+"gents ... o" ... ki&&ed a neigh)o+"ing ,i'i&ian T+"k -ho had assa+&ted some gi"& o* the &a,e ... (t the 'e"! &east a&& the men -ho ,an )e ,a+ght -i&& )e me",i&ess&! )eaten, at the -o"st the 'i&&age -i&& )e )+"ned and some o* its inha)itants massa,"ed.? It -as not s+" "ising that easants hated thei" "+&e"s. ?One ente"s some ho'e& ... something ... sti"s o" g"oans in the g&oomiest ,o"ne" on the *&oo" )eneath a *i&th! )&anket. Is it *e'e", one asks, o" sma&& o>L ... the ans-e" ,omes ..., ?6e is i&& -ith *ea".? ... #ooking )a,k ... , a "o,ession o* "+ined minds ,omes )e*o"e the memo"!--an o&d "iest &!ing )eside a )+"ning ho+se s ee,h&ess -ith te""o" ... a -oman -ho had )a"ked &ike a dog sin,e the da! he" 'i&&age -as )+"nedH a maiden -ho )e,ame an im)e,i&e )e,a+se he" mothe" )+"ied he" in a ho&e +nde" the *&oo" to sa'e he" *"om the so&die"s ... ,hi&d"en -ho *&ee in te""o" at the sight o* a st"ange", ,"!ing ?T+"ks7 T+"ks7? These a"e the h+man -"e,kage o* the h+""i,ane -hi,h +s+" s the *+n,tions o* a 9o'e"nment.?

<o+" things a"e -o"th noting in ;"ai&s*o"d?s a,,o+nt as -e ,onside" the "os e,ts *o" a "e*o"m so&+tion to ;a&kan "o)&ems. <i"st, "e'o&+tiona"! o&iti,s -as not the *o"emost iss+e *o" the Ch"istian o +&ation: nationa&ism add"essed the immediate "o)&ems in thei" dai&! &i'es on&! indi"e,t&!, )! "omising a otentia& )ette" state. Se,ond, &o!a&ties -e"e sti&& &o,a& and )ased on the *ami&! and the 'i&&age, not on a)st"a,t nationa& a&&egian,es. I* ,"imina& a)+ses ended, the Ottoman state might !et ha'e in'ented an Ottoman 0nationa&ism0 to ,om ete -ith Se")ian, 9"eek, %omanian, o" ;+&ga"ian nationa&ism. Thi"d, 'i&&age"s did not ,"! o+t *o" ne- go'e"nment de a"tments o" se"'i,es, )+t on&! *o" "e&ie* *"om ,o""+ tion and ,"ime. The ,"eation o* ne- nationa& instit+tions -as not ne,essa"!, on&! the "e*o"m o* e>isting instit+tions. <o+"th, and on the othe" hand, mist"+st and 'io&en,e )et-een the t-o sides -as ha)it+a&. So man! de,ades o* "e*o"m had *ai&ed )! this time. The sit+ation -as so ho e&ess and e>t"eme that *e- eo &e on eithe" side ,an ha'e tho+ght o* "e*o"m as a "ea&isti, o tion.0 D+"ing the @IA0s, I=%O?s main so+",es o* in,ome -e"e 'o&+nta"! 4and &ate", &ess 'o&+nta"!5 ta>ation o* the "+"a& o +&ation, )ank "o))e"ies, t"ain "o))e"ies 4-hi,h -on handsome -o"&d media ,o'e"age5 and kidna ing *o" "ansom 4&ike the kidna ing o* the (me"i,an P"otestant =issiona"! E&&en Stone - K+ite a m!ste"io+s a**ai"5. The I=%O de'e&o ed a&ong "edi,ta)&e &ines into an a+tho"ita"ian and se,"eti'e o"ganiCation - a ne,essit! i* it -e"e to *ight the T+"ks e**e,ti'e&!.

It had its o-n t"i)+na&s -hi,h e>e",ised - o*ten *ata& a+tho"it! o'e" ,i'i&ians -ho -e"e deemed ,o&&a)o"ato"s -ith the T+"kish enem!. It m+st )e em hasiCed that this -as NOT +n+s+a& o" +niK+e at that time. This -as the mod+s o e"andi o* a&& mi&ita"!-o"ganiCed ideo&ogi,a& and o&iti,a& g"o+ s. (nd, taking e'e"!thing into a,,o+nt, the I=%O -as *ighting a $+st -a" against an a)ho""ent enem!. =o"eo'e", to some e>tent, its -a" -as e**e,ti'e and "es+&ted in "e*o"ms im osed on the S+)&ime Po"t 4the T+"kish a+tho"ities5 )! the 9"eat Po-e"s o* the da!. Ge mentioned the ea,ekee ing *o",e -hi,h "e &a,ed the &o,a& genda"me"ie. ;+t "e*o"ms -e"e a&so ena,ted in ed+,ation, "e&igio+s "ights and to&e"an,e, ,onst"+,tion, *a"m o&i,! and othe" a"eas. The int"a,ta)&e and "eso+",e,ons+ming =a,edonian K+estion &ed di"e,t&! to the "e*o"m o* T+"ke! itse&* )! the =a,edonia-)o"n o**i,e" (tat+"k. (nd it *a,i&itated the disinteg"ation o* the Ottoman em i"e - th+s, i"oni,a&&!, &eading to the inde enden,e o* a&most e'e"!one e>,e t its o"iginato"s. The "adi,a&iCation o* I=%O and its t"ans*o"mation into the in*amo+s o"ganiCation it has ,ome to )e kno-n as, sta"ted a*te" the Se,ond ;a&kan -a" 4@A@B5 and, mo"e so, a*te" the <i"st Go"&d Ga" 4@A@I5. It -as then that disi&&+sionment -ith ;ig Po-e" o&iti,s "e &a,ed the nai'e t"+st in the ine'ita)&e t"i+m h o* a $+st ,&aim. The =a,edonians -e"e ne'e" -o"se o** o&iti,a&&!, ha'ing ,ont"i)+ted no &ess - i* not mo"e - than an! othe" nation to the "e-dist"i)+tion o* the Ottoman Em i"e. The ,!ni,ism, the h! o,"is!, the o**-handedness, the igno"an,e, the 'i&e inte"ests, the +&te"io" moti'es - a&& ,ons i"ed to t"ans*o"m the I=%O *"om a goa&-o"ientated asso,iation to a o-e" h+ng"! monst"osit!.

In @A@2 ;+&ga"ia, Se")ia, and 9"ee,e - *o"me" )itte" *oes *o"med the ;a&kan #eag+e to ,on*"ont an e'en mo"e )itte" *oe, the Ottoman Em i"e on the thin "ete>t o* an (&)anian + "ising. The )"othe"hood st"ained in the T"eat! o* #ondon 4=a! @A@B5 "om t&! dete"io"ated into inte"ne,ine -a"*a"e o'e" the s oi&s o* a s+,,ess*+& ,am aign - name&!, o'e" =a,edonia. Se")s, 9"eeks, =onteneg"ins and %omanians s+)d+ed ;+&ga"ia s+**i,ient&! to *o",e it to sign a t"eat! in (+g+st @A@B in ;+,ha"est. 0(egean =a,edonia0 -ent to 9"ee,e and 0Va"da" =a,edonia0 4toda!?s %e +)&i, o* =a,edonia5 -ent to Se")ia. The sma&&e" 0Pi"in =a,edonia0 "emained ;+&ga"ian. The ;+&ga"ian gam)&e in Go"&d Ga" I -ent -e&& *o" a -hi&e, as it o,,+ ied a&& th"ee a"ts o* =a,edonia. ;+t the ens+ing de*eat and dismem)e"ment o* its a&&ies, &ed to a "e-de*inition o* e'en 0Pi"in =a,edonia0 so as to minimiCe ;+&ga"ia?s sha"e. Va"da" =a,edonia )e,ame a"t o* a ne- :ingdom o* the Se")s, C"oats, and S&o'enes 4&ate" "enamed J+gos&a'ia5. These o&iti,a& #ego games &ed to eno"mo+s o +&ation shi*ts - the o&iti,a&&! ,o""e,t te"m *o" "e*+gees )"+ta&&! de "i'ed o* thei" &and and &i'e&ihood. (&& o* them -e"e ensh"ined in so&emn t"eaties. The T"eat! o* #a+sanne 4@A2B5 &ed to the e> +&sion o* BFD,000 T+"ks *"om (egean =a,edonia. E40,000 9"eek "e*+gees *"om T+"ke! "e &a,ed them. Ea,h o* the a,t+a& o,,+ ie"s and ea,h o* the otentia& ones o ened its o-n s,hoo&s to indo,t"inate the *+t+"e gene"ations o* the o +&a,e. Con*&i,ts e"+ ted o'e" e,,&esiasti,a& matte"s, the ,onst"+,tion o* "ai&-a!s and "ai&-a! stations. 9+e"i&&a *ighte"s soon "ea&iCed that )eing a-ns on this mad hatte"?s ,hess)oa"d ,o+&d )e a "o*ita)&e 'o,ation. The t"ans*o"mation *"om *"eedom *ighte"s to me",ena"ies -ith no agenda -as s-i*t.

(nd e,+nia"! ,onside"ations )"ed e'en mo"e te""o" and te""o"ists -he"e the"e -e"e none )e*o"e. In the meantime, 9"ee,e ena,ted a &and "e*o"m &egis&ation in 0(egean =a,edonia0 - in e**e,t, the ,on*is,ation o* a"a)&e &and )! tho+sands o* 9"eek sett&e"s, "e*+gees *"om T+"ke!. =+,h o* the &and th+s 0"e-dist"i)+ted0 -as o-ned )! T+"kish a)sentees, no- "e*+gees themse&'es. ;+t a &ot o* &and -as sim &! im o+nded *"om its "ight*+&, 'e"! m+,h "esent and 'e"! =a,edonian o-ne"s. The Se") a+tho"ities ,oe",ed the o +&ation to s eak the Se") &ang+age, ,hanged =a,edonian names to Se") ones in )"+ta&&! ,a""ied ,am aigns and im osed a ,o""+ t and in,om etent )+"ea+,"a,! + on the s+**e"ing m+&tit+des. I=%O ne'e" ga'e + its "o,&aimed goa& to &i)e"ate )oth o,,+ ied a"ts o* =a,edonia - the (egean and the Va"da" ones. ;+t, as time assed and as the nat+"e o* its o"ganiCation and o e"ation e'o&'ed, the e"*+n,to"iness o* its "o,&amations )e,ame mo"e and mo"e e'ident. The o&d idea&ists - the inte&&e,t+a&s and ideo&og+es, the 9o,e De&,e' t! es - -e"e "emo'ed, died in )att&e, o" &e*t this m+tation o* thei" d"eam. The I=%O insignia - sk+&& and ,"oss)ones - &inked it *i"m&! to the Ita&ian ;a&,kshi"ts and the NaCi )"o-n ones. The I=%O has de'e&o ed into a *as,ist o"ganiCation. It t"aded o i+m. It hi"ed o+t the se"'i,es o* its ski&&ed assassins 4*o" 20 do&&a"s a ,ont"a,t5. It "e,"+ited mem)e"s among the =a,edonian o +&ation in the s&+ms o* So*ia. <ina&&!, the! o en&! ,o&&a)o"ated -ith the <as,ists o* =+sso&ini 4-ho a&so s+ o"ted them *inan,ia&&!5, -ith the 3stashe 4simi&a"&! s+ o"ted )! Ita&!5 and -ith the NaCis 4+nde" I'an =ihai&o', -ho )e,ame the nomina& K+is&ing "+&e" o* Va"da" =a,edonia5. It -as an I=%O man 40V&ado the Cha+**e+"05 -ho m+"de"ed :ing (&e>ande" o* J+gos&a'ia in @AB4.

(&& this e"iod, the I=%O ,ontin+ed to +"s+e its o"igina& agenda. I=%O te""o"ists m+"de"ed sta** and + i&s in J+gos&a' s,hoo&s in Va"da" =a,edonia. In )et-een @A24B4, it ki&&ed @,000 eo &e. To+"ists o* the e"iod des,"i)e the J+gos&a'-;+&ga"ian *"ontie" as the most *o"ti*ied in E+"o e -ith 0entang&ements, )&o,k ho+ses, "edo+)ts and sea",h&ight osts0. Th"o+gho+t the t-enties and the thi"ties, the I=%O maintained a "esen,e in E+"o e, +)&ishing "o aganda in,essant&! and e> &aining its osition e&oK+ent&! 4tho+gh not 'e"! ,on'in,ing&!5. It -as not 'e"! -e&& &iked )! )oth ;+&ga"ians and =a,edonians -ho got in,"easing&! agitated and e>ha+sted )! the e>to"tion o* e'e" in,"easing ta>es and )! the seeming&! end&ess 'io&en,e. ;+t the I=%O -as no- a *o",e to "e,kon -ith: o"ganiCed, dis,i &ined, &etha&. Its in*&+en,e g"e- )! the da! and mo"e than one ,ontem o"a"! des,"i)es it as a 0state -ithin a state0. In ;+&ga"ia it ,o&&a)o"ated -ith Todo" (&e>and"o' in the o'e"th"o- and m+"de" o* the P"ime =iniste", (&e>and+" Stam)o&i!ski 48+ne @A2B5 and in the a ointment o* a "ight -ing go'e"nment headed )! (&e>and+" Tsanko'. Stam)o&i!ski t"ied to a ease J+gos&a'ia and, in the "o,ess, sa,"i*i,e in,on'enient e&ements, s+,h as the I=%O, as e> edient&! as he ,o+&d. 6e made too man! o-e"*+& enemies too *ast: the a"m! 4)! ,+tting thei" in*&ated )+dget5, the nationa&ists 4)! o**i,ia&&! a)andoning the goa& o* mi&ita"! e> ansion5, the "o*essiona& o**i,e"s 4)! making them "ed+ndant5, the 9"eat Po-e"s 4)! making T6E= "ed+ndant as -e&&5 and the o osition 4)! -inning the e&e,tions handsome&! des ite a&& the a)o'e5. ;! signing the T"eat! o* Nis 4a&&o-ing Se") *o",es the "ight o* hot +"s+it -ithin ;+&ga"ian te""ito"!5, he in e**e,t sea&ed his o-n death -a""ant.

The I=%O teamed + -ith the =i&ita"! #eag+e 4an o"ganiCation o* disg"+nt&ed o**i,e"s, )oth a,ti'e d+t! and "ese"'e5 and -ith the ta,it )&essing o* Tsa" ;o"is and the *o"ming Nationa& (&&ian,e 4&ate" "enamed the Demo,"ati, (&&ian,e5, the! did a-a! -ith the hated man. <o&&o-ing the m+"de", the I=%O -as gi'en *+&& ,ont"o& o* the "egion o* Pet"i, 4Pet"i,h5. It +sed it as a &a+n,hing ad o* its hit and "+n atta,ks against J+gos&a'ia -ith the *+&& tho+gh ,&andestine - s+ o"t o* the ;+&ga"ian =inist"! o* Ga" and <as,ist Ita&!. <"om Pi"in, the! atta,ked 9"ee,e as -e&&. These -e"e e>a,t&! the kind o* inte"nationa& tensions the m+"de"ed P"ime =iniste" -as keen to te"minate and the I=%O no &ess keen to *oste". In the mean-hi&e, (&e>and"o' ,ame to an end t! i,a& o* man! a ;+&ga"ian o&iti,ian and -as assassinated on&! a !ea" a*te" the ,o+ d?etat. The de,ade that *o&&o-ed did not smi&e + on the I=%O. It *"agmented and its sh"eds *o+ght ea,h othe" in the st"eets o* So*ia, Chi,ago-st!&e. ;! @AB4, the I=%O -as a *+&&*&edged e>to"tionist ma*ia o"ganiCation. The! "an "ote,tion "a,kets 40 "ote,ting0 sma&& sho -o-ne"s against othe" gangs and 0ins+"ing0 them against thei" o-n 'io&en,e5. 6ote&s in So*ia a&-a!s had *"ee "ooms *o" the I=%O. The to)a,,o ind+st"! aid the I=%O mo"e than a mi&&ion ;"itish o+nds o* that time in si> !ea"s o* 0ta>ation0. %o))e"ies and assassinations -e"e dai&! o,,+""en,es. So -e"e st"eet shoot-o+ts and o+t"ight ,on*is,ation o* goods. The I=%O had no s+ o"t &e*t an!-he"e.

In @AB4, it -as dis)anded 4togethe" -ith othe" a"ties5 )! Co&one& :im"on 9eo"gie', the ne- P"ime =iniste" o* ;+&ga"ia and a senio" *ig+"e in the O'eno asso,iation o* disg"+nt&ed ,itiCen"!. 6is "+&e -as )"ie* 4ended the ne>t !ea"5 )+t the I=%O ne'e" "e,o'e"ed. It )"o+ght its o-n demise + on itse&*. Co&one& Ve&,e' 4Ve&,he'5, the e" et"ato" o* the ,o+ , -as s-e t to o-e" on the "omise to end a&& te""o"ist a,ti'ities - a "omise -hi,h he ke t. The mode"n %e +)&i, o* =a,edonia is toda! "+&ed )! a a"t! ,a&&ed V=%O-DP=NE. It is one o* a *e- o&iti,a& a"ties to ,a""! this name and the )iggest and -eightiest amongst them )! *a". It is *o+nded on the 'ision and idea&s o* 9o,e De&,e' and has distan,ed itse&* *"om the 0Te""o"ist-I=%O0. The i,t+"e o* De&,e' ado"ns e'e"! o**i,e in )oth =a,edonia and ;+&ga"ia and he is the ,&osest to a saint a se,+&a" "egime ,an ha'e. In @A2B, the 9"eeks t"ans*e""ed his )ones to ;+&ga"ia. Sta&in, in a &ast e**o"t to &a,ate Tito, o"de"ed ;+&ga"ia to t"ans*e" them to =a,edonia. E'en in his death he kne- no ea,e. No- he is )+"ied in his *ina& "esting &a,e, in the t"anK+i& inne" !a"d o* the Ch+",h o* S'eti S as 4Saint Sa'io+"5. ( ma")&e s&a) )ea"ing a sim &e ins,"i tion -ith his name +nde" a t"ee, in a =a,edonia -hi,h no- )e&ongs to the =a,edonians. %et+"n

The $lack +and

0I &i'e and sha&& die *o" *ede"a&ismH it is the so&e sa&'ation *o" the mona",h!, i* an!thing ,an sa'e it.0 *rchd#ke Fran8 Ferdinand of *#stria The I=%O -as a o +&ist o"ganiCation esta)&ished )! inte&&e,t+a&s 4as s+,h g"o+ s o*ten do5 )+t sta**ed )! easant, &+m en "o&eta"iat and d-e&&e"s o* the s&+ms *o"med )! =a,edonian "e*+gees a&& o'e" the ;a&kans and es e,ia&&! in So*ia. Its mem)e"s s-o"e a&&egian,e on a )i)&e and a g+n - t-o +ni'e"sa&&! otent s!m)o&s. The nationa&ist-te""o"ist mo'ement -hi,h )o"e the im "o)a)&e )!-name o* 0The ;&a,k 6and0 -as no s+,h thing. It -as e&itist - on&! mem)e"s o* the o**i,e" ,o" s and go'e"nment o**i,ia&s ,o+&d $oin. ;+t the t-o sha"ed an ethos and methods o* o e"ation. The I=%O so+ght to &i)e"ate the a"ts o* =a,edonia -hi,h -e"e +nde" 9"eek and Se") ,ont"o& - and the ;&a,k 6and 4o**i,ia& name: 03nion o" Death05 so+ght to do the same *o" Se")s +nde" Ottoman o" 6a)s)+"g "+&e. The ;&a,k 6and -as the "e,+"so" o* the 9"eat Se")ia d"eam. ;+t -he"eas the I=%O - at &east +nti& @A@B - did not en$o! the s+ o"t o* the state and its me,hanisms, the ;&a,k 6and -as, *o" a &ong time, the &ong a"m o* the Se") go'e"nment and the Se") state. To the gene"ation o* ost-J+gos&a'ia It is a *ami&ia" sto"!. In h+man a**ai"s, the d"eam o* a 9"eate" Se")ia is no &ess a "e,+""ent nightma"e than the n+me"a)&e 9e"man %ei,hs and Se")ia e"+ ted + on the -o"&d stage no &ess *"eK+ent&! and "eg+&a"&! than its no"the"n eK+i'a&ent. Se")ia, =onteneg"o and %+ssia *o+ght a -a" against

T+"ke! in an e**o"t to ,a ita&iCe on a Se") easants? "e'o&t in ;osnia in @IFD. The &atte" -e"e mighti&! and "athe" inh+man&! o "essed )! the &o,a& =os&em no)i&it! 4enmit! has &ong "oots in the ;a&kans5. It -as a ho&! -a" *o" the "ote,tion o* ho&! 4O"thodo>5 mothe" ,h+",h. It -as this ,on*&i,t that &ed to the T+"kish ,a it+&ation em)edded in the San Ste*ano T"eat! o* @IFI. It -as not the *i"st time that ;a&kan )o"de"s -e"e "e-d"a-n )+t, -ith the ,"eation o* ;+&ga"ia, e>tending a&& the -a! to &ake Oh"id, a *e- ta)oos -e"e )"oken. ( ne- state -as ,"eated, %+ssia -as int"od+,ed as a ma$o" &a!e" and the Si,k =an o* E+"o e 4the Ottoman Em i"e5 -as in death th"oes. It a&so gene"ated a ne- "o)&em, the =a,edonian one. The t"eat! o* ;e"&in so+ght to "esto"e the )a&an,e )+t to no a'ai&. The ine>o"a)&e ge"mination o* the nationa&isti, idea& has ,ommen,ed. Ghen the T"eat! &a,ed ;osnia-6e"Cego'ina +nde" (+st"o-6+nga"ian administ"ation and a&&o-ed 6a)s)+"g ga""isons to ,am inside Se")ia 4e**e,ti'e&! se'e"ing it *"om =onteneg"o5 the seeds o* dis,ontent )&ossomed into the e'i& *&o-e"s o* 'io&en,e. No one ,a"ed -hat the &o,a& o +&a,e had to sa!. The (+st"ian )"o+ght "oads and "ai&-a!s and mode"n mining and *o"est"! and ind+st"! to this hithe"to E+"o ean )a,k-ate". %e'e"sing the Ottoman in*&i,tion -as no mean *eat. Jet, the (+st"ians ,hose to "+&e )! di'ision, to moti'ate th"o+gh hate and to )+! the &o'e o* thei" s+)$e,ts "athe" than to ea"n it.

The! )e*"iended the =os&em &and&o"ds and itted the Se")s against ea,h a,"oss a denominationa& di'ide. This 'o&ati&e state o* a**ai"s -as on&! agg"a'ated )! the a)o&ition in @II@ o* the =i&ita"! <"ontie", -hi,h )"o+ght h+nd"eds o* tho+sands o* Se")s into the "emit o* an in,"easing&! and 'i"+&ent&! nationa&isti, C"oatia. The 6+nga"ians +sed this to thei" ad'antage )! *anning C"oatSe") hosti&it!. (*te" a&&, the! had a histo"i,a& a,,o+nt to sett&e -ith the Se")s -ho K+ashed an 6+nga"ian "e)e&&ion not 40 !ea"s )e*o"e 4in @I4I-A5 and -e"e a-a"ded -ith the ha&* a+tonomo+s D+,h! o* Vo$'odina, an integ"a& a"t o* the :ingdom o* 6+nga"!. The (+sg&ei,h o* @IEF 4-hi,h di'ided the &oot )et-een (+st"ia and 6+nga"!5 de "i'ed Vo$'odina o* its a+tonom!. The =ag!a"s "+shed )a,k in -ith 9e"man and (+st"ian sett&e"s and immediate&! em)a"ked + on a massi'e ,am aign o* *o",ed assimi&ation. Th+s, as Vo$'odina "os e"ed -ith "oads and "ai&-a!s and &a"ge ,omme",ia& *a"ms 40the )"ead)asket o* the em i"e05 - it )e,ame mo"e hate-"i'en and e> &osi'e. In the ;a&kans, a**&+en,e and ,omme",e seem on&! to en,o+"age en'! and )e&&ige"en,e and neigh)o+"&! "e&ations a"e no )a""ie" to m+t+a& s&a+ghte". ( se&*-a ointed 0g+a"dian o* a&& Se")s0, the Se")ian state -i&&ing&! engaged in agitation and ,on*"onted )oth othe" ethni,ities and the D+a& =ona",h! in its K+est to sa*eg+a"d the -e&&-)eing, -e&*a"e, "os e"it! and eK+a& t"eatment o* the Se")s, a&& no)&e goa&s, no do+)t.

Jet insta)i&it! is ,ontagio+s, a &esson not &ea"n )! Se") o&iti,ians. E'en as the ;osnian + "ising -as in "og"ess, :ing =i&an st+,k an (+st"ian kni*e +nto its )a,k. 6e ag"eed to not *oment "e)e&&ion in ;osnia-6e"Cego'ina, in "et+"n *o" a *"ee hand in =a,edonia and some e> o"t ,on,essions *o" some ag"i,+&t+"a& "od+,e. In @IID, he a,ted + on his g"andiosit! to disast"o+s o+t,ome. <o+" !ea"s &ate", he a)di,ated in disg"a,e. Not ti&& @IAB -as o"de" "esto"ed in the e"son o* :ing (&e>ande" -hose most im o"tant a,t -as ma""!ing his ,on,+)ine, D"aga =asin in @A00. The! -e"e )oth massa,"ed in 8+ne @A0B )! disg"+nt&ed o**i,e"s in thei" o-n a&a,e and that -as the end o* one d!nast! 4the O)"eno'i,?s5 and the )eginning o* anothe" 4the :a"ad$o"d$e'i,?s5. ( !o+ng o**i,e", a mem)e" o* the gene"a& sta** o* the a"m!, )! the name o* D"ag+tin Dimit"i$e'i, 40( is0 - the 06o&! ;+&&0 -as his endea"ing ni,kname, o", e"ha s, the )ee, *"om the #atin "oot, as Pet"o'i,, the atta,he to the Se")ia &egation in #ondon has it in 0;&a,k 6and O'e" E+"o e0 )! 6ene"i PoCCi5 &anned it a&& in @A0@. %emem)e" this name, his "o&e in o+" histo"! has on&! $+st )eg+n. (s is +s+a&&! the ,ase, the hone!moon &ooked )oth assionate and a+s i,io+s. The ne- :ing -as o* the "e*o"ming kind and keen on e,onomi, "og"ess and -ea&th *o"mation. %eg"et*+&&!, his im &ementation *e&& sho"t o* his intentions. Se")ian ag"i,+&t+"e &agged )ehind its mo"e ,omme",ia&iCed and ind+st"ia&iCed ,om etito"s, the o +&ation g"e- "e&ent&ess&! and "+"a& de)ts )+"ied the semi-*e+da& "+sti, easant"! +nde" its in,"easing )+"den.

It is against this )a,kg"o+nd o* mo+nting and me",+"ia& dis,ontent that the 0;&a,k 6and0 -as *o"med. (ttesting to the s "eading o* the "ot th"o+gho+t the :a"ad$o"d$e'i,ean state, -as its ,an,e"o+s metastasis th"o+gh a&& &e'e&s o* the a"m! and the go'e"nment. ( is the "egi,ide -as a ointed ,hie* o* inte&&igen,e o* the gene"a& sta**, no &ess. 6e &ate" ,on*essed to &anning the m+"de"s o* :ing Ni,ho&as o* =onteneg"o, :ing Constantine o* 9"ee,e, the 9e"man :aise" and :ing <e"dinand o* ;+&ga"ia. 6om+,h o* it -as ;a&kan de&+sions and ho- m+,h "ea&it! is sti&& o en to de)ate - )+t the man "e&ished death and *i"m&! )e&ie'ed in its t"ans*o"ming and ,ata&!sing o-e"s. The ;&a,k 6and )e,ame a state -ithin a state 4a *eat &ate" em+&ated )! the I=%O5. Those )+"ea+,"ats and o&iti,ians not a&"ead! mem)e"s o* the shad! o+t*it, o)e!ed its e> "ess o" e",ei'ed -ishes o+t o* te""o", mo"e imagined than e>e",ised. The a"m! -as enti"e&! in th"a&&. The a,,e&e"ated ad'an,e o* Dimit"i$e'i, th"o+gh the "anks se"'es "oo* o* the g"o-ing in*&+en,e o* his ,anke"o+s o+t*it. 6e )e,ame "o*esso" o* ta,ti,s at the =i&ita"! (,adem! -he"e he ta+ght s+)'e"sion and te""o" mo"e than mi&ita"! st"ateg!. ;! @A@B, he -as ,hie* o* inte&&igen,e, as -e mentioned and )! @A@E he -as attained the "ank o* ,o&one& at the age o* 40. Tho+gh *o"ma&&! esta)&ished on&! in @A@@- the ;&a,k 6and ,ast its shado- &ong )e*o"e. It engaged most&! in "o aganda and in the seeding o* a"med )ands in =a,edonia "io" to the t-o ;a&kan -a"s. Its )iggest a,hie'ement -as "o)a)&! the in,e tion o* n+me"o+s "e'o&+tiona"! ,e&&s among the Se")s o* ;osnia. The &onge" and mo"e tho"o+gh the medd&ing, the mo"e the

&ang+id "e&ationshi )et-een (+st"ia and Se")ia dete"io"ated. The *o"me" im osed ta"i**s on the e> o"ts o* the &atte" in an a t&! named 0Pig Ga"0. (s Se") s+)'e"sion intensi*ied in ;osnia, (+st"ia anne>ed it and 6e"Cego'ina o+t"ight dis,a"ding the "eten,e o* a+tonom! it has maintained. St!mied in one )o"de" - the Se")s "e'e"ted to anothe". The I&&inden + "ising ignited S&a' imagination. Se")ia has &ong h+nge"ed a*te" its s&i,e o* a dismem)e"ed =a,edonia and Th"a,e in a )anK+et attended )! )oth ;+&ga"ia and 9"ee,e. ;+t the *"esh at"o,ities - not de'oid o* "e&igio+s and ethni, dimensions endo-ed the -ho&e endea'o+" -ith an a+"a o* a ho&! -a". This de&i"i+m -as *+"the" stoked )! the a a"ent disinteg"ation o* the Ottoman Em i"e *o&&o-ing the "e'o&+tion o* the Jo+ng T+"ks in @A0I. Jet, in its d"ang na,h s+den, Se")ia *o+nd itse&* on,e mo"e entang&ed -ith the (+st"ians -ho had thei" o-n designs on =a,edonia and No'i PaCa". The "isk o* &osing :oso'o and =etohi$a -as 'e"! "ea& and the ,on*&i,t ass+med the "o)es o* a ,"+sade, )oth ,+&t+"a& and "e&igio+s. To the Se")s the 'e"! maintenan,e o* thei" se&*-identit! and ,i'i&iCation -as at stake. This -as the )a,kg"o+nd to the ons&a+ght o* the ;a&kan Ga"s.

Se")ia ,o&&a)o"ated -ith the mo"e otent o* its otentia& enemies 49"ee,e, ;+&ga"ia5 in the ;a&kan #eag+e. To ,&eanse the ;a&kans o* a&& T+"ks -as the e> &i,it goa&s o* h+sh-h+sh t"eaties and ,&andestine en,o+nte"s. The hidden agenda )es oke o* (+st"ia. The initia& t"i+m hs against the T+"kish a"m! 4"e'e"sing a t"end th"ee ,ent+"ies o&d5 &ent an ai" o* ine'ita)&e in'in,i)i&it! and di'ine $+sti,e to the -ho&e endea'o+". It is inte"esting to mention that it -as &itt&e =onteneg"o -hi,h -as the *i"st to de,&a"e -a" in a&most a&& ;a&kan ,on*&i,ts. Ghethe" as Se")ian "o>ies o" )e,a+se o* the ,ontentio+s nat+"e o* the =onteneg"ins "emains +n,&ea". Ghate'e" the ,ase ma! )e, a se,ond -a" among the -inne"s o* the *i"st &e*t Se")ia -ith its agenda *+&*i&&ed and -ith its te""ito"! a&most do+)&ed. It gained a"t o* the SandCak, a&& :oso'o and =etohi$a and the )+&k o* =a,edonia. Its ta> a!ing o +&ation in,"eased )! ha&* as m+,h in &ess than t-o !ea"s. 6ad it not )een *o" (+st"ia?s mina,io+s insisten,e, (&)ania -o+&d ha'e ne'e" )een )o"n on Se") o,,+ ied te""ito"!. The ,"eation o* this 4a"ti*i,ia&, so the Se")s *e&t5 (&)anian state de "i'ed Se")ia - a&one among the 'i,to"s - *"om a,,ess to the sea. It had anothe" ,a+se *o" a"anoid de&+sions and dee ening sense o* 'i,timiCation at the hands o* 'ast ,ons i"a,ies. %e&egated to the geo o&iti,a& side&ines, den+ded o* thei" ,onK+ests, ,oe",ed )! a ;ig Po-e", the Se")s *e&t h+mi&iated, sta))ed in the )a,k, dis,"iminated against, in*e"io" and -"ath*+&. <"+st"ation )"eeds agg"ession -e a"e ta+ght and this t"+e &esson -as ne'e" mo"e o*t"e eated than in the ;a&kans.

The "aging "i'a&"! )et-een an east-a"d-)o+nd (+st"ia and a de*iant Se")ia -as )o+nd to )oi& o'e". The ;&a,k 6and -as the"e to "o'oke the a"ties into a *ina& test o* st"engths and -i&& o-e". Dame %e)e,,a Gest 'oi,es he" do+)ts "ega"ding the t"+e intent o* the ;&a,k 6ande"s in thei" in'o&'ement 4-hi,h she does not dis +te5 in the e'ents that *o&&o-ed. ;ased on a&& manne" o* ,i",+mstantia& e'iden,e and the testimonies o* m!ste"io+s *"iends o* *+"ti'e ,ons i"ato"s she "ea,hes the ,on,&+sion that the! did not )e&ie'e in the ,ons i"a,! to -hi,h the! &ent thei" s+ o"t. The ;&a,k 6and -ent a&ong -ith the &anning and e>e,+tion o* the assassination o* (",hd+ke, hei" to the th"one <"anC 4<"an,is5 <e"dinand in @A@4, dis)e&ie'ing a&& the -a! )oth the ski&&s and the ,ommitment o* the !o+th*+& -o+&d )e assassins. Pe"ha s so. Jet the"e ,an )e &itt&e do+)t and, indeed, the"e is no dis +te that The ;&a,k 6and -as int"od+,ed to a ,a)a& o* &otte"s ,a&&ed 0=&ada ;osna0 4Jo+ng ;osnia5, headed )! one I&&i,h and that this int"od+,tion -as e**e,ted )! the 22 !ea" o&d in*&+entia& ;osnian "e'o&+tiona"! 9a,ino'i, 49a,hino'i,h5 -ho &i'ed in #a+sanne in S-itCe"&and. The ;&a,k 6ande" Cigano'i, 4Tsigano'it,h5 made ,onta,t -ith one 9a'"i&o P"in,i and Cha)"ino'i,h and togethe" -ith anothe" ;osnian, Tankosi, 4Tankosi,h5. The &atte" - a se&* "o,&aimed sha" shoote" - immediate&! set a)o+t testing the sni ing ski&&s o* his ,o-s,heme"s in a se,&+ded -ood. Gith the mi&d e>,e tion o* P"in,i , the! -e"e no good.

Des ite this dishea"tening dis &a! o* in,om eten,e 4P"in,i ,&aimed at his t"ia& to ha'e aimed at a gene"a& sitting ne>t to the (",hd+ke5, the ;&a,k 6and eK+i ed them -ith )om)s 4o* the -"ong kind, oints Gest ,o""e,t&!5, isto&s and s+i,ida& P"+ssi, a,id 4-hi,h didn?t -o"k5. The! -e"e sm+gg&ed to Sa"a$e'o )! t-o ,o&&a)o"ating )o"de" g+a"ds. (s o osed to "+mo+"s, 9a'"i&o P"in,i -as not a mem)e" o* the ;&a,k 6and, no" -as the ;&a,k 6and in'o&'ed in his t"aining. =o"eo'e", the ,onne,tion )et-een =&ada ;osna and C"na %+ka 4;&a,k 6and5 -as made on&! a sho"t time )e*o"e the e'ent*+& 8+ne 2I, @A@4. It -as a ,ha&&enge and on Se")ia?s nationa& da! at that. The (+st"ians -e"e e&ated ha'ing )een handed the e>,+se to ed+,ate Se")ia and ,+t it to siCe. The! iss+ed an +&timat+m and the "est is the histo"! o* the *i"st t"+&! g&o)a& ,on*&i,t, the <i"st Go"&d Ga". In @A@F, in a s+" "ising t+"n o* e'ents, (&e>ande", the Commande" in Chie* o* the E> at"iate Se")ian ("m! in ,o&&+sion -ith the Se") "emie", Niko&a Pasi,, a""ested ( is and 200 o* his ,o&&a)o"ato"s, th+s shatte"ing the ;&a,k 6and i""e'e"si)&!. It is a&-a!s s+" "ising ho- "ea&&! )"itt&e and '+&ne"a)&e these a a"ent&! in'in,i)&e o"ganiCations o* te""o" a"e. The I=%O, a*te" ha'ing te""o"iCed ;+&ga"ia *o" de,ades and de,imated its o&iti,a& e&ite, -as "ed+,ed to "+))&e, )&ood&ess&!, in a matte" o* a *e- -eeks in @AB4.

The same ha ened -ith the omni otent and a&&- e"'asi'e ;&a,k 6and. It 'anished in a -him e". In =a! @A@F, D"ag+tin Dimit"i$e'i, 4( is5 -as e>e,+ted togethe" -ith 2 o" E o* his ;&a,k 6and ,o&&eag+es. <ina&&! it -as death, not +nion that ,a+ght + -ith them. The t"ia& -as ,&osed to the +)&i,, o aK+e and h+""ied. The :ing a a"ent&! )e&ie'ed - o" ,&aimed he did - that the "isone"s ,ons i"ed on his &i*e. Gest testi*ies in he" g"eat o +s 0;&a,k #am) 9"e! <a&,on0 that t"ans,"i ts o* the t"ia& -e"e )anned and that it -as *o")idden to mention the me"e histo"i, *a,t eithe" in s ee,h o" in "int. The mem)e"s o* the ;&a,k 6and &i'ed se,"et&! and dies m!ste"io+s&! and meaning&ess&!. ;+t the ;&a,k 6and - &ike the I=%O - -as a ,hi&d o* the times. The ;a&kans -as e",ei'ed to )e the gate to the ,"+m)&ing Ottoman Em i"e, The ,o'eted "iCes -e"e not di"t oo" =a,edonia o" (&)ania. It -as the ste ing stone and the s "ing)oa"d that the! "e "esented to m+,h 'aste" te""ito"ies, to the "i,hes o* the o"ient, to the e>oti, "ea&ms o* (sia. (&& ;ig Po-e"s and -o+&d )e ;ig Po-e"s engaged in the +gi&isti,s o* se&*- ositioning. The demise o* the Ottomans -as imminent and this imminen,e e>e"ted s+)t&e )+t 'e"i*ia)&e "ess+"e on a&& the a"ti,i ant in this g"+))! g"a))ing game. (dditiona&&!, in this *in de sie,&e, a&& in'o&'ed *e&t doomed. The "+m)&ings o* ,o+nte"-"e'o&+tiona"! %+ssia, the d"ang na,h Osten o* (+st"ia - a&& -e"e attem ts at se&* "e-de*inition and se&*"ese"'ation.

Pe"ha s this e> &ains the o+t&andish and dis "o o"tionate "ea,tion o* (+st"ia to the need&ing o* ;osnian te""o"ism. asse"ti'e mino"ities ,onstit+ted a di"e,t th"eat to the 'e"! ,ohesion o* Em i"e. (nd Se")ia )&o,ked the hithe"to +nhinde"ed ath to easte"n te""ito"ies - de "i'ing (+st"ia o* &e)ens"a+m and "aison d?et"e. <a,ed -ith a &imiting e'ent ho"iCon, (+st"ia im &oded &ike a )&a,k ho&e, +nto itse&*. The d"i'ing *o",e )ehind it a&& -as "ea&&! (+st"ia and its g"o-ing e>istentia& angst. It st"+,k a mod+s 'i'endi o* m+t+a& a"a&!sis in the ;a&kan -ith %+ssia as ea"&! as @IAF. It &asted ten !ea"s in -hi,h on&! (+st"ia and %+ssia stood sti&& )+t histo"! de*ied them )oth. To its ho""o", (+st"ia dis,o'e"ed that in its +"s+it o* g&o"io+s and ,ondes,ending iso&ation, it -as &e*t on&! -ith 9e"man! as an a&&!, the 'e"! 9e"man! -hose Ge&t o&itik +t it on a ,&ea" ,o&&+sion ,o+"se -ith the mo"i)+nd S+)&ime Po"t. %+ssia, on the othe" hand, teamed + -ith a "ising o-e", -ith ;"itain, at &east im &i,it&!. The a)"+ t and in'o&+nta"! de a"t+"e o* the &ia)&e and easi&! ,o""+ ti)&e O)"eno'i,?s in Se")ia )ode i&& to the ,he,ks and )a&an,es (+st"ia so ,+&ti'ated in its "e&ationshi -ith the "e,a&,it"ant Se")s. :a"ageo"ge'i, -as m+,h &ess enamo+"ed -ith (+st"ian shenanigans. The *ina& nai& in the e'e" mo"e ,"o-ded ,o**in o* (+st"ian *o"eign o&i,! -as hamme"ed in in @A0I -hen the Jo+ng T+"ks e**e,ti'e&! "e-o ened the K+estion o* the administ"ation o* ;osnia-6e"Cego'ina )! (+st"ia.

These te""ito"ies -e"e a&-a!s +nde" T+"kish so'e"eignt!, the (+st"ians 0dis,o'e"ed0 to g"o-ing a&a"m. One so&+tion -as to anne> the administe"ed +nits, as (+st"ia?s =iniste" o* <o"eign a**ai"s s+ggested. 6e *+"the" o**e"ed a t"ade-o**: "e,ognition o* %+ssia?s "ights o* assage th"o+gh the Da"dane&&es. The %+ssians a,,e ted on&! to )e a)andoned )! the (+st"ians in the ,"+,ia& 'ote. (+st"ia anne>ed ;osnia-6e"Cego'ina +ni&ate"a&&! - )+t %+ssia -as sti&& "e'ented *"om ,"ossing into the -a"m -ate"s, its am)ition and o)session. %+ssia &ea"ned a &esson: a&-a!s )a,k !o+" ,&ient 4Se")ia5, ne'e" )a,k do-n. E&se-he"e, tensions )et-een the ;ig Po-e"s -e"e g"o-ing and e"oded thei" ,a a)i&it! to instit+te a s!stem o* e**i,a,io+s se&*-"eg+&ation. ("med ,on*&i,t e"+ ted )et-een 9e"man! and <"an,e in =o"o,,o mo"e than on,e. ;"itain and 9e"man! -e"e engaged in a na'a& a"ms "a,e -hi,h de &eted the ,o**e"s and the so,ia& ,ohesion o* )oth. Ita&! de,&a"ed -a" on T+"ke! in @A@@ and e'en in'aded the Da"dane&&es. Se")ia and ;+&ga"ia st"+,k a )a"gain to e> e& the Ottomans *"om E+"o e 4see a)o'e, the ;a&kan Ga"s5. Th+s, -ith the *ie&d na""o-ing and getting mo"e ,"o-ded, an (+st"ian-Se") ("mageddon -as a&& )+t ine'ita)&e. The i"on! o* it a&& is that (+st"ia "esented the on&! 'ia)&e so&+tion to the "o)&em o* m+&ti-ethni,it! and m+ti,+&t+"a&ism. The histo"! o* the ;a&kans in the 20th ,ent+"! ,an )e e**e,ti'e&! s+mmed + in te"ms o* the ,ontest )et-een the Se") and 6+nga"ian mode& o* ,o-e>isten,e and its (+st"ian anathema.

The Se")s and 6+nga"ians as i"ed to ethni,a&&! and ,+&t+"a&&! homogeno+s states and -e"e -i&&ing to a &! 'io&en,e to-a"ds the a,hie'ement o* this goa& eithe" )! *o",ed assimi&ation o* mino"ities o" )! thei" e> +&sion o" -o"se. The (+st"ians "o osed *ede"a&ism. The! en'isaged a *ede"ation o* o&iti,a&&!, ,+&t+"a&&! and "e&igio+s&! a+tonomo+s entities. This ea,e*+& 'ision ,onstit+ted a di"e,t th"eat on the &ikes o* the ;&a,k 6and. Pea,e*+&, ,ontent ,itiCens do not good "e)e&s make. The En,!,&o aedia ;"itanni,a sa!s: 0S+,h is the &ogi, o* te""o"ism: Its g"eatest enemies a"e the ea,emake"s0. The ;&a,k 6and did not o e"ate in em t! s a,e and -as not a&one. In @A0I Se")ia *o"med 0The Nationa& De*en,e0. Its main *+n,tion -as to agitate against the (+st"ians and to ,ond+,t "o aganda *o" the Se") ,a+se. The"e -e"e othe" o"ganiCations )+t a&& o* them -e"e ,ontem t+o+s&! &a)e&&ed 0inte&&e,t+a&0 )! ( is, -ho ,"a'ed 'io&en,e. I"oni,a&&!, one o* the o"igina& )and o* ,ons i"ato"s against :ing (&e>ande" in @A0@-B -as Peta" Oi'ko'i, 4Ohi'ko'it,h5. ;+t he soon se a"ated himse&* *"om the ;&a,k 6and and $oined the Ghite 6and, anothe" g"o+ o* o**i,e"s, mo"e mode"ate, tho+gh no &ess a+tho"ita"ian. (nothe" :ing (&e>ande" 4-ho -as a&so m+"de"ed )+t in @AB45, :ing o* the Se")s, C"oats and S&o'enes 4&ate" "enamed 0J+gos&a'ia05, a ointed him Commande" o* the Pa&a,e 9+a"ds in @A2@ and P"ime =iniste" eight !ea"s the"ea*te".

Oi'ko'i, &ost no time in dis)anding a&& o&iti,a& a"ties and 4e&e,ted5 m+ni,i a&ities. 6e em)a"ked + on an end&ess st"ing o* sho- t"ia&s o* o onents o* his di,tato"shi , ,omm+nists and anti-mona",hists. 6e int"od+,ed a one- a"t!, go'e"nment-,ont"o&&ed e&e,to"a& s!stem. Th+s, in an i"oni, t-ist o* histo"!, the ;&a,k 6and ,ame to its o-n, a*te" a&&. One o* its *o"me" mem)e"s a P"ime =iniste", a di,tato", +nde" a king insta&&ed )! its s&a+ghte"o+s ,o+ . ;&a,k 6and o" Ghite 6and - the means dis +ted, the ends -e"e a&-a!s in ,onsens+s. ( 9"eat Se")ia *o" the 9"eat Se")ian eo &e.


The ,ns#rgents and the Swastika

0E'en going )a,k ten !ea"s it -as eas! to see something g"i ing J+gos&a'ia )! the th"oat. ;+t in the !ea"s sin,e then the g"i has )een tightened, and tightened in m! o inion )! the di,tato"shi esta)&ished )! :ing (&e>ande" :a"ageo"ge'it,h. This di,tato"shi , ho-e'e" m+,h it ma! ,&aim a tem o"a"! s+,,ess, m+st ine'ita)&! ha'e the e**e,t o* oisoning a&& the J+gos&a' o"ganism. Ghethe" the oisoning is in,+"a)&e o" not is the K+estion *o" -hi,h I ha'e so+ght an ans-e" d+"ing t-o months in J+gos&a'ia, ;+&ga"ia and ,ent"a& E+"o e.0 "$lack +and over E#ro)e" y +enri Po88i, 1249 THE SIN J+gos&a'ia -as )o"n in sin and in sin it e"ished. The :ing o* Se")s, C"oats and S&o'enes, (&e>ande" I, a *"esh&! se&*- "o,&aimed di,tato", de,&a"ed it on O,to)e" @A2A. It -as a +nion o* East and Gest, the O"thodo> and the Catho&i,, Ottoman "esid+es -ith (+st"o-6+nga"ian st"+,t+"es, the hea"t and the mind. Ine'ita)&!, it stood no ,han,e. The C"oats and the S&o'enes - *o"me"&! *ie"! "o onents o* a J+go 4So+the"n5 S&a' *ede"ation - -e"e mo"ti*ied to *ind themse&'es in a Se")-dominated 0Thi"d Go"&d0, ;!Cantine o&it!.

This -as es e,ia&&! ga&&ing to the C"oats -ho *ie",e&! denied )oth thei" geog"a h! and thei" "a,e to ,&ing to the de&+sion o* )eing a a"t o* 0E+"o e0 "athe" than the 0;a&kans0. To this 'e"! da!, the! ho&d a&& things Easte"n 4Se")s, the O"thodo> 'e"sion o* Ch"istianit!, ;e&g"ade, the Ottoman Em i"e, =a,edonia5 -ith +nmitigated ,ontem t di ed in an a&&- e"'asi'e *ee&ing o* s+ e"io"it!. This is a -e&& kno-n de*en,e me,hanism in nations e"i he"a&. =an! a s+)+")an *o&k -ish to )e&ong to the ,it! -ith s+,h heat and ,on'i,tion, -ith s+,h "idi,+&o+s em+&ation, that the! end + )eing ,a"i,at+"es o* the o"igina&. (nd -hat o"igina&7 The )&oated, )+"ea+,"a,!-sadd&ed, a+to,"ati, and sadisti, 6a)s)+"g em i"e. 6it&e"?s 9e"man!. =+sso&ini?s Ita&!. 3na)&e to igno"e the ,ommon ethni, "oots o* )oth Se")s and C"oats - one t"i)e, one &ang+age - the C"oats ,hose to )e&ie'e in a 'ast ,ons i"a,! im osed + on the Se")s )! ,o""+ t and mani +&ati'e "+&e"s. The g+&&i)&e and se&*-de&+siona& Ca"dina& Ste ina, o* Oag"e) -"ote $+st )e*o"e the Se,ond Go"&d Ga" e"+ ted, in a ,+"io+s "e'e"sa& o* an-Se")ist )e&ie*s: 0I* the"e -e"e mo"e *"eedom... Se")ia -o+&d )e Catho&i, in t-ent! !ea"s. The most idea& thing -o+&d )e *o" the Se")s to "et+"n to the *aith o* thei" *athe"s. That is, to )o- the head )e*o"e Ch"ist?s "e "esentati'e, the 6o&! <athe". Then -e ,o+&d at &ast )"eathe in this a"t o* E+"o e, *o" ;!Canti+m has &a!ed a *"ight*+& "o&e ... in ,onne,tion -ith the T+"ks.0

The same T+"ks that a&most ,onK+e"ed C"oatia and, met )! *ie",e and )"a'e "esistan,e o* the &atte", -e"e ,on*ined to ;osnia *o" 200 !ea"s. The C"oats ,ame to "ega"d themse&'es as the &ast &ine o* de*en,e against an en,"oa,hing East - against the mani*estations and t"ansm+tations o* ;!Canti+m, o* the T+"ks, o* a 'i&e mi> o* O"thodo>! and Is&am 4tho+gh the! ,o&&a)o"ated -ith thei" =os&em mino"it! d+"ing the 3stashe "egime5. ;esieged )! this siege menta&it!, the )a,k to the &ite"a& -a&&, des e"ate and ho)i,, the C"oats de'e&o ed the a"anoia t! i,a& o* a&& sma&& nations en,i",&ed )! hosti&it! and im ending doom. It -as im ossi)&e to "e,on,i&e thei" ,ent"i*+ga& tenden,! in *a'o+" o* a -eak ,ent"a& state in a *ede"ation o* st"ong &o,a& entities - -ith the Se") "o ensit! to ,"eate a ,ent"a&ist and )+"ea+,"ati, ,o+"t. Ghen the C"oat de&egates o* the Peasant Pa"t! -ithd"e*"om the *"agmented Constit+ent (ssem)&! in @A20 Se")ia and the =os&em mem)e"s 'oted *o" the Vido'dan Constit+tion 48+ne @A2@5 -hi,h -as mode&&ed on the "e-a" Se")ian one. Ghi&e a mino"it! -ith &imited o +&a" a ea&, the 3stashe did not mate"ia&iCe e> nihi&o. The! -e"e the &ogi,a& and ines,a a)&e ,on,&+sion o* a &ong and ,on'o&+ted histo"i,a& "o,ess. The! -e"e )oth its ,+&mination and its m+tation. (nd on,e *o"med, the! -e"e ne'e" e>o",ised )! the C"oats, as the 9e"mans e>o",ised thei" NaCi demon. In this, again, the C"oats, ,hose the ath o* +n"e entant (+st"ia.

C"oat *as,ism -as not an iso&ated henomenon. <as,ism 4and, &ess so, NaCism5 -e"e 'ia)&e ideo&ogi,a& a&te"nati'es in the @AB0s and @A40s. Va"iants o* *as,ist ideo&og! s "ang a&& o'e" the -o"&d, *"om I"aK and Eg! t to No"-a! and ;"itain. E'en the 8e-s in Pa&estine had thei" o-n *as,ists 4the Ste"n g"o+ 5. (nd -hi&e C"oat *as,ism 4s+,h as it -as, 0tainted0 )! Catho&i, "e&igiosit! and agan nationa&ism5 &asted *o+" t+m+&t+o+s !ea"s - it e"sisted *o" a K+a"te" o* a ,ent+"! in %omania 40in*e,ted0 )! O"thodo> ,&e"i,a&ism and easant &o"es5. Ghi&e )oth )"an,hes o* *as,ism - the C"oat and the %omanian - sha"ed a 'i"+&ent t! e o* anti-Semitism and the ,onsti ated mo"a&it! o* the as,eti, and the *anati, - Cod"ean+?s -as mo"e am)itio+s, aiming at a -ho&esa&e "e*o"m o* %omanian &i*e and a "ede*inition o* %omanianism. The I"on 9+a"d and the #egion 4o* the (",hange& =i,hae&, no &ess5 -e"e, the"e*o"e and in thei" de"anged -a!, a *o",e *o" "e*o"m *o+nded on )&ood-thi"st! "omanti,ism and maso,histi, sa,"i*i,es *o" the ,ommon good. =o"eo'e", the #egion -as ,"+shed in @A4@ )! a mi&ita"! di,tato"shi -hi,h had nothing to do -ith *as,ism. It a,t+a&&! e"se,+ted the *as,ists -ho *o+nd "e*+ge in 6it&e"?s 9e"man!. <as,ism in 6+nga"! de'e&o ed simi&a"&!. It -as )ased on "ea,tiona"! ideo&ogies "e-dating *as,ism )! ,ent+"ies. =ik&os 6o"t!, the (+st"o-6+nga"ian (dmi"a& -as ,ons+med )! g"andiose *antasies o* an 6+nga"ian em i"e. 6e had 'e"! &itt&e in ,ommon -ith the *as,ists o* the 0-hite te""o"0 o* @A@A in ;+da est 4an anti-,omm+nist )&oodshed5.

6e did his )est to tame the 6+nga"ian *as,ist go'e"nment o* 9!+&a 9om)os 4@AB25. The +ntime&! death o* the &atte" )"o+ght a)o+t the meteo"i, "ise o* <e"en, SCa&asi and his )"and o* )&ood- +"e "a,ism. ;+t a&& these s+)-s e,ies o* *as,ism, the %omanian, the S&o'akian 4Tiso5 and the 6+nga"ian 4as o osed to the Ita&ian and the ;+&ga"ian5 -e"e ata'isti,, agan, "ima& and "omanti,ist - as -as the C"oat. These -e"e nat+"a& - tho+gh ne*a"io+s - "ea,tions to dis&o,ation, g&o)a&iCation, e,onomi, ,"isis and ,+&t+"a& &+"a&ism. ( set o* ,om ensato"! me,hanisms and "ea,tions to im ossi)&e, h+mi&iating and deg"ading ,i",+mstan,es o* -"ath*+& he& &essness and *"+st"ation. 0Nati'e *as,ism0 att"i)+ted a di'ine mission o" di'ine &an to the o&iti,a& +nit o* the nation, a a"t o* a g"and design. The &eade" -as the em)odiment, the ,on'e!o", the ,ond+it, the e>,&+si'e inte" "ete" and the mani*estation o* this design 4the <+h"e" "inCi 5. P"oo* o* the e>isten,e o* s+,h a t"ans,endenta& &an -as the g&o"io+s ast o* the nation, its K+a&ities and ,ond+,t 4hen,e the tedio+s mo"a&iCing and histo"i,a& nit i,king5. The de*inition o* the nation "e&ied hea'i&! o* the e>isten,e o* a demoniCed and deh+maniCed enem! 4=a">ists, 8e-s, Se")s, 9! sies, homose>+a&s, 6+nga"ians in %omania, et,.5. =eans $+sti*ied the end and the end -as sta)i&it! and ete"nit! 40the tho+sand !ea"s %ei,h05. Th+s, as o osed to the o"igina& )&+e "int, these m+tants o* *as,ism -e"e ine"t and as i"ed to a state o* "est, to an eK+i&i)"i+m a*te" a s +"t o* ,&eansing and "esto"ation o* the "ight*+& )a&an,e.

Ghen Se") domination 4Se") +)iK+ito+s mi&ita"!, Se")s in a&& senio" go'e"nment ositions e'en in C"oatia5 m+sh"oomed into the 0:ingdom o* Se")s, C"oats and S&o'enes0, it -as on&! nat+"a& *o" dissenting and dissident C"oats to t+"n to thei" 0"oots0. 3na)&e to di**e"entiate themse&'es *"om the hated Se")s "a,ia&&! - the! a ea&ed to "e&igio+s hete"ogeneit!. Immediate&! a*te" the o&iti,a& h!)"id -as *o"med, the C"oats e> "essed thei" dis,ontent )! handing e&e,tion 'i,to"ies to the 0C"oatian Peasant Pa"t!0 headed )! %adi,. The &atte" -as a do+" and de'o+t anti-J+gos&a'. 6e o en&! agitated *o" an inde endent "+sti, and asto"a& - C"oatia. ;+t %adi, -as a "agmatist. 6e &ea"ned his &esson -hen - ha'ing )o!,otted the Constit+ent (ssem)&! in ;e&g"ade - he *a,i&itated the im osition o* a "o-Se"), "o-,ent"a& go'e"nment ,onstit+tion. %adi, mode"ated his demands, i* not his "heto"i,. The goa& -as no- a *ede"ated J+gos&a'ia -ith C"oat a+tonom! -ithin it. The"e is oeti, $+sti,e in that his death - at the hand o* a =onteneg"in de +t! on the *&oo" o* the Sk+ stina in @A2I - )"o+ght a)o+t the di,tato"shi that -as to gi'e "ise to =a,ek and the S o"aC+m 4C"oat a+tonom!5. The i"on! is that a easant*a'o+"ing &and "e*o"m -as )eing se"io+s&! im &emented -hen a dead&o,k )et-een easant a"ties &ed to :ing (&e>ande"?s *ate*+& de,ision to a)o&ish the a"&iamenta"! s!stem.

:ing (&e>ande" I -as a good and -o"th! man *o",ed )! ,i",+mstan,es into the "o&e o* an a)ho""ent t!"ant. 6e -as a g"eat )e&ie'e" in the o-e" o* s!m)o&s and ed+,ation. 6e ,hanged the name o* his &oose ,on*ede"a,! into a st"i,te" 0J+gos&a'ia0. In an attem t to de*+se inte"na& di'isions, he a ea&ed to nat+"a& *eat+"es 4&ike "i'e"s and mo+ntains5 as inte"na& )o"de"s. C"oatia 'anished as a o&iti,a& entit!, "e &a,ed )! nat+"a&&!-)o+nded dist"i,ts and "o'in,es. The ma$o"it! o* C"oats sti&& )e&ie'ed in a *ede"a& so&+tion, a&)eit &ess Se")-)iased. The! )e&ie'ed in "e*o"m *"om the inside. The 3stashe and Pa'e&i, -e"e a&-a!s a mino"it!, the ;o&she'iks o* C"oatia. ;+t :ing (&e>ande"?s a+tho"ita"ian "+&e -as ha"d to igno"e: the to"t+"e o* o&iti,a& o onents and thei" e>e,+tion, the ,&os+"e o* at"ioti, s o"ts so,ieties, the *&ag"ant inte"*e"en,e in the -o"k o* the ostensi)&! inde endent $+di,ia"!, the ,enso"shi . The"e -as )ad )&ood g"o-ing )et-een the :ing and mo"e o* his s+)$e,ts )! the da!. The C"oats -e"e not the on&! 0mino"it!0 to )e th+s ma&t"eated. The Se")s maintained an a"med "esen,e in =a,edonia, :oso'o, the SandCak and e'en in S&o'enia. The! de o"ted tho+sands o* 0T+"ks0 4a,t+a&&!, a&& manne" o* =+s&ims5 +nde" the g+ise o* a 0"e- at"iation0 s,heme. The! ,on*is,ated &and *"om "e&igio+s instit+tions, *"om the de o"tees, *"om )ig &ando-ne"s, *"om the =ag!a"s in Vo$'odina and 0"e-dist"i)+ted0 it to the Se")s. Ethni, homogeniCation 4&ate" to )e,ome kno-n as 0ethni, ,&eansing05 -as ,ommon "a,tise in that e"a. The T+"ks, the ;+&ga"s, the 9e"mans, the 9"eeks -e"e a&& )+si&! +"i*!ing the ethni, ,om osition o* thei" &ands. ;+t it made the :ing and the Se")s no *"iends. The Se")s seemed to ha'e )een )ent on iso&ating

themse&'es *"om -ithin and on t"ans*o"ming thei" J+go S&a' )"eth"en into s-o"n ad'e"sa"ies. This -as t"+e in the e,onomi, s he"e as -e&& as in the o&iti,a& "ea&m. Se")ia de,&a"ed a 0Dan+)ian o"ientation0 4in &ie+ o* the 0(d"iati, o"ientation05 -hi,h )ene*ited the e,onomies o* ,ent"a& and no"the"n Se")ia at the e> ense o* C"oatia and S&o'enia. Ghi&e Se")ia -as )eing ind+st"ia&iCed and its ag"i,+&t+"e "e*o"med, C"oatia and S&o'enia did not sha"e in the s oi&s o* -a", the "e a"ations that J+gos&a'ia "e,ei'ed *"om the Cent"a& Po-e"s. J+gos&a'ia -as "ote,tionist -hi,h -ent against the inte"est o* its t"ading ,om at"iots. Ghen -a" "e a"ations ,eased 4@AB@5 and 9e"man!?s e,onom! e'a o"ated, J+gos&a'ia -as h+"&ed into the e,onomi, ,"isis the -o"&d has )een e> e"ien,ing sin,e @A2A. The NaCi ind+,ed "e,o'e"! o* 9e"man! d"ein J+gos&a'ia and its *i"ms. It -as g"anted *a'o+"a)&e e> o"t ,onditions )! 6it&e"?s 9e"man! and man! o* its ,om anies a"ti,i ated in ,a"te&s esta)&ished )! 9e"man ,o" o"ate giants. :ing (&e>ande" I m+st ha'e kno-n he -o+&d )e assassinated. Someone t"ied to ki&& him as he -as taking the oath to + ho&d the ,onstit+tion on 8+ne 2I, @A2@. <o" I &ong !ea"s he had to end+"e a ka&eidos,o e o* go'e"nments, a "e'o&'ing doo" o* ministe"s, 'io&en,e in the (ssem)&! and e'e"-es,a&ating C"oat demands *o" a+tonom!. (*te" the hideo+s s&a+ghte" on the *&oo" o* a"&iament, a&& its "emaining C"oat mem)e"s -ithd"e-.

The! "e*+sed to go )a,k and a"&iament had to )e disso&'ed. (&e>ande" -ent *+"the", taking ad'antage o* the ,onstit+tiona& ,"isis. 6e a)o&ished the ,onstit+tion o* @A2@, o+t&a-ed a&& ethni,a&&!, "e&igio+s&! o" nationa&&! )ased o&iti,a& a"ties 4-hi,h )asi,a&&! meant most o&iti,a& a"ties, es e,ia&&! the C"oat ones5, "e-o"ganiCed the state administ"ation, standa"diCed the &ega& s!stem, s,hoo& s!&&a)i and ,+""i,+&a and the nationa& ho&ida!s. 6e -as mo+&ding a nation sing&e handed&!, ,a"'ing it *"om the s&a) o* m+t+a& hat"ed and animosit!. The C"oats "ega"ded a&& this as !et anothe" Se") &o!, "oo* o* Se") o-e"-madness and insatia)&e desi"e to dominate. In an e**o"t to &a,ate the )+&k o* his ,onstit+en,!, the easant"!, :ing (&e>ande" esta)&ished "+"a& ,"edit +nions and "o'ided ,"edit &ines to sma&& *a"me"s and "+"a& "o,essing &ants. To no a'ai&. The inse,+"it! o* this hasti&! *oisted "egime -as *e&t, its hesitation, the ,"+e&t! that is the o+t,ome o* *ea". The s,a'enge"s -e"e gathe"ing. It -as this )asi, shakiness that &ed the :ing to &ook *o" s+stenan,e *"om neigh)o+"s. In "a id s+,,ession, he made his state a *"iend o* ;+&ga"ia, CCe,hos&o'akia and %omania 4the &ast t-o in the *"ame o* the #itt&e Entente5. (nothe" Entente *o&&o-ed 4the ;a&kan one5 -ith 9"ee,e, T+"ke! and %omania. The :ing -as *"anti,a&&! seeking to ne+t"a&iCe his enemies *"om -itho+t -hi&e igno"ing the dange"s *"om -ithin.

6is death &+"ked in Oag"e) )+t he -as t"a'e&&ing to =a"sei&&es to meet it. ( 'i,io+s se,"et o&i,e, a )+"geoning mi&ita"!, a ne- ,onstit+tion to &ega&iCe his sang+ino+s "egime ,ons i"ed -ith a g&o)a& e,onomi, ,"isis to make him a hated *ig+"e, e'en )! Se") Demo,"ats. Da!s )e*o"e his death, he ea"nest&! ,onside"ed to "et+"n to a a"&iamenta"! *o"m o* go'e"nment. ;+t it -as too &ate and too &itt&e *o" those -ho so+ght his end. The 3stasha mo'ement 40ins+"gen,e0 o" 0ins+""e,tion0, o**i,ia&&! the 0C"oatian 3stasha =o'ement05 -as a "od+,t o* the e"sona& "e)e&&ion o* (nte Pa'e&i, and &ikeminded othe"s. ;o"n in ;osnia, he -as a mem)e" o* the C"oat mino"it! the"e, in a Se")-in*+sed en'i"onment. 6e "a,tised as a &a-!e" in Oag"e) and the"e $oined the Nationa&ist C"oatian Pa"t! o* %ights. 6e "og"essed "a id&! and )! @A20 4at the age o* B@5, he -as a&de"man o* Oag"e) Cit! and Co+nt!. 6e -as a mem)e" o* the Sk+ stina -hen anti-C"oat sentiment eaked -ith the t"i &e m+"de" o* the C"oat de +ties. Ghen (&e>ande" the :ing disso&'ed a"&iament and ass+med di,tato"ia& o-e"s, he mo'ed 4o" *&ed5 to Ita&!, the"e to esta)&ish a C"oat nationa&ist mo'ement, the 3stasha. Thei" motto -as 0Oa Dom S "emn!0 40%ead! *o" 6ome0 o" 0%ead! *o" the <athe"&and05. Ita&! the *as,ist -as a nat+"a& ,hoi,e - )oth )e,a+se o* its ideo&ogi,a& a**init! and )e,a+se it o osed J+gos&a'ia?s g"ad+a& d"i*t to-a"ds 9e"man!. Ita&! -as -o""ied a)o+t an +&timate ans,h&+ss 40+ni*i,ation o" in,o" o"ation05 )et-een the %ei,h and (+st"ia - -hi,h -i&& ha'e )"o+ght 6it&e"?s 9e"man! to (+st"ia?s doo"ste .

Th+s, the 3stasha esta)&ished t"aining ,ent"es 4mo"e &ike "e*+gee ,am s, as the! in,&+ded the *ami&! mem)e"s o* the -o+&d )e 0-a""io"s05 in Ita&! and 6+nga"! 4&ate" to )e e> e&&ed *"om the &atte" as a "es+&t o* J+gos&a' "ess+"e5. 6a'ing main&! engaged in the dissemination o* "inted "o aganda, the! *ai&ed at "o'oking a easant "e)e&&ion in no"th Da&matia 4 "omised to Ita&! )! the 3stasha5. ;+t the! did )ette" at assassinating thei" a",h-*oe, :ing (&e>ande" in @AB4 4ha'ing *ai&ed ea"&ie", in @ABB5. In this the 3stasha -as "e +ted to ha'e ,o&&a)o"ated -ith the *as,ist I=%O 4Inte"na& =a,edonian %e'o&+tiona"! O"ganiCation5 +nde" I'an =ihai&o' in ;+&ga"ia. ;! $oining *o",es -ith the I=%O, the 3stasha has t"ans*o"med itse&* into a &ink in the ,hain o* te""o"ist o"ganiCations that eng+&*ed the -o"&d in )&ood and *&ames "io" to the ons&a+ght o* the g"eatest te""o"ist o* a&&, o* 6it&e". Ghi&e some 'e"sions o* the +nho&! a&&ian,e )et-een the ;+&ga"ian-=a,edonian o+t*it and the C"oats a"e +ns+)stantiated 4to +t it gent&!5, it is ,&ea" that some assistan,e -as "o'ided )! )oth &o-e" Ita&ian "anks and the I=%O. The a,t+a& m+"de"e" o* the :ing -as =ihai&o'?s =a,edonian ,ha+**e+", V&ado 9eo"gie'-:e"in. The 3stasha -as a&so kno-n *o" )&o-ing t"ains and *o" attem ting to do so on mo"e than one o,,asion )oth in C"oatia and in S&o'enia. :ing (&e>ande" seemed to ha'e o"de"ed the s!stemati, annihi&ation o* the 3stasha $+st )e*o"e his o-n +ntime&! 3stasha-assisted annihi&ation. #t. Co&one& Ste'o D+it,h 0,ommitted s+i,ide0 in :a"&s)ad and the"e -e"e attem ts - some s+,,ess*+&, some &ess - on Pa'e&i, in =+ni,h, Pe",e'i, in Vienna, Se"'a,i 4Se"'atsi5 in <i+me and Pe",e, in ;+da est. It -as made a)+ndant&! ,&ea" to the 3stasha that it -as an a&&-o+t -a" -ith no "isone"s taken. The :ing had to go.

It -as a st"ange mo'ement, the 3stashe. C&aiming the ,ontin+o+s 0"ights o* state0 o* the 9"eat C"oatian :ingdom +nde" Pete" :"esimi" and O'onimi" in the @@th ,ent+"! - the! nonethe&ess ga'e + S&o'enia and ;osnia6e"Cego'ina to Ita&! and, &ate", a,,e ted a 9e"man o,,+ ation o* easte"n C"oatia. Com osed o* *"+ga& as,eti,s and a'a"i,io+s o e"ato"s, me",i&ess "omanti,ists and ha"d nosed "agmatists, m+"de"o+s sadists and "e*ined inte&&e,t+a&s, nationa&ist C"oats and Se")-hate"s -ho had no ,ohe"ent nationa& agenda )a" the mass s&a+ghte" o* the Se")s. Th+s, it -as a so,ia& mo'ement o* the dis ossessed, a ,ess oo& o* dis,ontent and "age, o* agg"ession too &ong s+ "essed )+t ne'e" s+)&imated, o* $+sti*ied so,ia& and o&iti,a& g"ie'an,es i""adiated )! "a,ism, nationa& ,ha+'inism, mi&ita"ism and sadism. ( g"ass"oots "ea,tion t+"ned ,an,e"o+s, &ed )! a se,ond hand, thi"d "ate 6it&e"-,&one. ( te""o"ist o"ganiCation dis &a!ing the t"a ings o* a state in the making. This is not to sa! that it &a,ked o +&a" s+ o"t. Tensions "an so high )et-een Se")s and C"oats that dai&! )"a-&s )"oke in +)s and "esta+"ants, t"ains and +)&i, &a,es )et-een Se") so&die"s and C"oat ,itiCens in C"oatia. The 3stashe *ed on "ea& *"i,tion, -e"e ,ha"ged )! es,a&ating tensions, m+sh"oomed on g"o-ing 'io&en,e. P"in,e Pa+&, -ho a,ted as "egent *o" @2 !ea"s o&d Pete" II, e"mitted the o e"ation o* o&iti,a& a"ties )+t did not "einstate a"&iament. (&& this time, a J+gos&a' o osition o* demo,"ati, *o",es in,&+ded C"oat as -e&& as Se") inte&&e,t+a&s and -anna)e o&iti,ians. V&adko =a,ek himse&* - &ate", the e itome o* C"oat se a"atism and the most s+,,ess*+& "omote" o* this ,a+se - -as a mem)e". In the @ABI e&e,tions, his a"t! - the Peasant Pa"t! - -on an asto+nding I0P o* the 'otes in C"oatia.

The "egent, no- m+,h h+m)&ed )! !ea"s o* st"i*e and a"a&!sis - )o-ed to o +&a" o inion so e&oK+ent&! and ,on'in,ing&! e> "essed. 6e )a,ked negotiations -ith =a,ek -hi,h &ed to a de,&a"ation o* C"oat inde enden,e in e'e"!thing )+t name. The S o"aC+m o* (+g+st @ABA, a *e- da!s )e*o"e the o+t)"eak o* Go"&d Ga" II, g"anted C"oatia se&*-go'e"nment e>,e t in matte"s o* nationa& de*en,e and *o"eign a**ai"s. The Se")s -e"e nodisg"+nt&ed. The Se") Demo,"ats *e&t a)andoned and )et"a!ed )! =a,ek and his <a+stian dea& -ith the di,tato"shi . (&& othe" Se")s *e&t h+mi&iated )! -hat the! "ega"ded as a ,a it+&ation to i""edentism, )o+nd to ha'e a disinteg"ati'e domino e**e,t on the "est o* Se")ia?s ossessions. It is a s+""ea&isti, thing, to "ead the t"ans,"i ts o* these 'ehement and sin,e"e a"g+ments $+st *o+" da!s )e*o"e the -o"&d as a&& the ,on'e"sants kne- it, ,ame to a sh"ieking end. Ghen 9e"man &anes -e"e +&'e"iCing Ga"sa-, J+gos&a'ia de,&a"ed its mo,k-ne+t"a&it!. E'e"!)od! knethat Pa+& -as "o-9e"man. E'en :ing (&e>ande" )e*o"e him signed a *e- se,"et a,ts -ith the "ising, igno"e at !o+" e"i&, Cent"a& E+"o ean *o",e. The (+st"ian nationa& so,ia&ists -ho -e"e im &i,ated in the m+"de" o* the (+st"ian "ime ministe", Do&*+s, in 8+&! @AB4, es,a ed to J+gos&a'ia and "esided o en&! 4tho+gh disa"med )! the J+gos&a' o&i,e5 in a"m! )a""a,ks in Va"adCin. In @ABD, a *as,ist mo'ement -as esta)&ished in Se")ia 40O)o"05. <as,ism and NaCism -e"e not -itho+t thei" att"a,tions to Se")s and C"oats a&ike.

This is the g"eat theat"e o* the a)s+"d ,a&&ed the ;a&kans. Pa'e&i, and the 3stasha -e"e a,t+a&&! ,&ose" in geo o&iti,a& o"ientation to the J+gos&a' mona",h! 4+nti& Pa+& -as de osed )! the J+gos&a' a"m!5 - than to =+sso&ini?s *as,ist Ita&!. The! -e"e -o""ied )! the &atte"?s tenden,! to )&o,k 9e"man designs on (+st"ia. In a "egion kno-n *o" its inde*inite histo"i,a& memo"! and &a,k o* stat+te o* &imitations, the! "e,a&&ed ho- the Ita&ians t"eated =onteneg"in "e*+gees in @A2B 4"et+"ning them to J+gos&a'ia in ,att&e ,a"s5. The! -onde"ed i* the "e,edent might )e "e eated, this time -ith C"oat assenge"s. The Ita&ians did, a*te" a&&, a""est 0#ongin0 4:'ate"nik5, 8e&i, and othe"s in To"ino *o&&o-ing the assassination o* the :ing. In the a"anoid t-i&ight Cone o* E+"o ean ;ig Po-e" s onso"ed te""o"ism, these ha&* hea"ted a,tions and dim memo"ies -e"e eno+gh to ,ast a a&& o* s+s i,ion and o* g+i&t o'e" the Ita&ian "egime. =+sso&ini ,a&&ed Pa'e&i, his 0;a&kan Pa-n0 )+t in that he -as mistaken. The"e a"e good "easons to )e&ie'e that he -as sho,ked )! the m+"de" o* :ing (&e>ande". In an! e'ent, the *"ee mo'ement o* Pa'e&i, and the 3stasha -as a*te"-a"ds se'e"e&! "est"i,ted. On =a",h @A4@, the C"o-n Co+n,i& o* J+gos&a'ia de,ided to a,,ede to the T"i a"tite Pa,t o* the (>is, tho+gh in a -ate"ed do-n *o"m. J+gos&a'ia maintained the "e"ogati'e to "e*+se the "ight o* assage in its te""ito"! to *o"eign o-e"s.

Jet, no one )e&ie'ed this -o+&d )e the ,ase i* ,on*"onted -ith s+,h a "edi,ament. This de,ision - to gi'e + J+gos&a'ia?s main asset and on&! "ote,tion - its ne+t"a&it! - -as taken +nde" "ess+"e *"om the C"oats in o-e" at the time. The Pa,t -as a&"ead! $oined )! %omania, ;+&ga"ia and 6+nga"!. T-o da!s a*te" the J+gos&a' P"ime =iniste" 4D"agisa C'etko'i,5 and his *o"eign ministe" signed the Pa,t in Vienna - the! -e"e de osed togethe" -ith the %egent Pa+&. The "e,o,io+s Pete" -as made :ing o* J+gos&a'ia )! the "e)e&&io+s o**i,e"s, headed )! 9ene"a& D+san Simo'i,. The gene"a&s no- in ,ha"ge "e'e"ted to J+gos&a'ia?s ne+t"a&it! and "e*+sed to $oin the ;"itish-9"eek na'a& t"eat!, *o" e>am &e. ;+t -hat a ea"ed to )e s ontaneo+s demonst"ations in *a'o+" o* the ,ons i"ato"s and against the T"i a"tite Pa,t e"+ ted a&& o'e" Se")ia. It -as a ,ha&&enge to 9e"man! -hi,h it ,o+&d not igno"e. The S+ "eme Command o* the Geh"ma,t 4O:G5 iss+ed 03nde"taking 2D0 4against J+gos&a'ia5 and 0Case =a"ita0 4against 9"ee,e5. The J+gos&a's mo)i&iCed 4a&)eit -ith a s+" "ising "o,"astination5, the 9e"mans in'aded 4on ( "i& E, @A4@5 and, -ithin @0 da!s it -as a&& o'e". The C"oats did thei" )est to assist the ne- *o",es o* o,,+ ation, dis"+ ting and sa)otaging the )est the! ,o+&d a"m! o e"ations as -e&& as ,i'i&ian de*en,e. It -as ,&ea" that man! o* them 4tho+gh )! no means the ma$o"it!5 "ega"ded the Se")s as the "ea& o,,+ ie"s and the 9e"mans as &ong a-aited &i)e"ato"s.

On ( "i& @0, @A4@, si> da!s into the in'asion, the 9e"mans de,&a"ed the Inde endent State o* C"oatia 4ND6, a*te" the initia&s o* its name in C"oatian - NeCa'isna D"Ca'a 6"'atska5. V&adimi" =e,ak, &eade" o* the Peasant Pa"t! and De +t! P"ime =iniste" o* J+gos&a'ia ,a&&ed on the eo &e to ,o&&a)o"ate -ith the ne- go'e"nment. O'e"night, a *"inge te""o"ist o"ganiCation, 4e""oneo+s&!5 ,onside"ed to )e mo"e a + et o* Ita&! that a t"+e e> "ession o* C"oat nationa&ism, *o+nd itse&* at the he&m o* go'e"nment in ,i",+mstan,es ,om &i,ated )! inte"ne,ine "i'a&"ies, inte"-ethni, tensions, an histo"! o* hate and m+t+a& "esentment, a a"anoia stoked )! s o"adi, 'io&en,e. The Se")s -e"e e'ident&! a *i*th ,o&+mn and so -e"e the 8e-s. Indeed, C"oatia?s Se")s -asted no time in $oining "esistan,e mo'ements against the NaCis and the ND6. (n!ho-, the 'a,++m ,"eated )! =a,ek?s s+" "ising assi'it! and )! the Ch+",h?s a)stention - -as *i&&ed )! the 3stashe. The ne- state in,&+ded a a"t o* Da&matia 4the "est -ent to Ita&!5, the "egion o* S"em and the enti"et! o* ;osnia 6e"Cego'ina. It -as the ,&osest C"oatia e'e" got to "e-,"eating 9"eat C"oatia o* a mi&&enni+m ago. <ea"*+& o* C"oat en,"oa,hment, the S&o'enes h+""ied to dis,+ss the de,&a"ation o* thei" o-n state mode&&ed a*te" the ND6 - on&! to dis,o'e" that thei" ,o+nt"! -as s &it )et-een Ita&! and 9e"man!. In Oag"e), the enth+siasm -as g"eat. The 200 no" so "et+"ning 3stashe -e"e g"eeted )a,k e'en )! thei" o&iti,a& "i'a&s. Peo &e th"onged the st"eets, th"o-ing *&o-e"s and "i,e at the ad'an,ing *o"me" te""o"ist and 9e"man ,on'o!s.

The ND6 e>isted *o" *o+" !ea"s. It had F go'e"nments on&! D o* -hi,h -e"e headed )! (nte Pa'e&i,. (s o osed to o +&a" o inion, the 3stashe -e"e not a + et "egime, *a" *"om it. ;oth the Ita&ians and the 9e"mans e> "ess thei" ,ontin+ed *"+st"ation at )eing +na)&e to ,ont"o& and mani +&ate the 3stashe. Des ite thei" mi&ita"! "esen,e and e,onomi, s+ o"t - )oth (>is o-e"s &a,ked "ea& &e'e"age o'e" the e'e" mo"e *"anti, a,ti'ities o* the 3stashe. E'en -hen it -as ,&ea" that the C"oat ND6 - in its geno,ida& a,ti'ities - is a&ienating the Se")s and adding to the "anks o* "esistan,e mo'ements th"o+gho+t J+gos&a'ia, the"e -as "e,io+s &itt&e the 9e"mans o" Ita&ians ,o+&d do. The! he&d o&ite and &ess o&ite ta&ks -ith the to e,he&ons o* thei" o-n ,"eation )+t &ike the *a)&ed D". <"ankenstein *o+nd that the ND6 had a &i*e 'e"! m+,h o* its o-n and an agenda it +"s+ed -ith 'igo+" and ,on'i,tion. It is im ossi)&e - no" is it desi"a)&e - to a'oid the iss+e o* the mass ki&&ings o* Se")s, 8e-s and 9! sies. Some C"oats ,&aim that 0on&!0 E0-F0,000 -e"e ki&&ed in 8aseno'a, and othe" ,am s. The 'e"! +se o* the -o"d 0on&!0 in this ,onte>t o+ght to send a *"isson o* "e +&sion do-n the s ines o* ,i'i&iCed men. The Se")s, 8e-ish s,ho&a"s and man! inte"nationa& s,ho&a"s ,&aim the n+m)e" -as )et-een B00-E00,000 eo &e. The "eason *o" the dis a"it! in n+m)e"s is that - des ite thei" 09e"man0 "etensions, the C"oats a,ted &ike the &east o* the )a")a"o+s ;a&kanians in thei" mass s&a+ghte"s. This -as no ind+st"ia& a**ai"s, "e &ete -ith )+"ea+,"a,! and statisti,s. The massa,"es -e"e ata'isti,, "imiti'e, the ,a&& o* )&ood and g+ts and s,atte"ed )"ains. It -as an o"g!, not an o e"ation.

The"e is nothing m+,h to te&& a)o+t the ND6. The "egime -as )+s! ena,ting &a-s against dead&! sins and mino" 'i,es 4s+,h as o"nog"a h!5. The ,o&&a)o"ation -ith the Catho&i, Ch+",h "o,eeded smooth&!. #a-s -e"e assed against the 8e-s. The ND6 a"m! *o+ght the a"tisans and the (&&ied <o",es. Ghen it t"ied to s+""ende" to the ;"itish a"m! in @A4D - it "e*+sed to a,,e t thei" ,a it+&ation and t+"ned them o'e" to the a"tisans. In a se"ies o* death ma",hes a"m! so&die"s and ,i'i&ian ,o&&a)o"ato"s -ith the 3stashe -e"e de&i)e"ate&! e>te"minated. The ;a&kans kno-s no me",!. Vi,tims )e,ome )+t,he"s and )+t,he"s 'i,tims in na+seating t+"ns. ;! @A44, the ND6 &ost ha&* its te""ito"! eithe" to the 9e"mans o" to the a"tisans. The "+m state s+"'i'ed someho-, its &eade"s dese"ting in d"o'es. Pa'e&i, himse&* es,a ed to (+st"ia, *"om the"e to Ita&! and ("gentina. 6e s+"'i'ed an attem t on his &i*e in @ADF and then *&ed to Pa"ag+a! and S ain -he"e he died in @ADA. THE DE D 0(*te" a&&, i* the C"oat state -ishes to )e st"ong, a nationa&&! into&e"ant o&i,! m+st )e +"s+ed *o" *i*t! !ea"s, )e,a+se too m+,h to&e"an,e on s+,h iss+es ,an on&! do ha"m.0 *dolf +itler to *nte Pavelic in their meeting, :#ne ;, 1271

0<o" the "est - Se")s, 8e-s and 9! sies - -e ha'e th"ee mi&&ion )+&&ets. Ge sha&& ki&& one thi"d o* a&& Se")s. Ge sha&& de o"t anothe" thi"d, and the "est o* them -i&& )e *o",ed to )e,ome %oman Catho&i,.0 Mile $#dak, Minister of Ed#cation of Croatia, :#ly 00, 1271 0The"e a"e &imits e'en to &o'e... 4It is5 st+ id and +n-o"th! o* Ch"ist?s dis,i &es to think that the st"+gg&e against e'i& ,o+&d )e -aged in a no)&e -a! and -ith g&o'es on.0 *rch isho) of Sara<evo, ,van Saric, 1271 0C"oats no &onge" think that 9e"man t"oo s a"e "esent me"e&! to "o'ide ea,e and se,+"it!, )+t that the! a"e he"e to s+ o"t the 3stasha "egime M...N The 3stashas "omote the im "ession that the! a,t not on&! in ag"eement -ith 9e"man instan,es, )+t a,t+a&&! on thei" o"de"s. M...N The"e is he"e toda! a dee mist"+st o* 9e"man!, )e,a+se it is s+ o"ting a "egime that has no mo"a& o" o&iti,a& "ight to e>ist, -hi,h is "ega"ded as the g"eatest ,a&amit! that ,o+&d ha'e ha ened to the C"oat eo &e. That "egime is )ased enti"e&! on the "e,ognition )! the (>is o-e"s, it has no o +&a" "oots, and de ends on the )a!onets o* "o))e"s -ho do mo"e e'i& in a da! than the Se")ian "egime had done in t-ent! !ea"s.0 Ca)tain +affner to %eneral Edm#nd %laise von +orstena#, Pleni)otentiary of the =ehrmacht in >agre , Croatia, 1271

0O+" t"oo s ha'e to )e m+te -itnesses o* s+,h e'entsH it does not "e*&e,t -e&& on thei" othe"-ise high "e +tation... I am *"eK+ent&! to&d that 9e"man o,,+ ation t"oo s -o+&d *ina&&! ha'e to inte"'ene against 3stasha ,"imes. This ma! ha en e'ent+a&&!. %ight no-, -ith the a'ai&a)&e *o",es, I ,o+&d not ask *o" s+,h a,tion (d ho, inte"'ention in indi'id+a& ,ases ,o+&d make the 9e"man ("m! &ook "es onsi)&e *o" ,o+nt&ess ,"imes -hi,h it ,o+&d not "e'ent in the ast.0 %eneral Edm#nd %laise von +orstena# to the /(=, :#ly 13, 1271 0The ho""o"s that the 3stashi ha'e ,ommitted o'e" the Se")ian sma&& gi"&s is )e!ond a&& -o"ds. The"e a"e h+nd"eds o* hotog"a hs ,on*i"ming these deeds )e,a+se those o* them -ho ha'e s+"'i'ed the to"t+"e: )a!onet sta)s, +&&ing o* tong+es and teeth, nai&s and )"east ti s a&& this a*te" the! -e"e "a ed. S+"'i'o"s -e"e taken in )! o+" o**i,e"s and t"ans o"ted to Ita&ian hos ita&s -he"e these do,+ments and *a,ts -e"e gathe"ed.0 Commander of the ,talian Sassari !ivision in Croatia, 1271

0In,"eased a,ti'it! o* the )ands is ,hie*&! d+e to at"o,ities ,a""ied o+t )! 3stasha +nits in C"oatia against the O"thodo> o +&ation. The 3stashas ,ommitted thei" deeds in a )estia& manne" not on&! against ma&es o* ,ons,"i t age, )+t es e,ia&&! against he& &ess o&d eo &e, -omen and ,hi&d"en. The n+m)e" o* the O"thodo> that the C"oats ha'e massa,"ed and sadisti,a&&! to"t+"ed to death is a)o+t th"ee h+nd"ed tho+sand.0 &e)ort to &eichsf#hrer SS +einrich +immler from the %eheime Staats)oli8ei ? %EST*P/ ? dated Fe r#ary 1@, 1270 0<"om the *o+nding Mo* the ND6N +nti& no- the e"se,+tion o* Se")s has not sto ed, and e'en ,a+tio+s estimates indi,ate that at &east se'e"a& h+nd"ed tho+sand eo &e ha'e )een ki&&ed. The i""es onsi)&e e&ements ha'e ,ommitted s+,h at"o,ities that ,o+&d )e e> e,ted on&! *"om a "a)id ;o&she'ik ho"de.0 %erman foreign ministry )leni)otentiary re)resentative in $elgrade FeliA $en8ler to :oachim von &i entro), Minister of Foreign *ffairs of the &eich 0 4In C"oatia +nde" the 3stasha5 ...o'e" ha&* a mi&&ion MSe")sN -e"e m+"de"ed, a)o+t a K+a"te" o* a mi&&ion -e"e e> e&&ed *"om the ,o+nt"!, and anothe" K+a"te" o* a mi&&ion -e"e *o",ed to ,on'e"t to Catho&i,ism.0 Encyclo)aedia of the +oloca#st

4(&& K+otes *"om 0The %ea& 9eno,ide in J+gos&a'ia: Inde endent C"oatia o* @A4@ %e'isited0 )!: S"d$a T"i*ko'i,, +)&ished in: ---."o,k*o"dinstit+te.o"g and in: ---.anti-a".,om 5


(L* B The *rmy of Li eration

04The"e is a g"o-ing tenden,! among *o"eign o)se"'e"s5 to identi*! the ,"imina& -ith the honest, the 'anda& -ith the ,i'i&iCed, the ma*iosi -ith the nation.?? Former *l anian President Sali $erisha 0The! -e"e te""o"ists in @AAI and no-, )e,a+se o* o&iti,s, the!?"e *"eedom *ighte"s0 :erry Se)er, "#oting an anonymo#s "to) dr#g official" who refers to a 122C State !e)artment re)ort, in the article "(L* Finances =ar with +eroin Sales", =ashington Times, May 4, 1222 0The (&)anian 'i&&ages a"e m+,h )ette", m+,h "i,he" than the Se")ian ones. The Se")s, e'en the "i,h ones, don?t )+i&d *ine ho+ses in 'i&&ages -he"e the"e a"e (&)anians. I* a Se") has a t-o-sto"! ho+se he "e*"ains *"om ainting it so that it shan?t &ook )ette" than the (&)anian ho+ses.0 Leon Trotsky, =ar Corres)ondent for "Pravda", re)orting from the $alkan =ars, 1210?4 0Ghen s "ing ,omes, -e -i&& man+"e the &ains o* :oso'o -ith the )ones o* Se")s, *o" -e, (&)anians, ha'e s+**e"ed too m+,h to *o"get.0 ,sa $oletini, leaving the *m assadors Conference in London, 1214

0Instead o* +sing thei" a+tho"it! and im a"tia&it! to "est"ain te""o"ist gangs o* (&)anian e>t"emists, -e *a,e the sit+ation in -hi,h the te""o"ism is taking &a,e +nde" thei" a+s i,es, and e'en )eing *inan,ed )! 3nited Nations means0 Milosevic, March 0333 09etting histo"! -"ong is an essentia& a"t o* )eing a nation.0 Ernest &enan, French historian 0Ge s ent the @AA0?s -o""!ing a)o+t a 9"eate" Se")ia. That?s *inished. Ge a"e going to s end time -e&& into the ne>t ,ent+"! -o""!ing a)o+t a 9"eate" (&)ania.0 Christo)her +ill, *m assador to Macedonia, 1222 0The"e is no e>,+se *o" that, e'en i* the Se")s in :oso'o a"e 'e"! ang"!. I a,,e t "es onsi)i&it!. One o* the most im o"tant tasks o* a demo,"a,! is to "ote,t its mino"ities.0 Milosevic to *m assador +ill who re)orted to him a o#t atrocities in (osovo 0I am &ike a ,and&e. I am me&ting a-a! s&o-&!, )+t I &ight the -a! *o" othe"s.0 *dem !emaci, )olitical re)resentative of the (L*

BE!ORE The *o+nding *athe"s o* the :#( -e"e I)"ahim %+go'a, the a,i*ist "esident o* the se&*- "o,&aimed 0:oso'o %e +)&i,0, esta)&ished in @AA@ - and S&o)odan =i&ose'i,, his )e&&ige"ent J+gos&a' ,o+nte" a"t. The a)!sma& *ai&+"e o* the 9andhiesK+e o&i,ies o* the *o"me" to she&te" his eo &e *"om the "e,"+des,ent&! 'io&ent a,tions o* the &atte" - "e'i'ed the *&edging :#( o+t*it. Cont"a"! to t! i,a&&! sha&&o- in*o"mation in the media, the :#( has )een kno-n to ha'e o e"ated in :oso'o as ea"&! as the atta,k on o&i,emen in 9&ogo'a, in =a! @AAB. Its e i han!, in the *o"m o* magni*i,ent&! +ni*o"med *ighte"s, o,,+""ed on&! on No'em)e" 2I, @AAF 4in the *+ne"a& o* a tea,he", a 'i,tim o* Se") Cea&o+sness5 - )+t it e>isted &ong )e*o"e. Pe"ha s as &ong as the Peo &e?s =o'ement o* :oso'o, *o+nded in @AI2. The histo"i,a& and ,+&t+"a& "oots o* the ,on*&i,t in :oso'o -e"e des,"i)ed e&se-he"e 40The ;ad ;&ood o* :oso'o05. %eading that a"ti,&e is essentia& as this one ass+mes "io" a,K+aintan,e -ith it. :oso'o is a &and o* g"eat mine"a& -ea&th and ,ommens+"ate ag"i,+&t+"a& o'e"t!. It has a&-a!s &ang+ished -ith de,"e it in*"ast"+,t+"e and i""e&e'ant ind+st"!. :oso'o?s mine"a& "i,hes -e"e &ooted )! J+gos&a'ia *o" de,ades and )oth =a,edonia and :oso'o -e"e the oo" "e&ati'es in the J+gos&a' <ede"ation.

In :oso'o, mo"e than B@P o* a&& those o'e" @0 !ea"s o* age -e"e i&&ite"ate 4in @AFA5 and its e" ,a ita in,ome -as &ess than B0P o* the nationa& a'e"age. In*ant mo"ta&it! -as E times that in S&o'enia. :oso'o -as an (*"i,an en,&a'e in an othe"-ise E+"o e-as i"ing ,o+nt"!. Ca+ght in the e"ni,io+s s i"a& o* de,&ining ,ommodit! "i,es, :oso'o "e&ied on t"ans*e"s *"om J+gos&a'ia and *"om a)"oad *o" mo"e than A0P o* its in,ome. Ine'ita)&!, +nem &o!ment t"i &ed *"om @AP in @AF@ to DFP in @AIA. (s a "es+&t, the <ede"a& go'e"nment had to K+e&& B-months &ong, a"a&!sing "iots in @AI@. %iots -e"e nothing ne- to :oso'o - the demonst"ations o* @AEI -e"e a"g+a)&! -o"se 4and &ed to ,onstit+tiona& ,hanges g"anting a+tonom! to :oso'o in @AF45. ;+t this time, the a+tho"ities, "ea,ted -ith tanks in s,enes "eminis,ent o* China?s Tiananmen SK+a"e I !ea"s &ate". The hot)ed o* hotheads -as, as +s+a&, the 3ni'e"sit! in P"istina. St+dents the"e -e"e mo"e ,on,e"ned -ith edest"ian iss+es s+,h the K+a&it! o* thei" *ood and the &a,k o* *a,i&ities than -ith an! ete"na& "e'o&+tiona"! o" nationa& t"+ths. These m+ndane "otests -e"e hi$a,ked )! ,om"ades -ith highe" ,&ass ,ons,io+sness and &o*tie" moti'es o* se&*-dete"mination. S+,h hi$a,king, tho+gh, -o+&d ha'e ete"ed o+t had the ,ess oo& o* "age and indignation not )een *este"ing so e)+&&ient&!. Se") insensiti'it! )a,ked )! indis,"iminate )"+ta&it! &ed to es,a&ation. (s the !ea"s assed, ,a&&s *o" the "esto"ation o* the @AF4 ,onstit+tion 4+nde" -hi,h :oso'o -as g"anted o&iti,a&, *inan,ia&, &ega& and ,+&t+"a& a+tonom! and instit+tions5 - me"ged into a sono"o+s agenda o* 09"eat (&)ania0 and a 0:oso'o %e +)&i,0. The :oso'a" ,"o-d -as ne'e" a)o'e )eatings, &ooting and )+"ning. The hate -as st"ong.

J+gos&a'ia?s "+&ing a"t! - the #eag+e o* Comm+nists -as in the th"oes o* its o-n t"ans*o"mation. Gith Tito?s demise and the im &osion o* the So'iet ;&o,, the Comm+nists &a,ked )oth ,om ass and &eade". 6is nat+"a& s+,,esso"s -e"e +"ged )! Tito in the @AE0s and @AF0s. The a"t! -asn?t s+"e -hethe" to t+"n to 9o")a,he'?s East o" to (me"i,a?s Gest. The Comm+nists ani,ked and em)a"ked on a "am age o* im "isonment, +n$+st dismissa&s o* (&)anians 4main&! o* tea,he"s, $o+"na&ists, o&i,emen and $+dges5 and the o,,asiona& to"t+"e o" m+"de". Se") inte&&e,t+a&s "ega"ded this as no mo"e than the "e,ti*i,ation o* Tito?s anti-Se") o&i,ies. Se")ia -as the on&! %e +)&i, -ithin the <ede"ation, -ho -as dismem)e"ed into a+tonomo+s "egions 4:oso'o and Vo$'odina5. 09etting )a,k at Tito0 -as a st"ong moti'e, ,ommens+"ate -ith Se") 0the -o"&d is against +s0 a"anoia and siege menta&it!. =i&ose'i,, 'isi)&! i&& at ease, s+"*ed this tide o* "e&igion-tinged nationa&ism st"aight into :oso'o, the histo"i,a& hea"t&and o* Se")-ism. O "ession )"eeds "esistan,e and Se") o "ession se"'ed on&! to st"eam&ine the sto,hasti, nationa&ist mo'ement into a ,om a"tmenta&iCed, tho+gh *a,tio+s, +nde"g"o+nd o"ganiCation -ith "oots -he"e'e" (&)anians "esided: 9e"man!, S-itCe"&and, the 3S(, Canada and (+st"a&ia. The ideo&og! -as an im "o)a)&e mi> o* Sta&inism 4En'e" 6o>ha-ins i"ed5, =aoism and (&)anian ,ha+'inism. This -as )e*o"e (&)ania o ened + to "e'ea& its de,"e it+de and deso&ation to its :oso'a" 'isito"s. (&& de&+sions o* an (&)ania-)a,ked a"med "e)e&&ion e'a o"ated in the &ang+o" o* (&)ania "o e". Th+s, the a,ti'ities o* the Nationa&ists -e"e mo"e inno,+o+s than thei" ,on,o,ted do,t"ines.

The! de*a,ed go'e"nment )+i&dings, shatte"ed g"a'estones in Se") ,emete"ies and o'e"t+"ned he"oi, mon+ments. The dist"i)+tion o* s+)'e"si'e 4and *ai"&! )"omide5 0&ite"at+"e0 -as "a"e&! a,,om anied )! a,ts o* te""o", eithe" in :oso'o o" in E+"o e. Nationa&ism is "e*+ge *"om +n,e"taint!. (s the o&d J+gos&a'ia -as ,"+m)&ing, ea,h o* its ,onstit+ents de'e&o ed its o-n )"and o* es,a ism, "e &ete -ith "e'enant nationa&ist &eade"s, most&! *i,tiona& 0histo"!0, a ne-&! dis,o'e"ed &ang+age and a &edge to *ate to "e,onstit+te a &ost em i"e at its a e>. Th+s, :oso'a" nationa&ism -as K+a&itati'e&! the kin and kith o* the Se") o" C"oat s+)-s e,ies. Pa"ado>i,a&&!, tho+gh "athe" "edi,ta)&!, the! *ed on ea,h othe". =i&ose'i, -as as m+,h a ,"eation o* :oso'a" nationa&ism as Tha,i -as the o+t,ome o* =i&ose'i,?s o&i,ies. The :#(?s Sta&inist=aoist ins i"ation -as in em+&ation o* the a"anoid and om ha&oske ti, "egime in (&)ania - )+t it o-ed its e>isten,e to ;e&g"ade?s int"ansigen,e. The &o'e-hate "e&ationshi )et-een the :oso'a"s and the (&)anians is e> &o"ed e&se-he"e 40The =!ths o* 9"eat (&)ania -Pa"t I05. The Se")s, in othe" -o"ds, -e"e as te""i*ied o* :oso'a" i""edentism as the :oso'a"s -e"e o* Se") dominion. Thei" e'e" mo"e "essing and mena,ing a ea&s to ;e&g"ade ga'e the "egime the "ete>t it needed to inte"'ene and =i&ose'i, the ,onte>t he so+ght in -hi,h to *&o+"ish.

In <e)"+a"! @AIA, a"med -ith a ne- ,onstit+tion -hi,h a)o&ished :oso'o?s a+tonom! 4and, a !ea" &ate", its st+nned go'e"nment5, =i&ose'i, K+e&&ed a mine"s? h+nge" st"ike and "o,eeded to instit+te meas+"es o* dis,"imination against the (&)anians in the "o'in,e. Dis,"imination -as nothing ne- to :oso'o. The (&)anians themse&'es initiated s+,h anti-Se") meas+"es *o&&o-ing thei" ne- gained ,onstit+tiona& a+tonom! in @AF4. No- the tide has t+"ned and tho+sands o* (&)anians -ho "e*+sed to sign ne--*ang&ed 0&o!a&t! 'o-s0 -e"e s+mma"i&! sa,ked and &ost thei" ension "ights 4the most sa,"ed ossession o* 06omo So,ia&ism+s05. (&)anian media -e"e sh+tte"ed and s,hoo&s 'a,ated -hen tea,he" a*te" tea,he" "e*+sed to a)ide )! the Se") ,+""i,+&+m. (*te" a -hi&e, The Se")s "e-o ened "ima"! s,hoo&s and "e-hi"ed (&)anian tea,he"s, a&&o-ing them to tea,h in (&)anian. ;+t se,onda"! s,hoo&s and +ni'e"sities "emained ,&osed. These a,ts o* e"se,+tion did not meet -ith +ni'e"sa& disa "o'a&. 9"ee,e, *o" instan,e, "ega"ded the (&)anians as nat+"a& a&&ies o* the T+"ks and, )onded )! ,ommon enmit!, o* the =a,edonians and ;+&ga"ians. Itse&* ,om "ised o* &ands ,&aimed )! (&)ania, 9"ee,e *a'o+"ed a ha"sh and *ina& "eso&+tion o* the (&)anian K+estion. The"e ,an )e &itt&e do+)t that =a,edonia - *ee&ing )esieged )! its (&)anian mino"it! - "ega"ded =i&ose'i, as the e"*e,t antidote. =a,edonia a,ti'e&! assisted J+gos&a'ia to )"eak the em)a"go im osed on it )! the Geste"n o-e"s. =i&ose'i, -as not, the"e*o"e, a a"iah, as "et"oa,ti'e histo"! -o+&d ha'e it. %athe", he -as the on&! o)sta,&e to a 09"eat (&)ania0.

Githin &ess than a !ea", in @AA0, the Demo,"ati, #eag+e o* :oso'o 4#D:5 -as a)&e to ,&aim a mem)e"shi o* F00,000 mem)e"s. 6ashim Tha,i 40Snake05, S+&e$man Se&imi 40S+&tan05 and othe" &eade"s o* the :#( -e"e then 20 !ea"s o* age. Jea"s o* S-iss ed+,ation not-ithstanding, the! -itnessed *i"st hand :oso'o?s t+m+&t+o+s t"ans*o"mation into the engine o* disinteg"ation o* the J+gos&a' <ede"ation. It -as a 'a&+a)&e &esson in the dia&e,ti, o* histo"!, &ate" to )e a &ied )"i&&iant&!. The &eade" o* the #D:, the *o"e'e" si&k s,a"*ed and me&&i*&+o+s D". I)"ahim %+go'a, ,om a"ed himse&* o en&! and )&+sh&ess&! to Va,&a' 6a'e& and the :oso'a" st"+gg&e to the Ve&'et %e'o&+tion. This t+"gid and "isi)&e ana&og! dete"io"ated *+"the" as the :oso'a" Ve&'et -as stained )! the )&ood o* inno,ents. D". %+go'a -as an +n*aCed d"eame" in a &and o* ha"sh nightma"es. The So")onne -as ne'e" a good "e a"ato"! s,hoo& to the a,adem! o* ;a&kan "ea&it!. %+go'a?s idea&s -e"e good and no)&e - 9andhi-&ike assi'e "esistan,e, ma"ket e,onomi,s, ,onst"+,ti'e 4tho+gh +n,om "omising and &imited to the a+tho"ities5 dia&og+e -ith the enem!. The! might sti&& "e'ai&. (nd d+"ing the ea"&! @AA0s he -as a&& the "age and the da"&ing o* the Gest. ;+t he *ai&ed to t"ans&ate his ,on'i,tions into tangi)&e a,hie'ements. 6is )iggest *ai&+"e might ha'e )een his ina)i&it! to a&&! himse&* -ith a 0;ig Po-e"0 - as did the C"oats, the S&o'enes and the ;osnians. This )e,ame ain*+&&! e'ident -ith the signat+"e o* the Da!ton (,,o"d in @AAD -hi,h a&most ,om &ete&! igno"ed :oso'o and the :oso'a"s.

T"+e, the Gest ,onditioned the tota& "emo'a& o* san,tions against J+gos&a'ia on its h+mane t"eatment o* its (&)anian ,itiCens and en,o+"aged the (&)anians, tho+gh ,i",+ms e,t&!, to stand *o" thei" "ights. ;+t the"e -as no e> &i,it s+ o"t e'en *o" the "e-instatement o* :oso'o?s @AF4 stat+s, &et a&one *o" the (&)anians? d"eams o* statehood. In the a)sen,e o* s+,h s+ o"t - *inan,ia& and di &omati, - :oso'o "emained an inte"na& "o)&em o* J+gos&a'ia, a "enegade "o'in,e, a ,o&on! o* te""o" and d"+g t"a**i,king. The :oso'a"s *e&t )et"a!ed as the! ha'e a*te" the Cong"ess o* ;e"&in and the ;a&kan Ga"s. Pe"ha s se,+"ing s+,h a s onso" -as a &ost ,a+se to sta"t -ith 4tho+gh the :#( s+,,eeded -he"e %+go'a *ai&ed5 - )+t then %+go'a mis&ed his eo &e into sang+ino+s de'astation )! de,&a"ing the 0:oso'o %e +)&i,0 "emat+"e&!. 6is ,hoi,e o* a,i*ism ma! ha'e )een di,tated )! the so)e"ing sights *"om the ki&&ing *ie&ds o* ;osnia - and "o'ed his "agmatism. ;+t his de,ision to de,&a"e a 0%e +)&i,0 -as "e-mat+"e, se&*-agg"andiCing and in 'a,+o. The eme"gen,e o* a o&iti,a& a&te"nati'e to+gh, "ea&isti,, methodi,a& and st"+,t+"ed - -as not on&! a K+estion o* time )+t a -e&,ome de'e&o ment. The"e is no deso&ation &ike the one in*&i,ted )! sin,e"e idea&ists.

In @AA@, %+go'a set a)o+t o"ganiCing a %e +)&i, *"om a sha))! o**i,e )+i&ding and the o osite 0Ca*e =imoCa0. 6is go'e"nment ,onst"+,ted makeshi*t s,hoo&s and hos ita&s, a"a&&e& net-o"ks o* se"'i,es sta**ed )! the Se")-dis ossessed, ,a ita&iCing on a s-ee ing -a'e o* 'o&+ntee"ism. (&)ania "e,ogniCed this nas,ent state immediate&! and inte"nationa& negotiato"s 4s+,h as #o"d O-en and C!"+s Van,e5 ,on*e""ed -ith its se&*-im o"tant *ig+"ehead 4*o" instan,e, in Se tem)e" @AA25. S+,,essi'e (me"i,an administ"ations *+nne&&ed mone! into the "o'in,e and -a"nings against 0ethni, ,&eansing0 -e"e *&+ng at J+gos&a'ia as ea"&! as @AAB. Inte"na&&!, Se") e>t"emists in )oth ;e&g"ade and P"istina "e'ented Se") mode"ates 4&ike then J+gos&a' P"ime =iniste" =i&an Pani,5 *"om "e-o ening the s,hoo&s o* :oso'o and "ed+,ing the massi'e, No"the"n-I"e&and-&ike Se") mi&ita"! "esen,e in it. (n ag"eement signed in @AAF )! )oth %+go'a and =i&ose'i, to a)o&ish the a"a&&e& (&)anian ed+,ation s!stem and "e-o en a&& the ed+,ationa& *a,i&ities in :oso'o -as th+s *"+st"ated. :oso'o *"a,t+"ed a&ong ethni, &ines -ith ,om &ete seg"egation o* the Se")s and the (&)anians. To a'oid ,onta,t -ith the Se")s -as an +n-"itten "+&e, )"ea,hed on&! )! "ominent inte&&e,t+a&s. The 0:oso'o %e +)&i,0 -as *a" *"om ad'o,ating ethni, ,&eansing o" e'en o+t"ight inde enden,e 4the"e -e"e o-e"*+& 'oi,es in *a'o+" o* a *ede"a& so&+tion -ithin J+gos&a'ia5 - )+t not *a" *"om "e-in'enting an in'e"ted 'e"sion o* a a"theid.

It *a,ed the +)iK+ito+s "o)&em o* a&& the othe" "e +)&i,s o* *o"me" J+gos&a'ia - not one o* them -as ethni,a&&! 0 +"e0. To a,hie'e a to&e"a)&e &e'e& o* homogeneit!, the! had to "eso"t to *o",e. %+go'a ad'o,ated the meas+"ed a &i,ation o* the insidio+s o-e"s o* dis,"imination and seg"egation. ;+t, on,e the theme -as set, 'a"iations -e"e )o+nd to a"ise. Tho+gh dominant *o" some !ea"s, %+go'a and the #D: did not mono o&iCe the :oso'a" o&iti,a& &ands,a e. <o&&o-ing a o&& in @AAI, )o!,otted )! a&& othe" o&iti,a& a"ties, -hi,h "es+&ted in the "e-e&e,tion o* %+go'a as "esident - the disen,hanted and disi&&+sioned had &ent! o* ,hoi,e. Some $oined the :#(, man! mo"e $oined %e>he Qosa$?s 4Qos$e5 3nited Demo,"ati, =o'ement 4#;D5. The o&iti,a& s,ene in :oso'o in the @AI0s and ea"&! @AA0s -as 'i)"ant and ka&eidos,o i,. (dem Dema,i - the =a">ist ideo&og+e o* the :#(, a &ong time o&iti,a& "isone" and the *o+nde" o* the 0"e'o&+tiona"! =o'ement *o" the =e"ge" o* (&)anians0 in @AE4 - esta)&ished the Pa"&iamenta"! Pa"t! o* :oso'o 4PP:5 )e*o"e he handed it o'e" to ;a$"am :os+mi, a dissident and anothe" 'ene"a)&e o&iti,a& "isone". The PP: -as ,o-*o+nded )! Veton S+""oi, the Eng&ish-s eaking, 3S-ed+,ated, son o* a J+gos&a' di &omat and edito" o* :oha Dito"e, the (&)anian &ang+age dai&!. The (&)anians a"e not a de'o+t &ot, )+t e'en Is&am had its o&iti,a& mani*estations in :oso'o.

The @AI@ demonst"ations ga'e "ise to the Po +&a" =o'ement *o" :oso'o 4#P:5. ( a"ent&!, it ga'e "ise to the :#(, "o)a)&! in @AAB, ossi)&! in P"istina. Ghate'e" the ,i",+mstan,es, the :#( ,ong"egated in De,ani, the "egion s+""o+nding P"istina. T-o !ea"s a*te" the 9o&go'a, atta,k - it ta,k&ed a Se") )o"de" at"o& 4( "i&5 and a Se") Po&i,e Station 4(+g+st5 in @AAD. #ight -ea ons and a ,"+de )om) -e"e +sed. The Se")s -e"e not im "essed )+t the! -e"e "o'oked into an es,a&ating se"ies o* e'e" mo"e hideo+s massa,"es o* (&)anian 'i&&age"s 4the t+"ning oint might ha'e )een the s&a+ghte" )! the Se")s o* the 8asha"i ,&an in P"ekaC5. =a,hia'e&&ian ana&!sts as,"i)e to the :#( a de'i&ish &ot to "o'oke the Se")s into the ethni, ,&eansing that *ina&&! int"od+,ed the Gest to to"t+"ed :oso'o. The a+tho" o* this a"ti,&e, a-a"e o* the ;a&kan?s &a,k o* "o ensit! *o" &ong te"m &anning and "edi&e,tion *o" se&*-de*eating 'engean,e - )e&ie'es that, to the :#(, it -as a&& a se"endi ito+s t+"n o* e'ents. Ghate'e" the ,ase ma! )e, the :#( )e,ame s+**i,ient&! se&*-ass+"ed and o +&a" to ad'e"tise itse&* on the ;;C as "es onsi)&e *o" some o* the ,&ashes - a "ite o* assage ,ommon to a&& se&*-"es e,ting *"eedom *ighte"s.

The se&e,tion o* ta"gets )! the :#( is 'e"! te&&ing. (t *i"st it ,on,ent"ated its *ie"! intentions on&! + on mi&ita"! and &a- and o"de" e"sonne&. Its "e&+,tan,e to e**e,t ,i'i&ians -as me"ito"io+s. ( s+)t&e shi*t o,,+""ed -hen the Se")s )egan to "e- o +&ate :oso'o -ith Se")s dis &a,ed *"om the :"a$ina "egion. (&a"med )! the intent i* not )! the e>e,+tion 4on&! @0,000 Se")s o" so -e"e sett&ed in :oso'o5 - the :#( "ea,ted -ith a ma$o" d"i'e to a"m itse&* and )! atta,king Se") sett&ements in :&ina, De,ani and D$ako'i,a and a "e*+gee ,am in ;a)o&o,. The :#( atta,ks -e"e mi&ita"i&! so histi,ated and ,oo"dinated. Se") o&i,emen -e"e am)+shed on the "oad )et-een 9&ogo'a, and S")i,a. The Se") ,o+nte"-o**ensi'e "es+&ted in doCens o* (&)anian 'i,tims - ,i'i&ians, men, -omen and ,hi&d"en 4the 0D"eni,a =assa,"e05. The :#( t"ied to de*end 'i&&ages a&igned a&ong a Pe,-D$ako'i,a &ine and th+s dis"+ t the ,omm+ni,ations and &ogisti,s o* Se") =i&ita"! Po&i,e and S e,ia& 4=inist"! o* Inte"io"5 Po&i,e +nits. The main a"ena o* *ighting -as a "e,+""ent one - in the @A20s, (&)anian g+e"i&&as, )ased in the hi&&s, atta,ked the Se")s in D"eni,a.

Ghat *ina&&! t"ans*o"med the :#( *"om a -anna)e I%( into the *ighting *o",e that it has )e,ome -as the disinteg"ation o* (&)ania. 6isto"! is the anna&s o* i"on!. The )"eak-+ o* the :#(?a "o&e mode& - &ed to the "es+"gen,e o* its inte&&e,t+a& "ogen!. The :#( a)so")ed tho+sands o* -ea ons *"om the &ooted a"mo+"ies o* the (&)anian mi&ita"! and o&i,e. (ng"! mo)s atta,ked these o"dnan,es *o&&o-ing the ,o&&a se o* !"amid in'estment s,hemes that "o))ed one thi"d o* the o +&ation o* a&& thei" sa'ings. The a"ms ended + in the t"igge"-ha ! hands o* d"+g &o"ds, ma*iosi, im s, sm+gg&e"s and *"eedom *ighte"s *"om Teto'o in =a,edonia to D+""es in (&)ania and *"om P"istina in :oso'o to the SandCak in Se")ia. The :#( -as so i&&-eK+i ed to ,o e -ith this *o"t+ito+s ,o"n+,o ia - that it )egan to t"ade -ea ons, a gain*+& a'o,ation it *o+nd ha"d to dis&odge e'e" sin,e. The ,on'+&si'e disso&+tion o* (&)ania &ed to ,hanges in high &a,es. Sa&i ;e"isha -as de osed and "e &a,ed )! %e>he =e$dani, an e'en mo"e s!m atheti, ea" to se a"atist demands. ;e"isha himse&* &ate" a&&o-ed the :#( to +se his "o e"t! 4a"o+nd T"o o$a5 as staging g"o+nds and s+ o"ted the ,a+se 4tho+gh not the 0=a">ist-#eninist0 :#( o" its se&*-a ointed go'e"nment5 +neK+i'o,a&&!. (t a ,e"tain stage, he e'en a,,+sed <atos Nano, his "i'a& and the P"ime =iniste" o* (&)ania o* )eing the enem! o* the (&)anian eo &e *o" not dis &a!ing the same +nmitigated &o!a&t! to the idea o* an inde endent :oso'o, +nde" %+go'a and ;+$a" ;+koshi, %+go'a?s mone! man 4and P"ime =iniste" in e>i&e5. The :#( -as a)&e to e> and its "esen,e in (&)ania, main&! in its t"aining and o e"ations ,ent"es nea" :+kes, #$a)inot 4nea" Ti"ana5 and ;a$"am C+"i.

(&)ania had a g"o-ing sa! in the a**ai"s o* the :#( as it "e,om osed itse&* - it -as inst"+menta& in s+mmoning the :#( to %am)o+i&&et, *o" instan,e. This a"med "e'e&"! ,o+ &ed -ith the "ising *o"t+nes o* se a"atism, &ed %o)e"t 9e&)a"d, the senio" 3S en'o! to the ;a&kan to &a)e& the :#( - 0a te""o"ist o"ganiCation0. The Se")s took this to mean a &i,en,e to ki&&, -hi,h the! e>e",ised d+ti*+&&! in D"eni,a. P"om t&!, the 3S( ,hanged ,o+"se and the indomita)&e =ade&eine (&)"ight s-it,hed a"ties, sa!ing: 0Ge a"e not going to stand )! and -at,h the Se")ian a+tho"ities do in :oso'o -hat the! ,an no &onge" get a-a! -ith in ;osnia0. This ste"n ,onsisten,! -as *o&&o-ed )! a tightening o* the em)a"go against J+gos&a'ia and )! a th"eat o* +ni&ate"a& a,tion. <o" the *i"st time in histo"!, the :oso'a"s *ina&&! had a s onso" - and -hat a s onso"7 The mightiest o* a&&. (s *o" =i&ose'i,, he *e&t na+seating&! )et"a!ed. Not on&! -as he not "e-a"ded *o" his "o&e as the Da!ton ea,emake" - he -as *a,ed -ith ne- san,tions, an +&timat+m and a di"e,t th"eat on the 'e"! e" et+ation o* his "egime. The :#( m+sh"oomed not )e,a+se it atta,ked Se")s 4'e"! s o"adi,a&&! and to a min+s,+&e e**e,t5. It )a&&ooned )e,a+se it de&i'e"ed -he"e %+go'a didn?t e'en "omise. It de&i'e"ed an a&&ian,e -ith the 3S( against the hated Se")s. It de&i'e"ed -ea ons. It de&i'e"ed ho e and a &an. It de&i'e"ed 'engean,e, the se&*-e> "ession o* the do-nt"odden. It -as $oined )! nea" and *a" and, )! its o-n "e,koning, its "anks s-e&&ed to D0,000 -a""io"s. =o"e o)$e,ti'e e> e"ts +t the *ig+"e o* a,ti'e *ighte"s at one *o+"th this n+m)e". Sti&&, it is an im "essi'e n+m)e" in a o +&ation o* @.F mi&&ion (&)anians.

D+"ing the -a", it -as $oined )! 400 o'e"-eight s+)+")anites *"om No"th (me"i,a, (&)anian 'o&+ntee"s -ithin an 0(t&anti, ;"igade0. It a&so a)so")ed (&)anians -ith "i,h mi&ita"! e> e"ien,e *"om Se")ia and C"oatia as -e&& as *o"eign me",ena"ies and ossi)&! 0(*ghanis0 4the de'o+t =os&em 'ete"ans o* the -a"s in (*ghanistan, #e)anon and ;osnia5. The in*&+> o* 'o&+ntee"s +t "ess+"e on the &eade"shi )oth o"ganiCationa& and e,+nia"!. The :#( - an ent"e "ene+"ia& sta"t + o* ins+"gen,! - had mat+"ed into a nationa& )"and o* g+e"i&&a. It "e'am ed itse&*, ,"eating di"e,to"ates, o**i,es and o**i,e"s, ,odes and "o,ed+"es, a "adio station and a ne-s agen,!, an e&e,t"oni, ,omm+ni,ations inte",e tion +nit, a -o"d o* mo+th messenge" se"'i,e and a gene"a& mi&ita"! sta**, headed sin,e <e)"+a"! @AAA )! 0S+&tan0 and di'ided to se'en o e"ationa& Cones. In sho"t, it "ea,ted to ,hanging *o"t+nes )! ,"eating a )+"ea+,"a,!. Con,+""ent&!, it a"med itse&* to its teeth -ith mo"e so histi,ated -ea ons than e'e" )e*o"e 4tho+gh it -as sti&& sho"t o* medi,a& s+ &ies, amm+nition and ,omm+ni,ations eK+i ment5. The :#( no- had sho+&de"-*i"ed anti-tank "o,ket &a+n,he"s 4&ike the 9e"man 0("m)+"st05, mo"ta"s, "e,oi&&ess "i*&es, anti-ai","a*t ma,hine-g+ns and a+tomati, assa+&t "i*&es. Some o* the -ea ons -e"e e'en )o+ght *"om Se") a"m! o**i,e"s o" im o"ted th"o+gh 6+nga"!. (&& this "eK+i"ed a *inan,ia& hase t"ansition. That the :#( has )ene*ited, di"e,t&! and kno-ing&!, *"om mone! tainted )! d"+g t"a**i,king and sm+gg&ing o* )oth goods and eo &e a,"oss )o"de"s - ,an )e in &itt&e do+)t. ;+t I *ind the "o osition that the :#( itse&* has t"aded in d"+gs +n&ike&!.

The &ong-esta)&ished (&)anian ,&ans -hi,h ,ont"o& the 0;a&kan %o+te0 - the same ,&ans that *a,ed do-n the *ea"some T+"kish gangs on thei" o-n t+"* - -o+&d ha'e ne'e" &et an + sta"t s+,h as the :#( take o'e" an! o* thei" te""ito"! and its in,+m)ent "o*its. The :#( might ha'e t"aded -ea ons. It might ha'e da))&ed in sm+gg&ing. It might ha'e "e,ei'ed donations *"om d"+g &o"ds. In this, it is no di**e"ent *"om a&& ma$o" mode"n g+e"i&&a mo'ements. ;+t it did not edd&e d"+gs not )e,a+se o* mo"a& s,"+ &es )+t )e,a+se o* the &etha& ,om etition it -o+&d ha'e en,o+nte"ed. That the :#( had to "eso"t to s+,h ,ondemna)&e methods o* *inan,ing is not s+" "ising. %+go'a "e*+sed to sha"e -ith it the *+nds a)"oad managed )! ;+$a" ;+koshi on )eha&* o* the 0:oso'a" Peo &e0. It had no othe" means o* in,ome and, as o osed to %+go'a, it ,o+&d a,t on&! ,&andestine&! and s+""e titio+s&!. The Gest -as no g"eat he& eithe" ,ont"a"! to the m!th s +n )! the Se")s. (nothe" so+",e o* in,ome -as the BP 0Ga" Ta>0 &e'ied on D00,000 :oso'a" (&)anians and thei" )+sinesses in the dias o"a 4tho+gh most o* it ended + +nde" ;+koshi?s and %+go'a?s ,ont"o&5. O**i,ia&&! ,o&&e,ted )! the Peo &e?s =o'ement o* :oso'o, the +&timate +se o* the "o,eeds -as the s+stenan,e o* the shado- "e +)&i,. The :#( made +se o* the 'o&+nta"! and not so 'o&+nta"! donations to the S-iss-)ased *+nd 06ome&and Ca&&s0 4o" 0=othe"&and is Ca&&ing05. The 3S( - the "agmati, s+ e" o-e" that it is - )egan to di'e"t its attention *"om the )+m)&ing and ha &ess %+go'a to the eme"ging :#(.

The &ikes o* 9e&)a"d and, his senio", %i,ha"d 6o&)"ooke, he&d ta&ks -ith its !o+th*+& o&iti,a& di"e,to", 6ashim Tha,i - s+a'e, togged + and ea"nest, he -as $+st -hat the do,to" o"de"ed. To dis,e"n that a sho-do-n in :oso'o -as nea" "eK+i"ed no "o heti, o-e"s. The :#( might ,ome hand! to es ! the &and and to di'e"t the Se") *o",es sho+&d the need a"ise. 0The C&inton administ"ation has di&igent&! +t e'e"!thing in &a,e *o" inte"'ention. In *a,t, )! mid-8+&! 3S-N(TO &anne"s had ,om &eted ,ontingen,! &ans *o" inte"'ention, in,&+ding ai" st"ikes and the de &o!ment o* g"o+nd t"oo s. (&& that -as missing -as a s+**i,ient&! )"+ta& o" t"agi, e'ent to t"igge" the "o,ess. (s a senio" De*en,e De a"tment o**i,ia& to&d "e o"te"s on 8+&! @D, ?I* some &e'e&s o* at"o,ities -e"e "ea,hed that -o+&d )e into&e"a)&e, that -o+&d "o)a)&! )e a t"igge".?0 - -"ote 9a"! Dem se! *"om the Cato Instit+te in O,to)e" @AAI. The a+tho" o* this a"ti,&e +)&ished anothe" one in the 0=idd&e East Times0 in (+g+st @AAI in -hi,h the :oso'o ,on*&i,t -as de&ineated in "easona)&! a,,+"ate detai& 40The P&ight o* the :oso'a"05. The a"ti,&e -as -"itten in ( "i& @AAI - )! -hi,h time the o+t&ine o* things to ,ome -as &ain. (&& a&ong, the :#( "e a"ed itse&* to )e a "o'isiona& go'e"nment in--aiting. It o,,+ ied "egions o* :oso'o, esta)&ished "oad)&o,ks, administ"ation, -e&*a"e o**i,es. Its mem)e"s o e"ated no,t+"na&&!. The Se") "ea,tion got e'e" ha"she" +nti& *ina&&! it th"eatened not on&! to -i e the :#( o+t o* e>isten,e )+t a&so to de o +&ate the a"ts o* the "o'in,e ,ont"o&&ed )! it. In Se tem)e" @AAI, N(TO th"eatened ai" st"ikes against Se")ia, *o&&o-ing "e o"ts o* a massa,"e o* -omen and ,hi&d"en in the 'i&&age o* 9o"n$e O)"in$e.

This &ed to the O,to)e" 20th ag"eement -ith ;e&g"ade, -hi,h ost+&ated a "ed+,tion in the &e'e&s o* J+gos&a' t"oo s in the "o'in,e. The :#( -as a&& )+t igno"ed in these e'ents. %+go'a -as not. 6e -as o*ten ,ons+&ted )! the (me"i,an negotiato"s and t"eated &ike a head o* state. The message -as dea*ening&! ,&ea": the :#( -as a a-n on the ,hess)oa"d o* -a". It had no &a,e -he"e the ,i'i&iCed and the "es onsi)&e t"ead. It had no "aison d?et"e in ea,etime. It "ea,ted )! hitting a n+m)e" o* 0Se") ,o&&a)o"ato"s0 4most&! o* 9o"ani e>t"a,t - =+s&im S&a's -ho s eak a dia&e,t o* (&)anian5. One o* the dis osed -as En'e" =a&ok+, %+go'a?s ,&ose asso,iate. On 8an+a"! @D, @AAA, in the 'i&&age o* %a,ak, someone m+"de"ed s,o"es o* eo &e and d+m ed them )! the "oadside. The :#( )&amed the Se")s. The Se")s )&amed the :#( and Gi&&iam Ga&ke", the head o* the OSCE o)se"'e" team. The media "e o"ts -e"e in,on,&+si'e. Ghi&e e'e"!one -as *ighting o'e" the smo+&de"ing )odies, N(TO -as "e a"ing to atta,k and Ga&ke" -ithd"e- his o)se"'e" team *"om :oso'o into an in,"easing&! "e&+,tant and en"aged =a,edonia. <a,ed -ith so'e"eignt!in*"inging and "egime-desta)i&iCing demands at %am)o+i&&et, the Se")s de,&ined. 3nde" "ess+"e and a*te" da!s o* ,ons+&tations, the (&)anian de&egation a,,e ted the di,tated d"a*t ag"eement hesitating&!. In the a)sen,e o* the "edi,ted Se") ,a it+&ation, 0O e"ation (&&ied <o",es0 ,ommen,ed. %am)o+i&&et -as a t+"ning oint *o" the :#(. E'ident&! on the 'e"ge o* -a", the 3S( "e'e"ted to its "e*e"en,es o* !o"e.

The :#(, a mo"e +se*+& a&&! on the g"o+nd in )att&e, took o'e" *"om the #D: as the 3S *a'o+"ite. (t the )ehest o* the 3nited States, :#( "e "esentati'es not on&! -e"e "esent, )+t headed the :oso'a" negotiating team. Tha,i took some ,on'in,ing and sh+tt&ing )et-een %am)o+i&&et, S-itCe"&and and :oso'o - )+t *ina&&!, in =a",h, he a,,e ted the te"ms o* the ag"eement -ith a som)"e %+go'a in to-. These +)&i, a,ts o* statesmanshi : negotiating, )a"gaining and, *ina&&!, a,,e ting g"a,io+s&! ,emented the "o&e and image o* the :#( as not on&! a mi&ita"! o+t*it )+t a&so a o&iti,a& o"ganiCation -ith the ta&ent and -he"e-itha& to &ead the :oso'a"s. %+go'a?s osition -as ne'e" mo"e neg&igi)&e and ma"gina&. !TER 0The :#( -i&& t"ans*o"m in man! di"e,tions, not $+st a mi&ita"! g+a"d. One a"t -i&& )e,ome a"t o* the o&i,e, one a"t -i&& )e,ome ,i'i& administ"ation, one a"t -i&& )e,ome the ("m! o* :oso'o, as a de*en,e *o",e. <ina&&!, a a"t -i&& *o"m a o&iti,a& a"t!.0 *gim Cek#, (L* C!& The Geste"n media hit a nadi" o* )ias and +n "o*essiona& s!,o han,! d+"ing the :oso'o ,"isis. It, the"e*o"e, "emains +n,&ea" -ho +&&ed -hose st"ings. The :#( -as seen to )e mo"e ade t at s in do,to"ing than h+)"isin*ested N(TO. It sta"ted the -a" as an o+t,ast and ended it as an a&&! o* N(TO on the g"o+nd and the "ea& go'e"nment o* a *+t+"e :oso'o. It ,a ita&iCed ingenio+s&! on %+go'a?s m!ste"io+s disa ea"an,e and then on his, e'en &ess ,om "ehensi)&e, "e*+sa& to 'isit the "e*+gee ,am s and to "et+"n to &i)e"ated :oso'o.

It inte"*a,ed ma"'e&&o+s&! -ith )oth !o+th*+& "ime ministe"s - (&)ania?s Pande&i =a$ko and =a,edonia?s #$+),o 9eo"gie'ski. This ne--*o+nd ,ama"ade"ie ended in a s+mmit -ith the &atte", o"ganiCed )! (")en Rha*e"i 4DCa*e"i5, an in*&+entia& (&)anian ,oa&ition a"tne" in =a,edonia 4and, man! sa!, Tha,i?s )+siness a"tne" in :oso'o5. 9eo"gie'ski, -ho did mo"e *o" =a,edonia?s "egiona& integ"ation and ami,a)&e "e&ationshi s -ith its neigh)o+"s than a&& the "e'io+s go'e"nments o* =a,edonia ,om)ined - did not hesitate to shake the hand o* the o&iti,a& &eade" o* an o"ganiCation sti&& de,"ied )! his o-n Inte"io" =inist"! as 0te""o"ist0. It -as a gam)&e - )o&d and, in hindsight, *a"sighted - )+t sti&&, a gam)&e. %+go'a himse&* -as not a,,o"ded s+,h an hono+" -hen he *ina&&! assed th"o+gh =a,edonia, on his -a! to his demo&ished home&and. D+"ing the -a", the :#( a)so")ed ne- "e,"+its *"om =a,edonia 4man! =a,edonian (&)anians died in )att&e in the *ie&ds o* :oso'o5, *"om 9e"man!, S-itCe"&and, the 3S(, (+st"a&ia and some =os&em ,o+nt"ies. In othe" -o"ds, it -as inte"nationa&iCed. It -as eK+i ed 4tho+gh on&! nigga"d&!5 )! the Gest. (nd it ,o ed -ith the do+)&e task o* di &oma,! 4Tha,i?s *amo+s te&e'ised dis,+ssions -ith =ade&eine (&)"ight, *o" instan,e5 and o&iti,a& o"ganiCation. It -as engaged in *ie&d g+e"i&&a -a"*a"e and "e,onnaissan,e -itho+t the "o e" t"aining *o" eithe". (dd to this ta,ti,a& mi&ita"! ,o-o"dination and the need to integ"ate a se,ond, %+go'a and ;e"isha s onso"ed ("med <o",es o* the %e +)&i, o* :oso'o 4<(%:5 and the :#( seems to ha'e )een ta>ed to its )"eaking oint. C"a,ks )egan to a ea" and it -as do-nhi&& e'e" sin,e. Ne'e" )e*o"e -as s+,h an eno"mo+s o&iti,a& ,a ita& -asted so tho"o+gh&! in so sho"t a time )! so *e-.

One m+st not *o"get that 'i,to"! -as not ass+"ed +nti& the &ast moment. The Gest?s "e&+,tan,e to ,ommit g"o+nd t"oo s to the es,a&ating ,on*&i,t - as mass e> +&sions ,+m s o"adi, massa,"es o* the indigeno+s o +&ation )! the Se")s -e"e taking &a,e - -as ,onside"ed )! man! :#( *ighte"s to ha'e )een a 'io&ation o* a 0;esa0 4the sa,"ed (&)anian 'o-5 gi'en to them )! N(TO. O inions "ega"ding the g"and st"ateg! o* ,ond+,ting the -a" di**e"ed st"ong&!. The ag"eement -ith =i&ose'i, that ended the -a" did not mention an! t"ansition e"iod at the end o* -hi,h the :oso'a"s -i&& de,ide thei" *ate in a "e*e"end+m. It *e&t &ike )et"a!a&. (t the )eginning, the"e -as st"ong, g"ass"oots "esistan,e to disa"mament. =an! :oso'a"s *e&t that the ad'antage o)tained sho+&d )e "essed to the oint o* inde enden,e o" at &east, a t"ansition e"iod. Then, -hen the d+st sett&ed, the s oi&s o* -a" se"'ed to -iden the "i*ts. Inte"ne,ine *ighting e"+ ted and is sti&& a*oot. The o,,asiona& m+"de" se"'ed to de&ineate the te""ito"ies o* ea,h ,ommande" and *a,tion -ithin the st"ained :#(. E'e"!thing -as and is s+)$e,t to *&+id a""angements o* o-e" and "o*it sha"ing - *"om so*t d"ink &i,en,es, th"o+gh ,iga"ette sm+gg&ing and -ea ons dea&ing and do-n to the a&&o,ation o* *+nds 4some o* them sti&& o* d+)io+s so+",es5. The sit+ation -as *+"the" ,om o+nded )! the in'asion o* ,"imina& e&ements *"om (&)ania "o e". The :oso'a" ,"ime ,&ans -e"e e**e,ted )! the -a" 4tho+gh thei" a,ti'ities ne'e" "ea&&! ,eased5 and into the 'a,++m g+shed (&)anian o"ganiCed and "+th&ess ,"ime. ;+t ,ont"a"! to media-*oste"ed o +&a" images - ,"ime -as )+t one th"ead in the eme"ging ta est"! o* the ne:oso'o.

Othe", no &ess ,"iti,a& iss+es -e"e and a"e demi&ita"iCation and se&*-go'e"nment. (&)anians and Se")s ha'e mo"e in ,ommon than the! ,a"e to admit. S,atte"ed among 'a"io+s o&iti,a& entities, )oth nations ,ame + -ith a g"andiose game &an - =i&ose'i,?s 09"eat Se")ia0 and the :#(?s 09"eat (&)ania0. The idea, in )oth ,ases, -as to ,"eate an ethni,a&&! homogeneo+s state )! shi*ting e>isting )o"de"s, in,o" o"ating hithe"to e>,&+ded a"ts o* the nation and e>,&+ding hithe"to in,&+ded mino"ities. Ghe"eas =i&ose'i, had at his dis osa& the might o* the J+gos&a' a"m! 4o", so he tho+ght5 - the (&)anians had on&! im o'e"ished and de,om osing (&)ania to )a,k them. Sti&&, the emotiona& )ond that *o"med, *oste"ed )! a ,ommon 'ision and sha"ed ho e - is inta,t. (&)anian *&ags *&! o'e" (&)anian m+ni,i a&ities in :oso'o and in =a,edonia. The ossession o* -ea ons and se&*-go'e"nment ha'e a&-a!s )een em)&emati, o* the anti,i ated statehood o* :oso'o. ;eing disa"med and de "i'ed o* se&*-go'e"nan,e -as, to the (&)anians, a h+mi&iating and en"aging e> e"ien,e, e'o,ati'e o* ea"&ie", Se")-in*&i,ted, in$+"ies. =o"eo'e", it -as indi,ati'e o* the e" &e>ed m+dd&e the Gest is mi"ed in - o**i,ia&&!, :oso'o is a"t o* J+gos&a'ia. ;+t it is a&so o,,+ ied )! *o"eign *o",es and has its o-n ,+stoms, ,+""en,!, )ank &i,ensing, ent"! 'isas and othe" insignia o* so'e"eignt! 4sho"t&!, e'en an inte"net domain, :O5.

This K+anda"! is a t! i,a&&! anod!ne E+"o ean ,om "omise -hi,h is )o+nd to *e"ment into at"a)i&io+s dis,o+"se and -o"se. The :oso'a"s - +nde"standa)&! -i&& ne'e" a,,e t Se") so'e"eignt! o" e'en Se") "o inK+it! -i&&ing&!. Igno"ing the ine'ita)&e, te"gi'e"sating and eK+i'o,ating ha'e too o*ten ,ha"a,te"iCed the o&i,ies o* the ;ig Po-e"s - the kind o* )eha'io+" that t+"ned the ;a&kan into the mo"ass that it is toda!. It is, the"e*o"e, in,on,ei'a)&e that the :#( has dis)anded and disa"med o" t"ans*o"med itse&* into the i&&-,on,ei'ed and i&&-de*ined 0:oso'o P"ote,tion Co" s0 4headed )! *o"me" :#( ,ommande" and de,o"ated C"oat #ie+tenant 9ene"a&, (gim Cek+ and ,ha"ged -ith *i"e *ighting, "es,+e missions and the &ike5. Tho+sands o* :#( mem)e"s *o+nd $o)s 4o" s,ho&a"shi s, o" seed mone!5 th"o+gh the Inte"nationa& O"ganiCation *o" =ig"ation 4IO=5. ;+t, in a&& &ike&ihood, the :#( sti&& maintains ,&andestine a"ms de ots 4inte"mittent&! "aided )! :<O%5, st"e-n th"o+gho+t :oso'o and )e!ond. Its ,hain o* ,ommand, o"ganiCationa& st"+,t+"e, di"e,to"ates, o e"ationa& and assem)&! Cones and gene"a& sta** a"e a&& 'ia)&e. I ha'e no do+)t - tho+gh &itt&e "oo* - that it sti&& t"ains and "e a"es *o" -a". It -o+&d )e mad not to in this state o* +tte" ma!hem. The eme"gen,e o* the 0#i)e"ation ("m! o* P"ese'o, =ed'ed$a and ;+$ano'a,0 4a&& to-ns )e!ond :oso'o?s )o"de"s, in Se")ia, )+t -ith an (&)anian ma$o"it!5 is a ha")inge".

Its so&die"s e'en -ea" )adges in the "ed, )&a,k and !e&&o:#( ,o&o+"s. The enemies a"e n+me"o+s: the Se")s 4sho+&d :oso'o e'e" )e "et+"ned to them5, N(TO and :<O% 4sho+&d the! )e ,ha"ged -ith the task o* "einteg"ating Se")ia5, e"ha s mo"e mode"ate (&)anians -ith &esse" nationa& Cea& o" Se")-,o&&a)o"ato"s 4&ike Oemai& =+sta*i, the (&)anian 'i,e "esident o* the ;+$ano'a, )"an,h o* P"esident S&o)odan =i&ose'i,?s "+&ing So,ia&ist Pa"t!, -ho -as assassinated th"ee months ago5. =o"eo'e", the 'e"! )o"de"s o* :oso'o a"e in dis +te. The te""ito"! kno-n to its inha)itants as 0Easte"n :oso'o0 no- ,om "ises F0,000 (&)anians, ,a ti'es in a hosti&e Se")ia. Jet, 0Easte"n :oso'o0 -as ne'e" a"t o* the administ"ati'e "o'in,e o* :oso'o. The -a" is *a" *"om o'e". In the meantime, &i*e is g"ad+a&&! "et+"ning to no"ma& in :oso'o itse&*. <o"me" :#( *ighte"s engage in a&& manne" o* odd $o)s - *"om sho'e&&ing sno- in -inte" to )+"ning )+shes in s+mme". E'en the im ossi)&e 8oint (dminist"ati'e Co+n,i& 4Se")s, (&)anians and ea,ekee e"s5 -ith its @A de a"tments, ,on'enes *"om time to time. The e"iodi, "esignation o* the o'e"-eening ;e"na"d :o+,hne" aside, things a"e going -e&&. ( )ank has )een esta)&ished, anothe" one is on its -a!. E&e,t"i,it! is )eing g"ad+a&&! "esto"ed and so a"e medi,a& se"'i,es and inte"net ,onne,tions. Do-nto-n P"istina is "e,onst"+,ted )! (&)anians *"om S-itCe"&and.

S+,h no"ma&iCation ,an "o'e &etha& to an o"ganiCation &ike the :#(, *o+nded on st"i*e and ,"isis as it is. I* it does not t"ans*o"m itse&* into a o&iti,a& o"ganiCation in a ,on'in,ing manne" - it might &ose its mem)e"s to the mo"e a&&+"ing ast+"es o* state,"a*t. The &o,a& and gene"a& e&e,tions so &a)o"io+s&! 4and e> ensi'e&!5 o"ganiCed in :oso'o a"e the :#(?s *i"st "ea& ,han,e at t"ans*o"mation. It *ai&ed at its initia& e**o"t to esta)&ish a go'e"nment 4togethe" -ith Qosa$?s Demo,"ati, 3nion =o'ement, an +m)"e&&a o"ganiCation o* a"ties in o osition to %+go'a and -ith 6ashim Tha,i as its P"ime =iniste"5. O'e""+&ed )! 3N=I: 43nited Nations =ission In :oso'o5, o osed )! ;e"isha?s Demo,"ati, Pa"t!, "e,ogniCed on&! )! (&)ania and the main (&)anian a"t! in =a,edonia and )e"e*t o* *inan,es, it -as +na)&e to im)+e st"+,t+"e -ith ,ontent and "o'ide the +)&i, goods a go'e"nment is a&& a)o+t. The :#( -as so sta"'ed *o" ,ash that it -as +na)&e e'en to a! the sa&a"ies o* its o-n e"sonne&. =an! ,"imina&s ,a+ght in the a,t ,&aimed to )e :#( mem)e"s in di"e *inan,ia& st"aits. Ine tit+de and inso&'en,! &ed to a d"amati, "es+"gen,e in the o +&a"it! o* the hithe"to dis,a"ded %+go'a. The :#( then *ai&ed to in*i&t"ate e>isting st"+,t+"es o* go'e"nan,e e"e,ted )! the Gest 4&ike the E>e,+ti'e Co+n,i&5 - o" to d+ &i,ate them. Tha,i?s K+est to )e,ome de +t!-:o+,hne" -as )"+sK+e&! "e)+**ed. The )a&&ot )o> seems no- to )e the :#(?s on&! e>it st"ateg!. The "isk is that e&e,to"a& &oss -i&& &ead to a&ienation and th+gge"! i* not to o+t"ight ,"imina&it!. It is a *ine )a&an,ing a,t )et-een the 'i"t+o+s idea&s o* demo,"a,! and the ha"sh ,onst"aints o* "ea& o&itik.

(t this stage and -ith e&e,tions &ooming, 6ashim Tha,i so+nds ,on,i&iato"! tones. 6e is ta&king a)o+t a ,ommon 4(&)anian and Se")5 "eso&+tion o* the di'ision o* =it"o'i,a and the "o)&em o* missing e"sons. ;+t e'en he kno-s that m+&ti-ethni,it! is dead and that the )est that ,an )e ho ed *o" is to&e"ant ,o-e>isten,e. 6is -o"ds a"e, the"e*o"e, intended to ,+""! *a'o+" -ith the Gest o+t o* the misg+ided and nai'e )e&ie* that the ke! to :oso'o?s *+t+"e &ies the"e "athe" than in the -i&& o* the :oso'a" eo &e. Geste"n aid is ha)it *o"ming and ,"eates de enden,e and the :#( ,ons+med a &ot o* it. Po&iti,a&&!, the :#( has not !et + ated. %e,ent&!, it has em)a"ked on a s ate o* ,oa&ition-*o"ming, initia&&! -ith ;a"dh!& =ahm+ti o* the Demo,"ati, P"og"essi'e Pa"t! o* :oso'o 4PPD:5 - the *o"me" :#( "e "esentati'e in Geste"n E+"o e. It seeks to ma""! its d-ind&ing *+nds and seat at the Gest?s )anK+et -ith the "e +tation and ,&o+t o* the PPD:?s &o,a& dignita"ies. This ,o'eted and negotia)&e a,,ess to Geste"n st"+,t+"es o* go'e"nment )ea"s some e&a)o"ation. :oso'a" a"ties and indi'id+a&s "esent at the %am)o+i&&et ta&ks -e"e entit&ed, a,,o"ding to the %am)o+i&&et (g"eement and 3N 9ene"a& %eso&+tion @244, to se"'e, togethe" -ith 3N=I: de&egates, on a :oso'o T"ansitiona& Co+n,i& 4:TC5. Th+s, -hen :TC -as *o"med in the -ake o* O e"ation (&&ied <o",e, it -as made o* %+go'a?s #D:, Tha,i?s :#(, and %e>he Qosa$?s 4Qos$e5 Demo,"ati, 3nion #eag+e. The"e -as a token Se") and t-o inde endents the a*o"ementioned Veton S+""oi and ;&e"im Sha&a, edito"-in-,hie* o* the P"istina -eek&! Oe"i. =an! ne-&!-*o"med o&iti,a& a"ties, s+,h as =ahm+ti?s

-e"e &e*t o+t o* the :TC and the E>e,+ti'e Co+n,i& 4-hi,h is made o* one "e "esentati'e o* ea,h o* the *o+" &a"gest :oso'a" o&iti,a& a"ties &+s *o+" "e "esentati'es *"om 3N=I:5. This - a seat at the ,he"ished ta)&e - seems to )e the on&! tangi)&e asset o* the :#(. ;+t it ,ame at a dea" "i,e. The E>e,+ti'e Co+n,i& 'i"t+a&&! a"a&!sed Tha,i?s se&*- "o,&aimed and se&*-a ointed go'e"nment, a)so")ing man! o* its ministe"s and o**i,ia&s -ith &+,"ati'e o**e"s o* sa&a"ies and )+dgets. Tha,i himse&* had to gi'e + a a"t o* the &etho"a o* his se&*-)esto-ed tit&es. This mo'e again "o'es Tha,i?s sim &isti, e",e tion that to -in e&e,tions in :oso'o one needs to )e seen to )e a *"iend o* the Gest. I ha'e no do+)t that this hotoo o"t+nit! )"and o* o&iti,s -i&& )a,k*i"e. The :#(?s o +&a"it! among the otentia& e&e,to"ate is at a nadi" and it is )eing a,,+sed o* 'ena&it!, in,om eten,e and o+t"ight ,"ime. ( &asting t"ans*o"mation o* s+,h an image ,annot )e attained )! te" si,ho"ean s+ ineness. To "egain its osition, the :#( m+st "egene"ate itse&* and "e'e"t to its g"ass"oots. It m+st dedi,ate eK+a& time to di &oma,! and to o&iti,s. It m+st identi*! its t"+e ,onstit+en,! - and it is )! no means 3N=I:. ()o'e a&&, it m+st hone its ski&&s o* ,o&&a)o"ation and ,om "omise. Po&iti,s - as o osed to -a"*a"e - a"e ne'e" a Ce"o s+m game. The o e"ati'e "in,i &e is 0&i'e and &et &i'e0 "athe" than 0shoot *i"st o" die0. ( menta& t"ans*o"mation is "eK+i"ed, an ad$+stment o* ,odes o* ,ond+,t and "in,i &es o* tho+ght. Sho+&d the :#( *ind in itse&* the *&e>i)i&it! and inte&&e,t+a& "eso+",es - "a"e ,ommodities in ideo&ogi,a& mo'ements - needed to a,hie'e this t"ansition, it might sti&& ,om ose the *i"st go'e"nment o* an inde endent :oso'o. I* it -e"e to "emain int"ansigent and ee'ish - it is &ike&! to end + )eing )a"e&! a )&ood! *ootnote in histo"!. %et+"n Na",issists, 9"o+ ;eha'io+",

and Te""o"ism Inte"'ie- -ith Sam Vaknin P+)&ished in 0The Id&e"0 Sam Vaknin is the a+tho" o* ?=a&ignant Se&* #o'e Na",issism %e'isited?, o-ne" o* the Na",issisti, ()+se St+d! #ist, and -e)maste" o* the Na",issisti, Pe"sona&it! Diso"de" To i, in S+ite@0@. 6e is a&so an e,onomi, and o&iti,a& ana&!st *o" 3nited P"ess Inte"nationa& 43PI5.

@" #$a% is &a%$ologi'al na('issis)* (&& o* +s ha'e na('issis%i' TR ITS" Some o* +s e'en de'e&o a na('issis%i' +ERSON LIT," =o"eo'e", na",issism is a S+ECTR-. o/ 0e$avio1(s - *"om the hea&th! to the +tte"&! atho&ogi,a& 4kno-n as the Na('issis%i' +e(sonali%2 Diso(de(3 o( N+D4"

The DS= IV +ses this &ang+age: 0(n a&&- e"'asi'e atte"n o* g"andiosit! 4in *antas! o" )eha'io+"5, need *o" admi"ation o" ad+&ation and &a,k o* em ath!, +s+a&&! )eginning )! ea"&! ad+&thood and "esent in 'a"io+s ,onte>ts.0 6e"e a"e the A ,"ite"ia. 6a'ing D o* these A 0K+a&i*ies0 !o+ as a na",issist... @. <ee&s g"andiose and se&*-im o"tan,e 4e.g., e>agge"ates a,hie'ements and ta&ents to the oint o* &!ing, demands to )e "e,ogniCed as s+ e"io" -itho+t ,ommens+"ate a,hie'ements5 2. Is o)sessed -ith *antasies o* +n&imited s+,,ess, *ame, *ea"some o-e" o" omni oten,e, +neK+a&&ed )"i&&ian,e 4the ,e"e)"a& na",issist5, )odi&! )ea+t! o" se>+a& e"*o"man,e 4the somati, na",issist5, o" idea&, e'e"&asting, a&&-,onK+e"ing &o'e o" assion B. <i"m&! ,on'in,ed that he o" she is +niK+e and, )eing s e,ia&, ,an on&! )e +nde"stood )!, sho+&d on&! )e t"eated )!, o" asso,iate -ith, othe" s e,ia& o" +niK+e, o" high-stat+s eo &e 4o" instit+tions5 4. %eK+i"es e>,essi'e admi"ation, ad+&ation, attention and a**i"mation - o", *ai&ing that, -ishes to )e *ea"ed and to )e noto"io+s 4na",issisti, s+ &!5. D. <ee&s entit&ed. E> e,ts +n"easona)&e o" s e,ia& and *a'o+"a)&e "io"it! t"eatment. Demands a+tomati, and *+&& ,om &ian,e -ith his o" he" e> e,tations

E. Is 0inte" e"sona&&! e> &oitati'e0, i.e., +ses othe"s to a,hie'e his o" he" o-n ends F. De'oid o* em ath!. Is +na)&e o" +n-i&&ing to identi*! -ith o" a,kno-&edge the *ee&ings and needs o* othe"s I. Constant&! en'io+s o* othe"s o" )e&ie'es that the! *ee& the same a)o+t him o" he" A. (""ogant, ha+ght! )eha'io+"s o" attit+des ,o+ &ed -ith "age -hen *"+st"ated, ,ont"adi,ted, o" ,on*"onted. The &ang+age in the ,"ite"ia a)o'e is )ased on o" s+mma"iCed *"om: (me"i,an Ps!,hiat"i, (sso,iation. 4@AA45. Diagnos%i' and s%a%is%i'al )an1al o/ )en%al diso(de(s3 /o1(%$ edi%ion 4DS= IV5. Gashington, DC: (me"i,an Ps!,hiat"i, (sso,iation. Sam Vaknin. 4@AAA, 200@5. .alignan% Sel/ Love Na('issis) Revisi%ed3 se'ond3 (evised &(in%ing P"ag+e and Sko $e: Na",iss+s P+)&i,ations. 40=a&ignant Se&* #o'e - Na",issism %e'isited0 htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1*aK@.htm&5 .o(e Da%a 0o1% +a%$ologi'al Na('issis%s
o o

=ost na",issists 4FDP5 a"e men. NPD 4Sthe Na",issisti, Pe"sona&it! Diso"de"5 is one o* a 0*ami&!0 o* e"sona&it! diso"de"s 4*o"me"&! kno-n as 0C&+ste" ;05. Othe" mem)e"s: ;o"de"&ine PD, (ntiso,ia& PD and 6ist"ioni, PD. NPD is o*ten diagnosed -ith othe" menta& hea&th

diso"de"s 40,o-mo")idit!05 - o" -ith s+)stan,e a)+se, o" im +&si'e and "e,k&ess )eha'io+"s 40d+a& diagnosis05.

NPD is ne- 4@AI05 menta& hea&th ,atego"! in the Diagnosti, and Statisti,s =an+a& 4DS=5. The"e is on&! s,ant "esea",h "ega"ding na",issism. ;+t -hat the"e is has not demonst"ated an! ethni,, so,ia&, ,+&t+"a&, e,onomi,, geneti,, o" "o*essiona& "edi&e,tion to NPD. It is estimated that 0.F-@P o* the gene"a& o +&ation s+**e" *"om NPD. Patho&ogi,a& na",issism -as *i"st des,"i)ed in detai& )! <"e+d. Othe" ma$o" ,ont"i)+to"s a"e: :&ein, 6o"ne!, :oh+t, :e"n)e"g, =i&&on, %oningstam, 9+nde"son, 6a"e. The onset o* na",issism is in in*an,!, ,hi&dhood and ea"&! ado&es,en,e. It is ,ommon&! att"i)+ted to ,hi&dhood a)+se and t"a+ma in*&i,ted )! a"ents, a+tho"it! *ig+"es, o" e'en ee"s. The"e is a -ho&e "ange o* na",issisti, "ea,tions - *"om the mi&d, "ea,ti'e and t"ansient to the e"manent e"sona&it! diso"de". Na",issists a"e eithe" 0Ce"e)"a&0 4de"i'e thei" na",issisti, s+ &! *"om thei" inte&&igen,e o" a,ademi, a,hie'ements5 - o" 0Somati,0 4de"i'e thei" na",issisti, s+ &! *"om thei" h!siK+e, e>e",ise, h!si,a& o" se>+a& "o-ess and 0,onK+ests05. Na",issists a"e eithe" 0C&assi,0 - see de*inition )e&o- o" the! a"e 0Com ensato"!0, o" 0In'e"ted0 - see

de*initions he"e: 0The In'e"ted Na",issist0.


NPD is t"eated in ta&k the"a ! 4 s!,hod!nami, o" ,ogniti'e-)eha'io+"a&5. The "ognosis *o" an ad+&t na",issist is oo", tho+gh his ada tation to &i*e and to othe"s ,an im "o'e -ith t"eatment. =edi,ation is a &ied to side-e**e,ts and )eha'io+"s 4s+,h as mood o" a**e,t diso"de"s and o)session-,om +&sion5 +s+a&&! -ith some s+,,ess.

2" H1)an 'olle'%ives 5na%ions3 &(o/essions3 e%$ni' g(o1&s4 and na('issis) - s%e(eo%2&ing o( (a'is)* 6a'ing &i'ed in @2 ,o+nt"ies in B ,ontinents no-, I *i"m&! )e&ie'e in 0mass s!,ho atho&og!0, o" in ethno s!,ho&og!. The mem)e"s o* a g"o+ - i* s+**i,ient&! ,ohesi'e - tend to "ea,t simi&a"&! to ,i",+mstan,es. ;! 0,ohesi'e0 I mean, i* the! sha"e the same menta& -o"&d 40Ge&tans,ha++ng05 - ossi)&! the same histo"!, the same &ang+age o" dia&e,t, the same ho es, *o&k&o"e, *ea"s, and as i"ations 40agenda05, the same enemies and so on. Th+s, i* "e,+""ent&! t"a+matiCed o" a)+sed )! e>te"na& o" inte"na& *o",es, a g"o+ o* eo &e ma! de'e&o the mass eK+i'a&ent o* atho&ogi,a& na",issism as a de*en,e o" ,om ensato"! me,hanism. ;! 0a)+se0 and 0t"a+ma0 I mean an! e'ent, o" se"ies o* e'ents, o" ,i",+mstan,es, -hi,h th"eaten the se&* identit!, se&* image, sense o* se&* -o"th, and se&* esteem o* the ,o&&e,ti'e ,onsistent&! and ,onstant&! - tho+gh o*ten a")it"a"i&! and +n "edi,ta)&!. 6+man ,o&&e,ti'es go th"o+gh *o"mation, indi'id+ation, se a"ation - a&& the hases in indi'id+a& s!,ho&ogi,a& de'e&o ment. ( dist+")an,e in the nat+"a& and +nhinde"ed "og"ession o* these hases is &ike&! to "es+&t in s!,ho atho&og! o* a&& the mem)e"s o* the ,o&&e,ti'e. ;eing s+)$+gated to anothe" nation, )eing e>i&ed, end+"ing geno,ide, )eing destit+te, )eing de*eated in -a"*a"e - a"e a&& t"a+mati, e> e"ien,es -ith *a" "ea,hing ,onseK+en,es.

The mem)e"s o* the ,o&&e,ti'e *o"m a 0,ondensate0 4in h!si,a& te"ms5 - a mate"ia& in -hi,h a&& the atoms 'i)"ate -ith the same *"eK+en,!. 3nde" no"ma& ,i",+mstan,es, g"o+ )eha'io+" "esem)&es di**+se &ight. S+)$e,t to t"a+ma and a)+se - it *o"ms a ma&ignant &ase" - a st"ong, same -a'e&ength, otentia&&! dest"+,ti'e )eam. The g"o+ )e,omes a)+si'e to othe"s, e> &oitati'e, deta,hed *"om "ea&it!, )athed in g"andiose *antasies, >eno ho)i,, &a,king em ath!, "one to +n,ont"o&&ed "ages, o'e"-sensiti'e, ,on'in,ed o* its s+ e"io"it! and entit&ement. <o",e and ,oe",ion a"e o*ten "eK+i"ed to disa)+se s+,h a g"o+ o* its de&+sions. ;+t, this o* ,o+"se, on&! ,ements its na",issism and $+sti*ies its disto"ted e",e tion o* the -o"&d. Conside" the ,ase o* the 8e-s. The 8e-s ha'e )een s+)$e,ted to the kind o* t"a+ma and a)+se I mentioned ea"&ie" on an +n "e,edented and ne'e" "e eated s,a&e. Thei" *o"ma& s,"i t+"es, &o"e, and ethos a"e im)+ed -ith g"andiose *antasies and a to-e"ing sense o* s+ e"io"it! and 0mission0. Jet, the ine'ita)&e ,ontem t *o" thei" in*e"io"s is tam e"ed )! the a&&- e"'asi'e "agmatism the 8e-s had to de'e&o in o"de" to s+"'i'e. Na",issists a"e not "agmati,. The! &i'e in a 3ni'e"se o* thei" o-n making. The! see no need to get a&ong -ith othe"s. 8e-s a"e not &ike that. Thei" ,"eed is a "a,ti,a& s+"'i'a& g+ide -hi,h o)&iges them to a,,ommodate othe"s, to em athiCe -ith thei" needs and desi"es, to ,om "omise, to admit e""o"s, to sha"e ,"edit, to ,o&&a)o"ate, and so on.

Is"ae&is, on the othe" hand, a"e 0+nsha,k&ed0 8e-s. The! )e&ie'e themse&'es to )e the mi""o" image o* the dias o"a 8e-. The! a"e h!si,a& 40somati,05, st"ong, "od+,ti'e, inde endent, in ,ont"o&. The!, in sho"t, a"e &ess )o+nd )! the need to e"i&o+s&! ,o-e>ist -ith )a&e*+&, "edato"!, ma$o"ities. The! ,an a&&o- themse&'es a *+&&, +nmitigated, e> "ession o* -hate'e" de*en,e me,hanisms the! e'o&'ed in "es onse to mi&&ennia o* 'i"+&ent hat"ed and m+"de"o+s e"se,+tions. ;eing an Is"ae&i, I gained "i'i&eged insight into this *as,inating t"ans*o"mation *"om to"t+"ed s&a'e to 'enge*+& maste". 6" Na('issis) and Leade(s$i& ("e a&& o&iti,ians na",issistsL The ans-e", s+" "ising&!, is: not +ni'e"sa&&!. The "e onde"an,e o* na",issisti, t"aits and e"sona&ities in o&iti,s is m+,h &ess than in sho)+siness, *o" instan,e. =o"eo'e", -hi&e sho- )+siness is ,on,e"ned essentia&&! 4and a&most e>,&+si'e&!5 -ith the se,+"ing o* na",issisti, s+ &! - o&iti,s is a m+,h mo"e ,om &e> and m+&ti-*a,eted a,ti'it!. %athe", it is a s e,t"+m. (t the one end, -e *ind the 0a,to"s0 o&iti,ians -ho "ega"d o&iti,s as thei" 'en+e and thei" ,ond+it, an e>tended theat"e -ith thei" ,onstit+en,! as an a+dien,e. (t the othe" e>t"eme, -e *ind se&*-e**a,ing and s,hiCoid 4,"o-d-hating5 te,hno,"ats. =ost o&iti,ians a"e in the midd&e: some-hat se&*-enamo+"ed, o o"t+nisti, and seeking modest doses o* na",issisti, s+ &! - )+t most&! ,on,e"ned -ith e"ks, se&*- "ese"'ation and the e>e",ise o* o-e".

=ost na",issists a"e o o"t+nisti, and "+th&ess o e"ato"s. ;+t not a&& o o"t+nisti, and "+th&ess o e"ato"s a"e na",issists. I am st"ong&! o osed to "emote diagnosis. I think it is a )ad ha)it, e>e",ised )! ,ha"&atans and di&ettantes 4e'en i* thei" names a"e *o&&o-ed )! a Ps!.D.5. P&ease do not *o"get that on&! a K+a&i*ied menta& hea&th diagnosti,ian ,an dete"mine -hethe" someone s+**e"s *"om NPD and this, *o&&o-ing &ength! tests and e"sona& inte"'ie-s. I< the o&iti,ian in K+estion is (#SO a na",issist 4Ss+**e"s *"om NPD5, then, !es, he -o+&d do (NJT6IN9 and EVE%JT6IN9 to "emain in o-e", o", -hi&e, in o-e", to se,+"e his na",issisti, s+ &!. ( ,ommon e""o" is to think that 0na",issisti, s+ &!0 ,onsists on&! o* admi"ation, ad+&ation and ositi'e *eed)a,k. (,t+a&&!, )eing *ea"ed, o" de"ided is a&so na",issisti, s+ &!. The main e&ement is (TTENTION. So, the na",issisti, o&iti,ian ,+&ti'ates so+",es o* na",issisti, s+ &! 4)oth "ima"! and se,onda"!5 and "e*"ains *"om nothing -hi&e doing so. O*ten, o&iti,ians a"e nothing )+t a &o!a& "e*&e,tion o* thei" mi&ie+, thei" ,+&t+"e, thei" so,iet! and thei" times 4Ceitgeist and &eitk+&t+"5. This is the thesis o* Danie& 9o&dhagen in 06it&e"?s Gi&&ing E>e,+tione"s0. =o"e a)o+t Na",issists in ositions o* a+tho"it!: htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1*aK@@.htm& htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1ms&aF.htm&

7" +oli%i'al and e'ono)i' 'i('1)s%an'es and e)e(ging na('issis%i' g(o1& 0e$avio1(s Patho&ogi,a& na",issism is the "es+&t o* indi'id+a& + )"inging 4see: 0The Na",issist?s =othe"0 and 0Na",issists and S,hiCoids0 5 and, in this sense, it is +ni'e"sa& and ,+ts a,"oss time and s a,e. Jet, the 'e"! "o,ess o* so,ia&iCation and ed+,ation is hea'i&! ,onst"ained )! the "e'ai&ing ,+&t+"e and in*&+en,ed )! it. Th+s, ,+&t+"e, mo"es, histo"!, m!ths, ethos, and e'en go'e"nment o&i,! 4s+,h as the 0one ,hi&d o&i,!0 in China5 do ,"eate the ,onditions *o" atho&ogies o* the e"sona&it!. The ethno s!,ho&ogist 9eo"ge De'e"e+> 40;asi, P"o)&ems o* Ethno s!,hiat"!0, 3ni'e"sit! o* Chi,ago P"ess, @AI05 s+ggested to di'ide the +n,ons,io+s into the id 4the a"t that -as a&-a!s instin,t+a& and +n,ons,io+s5 and the 0ethni, +n,ons,io+s0 4"e "essed mate"ia& that -as on,e ,ons,io+s5. The &atte" in,&+des a&& o+" de*en,e me,hanisms and most o* the s+ e"ego. C+&t+"e di,tates -hat is to )e "e "essed. =enta& i&&ness is eithe" idios!n,"ati, 4,+&t+"a& di"e,ti'es a"e not *o&&o-ed and the indi'id+a& is +niK+e and s,hiCo h"eni,5 - o" ,on*o"mist, a)iding )! the ,+&t+"a& di,tates o* -hat is a&&o-ed and disa&&o-ed. O+" ,+&t+"e, a,,o"ding to Ch"isto he" #as,h tea,hes +s to -ithd"a- into o+"se&'es -hen -e a"e ,on*"onted -ith st"ess*+& sit+ations. It is a 'i,io+s ,i",&e. One o* the main st"esso"s o* mode"n so,iet! is a&ienation and a e"'asi'e sense o* iso&ation. The so&+tion o+" ,+&t+"e o**e"s +s - to *+"the" -ithd"a- - on&! e>a,e")ates the "o)&em.

%i,ha"d Sennett e> o+nded on this theme in 0The <a&& o* P+)&i, =an: On the So,ia& Ps!,ho&og! o* Ca ita&ism0 4Vintage ;ooks, @AFI5. One o* the ,ha te"s in De'e"e+>?s a*o"ementioned tome is entit&ed 0S,hiCo h"enia: (n Ethni, Ps!,hosis, o" S,hiCo h"enia -itho+t Tea"s0. To him, the -ho&e 3S( is a**&i,ted )! -hat ,ame &ate" to )e ,a&&ed a 0s,hiCoid diso"de"0. C. <"ed (&*o"d 4in 0Na",issism: So,"ates, the <"ank*+"t S,hoo&, and Ps!,hoana&!ti, Theo"!0, Ja&e 3ni'e"sit! P"ess, @AII5 en+me"ates the s!m toms: 0...-ithd"a-a&, emotiona& a&oo*ness, h! o"ea,ti'it! 4emotiona& *&atness5, se> -itho+t emotiona& in'o&'ement, segmentation and a"tia& in'o&'ement 4&a,k o* inte"est and ,ommitment to things o+tside onese&*5, *i>ation on o"a&stage iss+es, "eg"ession, in*anti&ism and de e"sona&iCation. These, o* ,o+"se, a"e man! o* the same designations that #as,h em &o!s to des,"i)e the ,+&t+"e o* na",issism. Th+s, it a ea"s, that it is not mis&eading to eK+ate na",issism -ith s,hiCoid diso"de".0 4 age @A5. Conside" the ;a&kan "egion, *o" instan,e: htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1 htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1 2D.htm& 2A.htm&

8" C$(is%o&$e( Las'$3 )e(i'an 9'1l%1(e o/ na('issis)9 and %$e long %e() e//e'%s o/ %$e Se&%e)0e( :: a%(o'i%ies #as,h and his -o"k a"e in,"easing&! "e&e'ant in ost Se tem)e" (me"i,a. This is a"t&! )e,a+se the &ikes o* )in #aden h+"& at (me"i,a "imiti'e and ,oa"se 'e"sions o* #as,h?s ,"itiK+e. The! a,,+se (me"i,a o* )eing a *ai&ed ,i'i&iCation, not me"e&! o* medd&ing igno"ant&! and sa,"i&igeo+s&! in the a**ai"s o* Is&am 4and the "est o* the -o"&d5. The! *e"'ent&! )e&ie'e that (me"i,a e> o"ts this ,ontagio+s *ai&+"e to othe" ,+&t+"es and so,ieties 4th"o+gh its ido&at"o+s mass media and in*e"io" ,+&t+"e ind+st"ies5 and th+s 0in*e,ts0 them -ith the 'i"+s o* its o-n te"mina& de,&ine. It is im o"tant to +nde"stand the &e*t -ing "oots o* this ,an,e"o+s "endition o* so,ia& ,"iti,ism. #as,h -"ote: 0The ne- na",issist is ha+nted not )! g+i&t )+t )! an>iet!. 6e seeks not to in*&i,t his o-n ,e"tainties on othe"s )+t to *ind a meaning in &i*e. #i)e"ated *"om the s+ e"stitions o* the ast, he do+)ts e'en the "ea&it! o* his o-n e>isten,e. S+ e"*i,ia&&! "e&a>ed and to&e"ant, he *inds &itt&e +se *o" dogmas o* "a,ia& and ethni, +"it! )+t at the same time *o"*eits the se,+"it! o* g"o+ &o!a&ties and "ega"ds e'e"!one as a "i'a& *o" the *a'o"s ,on*e""ed )! a ate"na&isti, state.

6is se>+a& attit+des a"e e"missi'e "athe" than +"itani,a&, e'en tho+gh his eman,i ation *"om an,ient ta)oos )"ings him no se>+a& ea,e. <ie",e&! ,om etiti'e in his demand *o" a "o'a& and a,,&aim, he dist"+sts ,om etition )e,a+se he asso,iates it +n,ons,io+s&! -ith an +n)"id&ed +"ge to dest"o!. 6en,e he "e +diates the ,om etiti'e ideo&ogies that *&o+"ished at an ea"&ie" stage o* ,a ita&ist de'e&o ment and dist"+sts e'en thei" &imited e> "ession in s o"ts and games. 6e e>to&s ,oo e"ation and team-o"k -hi&e ha")o"ing dee &! antiso,ia& im +&ses. 6e "aises "es e,t *o" "+&es and "eg+&ations in the se,"et )e&ie* that the! do not a &! to himse&*. (,K+isiti'e in the sense that his ,"a'ings ha'e no &imits, he does not a,,+m+&ate goods and "o'isions against the *+t+"e, in the manne" o* the a,K+isiti'e indi'id+a&ist o* nineteenth-,ent+"! o&iti,a& e,onom!, )+t demands immediate g"ati*i,ation and &i'es in a state o* "est&ess, e" et+a&&! +nsatis*ied desi"e.0 DChristo)her Lasch ? The C#lt#re of .arcissism: *merican Life in an age of !iminishing EA)ectations, 12@2E The"e is no sing&e #as,h. This ,h"oni,&e" o* ,+&t+"e, did so main&! )! ,h"oni,&ing his inne" t+"moi&, ,on*&i,ting ideas and ideo&ogies, emotiona& + hea'a&s, and inte&&e,t+a& 'i,issit+des. In this sense, o* 4,o+"ageo+s5 se&*do,+mentation, =". #as,h e itomiCed Na",issism, -as the K+intessentia& Na",issist, the )ette" ositioned to ,"iti,iCe the henomenon.

0Na",issism0 is a "e&ati'e&! -e&&-de*ined s!,ho&ogi,a& te"m. I e> o+nd + on it e&se-he"e 40=a&ignant se&* #o'e Na",issism %e-Visited05. The Na",issisti, Pe"sona&it! Diso"de" - the a,+te *o"m o* atho&ogi,a& Na",issism - is the name gi'en to a g"o+ o* A s!m toms 4see: DS=-45. The! in,&+de: a g"andiose Se&* 4i&&+sions o* g"ande+" ,o+ &ed -ith an in*&ated, +n"ea&isti, sense o* the Se&*5, ina)i&it! to em athiCe -ith the Othe", the tenden,! to e> &oit and mani +&ate othe"s, idea&iCation o* othe" eo &e 4in ,!,&es o* idea&iCation and de'a&+ation5, "age atta,ks and so on. Na",issism, the"e*o"e, has a ,&ea" ,&ini,a& de*inition, etio&og! and "ognosis. The +se that #as,h makes o* this -o"d has nothing to do -ith its +sage in s!,ho atho&og!. T"+e, #as,h did his )est to so+nd 0medi,ina&0. 6e s oke o* 04nationa&5 ma&aise0 and a,,+sed the (me"i,an so,iet! o* &a,k o* se&*a-a"eness. ;+t ,hoi,e o* -o"ds does not a ,ohe"en,e make. 0The C+&t+"e o* Na",issism - (me"i,an #i*e in an (ge o* Diminishing E> e,tations0 -as +)&ished in the &ast !ea" o* the +nha ! "esiden,! o* 8imm! Ca"te" 4@AFA5. The &atte" endo"sed the )ook +)&i,&! 4in his *amo+s 0nationa& ma&aise0 s ee,h5. The main thesis o* the )ook is that the (me"i,ans ha'e ,"eated a se&*-a)so")ed 4tho+gh not se&* a-a"e5, g"eed! and *"i'o&o+s so,iet! -hi,h de ended on ,ons+me"ism, demog"a hi, st+dies, o inion o&&s and 9o'e"nment to kno- and to de*ine itse&*. Ghat is the so&+tionL #as,h "o osed a 0"et+"n to )asi,s0: se&*-"e&ian,e, the *ami&!, nat+"e, the ,omm+nit!, and the P"otestant -o"k

ethi,. To those -ho adhe"e, he "omised an e&imination o* thei" *ee&ings o* a&ienation and des ai". ;+t the ,&ini,a& te"m 0Na",issism0 -as a)+sed )! #as,h in his )ooks. It $oined othe" -o"ds mist"eated )! this so,ia& "ea,he". The "es e,t that this man gained in his &i*etime 4as a so,ia& s,ientist and histo"ian o* ,+&t+"e5 makes one -onde" -hethe" he -as "ight in ,"iti,iCing the sha&&o-ness and &a,k o* inte&&e,t+a& "igo" o* (me"i,an so,iet! and o* its e&ites. The"e is a detai&ed ana&!sis he"e, in a "ea,tion I -"ote to %oge" :im)a&&?s 0Ch"isto he" #as,h 's. the e&ites00NeC"ite"ion0, Vo&. @B, .A 404-0@-@AAD5: htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1&as,h.htm& ;" (e all %e((o(is%s and se(ial kille(s na('issis%s* Te""o"ists ,an )e henomeno&ogi,a&&! des,"i)ed as na",issists in a ,onstant state o* de*i,ient na",issisti, s+ &!. The 0g"andiosit! ga 0 - the ain*+& and na",issisti,a&&! in$+"io+s ga )et-een thei" g"andiose *antasies and thei" d"ea"! and h+mi&iating "ea&it! )e,omes emotiona&&! ins+ o"ta)&e. The! de,om ensate and a,t o+t. The! )"ing 0do-n to thei" &e'e&0 4)! dest"o!ing it5 the o)$e,t o* thei" atho&ogi,a& en'!, the ,a+se o* thei" seething *"+st"ation, the s!m)o& o* thei" d+&& a,hie'ements, a&-a!s in,ommens+"ate -ith thei" in*&ated se&*-image. The! seek omni oten,e th"o+gh m+"de", ,ont"o& 4not &east se&* ,ont"o&5 th"o+gh 'io&en,e, "estige, *ame and ,e&e)"it! )! de*!ing *ig+"es o* a+tho"ities, ,ha&&enging them, and h+m)&ing them. 3n)ekno-nst to them, the! seek se&* +nishment. The! a"e at hea"t s+i,ida&. The! aim to ,ast

themse&'es as 'i,tims )! *o",ing othe"s to +nish them. This is ,a&&ed 0 "o$e,ti'e identi*i,ation0. The! att"i)+te e'i& and ,o""+ tion to thei" enemies and *oes. These *o"ms o* a"anoia a"e ,a&&ed "o$e,tion and s &itting. These a"e a&& "imiti'e, in*anti&e, and o*ten e"se,+to"!, de*ense me,hanisms. Ghen ,o+ &ed -ith na",issism - the ina)i&it! to em athiCe, the e> &oitati'eness, the sense o* entit&ement, the "ages, the deh+maniCation and de'a&+ation o* othe"s - this mindset !ie&ds a)!sma& ,ontem t. The o'e""iding emotion o* te""o"ists and se"ia& ki&&e"s, the ama&gam and ,+&mination o* thei" to"t+"ed s!,he - is dee seated disdain *o" e'e"!thing h+man, the *&i side o* en'!. It is ,ogniti'e dissonan,e gone amok. On the one hand the te""o"ist de"ides as 0*a&se0, 0meaning&ess0, 0dange"o+s0, and 0,o""+ t0 ,ommon 'a&+es, instit+tions, h+man inte",o+"se, and so,iet!. On the othe" hand, he de'otes his enti"e &i*e 4and o*ten "isks it5 to the e&imination and +&'e"iCation o* these 0insigni*i,ant0 entities. To $+sti*! this a a"ent ,ont"adi,tion, the te""o"ists ,asts himse&* as an a&t"+isti, sa'io+" o* a g"o+ o* eo &e 0endange"ed0 )! his *oes. 6e is a&-a!s se&*-a ointed and se&*- "o,&aimed, "a"e&! e&e,ted. The se"ia& ki&&e" "ationa&iCes and inte&&e,t+a&iCes his m+"de"s simi&a"&!, )! +" o"ting to 0&i)e"ate0 o" 0de&i'e"0 his 'i,tims *"om a *ate -o"se than death.

The g&o)a& "ea,h, the se,"e,!, the im oten,e and g"o-ing ani, o* his 'i,tims, o* the +)&i,, and o* his +"s+e"s, the damage he -"eaks - a&& se"'e as e>te"na& ego *+n,tions. The te""o"ist and se"ia& ki&&e" "eg+&ate thei" sense o* se&* esteem and se&* -o"th )! *eeding s&a'ish&! on the "ea,tions to thei" heino+s deeds. Thei" ,osmi, signi*i,an,e is dai&! enhan,ed )! ne-s a e" head&ines, e'e" in,"easing )o+nties, admi"ing imitato"s, s+,,ess*+& a,ts o* )&a,kmai&, the st"ength and siCe o* thei" o onents, and the de'astation o* h+man &i*e and "o e"t!. ( easement -o"ks on&! to agg"a'ate thei" d"i'es and st"engthen thei" a etites )! em)o&dening them and )! "aising the th"esho&d o* e>,itation and 0na",issisti, s+ &!0. Te""o"ists and ki&&e"s a"e addi,ted to this d"+g o* )eing a,kno-&edged and "e*&e,ted. The! de"i'e thei" sense o* e>isten,e, a"asiti,a&&!, *"om the "ea,tions o* thei" 4o*ten ,a ti'e5 a+dien,e. *PPE.!,5 ? &es)onses in a corres)ondence following the )# lication of this interview Oionism has a&-a!s "ega"ded itse&* as )oth a 4@Ath ,ent+"!5 nationa& mo'ement (ND a 4,o&onia&5 ,i'i&iCing *o",e: See - +er8lFs $#tlers . htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1 2F.htm&

The 6o&o,a+st -as a massi'e t"a+ma NOT )e,a+se o* its dimensions - )+t )e,a+se 9E%=(NS, the e itome o* Geste"n ,i'i&iCation, ha'e t+"ned on the 8e-s, the se&*"o,&aimed missiona"ies o* Geste"n ,i'i&iCation in the #e'ant and ("a)ia. It -as the )et"a!a& that matte"ed. %e$e,ted )! East 4as ,o&onia& stooges5 and Gest 4as agents o* "a,ia& ,ontamination5 a&ike - the 8e-s "eso"ted to a se"ies o* na",issisti, de*en,es "ei*ied )! the State o* Is"ae&. The &ong te"m o,,+ ation o* te""ito"ies 4meta ho"i,a& o" h!si,a&5 is a ,&assi, na",issisti, t"ait 4o* 0anne>ation0 o* the othe"5. The Si> Da!s Ga" -as a -a" o* se&* de*en,e )+t the s-i*t 'i,to"! on&! e>a,e")ated the na",issisti, de*en,es. =aste"! o'e" the Pa&estinians )e,ame an im o"tant ,om onent in the s!,ho&ogi,a& make+ o* the nation 4es e,ia&&! the mo"e "ight-ing and "e&igio+s e&ements5 )e,a+se it ,onstit+tes 0Na",issisti, S+ &!0. ;in #aden 4and )! e>tension Is&ami, *+ndamenta&ism5 is the na",issisti, ,om &ement o* the State o* Is"ae&. 6is na",issisti, de*en,es a"e *+e&&ed )! +n"eK+ited h+mi&iation 4=i&&on?s 0,om ensato"! na",issism05. The h+mi&iation is the o+t,ome o* a g"andiosit! ga )et-een "ea&it! and g"andiose *antasies, )et-een a,t+a& in*e"io"it! and a de&+siona& sense o* s+ e"io"it! 4and ,osmi, mission5, )et-een his sense o* entit&ement and his in,ommens+"ate a,hie'ements, ski&&s, and a,,om &ishments.

Ghen na",issists a"e *a,ed -ith the disinteg"ation o* thei" na",issisti, 0in*"ast"+,t+"e0 4thei" <a&se Se&*5 . the! de,om ensate. I ha'e o+t&ined the ossi)&e s!,hod!nami, "ea,tions he"e: htt :11---.s+ite@0@.,om1a"ti,&e.,*m1n d1IFFF2 Na",issism is a&-a!s ,on,omitant -ith the 0,i'i&iCing0 ,om onents o* ,o&onia&ism 40Ghite =an?s ;+"den05 . tho+gh not -ith the me",anti&ist e&ements. 0Patho&ogi,a& na",issism is a -e&& de*ined 4and henomeno&ogi,a&5 menta& hea&th theo"eti,a& ,onst"+,t. No do+)t, na",issists engage in anti-Othe" dis,o+"se and othe" 'i"+&ent and e"ni,io+s na""ati'es. ;+t the e>isten,e o* s+,h a dis,o+"se is not a DETE%=IN(NT o* atho&ogi,a& na",issism - me"e&! its mani*estation. Ghat 9IVES %ISE to the g"andiosit! ga IS so,ioe,onomi, "ea&it!. The ga is )et-een the %E(# and the IDE(#, )et-een the (CT3(# and the 4se&*DE#3SION(# and <(NT(SIOED. So,io-e,onomi, *a,to"s )"eed na",issisti, in$+"! and na",issisti, "age. %et+"n

The Crescent and the Cross Int"od+,tion 0The"e a"e t-o ma>ims *o" histo"ians -hi,h so ha"monise -ith -hat I kno- o* histo"! that I -o+&d &ike to ,&aim them as m! o-n, tho+gh the! "ea&&! )e&ong to nineteenth,ent+"! histo"iog"a h!: *i"st, that go'e"nments t"! to "ess + on the histo"ian the ke! to a&& the d"a-e"s )+t one, and a"e an>io+s to s "ead the )e&ie* that this sing&e one ,ontains no se,"et o* im o"tan,eH se,ond&!, that i* the histo"ian ,an on&! *ind the thing -hi,h the go'e"nment does not -ant him to kno-, he -i&& &a! his hand + on something that is &ike&! to )e signi*i,ant.0 +er ert $#tterfield, "+istory and +#man &elations", London, 1291, )' 1C; The ;a&kans as a "egion is a "e&ati'e&! no'e& -a! o* &ooking at the dis,"ete nation-states that eme"ged *"om the ,a",asses o* the Ottoman and 6a)s)+"g Em i"es and *o+ght o'e" thei" s oi&s.

This sem ite"na& *ight is a dete"minant o* ;a&kan identit!. The nations o* the ;a&kan a"e de*ined mo"e )! o"ne"! o osition than )! ,ohesi'e identities. The! de"i'e s+stenan,e and o&iti,a&-histo"i,a& ,ohe"en,e *"om ,on*&i,t. It is thei" a**&at+s. The mo"e ,om &e> the a>es o* se&*-de*inition, the mo"e m+&ti*a,eted and int"a,ta)&e the ,on*&i,ts. %a)id nationa&ism against +to ian "egiona&ism, *as,ism 4"ea&&!, o o"t+nism5 'e"s+s &i)e"a&ism, "e&igiontinted t"aditiona&ism 4the &o,a& mo"i)+nd edition o* ,onse"'atism5 'e"s+s 0Geste"n0 mode"nit!. Gho -ins is o* ,"+,ia& im o"tan,e to -o"&d ea,e. The ;a&kan is a "e&ati'e&! ne- o&iti,a& entit!. <o"me"&! di'ided )et-een the de,"e it Ottoman Em i"e and the im &oding (+st"o-6+nga"ian one - the ,o+nt"ies o* the ;a&kans eme"ged as +niK+e o&ities on&! d+"ing the @Ath ,ent+"!. This -as to )e e> e,ted as a -a'e o* nationa&ism s-e t E+"o e and &ed to the *o"mation o* the mode"n, )+"ea+,"ati, state as -e kno- it. E'en so, the dis,"ete entities that st"+gg&ed to the s+"*a,e o* statehood did not *ee& that the! sha"ed a "egiona& destin! o" identit!. (&& the! did -as *ight *e"o,io+s&!, "+th&ess&! and me",i&ess&! o'e" the ,o""+ ted "emnants o* the Si,k =en o* E+"o e 4the a)o'e mentioned t-o "esid+a& em i"es5. In this, the! "o'ed themse&'es to )e the "o e" hei"s o* thei" *o"me" maste"s: m+"de"o+s, s+)o"ned, ;!Cantine and nea"sighted.

In an e**o"t to $+sti*! thei" misdeeds and deeds, the 'a"io+s nations - t"+e and ,on,o,ted - ,on$+"ed + histo"ies, &ang+ages, ,+&t+"es and do,+ments, some "ea&, most&! *a&se. The! staked ,&aims to the same te""ito"ies, donned ,ommon he"itage -he"e the"e -as none, s oke &ang+ages a"ti*i,ia&&! ,onst"+,ted and &a+ded a ,+&t+"e hasti&! assem)&ed )! 0histo"ians0 and 0 hi&o&ogists0. These -e"e the "oots o* the g"eat e'i& - the o'e"&a ing ,&aims, the "es+&ting into&e"an,e, the mo"ta&, e>istentia& *ea" stoked )! the ka&eidos,o i, ,ond+,t o* the ;ig Po-e"s. To "e,ogniCe the e>isten,e o* the =a,edonian identit! - -as to th"eaten the 9"eek o" ;+&ga"ian ones. To a,,e t the antiK+it! o* the (&)anians -as to dismant&e =a,edonia, Se")ia and 9"ee,e. To ,o+ntenan,e ;+&ga"ian demands -as to inh+man&! ena&iCe its T+"k ,itiCens. It -as a Ce"o-s+m game &a!ed 'i,io+s&! )! e'e"!one in'o&'ed. The "iCe -as me"e e>isten,e - the &ose"s annihi&ated. It 'e"! nea"&! ,ame to that d+"ing the t-o ;a&kan Ga"s o* @A@2 and @A@B. (&&ies shi*ted thei" a&&egian,e in a,,o"dan,e -ith the shi*ting *o"t+nes o* a most )e-i&de"ing )att&e*ie&d. Ghen the d+st sett&ed, t-o t"eaties &ate", =a,edonia -as dismem)e"ed )! its neigh)o+"s, ;+&ga"ia )itte"&! ,ontem &ated the so+" *"+its o* its de&+siona& agg"ession and Se")ia and (+st"o-6+nga"! "e$oi,ed. Th+s -e"e the seeds o* Go"&d Ga" I so-n.

The J+gos&a' -a" o* s+,,ession 4o" ,i'i& -a"5 -as a ,ontin+ation o* this ma!hem )! othe" means. J+gos&a'ia -as )o"n in sin, in the di,tato"shi o* :ing (&e>ande" I 4&ate" s&ain in <"an,e in @AB45. It *a,ed agitation, se a"atism and dis,ontent *"om its in,e tion. It -as *a&&ing a a"t -hen the se,ond -o"&d ,on*&ag"ation e"+ ted. It took a se,ond di,tato"shi - Tito?s - to ho&d it togethe" *o" anothe" 40 !ea"s. The ;a&kan as a -ho&e - *"om 6+nga"!, th"o+gh %omania and do-n to ;+&ga"ia - -as "one to a+tho"ita"ianism and an ata'isti,, )&ood! *o"m o* "a,ist, 0 easant o" nati'e *as,ism0. ( "imiti'e "egion o* destit+te *a"me"s and 'i&e o&iti,ians, it -as e> osed to -o"&d gaCe )! the ,o&&a se o* ,omm+nism. The"e a"e en,o+"aging signs o* a-akening, o* ,hange and ada tation. The"e a"e da"k omens o* "ea,tiona"! *o",es, o* 'io&en,e and -"ath. It is a )att&e *o+ght in the +n,ons,io+s o* h+manit! itse&*. It is a t+g o* -a" )et-een memo"ies and "imo"dia& d"i'es "e "essed and the 'ita&it! o* those sti&& ,&ose to nat+"e. The o+t,ome o* this *ight is ,"+,ia& to the -o"&d. ;oth -o"&d -a"s sta"ted in ,ent"a& easte"n and so+th-easte"n E+"o e. 9&o)a&iCation is no g+a"antee against a thi"d one. The -o"&d -as mo"e g&o)a&iCed than it is toda! at the )eginning o* the ,ent+"! - )+t it took on&! one shot in Sa"a$e'o to make this the most sang+ineo+s ,ent+"! o* a&&.

(n added "o)&em is the sim &e-mindedness, a)"asi'eness and shee" histo"i,a& igno"an,e o* (me"i,a, the ,+""ent s+ e" o-e". ( nation o* so+nd)ites and )&a,k o" -hite ste"eot! es, it is i&&-s+ited to dea& -ith the n+an,ed, m+&ti&a!e"ed and inte"a,ti'e ma!hem that is the ;a&kan. ( menta&it! o* -este"n mo'ies - good g+!s, )ad g+!s, shoot?em + - is ha"d&! ,ond+,i'e to a ;a&kan "eso&+tion. The int"i,ate and d"a-n o+t "o,ess "eK+i"ed ta>es (me"i,an im atien,e and )+&&!ing tenden,ies to thei" e> &osi'e &imits. In the ,am o* the good g+!s, the (ng&o-Sa>ons &a,e %omania, 9"ee,e, =onteneg"o and S&o'enia 4-ith =a,edonia, C"oatia, (&)ania and ;+&ga"ia -ande"ing in and o+t5. Se")ia is the e itome o* e'i&. =i&ose'i, is 6it&e". S+,h +ni-dimensiona& thinking sends a *"isson o* "+)i,+nd )e&&ige"en,e do-n (me"i,an s ines. It tends to igno"e "ea&it!, tho+gh. =onteneg"o is &a!ing the &i)e"a& ,a"d de*t&!, no do+)t - )+t it is a&so a ha'en o* sm+gg&ing and -o"se. S&o'enia is the ,i'i&iCed *a,ade that it so tedio+s&! "esents to the -o"&d - )+t it a&so ha ened to ha'e ha")o+"ed one o* the 'i&est *as,ist mo'ements, ,om a"a)&e to the 3stasha - the Domo)"an,i. It sha"es -ith C"oatia the na",issisti, g"andiose *antas! that it is not a a"t o* the ;a&kan - )+t "athe" an o+t ost o* E+"o e - and the disdain *o" its im o'e"ished neigh)o+"s that ,omes -ith it.

In this sense, it is mo"e 0;a&kanian0 than man! o* them. 9"ee,e is no- an e,onomi,a&&! sta)&e and mi&d&! demo,"ati, ,o+nt"! - )+t it +sed to )e a di,tato"shi and it sti&& is a )anana "e +)&i, in mo"e than one "es e,t. The (&)anians - *e"o,io+s&! s+ "essed )! the Se")s and 4$+st&!5 s+,,o+"ed )! the Gest - a"e ind+st"io+s and sh"e-d eo &e. ;+t - *e"'ent "otestations to the ,ont"a"! aside - the! do seem to )e intent on dismant&ing and "e,om)ining )oth J+gos&a'ia 4Se")ia5 and =a,edonia, e"ha s at a te""i)&e ,ost to a&& in'o&'ed. Togethe" -ith the T+"ks, the Se")s and the ;+&ga"ians, the (&)anians a"e the +ndis +ted ,"ime &o"ds o* the ;a&kan 4and )e!ond -itness thei" in,a",e"ation "ates in S-itCe"&and5. This is the ;a&kan - a *&o"i&egi+m o* ,ont"adi,tions -ithin ,ont"a'entions, the ma-kish and the $aded, the ,ha"ita)&e and the de&ete"io+s, the *e,k&ess and the )+m tio+s, e'anes,ent and e>oti,, a m!ste"! -"a ed in an enigma. In this a"ti,&e, I -i&& attem t to st+d! t-o a>es o* *"i,tion: Is&am 'e"s+s Ch"istianit! and *as,ism and nationa&ism 'e"s+s &i)e"a&ism. It is ha"d to do $+sti,e to these to i,s in the P"o,"+stean )ed o* -eek&! ,o&+mns - I, the"e*o"e, )eg the *o"gi'eness o* s,ho&a"s and the +nde"standing o* *"+st"ated "eade"s.

* First Enco#nter

0In a,,o"dan,e -ith this M"ight to a,tN, -hene'e" some one o* the in*ide& a"ents o" some othe" sho+&d o ose the gi'ing + o* his son *o" the 8ani,,a"ies, he is immediate&! hanged *"om his doo"si&&, his )&ood )eing deemed +n-o"th!.0 T#rkish firman, 1;31 0...The T+"ks ha'e )+i&t se'e"a& *o"t"esses in m! kingdom and a"e 'e"! kind to the ,o+nt"! *o&k. The! "omise *"eedom to e'e"! easant -ho ,on'e"ts to Is&am.0 $osnian (ing Stefan Tomasevic to Po)e Pi#s ,, 0...The Po"te t"eated him 4the at"ia",h5 as a"t o* the Ottoman o&iti,a& a a"at+s. (s a "es+&t, he had ,e"tain &ega&&! "ote,ted "i'i&eges. The Pat"ia",h t"a'e&&ed in ?g"eat s &endo+"? and o&i,e "ote,tion -as "o'ided )! the 8ani,,a"ies. 6is ho"se and sadd&e -e"e *itting&! em)"oide"ed, and at the sadd&e h+ng a sma&& s-o"d as a s!m)o& o* the o-e"s )esto-ed on him )! the S+&tan.0 !#san (asic, "The Ser ian Ch#rch #nder the T#rks", $elgrade, 12;2

Githin the s a,e o* D00 !ea"s, so+theast E+"o e has +nde"gone t-o a"adigmati, shi*ts. <i"st, *"om Ch"istian inde enden,e to Is&ami, s+)$+gation 4a g"ad+a& "o,ess -hi,h ,ons+med t-o ,ent+"ies5 and then, in the @Ath ,ent+"!, *"om se&*-dete"mination th"o+gh "e&igio+s a**i&iation to nationa&ism. The Ch"istians o* the ;a&kan -e"e eas! "e!. The! -e"e dis i"ited easant"!, *"agmented, "one to inte"ne,ine )a,ksta))ing and o "essi'e "egimes. The ne- Ottoman "+&e"s t"eated )oth eo &e and &and as thei" "o e"t!. The! ens&a'ed some o* thei" "isone"s o* -a" 4+nde" the in*amo+s 0 en,ik0 ,&a+se5, e>i&ed tho+sands and ,on*is,ated thei" &ands and &iK+idated the se,+&a" o&iti,a& e&ites in Th"a,e, ;+&ga"ia, Se")ia and (&)ania. The "es+&ting 'a,++m o* &eade"shi -as *i&&ed )! the Ch+",h. Th+s, a"ado>i,a&&!, it -as Is&am and its e>,esses that made the Ch+",h the +ndis +ted she he"d o* the eo &es o* the ;a&kan, a osition it did not en$o! )e*o"e. The ne- "+&e"s did not en,o+"age ,on'e"sions to thei" *aith *o" *ea" o* "ed+,ing thei" ta> )ase - non-=os&em 0Cimmis0 4the Q+"?an?s 0Peo &e o* the ;ook05 aid s e,ia& 4and hea'!5 ta>es to the t"eas+"! and o*ten had to )"i)e ,o""+ t o**i,ia&s to s+"'i'e.

Sti&&, ,om a"ed to othe" Ottoman e> &oits 4in (nato&ia, *o" instan,e5, the ,onK+est o* the ;a&kan -as a )enign a**ai". Cities "emained inta,t, the &ands -e"e not de o +&ated and the indis,"iminate&! *e"o,io+s nomadi, t"i)esmen that +s+a&&! a,,om anied the T+"kish *o",es &a"ge&! sta!ed at home. The Ottoman )+"ea+,"a,! took o'e" most as e,ts o* dai&! &i*e soon a*te" the mi&ita"! 'i,to"ies, )"inging -ith it the &eaden sta)i&it! that -as its ha&&ma"k. Indeed, o +&ations -e"e dis&o,ated and "e-sett&ed as a matte" o* o&i,! ,a&&ed 0so"g+n0. Jet s+,h meas+"es -e"e intended main&! to K+e&& &angent "e)e&&io+sness and -e"e a &ied main&! to the +")an mino"it! 4*o" instan,e, in Constantino &e5. The Ch+",h -as an a,,om &i,e o* the T+"kish o,,+ ie"s. It -as a a"t o* the Ottoman s!stem o* go'e"nan,e and en$o!ed )oth its "ote,tion and its *+nding. It -as &e'e"aged )! the T+"k s+&tans in thei" K+est to a,i*! thei" s+)$e,ts. =ehmet II )esto-ed + on the 9"eek O"thodo> Pat"ia",hate, its )isho s and ,&e"g! g"eat o-e"s. The t"ade o** -as made e> &i,it in =ehmet?s edi,ts: the Ch+",h a,,e ted the ea"th&! so'e"eignt! o* the s+&tan and he, in t+"n, g"anted them to&e"an,e, "ote,tion and e'en *"iendshi . The Ottoman "e&igio+s-&ega& ,ode, the Se"iat, "e,ogniCed the Ch"istian?s "ight to *o"m thei" o-n "e&igio+s&! se&*-go'e"ning ,omm+nities.

These ,omm+nities -e"e not ,on*ined to the o"de"&! "o'ision o* -o"shi se"'i,es. The! managed ,omm+na& "o e"t! as -e&&. =ehmet?s )ene'o&en,e to-a"ds the indigents -as so &egenda"! that eo &e -"ong&! att"i)+ted to him the o**i,ia& de,&a"ation o* a 0=i&&et i %+m0 4%oman, o" 9"eek, nation5 and the a ointment o* 9ennadios as at"ia",h o* the O"thodo> Ch+",h 4-hi,h on&! an e is,o a& s!nod ,o+&d do5. The Ottoman Em i"e -as an amaCing h!)"id. (s o osed to o +&a" o inion it -as not a "e&igio+s entit!. The "+&ing e&ite in,&+ded mem)e"s o* a&& "e&igions. Th+s, one ,o+&d *ind Ch"istian 0aske"i 0 4mi&ita"! o" ,i'i& o**i,ia&s5 and =+s&im 0"ea!a0 40*&o,k0 o* ta> a!e"s5. It is t"+e that Ch"istians aid the a")it"a"i&! set 0ha"a,0 4o", &ess ,ommon&!, 0,iC!e05 in &ie+ o* mi&ita"! se"'i,e. E'en the ,&e"g! -e"e not e>em t 4the! e'en assisted in ta> ,o&&e,tion5. ;+t )oth Ch"istians and =+s&ims aid the &and ta>, *o" instan,e. (nd, as the *ai"ness, t"ans a"en,! and "edi,ta)i&it! o* the &o,a& ta>men dete"io"ated - )oth =+s&ims and Ch"istians ,om &ained. The main "o)&em o* the Ottoman Em i"e -as de'o&+tion - not ,ent"a&iCation. #o,a& go'e"no"s and ta> ,o&&e,to"s had too m+,h o-e" and the s+&tan -as too "emote and disinte"ested o" too -eak and ine**e,ti'e. The o +&ation t"ied to get Istan)+& =O%E in'o&'ed - not &ess so.

The o +&ation -as *inan,ia&&! *&ee,ed as m+,h )! the O"thodo> Ch+",h as it -as )! the s+&tan. ( s e,ia& ,h+",h-ta> -as &e'ied on the Ch"istian "ea!a and its "o,eeds se"'ed to se,+"e the &a'ish &i*est!&es o* the )isho s and the at"ia",h. In t"+e mo) st!&e, ,h+",h *+n,tiona"ies di'ided the &oot -ith Ottoman o**i,ia&s in an a""angement kno-n as 0 eskes0. <o"eign o-e"s ,ont"i)+ted to the -a" ,hests o* 'a"io+s ,andidates, th+s mo)i&iCing them to s+ o"t "o-Catho&i, o" "o-P"otestant o&iti,a& stan,es and demands. The ,h+",h -as a tho"o+gh&! ,o""+ t, +s+"io+s and o&iti,iCed )od! -hi,h ,ont"i)+ted g"eat&! to the e'e" in,"easing mise"! o* its *&o,k. It -as a ,o&&a)o"ato" in the -o"st sense o* the -o"d. ;+t the )eha'io+" o* the ,h+",h -as one a"t o* the ,ommon )et"a!a& )! the e&ite o* the ;a&kan &ands. Ch"istian &ando-ne"s 'o&+ntee"ed to se"'e in the Ottoman ,a'a&"! 40si ahis05 in o"de" to "ese"'e thei" o-ne"shi . The Ottoman "+&e"s ,on'enient&! igno"ed the &a-s "ohi)iting 0Cimmis0 to ,a""! -ea ons. 3nti& @D00, the 0si ahis0 ,onstit+ted the )+&k o* the Ottoman *o",es in the ;a&kan and thei" mass ,on'e"sion to Is&am -as a nat+"a& ,ontin+ation o* thei" ,om &i,it!. Othe" Ch"istians g+a"ded )"idges o" mo+ntain asses *o" a ta> e>em tion 40de")ent,i05. #o,a&, T+"kish-t"ained mi&itias 40a"mato&es05 *o+ght mo+ntain-)ased "o))e" gangs 4Se")ian 0ha!d+ks0, ;+&ga"ian 0haid+ts0, 9"eek 0k&e hts05. The "o))e"s atta,ked T+"kish ,a"a'ans -ith the same *"eK+en,! and Cea& that the! sa,ked Ch"istian sett&ements. The 0a"mato&es0 "esisted them )! da! and $oined them )! night. ;+t it -as e"*e,t&! a,,e ta)&e to $oin T+"kish initiati'es s+,h as this.

The ;a&kan "emained o'e"-he&ming&! Ch"istian th"o+gho+t the Ottoman e"iod. =+s&im &i*e -as an +")an henomenon )oth *o" "easons o* sa*et! and )e,a+se on&! the ,ities "o'ided )asi, amenities. E'en in the ,ities, tho+gh, the ,omm+nities &i'ed seg"egated in 0maha&&es0 4K+a"te"s5. E'e"!one ,o&&a)o"ated in +)&i, &i*e )+t the 0maha&&es0 -e"e se&*-s+**i,ient a**ai"s -ith the gam+t o* se"'i,es - *"om hot )aths to "a!e" se"'i,es - a'ai&a)&e 0inK+a"te"0. 9"ad+a&&!, the ma$o" ,ities, sit+ated a&ong the t"ade "o+tes, )e,ame =os&em. Sko $e, Sa"a$e'o and So*ia a&& had siCea)&e =os&em mino"ities. Th+s, at the )eginning o* the si>teenth ,ent+"!, the i,t+"e that eme"ges is one o* an +neas! ,o-ha)itation in the ,ities and a Ch"istian "+"a& &ands,a e. The e&ites o* the ;a&kan ,h+",h, no)&emen, -a""io"s - a&& de*e,ted and ,o&&a)o"ated -ith the *o"me" 0enem!0. The &o,a& o +&a,e -as the 'i,tim o* +s+"io+s ta>es, ,oe",i'e&! a &ied. The ,ent"a& administ"ation sha"ed the &oot -ith its &o,a& "e "esentati'es and -ith the indigeno+s e&ites - the ,h+",h and the *e+da& &anded gent"!. It -as a ,os! and "agmati, a""angement that &asted *o" ,ent+"ies. Jet, the seeds o* Ottoman )estia&it! and *+t+"e "e)e&&ion -e"e so-n *"om the 'e"! in,e tion o* this em i"ee>tending ,onK+est. The 0de'si"me0 ta> -as an e>am &e o* the *"agi&it! o* the T+"kish 'enee" o* h+manit! and en&ightened "+&e. Ch"istian sons -e"e kidna ed, *o",i)&! ,on'e"ted to Is&am and t"ained as *ighte"s in the *ea"some 8ani,,a"! Co" s 4the a&a,e 9+a"ds5. The! -e"e ne'e" to see thei" *ami&ies and *"iends again.

E>em tions *"om this )a")a"o+s "a,ti,e -e"e o**e"ed on&! to se&e,t ,omm+nities -hi,h someho- ,ont"i)+ted to Ottoman "+&e in the ;a&kan. Ch"istian -omen -e"e o*ten a)d+,ted )! &o,a& Ottoman dignita"ies. and the ,+stom o* the 0ke in0, a&&o-ed =os&ems to 0)+!0 a Ch"istian da+ghte" o** he" h+s)and on a 0tem o"a"!0 )asis. The "es+&ts o* s+,h a +nion -e"e "aised as =os&ems. (nd then the"e -e"e the mass ,on'e"sions o* Ch"istians to Is&am. These ,on'e"sions -e"e 'e"! "a"e&! the "es+&ts o* ,oe",ion o" )a")a"o+s ,ond+,t. On the ,ont"a"!, )! sh"inking the ta> )ase and the "e,"+itment oo&, ,on'e"sion -e"e +n-e&,ome and ,&ose&! s,"+tiniCed )! the T+"ks. ;+t to ,on'e"t -as s+,h an ad'antageo+s and a ea&ing a,t that the mo'ement )o"de"ed on mass h!ste"ia. #ando-ne"s ,on'e"ted to "ese"'e thei" tit&e to the &and. 0Si ahis0 ,on'e"ted to ad'an,e in the "anks o* the mi&ita"!. Ch"istian o**i,ia&s ,on'e"ted to maintain thei" o**i,ia&dom. O"dina"! *o&k ,on'e"ted to a'oid one"o+s ta>es. Ch"istian t"ade"s ,on'e"ted to Is&am to )e a)&e to testi*! in ,o+"t in ,ase o* ,omme",ia& &itigation. Con'e"ted =os&ems -e"e a&&o-ed to s eak ("a)i, o" thei" o-n &ang+age, "athe" than the ,+m)e"some and e&a)o"ate *o"ma& T+"kish. Ch"istians -i&&ing&! t"aded ete"na& sa&'ation *o" ea"th&! )ene*its. (nd, o* ,o+"se, death a-aited those -ho "e,anted 4&ike the O"thodo> 0Ne=a"t!"s0, -ho dis,o'e"ed thei" Ch"istian o"igins, ha'ing )een "aised as =os&ems5.

Pe"ha s this -as )e,a+se, in &a"ge s-athes o* the ;a&kan, Ch"istianit! ne'e" "ea&&! took ho&d. It -as ado ted )! the easant as a *o&k "e&igion - as -as Is&am &ate". In ;osnia, *o" instan,e, =+s&ims and Ch"istians -e"e 'i"t+a&&! indisting+isha)&e. The! "a!ed in ea,h othe"?s sh"ines, ,e&e)"ated ea,h othe"?s ho&ida!s and ado ted the same ,+stoms. =+s&im m!sti,ism 4the S+*i o"de"s5 a ea&ed to man! so histi,ated +")an Ch"istians. 6e"eti, ,+&ts 4&ike the ;ogomi&s5 ,on'e"ted en masse. Inte"ma""iage *&o+"ished, main&! )et-een =+s&im men 4-ho ,o+&d not a**o"d the do-"! a!a)&e to a =+s&im -oman5 and Ch"istian -omen 4-ho had to a! a do-"! to he" =+s&im h+s)and?s *ami&!5. =a""!ing a Ch"istian -oman -as a &+,"ati'e )+siness "o osition. (nd, then, o* ,o+"se, the"e -as the =os&em )i"th "ate. Gith *o+" -omen and a e,+nia"! "e*e"en,e *o" &a"ge *ami&ies - =os&em o+t-)"ed Ch"istians at a&& times. This t"end is most "ono+n,ed toda! )+t it -as a&-a!s a "ominent demog"a hi, *a,t. ;+t the s+,,ess o* Is&am to ,onK+e" the ;a&kan, "+&e it, ,on'e"t its o +&ation and "e'ai& in it - had to do mo"e -ith the *ata& *&a-s o* ;a&kan Ch"istianit! than -ith the a ea& and "esi&ien,e o* Is&am and its Ottoman "endition. In the ne>t ,ha te" I -i&& attem t to onde" the ,om &e> inte"a,tion )et-een Catho&i,ism and O"thodo> Ch"istianit! as it -as mani*ested in C"oatia and ;osnia, the )o"de" &ands )et-een the 6a)s)+"g and the Ottoman em i"es and )et-een 0%ome0 and 0;!Canti+m0. I -i&& then e> &o"e the 'a"ian,e in the Ottoman attit+des to-a"ds 'a"io+s Ch"istian ,omm+nities and the "easons +nde"&!ing this di'e"sit! o* t"eatment moda&ities.

The Comm#nities of %od

0<"om the )eginning, eo &e o* di**e"ent &ang+ages and "e&igions -e"e e"mitted to &i'e in Ch"istian &ands and ,ities, name&! 8e-s, ("menians, Ismae&ites, (ga"enes and othe"s s+,h as these, e>,e t that the! do not mi> -ith Ch"istians, )+t "athe" &i'e se a"ate&!. <o" this "eason, &a,es ha'e )een designated *o" these a,,o"ding to ethni, g"o+ , eithe" -ithin the ,it! o" -itho+t, so that the! ma! )e "est"i,ted to these and not e>tend thei" d-e&&ing )e!ond them.0 $isho) !emetrios (homatianos of /hrid, late 10th cent#ry and early 14th cent#ry *! 0The #atins sti&& ha'e not )een anathematiCed, no" has a g"eat e,+meni,a& ,o+n,i& a,ted against them....(nd e'en to this da! this ,ontin+es, a&tho+gh it is said that the! sti&& -ait *o" the "e entan,e o* the g"eat %oman Ch+",h.0 0...Do not o'e"&ook +s, singing -ith dea* ea"s, )+t gi'e +s !o+" +nde"standing, a,,o"ding to sa,"ed "e,e ts, as !o+ !o+"se&* ins i"ed the a ost&es....Jo+ see, #o"d, the )att&e o* man! !ea"s o* !o+" ,h+",hes. 9"ant +s h+mi&it!, K+iet the sto"m, so that -e ma! kno- in ea,h othe" !o+" me",!, and -e ma! not *o"get )e*o"e the end the m!ste"! o* !o+" &o'e....=a! -e ,oe>ist in +nit! -ith ea,h othe", and )e,ome -ise a&so, so that -e ma! &i'e in !o+ and in !o+" ete"na& ,"eato" the <athe" and in his on&!-)egotten Go"d. Jo+ a"e &i*e, &o'e, ea,e, t"+th, and san,tit!....0 East E#ro)ean St#dies /ccasional Pa)er, .#m er 7@, "Christianity and ,slam in So#theastern E#ro)e ? Slavic /rthodoA *ttit#des toward /ther &eligions", Eve Levin, :an#ary 122@

0...!o+ *a,ed the se" ent and the enem! o* 9od?s ,h+",hes, ha'ing $+dged that it -o+&d ha'e )een +n)ea"a)&e *o" !o+" hea"t to see the Ch"istians o* !o+" *athe"&and o'e"-he&med )! the =os&ems 4iCmai&teni5H i* !o+ ,o+&d not a,,om &ish this, !o+ -o+&d &ea'e the g&o"! o* !o+" kingdom on ea"th to e"ish, and ha'ing )e,ome +" &e -ith !o+" )&ood, !o+ -o+&d $oin the so&die"s o* the hea'en&! kingdom. In this -a!, !o+" t-o -ishes -e"e *+&*i&&ed. Jo+ ki&&ed the se" ent, and !o+ "e,ei'ed *"om 9od the -"eath o* ma"t!"dom.0 Mate<a Mate<ic and !ragan Milivo<evic, "*n *nthology of Medieval Ser ian Literat#re in English", Col#m #s, /hio: Slavica, 12@C (n! e**o"t to +nde"stand the mode"n K+agmi"e that is the ;a&kan m+st add"ess "e&igion and "e&igio+s animosities and g"ie'an,es. Jet, the s+" "ising ,on,&+sion o* s+,h a st+d! is )o+nd to )e that the "o&e o* inte"-*aith hat"ed and ,on*&i,t has )een g"eat&! e>agge"ated. The ;a&kan -as ,ha"a,te"iCed mo"e )! "e&igio+s to&e"an,e than )! "e&igio+s e"se,+tion. It -as a mode& o* s+,,ess*+& ,oha)itation and ,o-e>isten,e e'en o* the )itte"est enemies o* the most dis a"ate )a,kg"o+nds. On&! the "ise o* the mode"n nation-state e>a,e")ated &ong-standing and hithe"to do"mant tensions. (,t+a&&!, the mode"n state -as esta)&ished on a *o+ndation o* a"ti*i,ia&&! *anned antagonism and >eno ho)ia.

%e&igions in the ;a&kan -e"e ne'e" mono&ithi, ente" "ises. Com eting in*&+en,es, a"anoia, >eno ho)ia and ad'e"se ,i",+mstan,es a&& ,ons i"ed to *"a,t+"e the "e&igio+s &ands,a e. Th+s, *o" instan,e, tho+gh o**i,ia&&! o-ing a&&egian,e to the at"ia",h in Constantino &e and the O"thodo> 0oik+mene0, )oth Se") and ;+&ga"ian ,h+",hes ,o&&a)o"ated -ith the "+&e"s o* the da! against e",ei'ed ;!Cantine 49"eek and %+ssian5 o&iti,a& en,"oa,hment in "e&igio+s g+ise. The so+the"n S&a' ,h+",hes "e$e,ted )oth the theo&og! and the se,+&a" tea,hings o* the 06e&&eni,s0 and the 0%omanians0 4%omans5. In t+"n, the 9"eek ,h+",h he&d the S&a' ,h+",h in dis"ega"d and t"eated the easants o* =a,edonia, Se")ia, ;+&ga"ia and (&)ania to sa'age "o+nds o* ta> ,o&&e,tion. The O"thodo>, as ha'e a&& "e&igions, )e"ated othe" ,on*essions and denominations. ;+t O"thodo>! -as a&-a!s )enign - no 0$ihad0, no )&oodshed, no *o",ed ,on'e"sions and no mass e> +&sions - e"ha s -ith the e>,e tion o* the *o",i)&e t"eatment o* the ;ogomi&s. It -as a&& a)o+t o-e" and mone!, o* ,o+"se. ;isho s and a",h)isho s did not hesitate to ,o-o t the Ottoman administ"ation against thei" ad'e"sa"ies. The! had thei" "i'a&s a""ested )! the T+"ks o" e>-,omm+ni,ated them. S+,h sK+a))&es -e"e ,ommon. ;+t the! ne'e" amo+nted to mo"e than a ;a&kanian ,omedia de&-a"te. E'en the 8e-s - e"se,+ted a&& o'e" -este"n E+"o e - -e"e to&e"ated and attained "ominen,e and in*&+en,e in the ;a&kan. One ;+&ga"ian Tsa" di'o",ed his -i*e to ma""! a 8e-ess. So+the"n O"thodo> Ch"istianit! 4as o osed to the 'i"+&ent and 'it+ e"ati'e ;!Cantine s e,ies5 has a&-a!s )een "agmati,.

The mino"ities 48e-s, ("menians, V&a,hs5 -e"e the e,onomi, and *inan,ia& )a,k)one o* thei" so,ieties. (nd the ;a&kan -as a&-a!s a hodge- odge o* ethni,ities, ,+&t+"es and "e&igions. Shi*ting o&iti,a& *o"t+nes ens+"ed a o&i,! o* 0hedging one?s )ets0. The t-o g"eat ,om etito"s o* O"thodo> Ch"istianit! in the tight ma"ket o* so+&s -e"e Catho&i,ism and Is&am. The *o"me" ,o-s onso"ed -ith the O"thodo> Ch+",h the ed+,ationa& e**o"ts o* C!"i& and =ethodi+s. E'en )e*o"e the t"a+mati, s,hism o* @0D4, Catho&i,s and nas,ent O"thodo> -e"e )att&ing o'e" 4&+,"ati'e5 "e&igio+s t+"* in ;+&ga"ia. The s,hism -as a te&&ing a**ai". Ostensi)&!, it "e'o&'ed a"o+nd o)s,+"e theo&ogi,a& iss+es 4-ho )egat the 6o&! S i"it - the <athe" a&one o" $oint&! -ith the Son as -e&& as -hi,h t! e o* )"ead sho+&d )e +sed in the E+,ha"ist5. ;+t "ea&&! it -as a ,&ash o* a+tho"ities and inte"ests - the Po e 'e"s+s the at"ia",h o* Constantino &e, the %omans 'e"s+s the 9"eeks and S&a's. =atte"s o* $+"isdi,tion ,oa&es,ed -ith o&iti,a& medd&ing in a ,on*&+en,e o* i&&--i&& that has simme"ed *o" at &east t-o ,ent+"ies. The so+the"n 4S&a'5 O"thodo> ,h+",hes ,ont"i)+ted to the de)ate and s+ o"ted the 9"eek osition. Se,ts s+,h as the 6es!,hasts -e"e mo"e ;!Cantine than the 9"eeks and deno+n,ed -a'e"ing O"thodo> ,&e"g!. =an! a so+th O"thodo> i&&o"ied the Catho&i, stan,e as an he"es! o* ("menian o" ( o&&ina"ian o" ("ian o"igin - th+s dis &a!ing thei" igno"an,e o* the s+)t&e" oints o* the theo&ogi,a& de)ate. The! a&so got -"ong the 9"eek a"g+mentation "ega"ding the )"ead o* the E+,ha"ist and the histo"! o* the s,hism. ;+t Cea& ,om ensated *o" igno"an,e, as is o*ten the ,ase in the ;a&kan.

Ghat sta"ted as a de)ate - ho-e'e" *e"'ent - a)o+t a)st"a,t theo&og! )e,ame an a&& o+t a"g+ment a)o+t de"ided ,+stoms and ,e"emonies. Diet, dates and di'ine "a,ti,es a&& sta""ed in these g"otesK+e e>,hanges. The #atin ate +n,&ean )easts. The! +sed *i'e *inge"s to ,"oss themse&'es. The! did not sing 6a&&e&+$ah. The! a&&o-ed the ,ons+m tion o* dai"! "od+,ts in #ent. The &ist -as &ong and "e oste"o+s. The a"ties -e"e s oi&ing *o" a *ight. (s is so o*ten the ,ase in this a,,+"sed s-athe o* the ea"th, identit! and de&+siona& s+ e"io"it! -e"e se,+"ed th"o+gh o osition and se&*--o"th -as attained th"o+gh de*ian,e. ;! "e&egating them to the "o&e o* ma&e'o&ent he"eti,s, the O"thodo> made the sins o* the Catho&i,s +n*o"gi'a)&e, thei" )eha'io+" ine>,+sa)&e, thei" *ate sea&ed. (t the )eginning, the atta,ks -e"e di"e,ted at the 0#atins0 - *o"eigne"s *"om 9e"man! and <"an,e. #o,a& Catho&i,s -e"e someho- disso,iated and a)so&'ed *"om the dia)o&i,a& att"i)+tes o* thei" *e&&o--)e&ie'e"s a)"oad. The! +sed the same ,a&enda" as the O"thodo> 4e>,e t *o" #ent5 and simi&a"&! "a!ed in Ch+",h S&a'oni,. The on&! 'isi)&e di**e"en,e -as the "e,ognition o* a a& a+tho"it! )! the Catho&i,s. Catho&i,ism "esented a ,ohe"ent and 'ete"an a&te"nati'e to O"thodo>!?s in,hoate tea,hings. Se,+&a" a+tho"ities -e"e am)ig+o+s a)o+t ho- to t"eat thei" Catho&i, s+)$e,ts and did not hesitate to ,o&&a)o"ate -ith Catho&i, a+tho"ities against the T+"ks. Th+s, to "ese"'e itse&* as a 'ia)&e "e&igio+s a&te"nati'e, the O"thodo> ,h+",h had to di**e"entiate itse&* *"om the 6o&! See. 6en,e, the *&aming de)ates and e$o"ati'e ha"ang+es. The se,ond g"eat th"eat -as Is&am. Sti&&, it -as a

&ate,ome". Catho&i,ism and O"thodo>! ha'e )een *oes sin,e the ninth ,ent+"!. <o+" h+nd"eds !ea"s &ate", ;!Cantine -a"s against the =os&ems -e"e a distant th+nde" and "aised &itt&e ,+"iosit! and inte"est in the ;a&kan. The O"thodo> ,h+",h -as a,K+ainted -ith the tenets o* Is&ami, *aith )+t did not )othe" to ,odi*! its kno-&edge o" "e,o"d it. Is&am -as, to it, des ite its im e,,a)&e monotheisti, ,"edentia&s, an e>oti, O"ienta& o**-shoot o* t"i)a& aganism. Th+s, the T+"kish in'asion and the ha"dshi s o* dai&! &i*e +nde" Ottoman "+&e *o+nd O"thodo>! +n "e a"ed. It "ea,ted the -a! -e a&& "ea,t to *ea" o* the +nkno-n: s+ e"stitions, ,+"ses, name ,a&&ing. On the one hand, the T+"kish enem! -as deh+maniCed and )ede'i&&ed. It -as e",ei'ed to )e 9od?s +nishment + on the +n*aith*+& and the sin*+&. On the othe" hand, in a ,+"io+s t"ans*o"mation o" a ,ogniti'e dissonan,e, the T+"ks )e,ame a di'ine inst"+ment, the -"ath*+& messenge"s o* 9od. The Ch"istians o* the ;a&kan s+**e"ed *"om a ost t"a+mati, st"ess s!nd"ome. The! -ent th"o+gh the ,&assi,a& hases o* g"ie*. The! sta"ted )! den!ing the de*eat 4in :oso'o, *o" instan,e5 and the! "o,eeded th"o+gh "age, sadness and a,,e tan,e. (&& *o+" hases ,o-e>isted in ;a&kan histo"!. Denia& )! the man! -ho "eso"ted to m!sti,ism and de&+siona& o&iti,a& tho+ght. That the T+"ks *ai&ed *o" ,ent+"ies to s+)d+e o,kets o* "esistan,e 4*o" instan,e in =onteneg"o5 se"'ed to "ekind&e these ho es and de&+sions e"iodi,a&&!. Th+s, the T+"ks 4and, )! e>tension, Is&am5 se"'ed as a o&iti,a&&! ,ohe"ing *a,to" and "o'ided a ,a+se to "a&&! a"o+nd. %age mani*ested th"o+gh the a,ts against the o,,+ !ing Ottomans o* indi'id+a&s o" "e)e&&io+s g"o+ s. Sadness -as e> "essed in &it+"g!, in a"t and &ite"at+"e, in

m+si, and in dan,e. (,,e tan,e )! ,on,ei'ing o* the T+"ks as the 'e"! hand o* 9od 6imse&*. ;+t, g"ad+a&&!, the T+"ks and thei" "+&e ,ame to )e "ega"ded as the -o"k o* the de'i& as it -as in,+""ing the -"ath o* 9od. ;+t again, this negati'e and annihi&ating attit+de -as "ese"'ed to o+tside"s and *o"eigne"s, the o**-s "ing o* Ishmae& and o* 6aga", the #atins and the T+"ks. =os&em o" Catho&i, neigh)o+"s -e"e "a"e&!, i* e'e", the ta"get o* s+,h 'it"io&i, diat"i)es. E>te"na& enemies - )e the! Ch"istian o" =os&em - -e"e a&-a!s to )e ,+"sed and "esisted. Neigh)o+"s o* the same ethni,it! -e"e ne'e" to )e +nished o" dis,"iminated against *o" thei" "e&igion o" ,on'i,tions - tho+gh ha&*-hea"ted ,ondemnations did o,,+". The geog"a hi,a& and ethni, ,omm+nit! seems to ha'e )een a ,"iti,a& dete"minant o* identit! e'en -hen ,on*"onted -ith an enem! at the gates. =em)e"s o* an ethni, ,omm+nit! ,o+&d sha"e the same "e&igio+s *aith as the in'ade" o" the he"eti, - !et this det"a,ted none *"om thei" a&&egian,e and &a,e in thei" so,iet! as emanating *"om )i"th and &ong te"m "esiden,e. These to&e"an,e and a,,e tan,e "e'ai&ed e'en in the *a,e o* Ottoman seg"egation o* "e&igio+s ,omm+nities in ethni,a&&!-mi>ed 0mi&&ets0. This "in,i &e -as shatte"ed *ina&&! )! the ad'ent o* the mode"n nation-state and its de*ining a"amete"s 4histo"! and &ang+age5, "ea& o" 4mo"e o*ten5 in'ented.

One ,o+&d sometimes *ind mem)e"s o* the same n+,&ea" *ami&! - )+t o* di**e"ent "e&igio+s a**i&iation. Se,+&a" "+&e"s and a"tisans in g+i&ds ,o&&a)o"ated +nhesitating&! -ith 8e-s, T+"ks and Catho&i,s. Con'e"sions to and *"o -e"e ,ommon "a,ti,e, as -a!s to se,+"e e,onomi, )ene*its. These henomena -e"e es e,ia&&! "e'a&ent in the )o"de" a"eas o* C"oatia and ;osnia. ;+t e'e"!one, th"o+gho+t the ;a&kan, sha"ed the same "it+a&s, the -a! o* &i*e, the s+ e"stitions, the magi,, the *o&k&o"e, the ,+stoms and the ha)its "ega"d&ess o* "e&igio+s e"s+asion. Ghe"e "e&igions ,o-e>isted, the! *+sed s!n,"eti,a&&!. Some S+*i se,ts 4main&! among the 8ani,,a"!5 ado ted Catho&i, "it+a&s, made the sign o* the ,"oss, d"ank a&,oho& and ate o"k. The *o&&o-e"s o* ;ed"eddin -e"e 8e-s and Ch"istians, as -e&& as =os&ems. E'e"!)od! sha"ed mi"a,+&o+s sites, i,ons, e'en "a!e"s. O"thodo> S&a's i&g"ims to the ho&! &a,es in Pa&estine -e"e tit&ed 06adCi0 and =os&ems -e"e es e,ia&&! keen on Easte" eggs and ho&! -ate" as ta&ismans o* hea&th. Ca&enda"s en+me"ated the ho&ida!s o* a&& "e&igions, side )! side. =+s&im $+dges 40kadis05 ma""ied =+s&im men to non-=+s&im -omen and inte"-ma""iage -as "i*e. The! a&so ma""ied and di'o",ed Catho&i, ,o+ &es, in ,ont"a'ention o* the Catho&i, *aith. O"thodo> and Catho&i, ha)it+a&&! inte"ma""ied and inte")"ed. That this )a,kg"o+nd !ie&ded S"e)"eni,a and Sa"a$e'o, :oso'o and :"a$ina is asto+nding. It is the ma&ignant g"o-th o* this ,ent+"!. It is the s+)$e,t o* o+" ne>t insta&ment. %et+"n

Terrorism as a Psychodynamic Phenomenon * Case of %ro#) Psycho)athology

!ialog etween: Michael %alak and Sam 6aknin ,ntrod#ction y Michael %alak In t"aditiona& 8e-ish *ashion the o"igina& idea *o" this dia&og ,ame to me -hen I -as DD. I *e&t ,om e&&ed to -"ite it des ite its &a,k o* o"thodo>! and o&iti,a& ,o""e,tness. In this "+m)&ing and sometimes "anting o +s magn+m I ha'e attem ted to ,on'e! m! +nde"standing o* the me,hanisms +nde"&!ing a *o"mation and "es onses o* a g"o+ s!,ho atho&og! and the "es+&ting )eha'io" in the ,i",+mstan,es o* tota&ita"ian so,iet!. The siCe o* the g"o+ , its ethni,, "a,ia& o" "e&igio+s identi*i,ation is most&! i""e&e'ant to the theo"eti,a& ,onst"+,t o* this ,on,e t. It ,o+&d e>tend to a nation o" e'en a g"o+ o* nations, as &ong as this g"o+ has ,ommon ,ha"a,te"isti,s de'e&o ed +nde" ,ommon ,i",+mstan,es. 3sing s!,hod!nami, ,onside"ations I ha'e a&so attem ted to de&ineate some "a,ti,a& im &i,ations to the ma,"o- and mi,"o-management o* g"o+ s!,ho atho&og!. In m! -o"k I ha'e d"a-n + on -"itings o* (+g+st #e ;on, 8ohn =a,ka!, Sigm+nd <"e+d, E"i,h <"omm, :a"en 6o"ne!, =e&anie :&ein, S!dne! ;&o,h, Otto :e"n)e"g, 6einC :oh+t, Dona&d Ginni,ott, Pa+& 8ohnson and man! othe"s. I a,kno-&edge m! inde)tedness and g"atit+de to these a+tho"s. Sam 6aknin: ("e !o+ a,K+ainted -ith the -o"k o* #&o!d De=a+s on s!,hohisto"!L

In thei" )ook "Personality !isorders in Modern Life", Theodo"e =i&&on and %oge" Da'is state, as a matte" o* *a,t, that atho&ogi,a& na",issism -as the "ese"'e o* 0the "o!a& and the -ea&th!0 and that it 0seems to ha'e gained "ominen,e on&! in the &ate t-entieth ,ent+"!0. Na",issism, a,,o"ding to them, ma! )e asso,iated -ith 0highe" &e'e&s o* =as&o-?s hie"a",h! o* needs ... Indi'id+a&s in &ess ad'antaged nations .. a"e too )+s! t"!ing 4to s+"'i'e5 ... to )e a""ogant and g"andiose0. The! - &ike #as,h )e*o"e them - att"i)+te atho&ogi,a& na",issism to 0a so,iet! that st"esses indi'id+a&ism and se&*-g"ati*i,ation at the e> ense o* ,omm+nit!, name&! the 3nited States.0 The! asse"t that the diso"de" is mo"e "e'a&ent among ,e"tain "o*essions -ith 0sta" o-e"0 o" "es e,t. 0In an indi'id+a&isti, ,+&t+"e, the na",issist is ?9od?s gi*t to the -o"&d?. In a ,o&&e,ti'ist so,iet!, the na",issist is ?9od?s gi*t to the ,o&&e,ti'e?0. =i&&on K+otes Ga""en and Ca oni?s "The &ole of C#lt#re in the !evelo)ment of .arcissistic Personality !isorders in *merica, :a)an and !enmark": 0Indi'id+a&isti, na",issisti, st"+,t+"es o* se&*-"ega"d 4in indi'id+a&isti, so,ieties5 ... a"e "athe" se&*-,ontained and inde endent ... 4In ,o&&e,ti'ist ,+&t+"es5 na",issisti, ,on*ig+"ations o* the -e-se&* ... denote se&*-esteem de"i'ed *"om st"ong identi*i,ation -ith the "e +tation and hono" o* the *ami&!, g"o+ s, and othe"s in hie"a",hi,a& "e&ationshi s.0 6a'ing &i'ed in the &ast 20 !ea"s @2 ,o+nt"ies in 4 ,ontinents - *"om the im o'e"ished to the a**&+ent, -ith indi'id+a&isti, and ,o&&e,ti'ist so,ieties - I kno- that =i&&on and Da'is a"e -"ong. Thei"s is, indeed, the K+intessentia& (me"i,an oint o* 'ie- -hi,h &a,ks an

intimate kno-&edge o* othe" a"ts o* the -o"&d. =i&&on e'en -"ong&! ,&aims that the DS=?s inte"nationa& eK+i'a&ent, the ICD, does not in,&+de the na",issisti, e"sona&it! diso"de" 4it does5. Patho&ogi,a& na",issism is a +)iK+ito+s henomenon )e,a+se e'e"! h+man )eing - "ega"d&ess o* the nat+"e o* his so,iet! and ,+&t+"e - de'e&o s hea&th! na",issism ea"&! in &i*e. 6ea&th! na",issism is "ende"ed atho&ogi,a& )! a)+se - and a)+se, a&as, is a +ni'e"sa& h+man )eha'io". ;! 0a)+se0 -e mean an! "e*+sa& to a,kno-&edge the eme"ging )o+nda"ies o* the indi'id+a& - smothe"ing, doting, and e>,essi'e e> e,tations - a"e as a)+si'e as )eating and in,est. The"e a"e ma&ignant na",issists among s+)sisten,e *a"me"s in (*"i,a, nomads in the Sinai dese"t, da! &a)o"e"s in east E+"o e, and inte&&e,t+a&s and so,ia&ites in =anhattan. =a&ignant na",issism is a&&- e"'asi'e and inde endent o* ,+&t+"e and so,iet!. It is t"+e, tho+gh, that the G(J atho&ogi,a& na",issism mani*ests and is e> e"ien,ed is de endent on the a"ti,+&a"s o* so,ieties and ,+&t+"es. In some ,+&t+"es, it is en,o+"aged, in othe"s s+ "essed. In some so,ieties it is ,hanne&ed against mino"ities - in othe"s it is tainted -ith a"anoia. In ,o&&e,ti'ist so,ieties, it ma! )e "o$e,ted onto the ,o&&e,ti'e, in indi'id+a&isti, so,ieties, it is an indi'id+a&?s t"ait. Jet, ,an *ami&ies, o"ganiCations, ethni, g"o+ s, ,h+",hes, and e'en -ho&e nations )e sa*e&! des,"i)ed as 0na",issisti,0 o" 0 atho&ogi,a&&! se&*-a)so")ed0L Go+&dn?t s+,h gene"a&iCations )e a t"i*&e "a,ist and mo"e than a t"i*&e -"ongL The ans-e" is: it de ends.

6+man ,o&&e,ti'es - states, *i"ms, ho+seho&ds, instit+tions, o&iti,a& a"ties, ,&iK+es, )ands - a,K+i"e a &i*e and a ,ha"a,te" a&& thei" o-n. The &onge" the asso,iation o" a**i&iation o* the mem)e"s, the mo"e ,ohesi'e and ,on*o"mist the inne" d!nami,s o* the g"o+ , the mo"e e"se,+to"! o" n+me"o+s its enemies, the mo"e intensi'e the h!si,a& and emotiona& e> e"ien,es o* the indi'id+a&s it is ,om "ised o*, the st"onge" the )onds o* &o,a&e, &ang+age, and histo"! - the mo"e "igo"o+s might an asse"tion o* a ,ommon atho&og! )e. S+,h an a&&- e"'asi'e and e>tensi'e atho&og! mani*ests itse&* in the )eha'io" o* ea,h and e'e"! mem)e". It is a de*ining - tho+gh o*ten im &i,it o" +nde"&!ing - menta& st"+,t+"e. It has e> &anato"! and "edi,ti'e o-e"s. It is "e,+""ent and in'a"ia)&e - a atte"n o* ,ond+,t me&ded -ith disto"ted ,ognition and st+nted emotions. (nd it is o*ten 'ehement&! denied. ( ossi)&e DS=-&ike &ist o* ,"ite"ia *o" na",issisti, o"ganiCations o" g"o+ s: (n a&&- e"'asi'e atte"n o* g"andiosit! 4in *antas! o" )eha'io"5, need *o" admi"ation o" ad+&ation and &a,k o* em ath!, +s+a&&! )eginning at the g"o+ ?s ea"&! histo"! and "esent in 'a"io+s ,onte>ts. Pe"se,+tion and a)+se a"e o*ten the ,a+ses - o" at &east the ante,edents - o* the atho&og!. <i'e 4o" mo"e5 o* the *o&&o-ing ,"ite"ia m+st )e met: @. The g"o+ as a -ho&e, o" mem)e"s o* the g"o+ a,ting as s+,h and )! 'i"t+e o* thei" asso,iation and a**i&iation -ith the g"o+ - *ee& g"andiose and se&*-im o"tant 4e.g., the! e>agge"ate the g"o+ ?s a,hie'ements and ta&ents to the oint o* &!ing,

demand to )e "e,ogniCed as s+ e"io" - sim &! *o" )e&onging to the g"o+ and -itho+t ,ommens+"ate a,hie'ement5. 2. The g"o+ as a -ho&e, o" mem)e"s o* the g"o+ a,ting as s+,h and )! 'i"t+e o* thei" asso,iation and a**i&iation -ith the g"o+ - a"e o)sessed -ith g"o+ *antasies o* +n&imited s+,,ess, *ame, *ea"some o-e" o" omni oten,e, +neK+a&&ed )"i&&ian,e, )odi&! )ea+t! o" e"*o"man,e, o" idea&, e'e"&asting, a&&-,onK+e"ing idea&s o" o&iti,a& theo"ies. B. The g"o+ as a -ho&e, o" mem)e"s o* the g"o+ a,ting as s+,h and )! 'i"t+e o* thei" asso,iation and a**i&iation -ith the g"o+ - a"e *i"m&! ,on'in,ed that the g"o+ is +niK+e and, )eing s e,ia&, ,an on&! )e +nde"stood )!, sho+&d on&! )e t"eated )!, o" asso,iate -ith, othe" s e,ia& o" +niK+e, o" high-stat+s g"o+ s 4o" instit+tions5. 4. The g"o+ as a -ho&e, o" mem)e"s o* the g"o+ a,ting as s+,h and )! 'i"t+e o* thei" asso,iation and a**i&iation -ith the g"o+ - "eK+i"e e>,essi'e admi"ation, ad+&ation, attention and a**i"mation o", *ai&ing that, -ish to )e *ea"ed and to )e noto"io+s 4na",issisti, s+ &!5. D. The g"o+ as a -ho&e, o" mem)e"s o* the g"o+ a,ting as s+,h and )! 'i"t+e o* thei" asso,iation and a**i&iation -ith the g"o+ - *ee& entit&ed. The! e> e,t +n"easona)&e o" s e,ia& and *a'o"a)&e "io"it! t"eatment. The! demand a+tomati, and *+&& ,om &ian,e -ith e> e,tations. The! "a"e&! a,,e t "es onsi)i&it! *o" thei" a,tions 40a&&o &asti, de*enses05. This o*ten &eads to anti-so,ia&

)eha'io", ,o'e"-+ s, and ,"imina& a,ti'ities on a mass s,a&e. E. The g"o+ as a -ho&e, o" mem)e"s o* the g"o+ a,ting as s+,h and )! 'i"t+e o* thei" asso,iation and a**i&iation -ith the g"o+ - a"e 0inte" e"sona&&! e> &oitati'e0, i.e., +se othe"s to a,hie'e thei" o-n ends. This o*ten &eads to anti-so,ia& )eha'io", ,o'e"-+ s, and ,"imina& a,ti'ities on a mass s,a&e. F. The g"o+ as a -ho&e, o" mem)e"s o* the g"o+ a,ting as s+,h and )! 'i"t+e o* thei" asso,iation and a**i&iation -ith the g"o+ - a"e de'oid o* em ath!. The! a"e +na)&e o" +n-i&&ing to identi*! -ith o" a,kno-&edge the *ee&ings and needs o* othe" g"o+ s. This o*ten &eads to anti- so,ia& )eha'io", ,o'e"-+ s, and ,"imina& a,ti'ities on a mass s,a&e. I. The g"o+ as a -ho&e, o" mem)e"s o* the g"o+ a,ting as s+,h and )! 'i"t+e o* thei" asso,iation and a**i&iation -ith the g"o+ - a"e ,onstant&! en'io+s o* othe"s o" )e&ie'es that the! *ee& the same a)o+t them. This o*ten &eads to anti-so,ia& )eha'io", ,o'e"-+ s, and ,"imina& a,ti'ities on a mass s,a&e. A. The g"o+ as a -ho&e, o" mem)e"s o* the g"o+ a,ting as s+,h and )! 'i"t+e o* thei" asso,iation and a**i&iation -ith the g"o+ - a"e a""ogant and s o"t ha+ght! )eha'io"s o" attit+des ,o+ &ed -ith "age -hen *"+st"ated, ,ont"adi,ted, +nished, &imited, o" ,on*"onted. This o*ten &eads to antiso,ia& )eha'io", ,o'e"-+ s, and ,"imina& a,ti'ities on a mass s,a&e.

Conside" the ,ase o* the 8e-s. The 8e-s ha'e )een s+)$e,ted to the kind o* t"a+ma and a)+se I mentioned ea"&ie" on an +n "e,edented and ne'e" "e eated s,a&e. Thei" *o"ma& s,"i t+"es, &o"e, and ethos a"e im)+ed -ith g"andiose *antasies and a to-e"ing sense o* s+ e"io"it! and 0mission0. Jet, the ine'ita)&e ,ontem t *o" thei" in*e"io"s is tam e"ed )! the a&&- e"'asi'e "agmatism the 8e-s had to de'e&o in o"de" to s+"'i'e. Na",issists a"e not "agmati,. The! &i'e in a 3ni'e"se o* thei" o-n making. The! see no need to get a&ong -ith othe"s. 8e-s a"e not &ike that. Thei" ,"eed is a "a,ti,a& s+"'i'a& g+ide -hi,h o)&iges them to a,,ommodate othe"s, to em athiCe -ith thei" needs and desi"es, to ,om "omise, to admit e""o"s, to sha"e ,"edit, to ,o&&a)o"ate, and so on. Is"ae&is, on the othe" hand, a"e 0+nsha,k&ed0 8e-s. The! )e&ie'e themse&'es to )e the mi""o" image o* the dias o"a 8e-. The! a"e h!si,a& 40somati,05, st"ong, "od+,ti'e, inde endent, in ,ont"o&. The!, in sho"t, a"e &ess )o+nd )! the need to e"i&o+s&! ,o-e>ist -ith )a&e*+&, "edato"!, ma$o"ities. The! ,an a&&o- themse&'es a *+&&, +nmitigated, e> "ession o* -hate'e" de*en,e me,hanisms the! e'o&'ed in "es onse to mi&&ennia o* 'i"+&ent hat"ed and m+"de"o+s e"se,+tions. ;eing an Is"ae&i, I gained "i'i&eged insight into this *as,inating t"ans*o"mation *"om to"t+"ed s&a'e to 'enge*+& maste". Michael: I a&so aim to d"a- a a"a&&e& )et-een the no- de*+n,t So'iet 3nion and the ("a) states, as an i&&+st"ation o* the o"igin o* g"o+ s!,ho atho&og!, )e,a+se o* the ,&oseness o* thei" "es e,ti'e o&iti,a& ositions, the tota&ita"ian a "oa,h to thei" go'e"nan,e and thei" messiani, -o"&d'ie-.

%+&e"s o* )oth a"e1-e"e noto"io+s *o" thei" ,ontem t o* thei" s+)$e,t eo &e and thei" -i&&ingness to in*&i,t s+**e"ing in o"de" to "emain in o-e". The"e a"e some im o"tant and "a,ti,a& im &i,ations -hi,h ,o+&d )e d"a-n *"om these ,om a"isons. <o" e>am &e, I ha'e ,ome to )e&ie'e that the &i*est!&e in*&i,ted )! tota&ita"ian states on thei" ,itiCens &eads, among othe" things, to the heightened state o* g"o+ an>iet!, *ea" o* "e$e,tion, +n*+&*i&&ed de enden,! needs and ange" to-a"ds "e$e,to". These t"aits a"e o en to mani +&ation )! the as i"ants to the mant&e o* =essiah and "+&ing e&ites, eage" to "edi"e,t "e&ent&ess ange" o* thei" eo &e a-a! *"om themse&'es and to-a"ds thei" desi"ed o&iti,a& goa&s. It is ,on,ei'a)&e that the kno-&edge o* the )asis and o* te,hniK+es o* s+,h a mani +&ation ,o+&d )e +se*+& in the s+,,ess*+& management o* ,on*&i,t sit+ations. Sam: Instit+tiona&iCed "e&igion and tota&ita"ian states sha"e the same de*ense me,hanisms 4s+,h as "o$e,tion and s &itting5, ,o ing methods, and s!,hod!nami, )a,kg"o+nd. (+tho"ita"ian &eade"s a"e 'i"t+a& ,&ones, "ega"d&ess o* the ,+&t+"es and so,ieties that ga'e "ise to them 4see (&an ;+&&o,k?s magni*i,ent 06it&e" and Sta&in Pa"a&&e& #i'es05. This is -h! I ,a&& 6it&e" an 0in'e"ted0 saint. 6it&e" and NaCism a"e o*ten o"t"a!ed as an a o,a&! ti, and seismi, )"eak -ith E+"o ean histo"!. Jet the t"+th is that the! -e"e the ,+&mination and "ei*i,ation o* E+"o ean histo"! in the @Ath ,ent+"!. E+"o e?s anna&s o* ,o&onia&ism ha'e "e a"ed it *o" the "ange o* henomena asso,iated -ith the NaCi "egime - *"om ind+st"ia& m+"de" to "a,ia&

theo"ies, *"om s&a'e &a)o+" to the *o",i)&e anne>ation o* te""ito"!. 9e"man! -as a ,o&onia& o-e" no di**e"ent to m+"de"o+s ;e&gi+m o" ;"itain. Ghat set it a a"t is that it di"e,ted its ,o&onia& attentions at the hea"t&and o* E+"o e - "athe" than at (*"i,a o" (sia. ;oth Go"&d Ga"s -e"e ,o&onia& -a"s *o+ght on E+"o ean soi&. =o"eo'e", NaCi 9e"man! inno'ated )! a &!ing "e'ai&ing "a,ia& theo"ies 4+s+a&&! "ese"'ed to non--hites5 to the -hite "a,e itse&*. It sta"ted -ith the 8e-s - a non-,ont"o'e"sia& "o osition - )+t then e> anded them to in,&+de 0east E+"o ean0 -hites, s+,h as the Po&es and the %+ssians. 9e"man! -as not a&one in its ma&ignant nationa&ism. The *a" "ight in <"an,e -as as e"ni,io+s. NaCism - and <as,ism - -e"e -o"&d ideo&ogies, ado ted enth+siasti,a&&! in &a,es as di'e"se as I"aK, Eg! t, No"-a!, #atin (me"i,a, and ;"itain. (t the end o* the @AB0?s, &i)e"a& ,a ita&ism, ,omm+nism, and *as,ism 4and its m+tations5 -e"e &o,ked in mo"ta& )att&e o* ideo&ogies. 6it&e"?s mistake -as to de&+siona&&! )e&ie'e in the a**init! )et-een ,a ita&ism and NaCism - an a**init! enhan,ed, to his mind, )! 9e"man!?s ,o" o"atism and )! the e>isten,e o* a ,ommon enem!: g&o)a& ,omm+nism. Co&onia&ism a&-a!s had dis,e"ni)&e "e&igio+s o'e"tones and o*ten ,o&&a)o"ated -ith missiona"! "e&igion. 0The Ghite =an?s )+"den0 o* ,i'i&iCing the 0sa'ages0 -as -ide&! e",ei'ed as o"dained )! 9od. The ,h+",h -as the e>tension o* the ,o&onia& o-e"?s a"m! and t"ading ,om anies. It is no -onde" that 6it&e"?s &e)ens"a+m ,o&onia& mo'ement - NaCism - ossessed a&& the ha&&ma"ks o* an instit+tiona& "e&igion: "iesthood, "ites, "it+a&s, tem &es,

-o"shi , ,ate,hism, m!tho&og!. 6it&e" -as this "e&igion?s as,eti, saint. 6e monasti,a&&! denied himse&* ea"th&! &eas+"es 4o" so he ,&aimed5 in o"de" to )e a)&e to dedi,ate himse&* *+&&! to his ,a&&ing. 6it&e" -as a monst"o+s&! in'e"ted 8es+s, sa,"i*i,ing his &i*e and den!ing himse&* so that 4("!an5 h+manit! sho+&d )ene*it. ;! s+" assing and s+ "essing his h+manit!, 6it&e" )e,ame a disto"ted 'e"sion o* NietCs,he?s 0s+ e"man0. ;+t )eing a-h+man o" s+ e"-h+man a&so means )eing ase>+a& and a-mo"a&. In this "est"i,ted sense, 6it&e" -as a ost-mode"nist and a mo"a& "e&ati'ist. 6e "o$e,ted to the masses an and"og!no+s *ig+"e and enhan,ed it )! *oste"ing the ado"ation o* n+dit! and a&& things 0nat+"a&0. ;+t -hat NaCism "e*e""ed to as 0nat+"e0 -as not nat+"a& at a&&. It -as an aestheti, o* de,aden,e and e'i& 4tho+gh it -as not e",ei'ed this -a! )! the NaCis5, ,a"e*+&&! o",hest"ated, and a"ti*i,ia&. NaCism -as a)o+t "e "od+,ed ,o ies, not a)o+t o"igina&s. It -as a)o+t the mani +&ation o* s!m)o&s - not a)o+t 'e"ita)&e ata'ism. In sho"t: NaCism -as a)o+t theat"e, not a)o+t &i*e. To en$o! the s e,ta,&e 4and )e s+)s+med )! it5, NaCism demanded the s+s ension o* $+dgment, de e"sona&iCation, and de-"ea&iCation. Catha"sis -as tantamo+nt, in NaCi d"amat+"g!, to se&*-ann+&ment. NaCism -as nihi&isti, not on&! o e"ationa&&!, o" ideo&ogi,a&&!. Its 'e"! &ang+age and na""ati'es -e"e nihi&isti,. NaCism -as ,ons i,+o+s nihi&ism - and 6it&e" se"'ed as a "o&e mode&, annihi&ating 6it&e" the =an, on&! to "e-a ea" as 6it&e" the st!,hia. Ghat -as the "o&e o* the 8e-s in a&& thisL NaCism osed as a "e)e&&ion against the 0o&d -a!s0 -

against the hegemoni, ,+&t+"e, the + e" ,&asses, the esta)&ished "e&igions, the s+ e" o-e"s, the E+"o ean o"de". The NaCis )o""o-ed the #eninist 'o,a)+&a"! and assimi&ated it e**e,ti'e&!. 6it&e" and the NaCis -e"e an ado&es,ent mo'ement, a "ea,tion to na",issisti, in$+"ies in*&i,ted + on a na",issisti, 4and "athe" s!,ho athi,5 todd&e" nation-state. 6it&e" himse&* -as a ma&ignant na",issist, as <"omm ,o""e,t&! noted. The 8e-s ,onstit+ted a e"*e,t, easi&! identi*ia)&e, em)odiment o* a&& that -as 0-"ong0 -ith E+"o e. The! -e"e an o&d nation, the! -e"e ee"i&! disem)odied 4-itho+t a te""ito"!5, the! -e"e ,osmo o&itan, the! -e"e a"t o* the esta)&ishment, the! -e"e 0de,adent0, the! -e"e hated on "e&igio+s and so,io-e,onomi, g"o+nds 4see 9o&dhagen?s 06it&e"?s Gi&&ing E>e,+tione"s05, the! -e"e di**e"ent, the! -e"e na",issisti, 4*e&t and a,ted as mo"a&&! s+ e"io"5, the! -e"e e'e"!-he"e, the! -e"e de*ense&ess, the! -e"e ,"ed+&o+s, the! -e"e ada ta)&e 4and th+s ,o+&d )e ,oo ted to ,o&&a)o"ate in thei" o-n dest"+,tion5. The! -e"e the e"*e,t hated *athe" *ig+"e and a""i,ide -as in *ashion. This is "e,ise&! the so+",e o* the *as,ination -ith 6it&e". 6e -as an in'e"ted h+man. 6is +n,ons,io+s -as his ,ons,io+s. 6e a,ted o+t o+" most "e "essed d"i'es, *antasies, and -ishes. 6e "o'ides +s -ith a g&im se o* the ho""o"s that &ie )eneath the 'enee", the )a")a"ians at o+" e"sona& gates, and -hat it -as &ike )e*o"e -e in'ented ,i'i&iCation. 6it&e" *o",ed +s a&& th"o+gh a time -a" and man! did not eme"ge. 6e -as not the de'i&. 6e -as one o* +s. 6e -as -hat ("endt a t&! ,a&&ed the )ana&it! o* e'i&. 8+st an o"dina"!, menta&&! dist+")ed, *ai&+"e, a mem)e" o* a menta&&! dist+")ed and *ai&ing nation, -ho &i'ed th"o+gh dist+")ed and *ai&ing times. 6e

-as the e"*e,t mi""o", a ,hanne&, a 'oi,e, and the 'e"! de th o* o+" so+&s. The na",issisti, &eade" is the ,+&mination and "ei*i,ation o* his e"iod, ,+&t+"e, and ,i'i&iCation. 6e is &ike&! to "ise to "ominen,e in na",issisti, so,ieties. The ma&ignant na",issist in'ents and then "o$e,ts a *a&se, *i,titio+s, se&* *o" the -o"&d to *ea", o" to admi"e. 6e maintains a ten+o+s g"as on "ea&it! to sta"t -ith and this is *+"the" e>a,e")ated )! the t"a ings o* o-e". The na",issist?s g"andiose se&*-de&+sions and *antasies o* omni oten,e and omnis,ien,e a"e s+ o"ted )! "ea& &i*e a+tho"it! and the na",issist?s "edi&e,tion to s+""o+nd himse&* -ith o)seK+io+s s!,o hants. The na",issist?s e"sona&it! is so "e,a"io+s&! )a&an,ed that he ,annot to&e"ate e'en a hint o* ,"iti,ism and disag"eement. =ost na",issists a"e a"anoid and s+**e" *"om ideas o* "e*e"en,e 4the de&+sion that the! a"e )eing mo,ked o" dis,+ssed -hen the! a"e not5. Th+s, na",issists o*ten "ega"d themse&'es as 0'i,tims o* e"se,+tion0. The na",issisti, &eade" *oste"s and en,o+"ages a e"sona&it! ,+&t -ith a&& the ha&&ma"ks o* an instit+tiona& "e&igion: "iesthood, "ites, "it+a&s, tem &es, -o"shi , ,ate,hism, m!tho&og!. The &eade" is this "e&igion?s as,eti, saint. 6e monasti,a&&! denies himse&* ea"th&! &eas+"es 4o" so he ,&aims5 in o"de" to )e a)&e to dedi,ate himse&* *+&&! to his ,a&&ing. The na",issisti, &eade" is a monst"o+s&! in'e"ted 8es+s, sa,"i*i,ing his &i*e and den!ing himse&* so that his eo &e o" h+manit! at &a"ge - sho+&d )ene*it. ;! s+" assing and s+ "essing his h+manit!, the na",issisti, &eade" )e,ame a disto"ted 'e"sion o* NietCs,he?s 0s+ e"man0.

;+t )eing a-h+man o" s+ e"-h+man a&so means )eing ase>+a& and a-mo"a&. In this "est"i,ted sense, na",issisti, &eade"s a"e ostmode"nist and mo"a& "e&ati'ists. The! "o$e,t to the masses an and"og!no+s *ig+"e and enhan,e it )! engende"ing the ado"ation o* n+dit! and a&& things 0nat+"a&0 - o" )! st"ong&! "e "essing these *ee&ings. ;+t -hat the! "e*e" to as 0nat+"e0 is not nat+"a& at a&&. The na",issisti, &eade" in'a"ia)&! "o**e"s an aestheti, o* de,aden,e and e'i& ,a"e*+&&! o",hest"ated and a"ti*i,ia& tho+gh it is not e",ei'ed this -a! )! him o" )! his *o&&o-e"s. Na",issisti, &eade"shi is a)o+t "e "od+,ed ,o ies, not a)o+t o"igina&s. It is a)o+t the mani +&ation o* s!m)o&s - not a)o+t 'e"ita)&e ata'ism o" t"+e ,onse"'atism. In sho"t: na",issisti, &eade"shi is a)o+t theat"e, not a)o+t &i*e. To en$o! the s e,ta,&e 4and )e s+)s+med )! it5, the &eade" demands the s+s ension o* $+dgment, de e"sona&iCation, and de-"ea&iCation. Catha"sis is tantamo+nt, in this na",issisti, d"amat+"g!, to se&*ann+&ment. Na",issism is nihi&isti, not on&! o e"ationa&&!, o" ideo&ogi,a&&!. Its 'e"! &ang+age and na""ati'es a"e nihi&isti,. Na",issism is ,ons i,+o+s nihi&ism - and the ,+&t?s &eade" se"'es as a "o&e mode&, annihi&ating the =an, on&! to "e-a ea" as a "e-o"dained and i""esisti)&e *o",e o* nat+"e. Na",issisti, &eade"shi o*ten oses as a "e)e&&ion against the 0o&d -a!s0 - against the hegemoni, ,+&t+"e, the + e" ,&asses, the esta)&ished "e&igions, the s+ e" o-e"s, the ,o""+ t o"de". Na",issisti, mo'ements a"e +e"i&e, a

"ea,tion to na",issisti, in$+"ies in*&i,ted + on a na",issisti, 4and "athe" s!,ho athi,5 todd&e" nation-state, o" g"o+ , o" + on the &eade". =ino"ities o" 0othe"s0 - o*ten a")it"a"i&! se&e,ted ,onstit+te a e"*e,t, easi&! identi*ia)&e, em)odiment o* a&& that is 0-"ong0. The! a"e a,,+sed o* )eing o&d, the! a"e ee"i&! disem)odied, the! a"e ,osmo o&itan, the! a"e a"t o* the esta)&ishment, the! a"e 0de,adent0, the! a"e hated on "e&igio+s and so,io-e,onomi, g"o+nds, o" )e,a+se o* thei" "a,e, se>+a& o"ientation, o"igin ... The! a"e di**e"ent, the! a"e na",issisti, 4*ee& and a,t as mo"a&&! s+ e"io"5, the! a"e e'e"!-he"e, the! a"e de*ense&ess, the! a"e ,"ed+&o+s, the! a"e ada ta)&e 4and th+s ,an )e ,o-o ted to ,o&&a)o"ate in thei" o-n dest"+,tion5. The! a"e the e"*e,t hate *ig+"e. Na",issists th"i'e on hat"ed and atho&ogi,a& en'!. This is "e,ise&! the so+",e o* the *as,ination -ith 6it&e", diagnosed )! E"i,h <"omm - togethe" -ith Sta&in - as a ma&ignant na",issist. 6e -as an in'e"ted h+man. 6is +n,ons,io+s -as his ,ons,io+s. 6e a,ted o+t o+" most "e "essed d"i'es, *antasies, and -ishes. 6e "o'ides +s -ith a g&im se o* the ho""o"s that &ie )eneath the 'enee", the )a")a"ians at o+" e"sona& gates, and -hat it -as &ike )e*o"e -e in'ented ,i'i&iCation. 6it&e" *o",ed +s a&& th"o+gh a time -a" and man! did not eme"ge. 6e -as not the de'i&. 6e -as one o* +s. 6e -as -hat ("endt a t&! ,a&&ed the )ana&it! o* e'i&. 8+st an o"dina"!, menta&&! dist+")ed, *ai&+"e, a mem)e" o* a menta&&! dist+")ed and *ai&ing nation, -ho &i'ed th"o+gh dist+")ed and *ai&ing times. 6e -as the e"*e,t mi""o", a ,hanne&, a 'oi,e, and the 'e"! de th o* o+" so+&s. The na",issisti, &eade" "e*e"s the s a"k&e and g&amo+" o* -e&&-o",hest"ated i&&+sions to the tedi+m and method o*

"ea& a,,om &ishments. 6is "eign is a&& smoke and mi""o"s, de'oid o* s+)stan,es, ,onsisting o* me"e a ea"an,es and mass de&+sions. In the a*te"math o* his "egime - the na",issisti, &eade" ha'ing died, )een de osed, o" 'oted o+t o* o**i,e - it a&& +n"a'e&s. The ti"e&ess and ,onstant "estidigitation ,eases and the enti"e edi*i,e ,"+m)&es. Ghat &ooked &ike an e,onomi, mi"a,&e t+"ns o+t to ha'e )een a *"a+d-&a,ed )+))&e. #oose&!-he&d em i"es disinteg"ate. #a)o"io+s&! assem)&ed )+siness ,ong&ome"ates go to ie,es. 0Ea"th shatte"ing0 and 0"e'o&+tiona"!0 s,ienti*i, dis,o'e"ies and theo"ies a"e dis,"edited. So,ia& e> e"iments end in ma!hem. It is im o"tant to +nde"stand that the +se o* 'io&en,e m+st )e ego-s!ntoni,. It m+st a,,o"d -ith the se&*-image o* the na",issist. It m+st a)et and s+stain his g"andiose *antasies and *eed his sense o* entit&ement. It m+st ,on*o"m -ith the na",issisti, na""ati'e. Th+s, a na",issist -ho "ega"ds himse&* as the )ene*a,to" o* the oo", a mem)e" o* the ,ommon *o&k, the "e "esentati'e o* the disen*"an,hised, the ,ham ion o* the dis ossessed against the ,o""+ t e&ite - is high&! +n&ike&! to +se 'io&en,e at *i"st. The a,i*i, mask ,"+m)&es -hen the na",issist has )e,ome ,on'in,ed that the 'e"! eo &e he +" o"ted to s eak *o", his ,onstit+en,!, his g"ass"oots *ans, the "ime so+",es o* his na",issisti, s+ &! - ha'e t+"ned against him. (t *i"st, in a des e"ate e**o"t to maintain the *i,tion +nde"&!ing his ,haoti, e"sona&it!, the na",issist st"i'es to e> &ain a-a! the s+dden "e'e"sa& o* sentiment. 0The eo &e a"e )eing d+ ed )! 4the media, )ig ind+st"!, the mi&ita"!, the e&ite, et,.50, 0the! don?t "ea&&! kno- -hat the! a"e doing0, 0*o&&o-ing a "+de a-akening, the! -i&& "e'e"t to *o"m0, et,.

Ghen these *&ims! attem ts to at,h a tatte"ed e"sona& m!tho&og! *ai& - the na",issist is in$+"ed. Na",issisti, in$+"! ine'ita)&! &eads to na",issisti, "age and to a te""i*!ing dis &a! o* +n)"id&ed agg"ession. The ent-+ *"+st"ation and h+"t t"ans&ate into de'a&+ation. That -hi,h -as "e'io+s&! idea&iCed - is no- dis,a"ded -ith ,ontem t and hat"ed. This "imiti'e de*ense me,hanism is ,a&&ed 0s &itting0. To the na",issist, things and eo &e a"e eithe" enti"e&! )ad 4e'i&5 o" enti"e&! good. 6e "o$e,ts onto othe"s his o-n sho"t,omings and negati'e emotions, th+s )e,oming a tota&&! good o)$e,t. ( na",issisti, &eade" is &ike&! to $+sti*! the )+t,he"ing o* his o-n eo &e )! ,&aiming that the! intended to ki&& him, +ndo the "e'o&+tion, de'astate the e,onom!, o" the ,o+nt"!, et,. The 0sma&& eo &e0, the 0"ank and *i&e0, the 0&o!a& so&die"s0 o* the na",issist - his *&o,k, his nation, his em &o!ees - the! a! the "i,e. The disi&&+sionment and disen,hantment a"e agoniCing. The "o,ess o* "e,onst"+,tion, o* "ising *"om the ashes, o* o'e",oming the t"a+ma o* ha'ing )een de,ei'ed, e> &oited and mani +&ated - is d"a-n-o+t. It is di**i,+&t to t"+st again, to ha'e *aith, to &o'e, to )e &ed, to ,o&&a)o"ate. <ee&ings o* shame and g+i&t eng+&* the e"st-hi&e *o&&o-e"s o* the na",issist. This is his so&e &ega,!: a massi'e ostt"a+mati, st"ess diso"de". =o"e he"e: .arcissists in Positions of *#thority =hat !oth a Leader MakeG Fascism ? The Tensile Permanence

For the Love of %od Facilitating .arcissism The C#lt of the .arcissist The .arcissist and Social ,nstit#tions Michael: The essen,e o* this dia&og ,o+&d )e "ed+,ed to t-o *+ndamenta& notions. The *i"st notion sti +&ates, that a tota&ita"ian state, )e it se,+&a" o" ,&e"i,a&, im oses on its ,itiCens a e"manent state o* *ea" as an emotiona& )a,kg"o+nd. The ,itiCen"! o* tota&ita"ian o" 'io&ent&! di,tato"ia& states has no &egitimate means to dis,ha"ge this *ea". This ,ontin+o+s state o* *ea", o" an>iet! as it is ,&ini,a&&! ,a&&ed, &eads to a de'e&o ment o* a g"o+ s!,ho atho&og!. The de'e&o ment o* g"o+ ,ha"a,te"isti,s ,onsists o* e"sona& e> os+"e to the same ,onditions, in,&+ding st"ess, m+&ti &ied and am &i*ied )! the n+m)e" o* a"ti,i ants. The se,ond notion sti +&ates that g"o+ s!,ho atho&og! is ,ha"a,te"iCed )! the 'a"iet! o* end+"ing, o*ten se&*ha"ming "es onses and t"aits, s+,h as ma&ada ti'e ,o ing and ,a"e-e&i,iting te,hniK+es, emotiona& '+&ne"a)i&it!, +n*+&*i&&ed de enden,! needs, anti-so,ia& )eha'io" and othe" ,ha"a,te"isti,s o* e"sona&it! diso"de"s, e>tended to the -ho&e o" a ma$o"it! o* the gi'en g"o+ . The! )e,ome -o'en into the *a)"i, o* the nationa& ,ha"a,te" and )eha'io". It ,o+&d ha en to a -ho&e nation, t"a+matiCed )! e>te"na& and inte"na& st"esso"s, e.g. the Pa&estinians, o" to a ma"gina&ised s+)g"o+ , s+,h as the (+st"a&ian ()o"igines o" (*"o-(me"i,an d-e&&e"s o* inne" ,it! en,&a'es. %+&es o* inte" e"sona& ,onta,t -ithin these g"o+ s a"e K+ite di**e"ent *"om the "+&es, go'e"ning

inte" e"sona& ,onta,t in the mainst"eam so,iet!. In so,ieties -ith &o- &e'e& o* g"o+ s!,ho atho&og!, these t"aits a"e gi'en stat+s o* e"sona& s!,ho atho&og! and a"e "ega"ded as e"sona&it! diso"de"s, t"eata)&e s!,hiat"i,a&&!. Sam: 6e"e I )eg to di**e". ( e"sona& s!,ho atho&og! that is indisting+isha)&e *"om the 0)a,kg"o+nd noise0 o* mass o" ,o&&e,ti'e s!,ho atho&og! is +n&ike&! to )e diagnosed as s+,h. In a na",issisti, so,iet!, na",issism is de-"ig+e+" not an a)e""ation. Con'e"se&!, some menta& hea&th s!nd"omes and diso"de"s a"e 0,+&t+"e-)o+nd0 - the! a"e s e,i*i, to one ,+&t+"e on&! and "a"e&! a ea" e&se-he"e. Conside" the ,ase o* atho&ogi,a& na",issism: Ge a"e s+""o+nded )! ma&ignant na",issists. 6o- ,ome this diso"de" has hithe"to )een &a"ge&! igno"edL 6o- ,ome the"e is s+,h a dea"th o* "esea",h and &ite"at+"e "ega"ding this ,"+,ia& *ami&! o* atho&ogiesL E'en menta& hea&th "a,titione"s a"e -oe*+&&! +na-a"e o* it and +n "e a"ed to assist its 'i,tims. The sad ans-e" is that na",issism meshes -e&& -ith o+" ,+&t+"e Msee: htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1&as,h.htm&N. It is kind o* a 0)a,kg"o+nd ,osmi, "adiation0, e"meating e'e"! so,ia& and ,+&t+"a& inte"a,tion. It is ha"d to disting+ish atho&ogi,a& na",issists *"om se&*-asse"ti'e, se&*-,on*ident, se&*- "omoting, e,,ent"i,, o" high&! indi'id+a&isti, e"sons. 6a"d se&&, g"eed, en'!, se&*,ent"edness, e> &oitati'eness, diminished em ath! - a"e a&& so,ia&&! ,ondoned *eat+"es o* Geste"n ,i'i&iCation.

O+" so,iet! is atomiCed, the o+t,ome o* indi'id+a&ism gone a-"!. It en,o+"ages na",issisti, &eade"shi and "o&e mode&s: htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1@D.htm& Its s+)-st"+,t+"es - instit+tiona&iCed "e&igion, o&iti,a& a"ties, ,i'i, o"ganiCations, the media, ,o" o"ations - a"e a&& s+**+sed -ith na",issism and e"'aded )! its e"ni,io+s o+t,omes: htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1@4.htm& The 'e"! ethos o* mate"ia&ism and ,a ita&ism + ho&ds ,e"tain na",issisti, t"aits, s+,h as "ed+,ed em ath!, e> &oitation, a sense o* entit&ement, o" g"andiose *antasies 40'ision05. =o"e a)o+t this he"e: htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1$o+"na&BF.htm& Na",issists a"e aided, a)etted and *a,i&itated )! *o+" t! es o* eo &e and instit+tions: the ad+&ato"s, the )&iss*+&&! igno"ant, the se&*-de,ei'ing and those de,ei'ed )! the na",issist. The ad+&ato"s a"e *+&&! a-a"e o* the ne*a"io+s and damaging as e,ts o* the na",issist?s )eha'io" )+t )e&ie'e that the! a"e mo"e than )a&an,ed )! the )ene*its - to themse&'es, to thei" ,o&&e,ti'e, o" to so,iet! at &a"ge. The! engage in an e> &i,it t"ade-o** )et-een some o* thei" "in,i &es and 'a&+es - and thei" e"sona& "o*it, o" the g"eate" good. The! seek to he& the na",issist, "omote his agenda, shie&d him *"om ha"m, ,onne,t him -ith &ike-minded eo &e, do his ,ho"es *o" him and, in gene"a&, ,"eate the ,onditions and the en'i"onment *o" his s+,,ess. This kind o* a&&ian,e is es e,ia&&! "e'a&ent in o&iti,a& a"ties, the go'e"nment, m+&tinationa&, "e&igio+s o"ganiCations and othe" hie"a",hi,a& ,o&&e,ti'es.

The )&iss*+&&! igno"ant a"e sim &! +na-a"e o* the 0)ad sides0 o* the na",issist- and make s+"e the! "emain so. The! &ook the othe" -a!, o" "etend that the na",issist?s )eha'io" is no"mati'e, o" t+"n a )&ind e!e to his eg"egio+s mis)eha'io". The! a"e ,&assi, denie"s o* "ea&it!. Some o* them maintain a gene"a&&! "os! o+t&ook "emised on the in)"ed )ene'o&en,e o* =ankind. Othe"s sim &! ,annot to&e"ate dissonan,e and dis,o"d. The! "e*e" to &i'e in a *antasti, -o"&d -he"e e'e"!thing is ha"monio+s and smooth and e'i& is )anished. The! "ea,t -ith "age to an! in*o"mation to the ,ont"a"! and )&o,k it o+t instant&!. This t! e o* denia& is -e&& e'iden,ed in d!s*+n,tiona& *ami&ies. The se&*-de,ei'e"s a"e *+&&! a-a"e o* the na",issist?s t"ansg"essions and ma&i,e, his indi**e"en,e, e> &oitati'eness, &a,k o* em ath!, and "am ant g"andiosit! - )+t the! "e*e" to dis &a,e the ,a+ses, o" the e**e,ts o* s+,h mis,ond+,t. The! att"i)+te it to e>te"na&ities 40a "o+gh at,h05, o" $+dge it to )e tem o"a"!. The! e'en go as *a" as a,,+sing the 'i,tim *o" the na",issist?s &a ses, o" *o" de*ending themse&'es 40She "o'oked him05. In a *eat o* ,ogniti'e dissonan,e, the! den! an! ,onne,tion )et-een the a,ts o* the na",issist and thei" ,onseK+en,es 406is -i*e a)andoned him )e,a+se she -as "omis,+o+s, not )e,a+se o* an!thing he did to he"05. The! a"e s-a!ed )! the na",issist?s +ndenia)&e ,ha"m, inte&&igen,e, o" att"a,ti'eness. ;+t the na",issist needs not in'est "eso+",es in ,on'e"ting them to his ,a+se - he does not de,ei'e them. The! a"e se&*- "o e&&ed into the a)!ss that is na",issism. The in'e"ted na",issists, *o" instan,e, is a se&*-de,ei'e". The de,ei'ed a"e eo &e - o" instit+tions, o" ,o&&e,ti'es de&i)e"ate&! taken *o" a "emeditated "ide )! the na",issist.

6e *eeds them *a&se in*o"mation, mani +&ates thei" $+dgment, "o**e"s &a+si)&e s,ena"ios to a,,o+nt *o" his indis,"etions, soi&s the o osition, ,ha"ms them, a ea&s to thei" "eason, o" to thei" emotions, and "omises the =oon. (gain, the na",issist?s in,ont"o'e"ti)&e o-e"s o* e"s+asion and his im "essi'e e"sona&it! &a! a a"t in this "edato"! "it+a&. The de,ei'ed a"e es e,ia&&! ha"d to de "og"am. The! a"e o*ten themse&'es en,+m)e"ed -ith na",issisti, t"aits and *ind it im ossi)&e to admit a mistake, o" to atone. The! a"e &ike&! to sta! on -ith the na",issist to his - and thei" - )itte" end. %eg"etta)&!, the na",issist "a"e&! a!s the "i,e *o" his o**enses. 6is 'i,tims i,k + the ta). ;+t e'en he"e the ma&ignant o timism o* the a)+sed ne'e" ,eases to amaCe 4"ead this: htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1$o+"na&2F.htm&5. Na",issists a"e an e&+si'e )"eed, ha"d to s ot, ha"de" to in oint, im ossi)&e to ,a t+"e. E'en an e> e"ien,ed menta& hea&th diagnosti,ian -ith +nmitigated a,,ess to the "e,o"d and to the e"son e>amined -o+&d *ind it *iendish&! di**i,+&t to dete"mine -ith an! deg"ee o* ,e"taint! -hethe" someone s+**e"s *"om an im ai"ment, i.e., a menta& hea&th diso"de" . o" me"e&! ossesses na",issisti, t"aits, a na",issisti, e"sona&it! st"+,t+"e 40,ha"a,te"05, o" a na",issisti, 0o'e"&a!0 s+ e"im osed on anothe" menta& hea&th "o)&em. =o"eo'e", it is im o"tant to disting+ish )et-een the t"aits and )eha'io" atte"ns that a"e inde endent o* the atient?s ,+&t+"a&-so,ia& ,onte>t 4i.e., inhe"ent, o" idios!n,"ati,5 and "ea,ti'e atte"ns, o" ,on*o"mit! to ,+&t+"a& and so,ia&

mo"es and edi,ts. %ea,tions to se'e"e &i*e ,"ises a"e o*ten ,ha"a,te"iCed )! t"ansient atho&ogi,a& na",issism, *o" instan,e 4%onningstam and 9+nde"son, @AAE5. ;+t s+,h "ea,tions do not a na",issist make. Ghen a e"son &i'es in a so,iet! and ,+&t+"e that has o*ten )een des,"i)ed as na",issisti, )! the &eading &ights o* s,ho&a"&! "esea",h 4e.g., Theodo"e =i&&on5 and so,ia& thinking 4e.g., Ch"isto he" #as,h5 - ho- m+,h o* his )eha'io" ,an )e att"i)+ted to his mi&ie+ . and -hi,h o* his t"aits a"e "ea&&! hisL =o"eo'e", the"e is a K+a&itati'e di**e"en,e )et-een ha'ing na",issisti, t"aits, a na",issisti, e"sona&it!, o" the Na",issisti, Pe"sona&it! Diso"de". The &atte" is "igo"o+s&! de*ined in the DS= IV-T% and in,&+des st"i,t ,"ite"ia and di**e"entia& diagnoses 4*o" mo"e, see he"e: htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1n dg&an,e.htm&5. Na",issism is "ega"ded )! man! s,ho&a"s to )e an ada tati'e st"ateg! 40hea&th! na",issism05. It is ,onside"ed atho&ogi,a& in the ,&ini,a& sense on&! -hen it )e,omes a "igid e"sona&it! st"+,t+"e "e &ete -ith a se"ies o* "imiti'e de*en,e me,hanisms 4s+,h as s &itting, "o$e,tion, P"o$e,ti'e Identi*i,ation, inte&&e,t+a&iCation5 . and -hen it &eads to d!s*+n,tions in one o" mo"e a"eas o* &i*e. Patho&ogi,a& na",issism is the a"t o* de,e tion. The na",issist "o$e,ts a <a&se Se&* and manages a&& his so,ia& inte"a,tions th"o+gh this ,on,o,ted *i,tiona& ,onst"+,t. Peo &e o*ten *ind themse&'es in'o&'ed -ith a na",issist 4emotiona&&!, in )+siness, o" othe"-ise5 )e*o"e the! ha'e a ,han,e to dis,o'e" his t"+e nat+"e. Ghen the na",issist "e'ea&s his t"+e ,o&o"s, it is +s+a&&! *a"

too &ate. 6is 'i,tims a"e +na)&e to se a"ate *"om him. The! a"e *"+st"ated )! this a,K+i"ed he& &essness and ang"! that the! *ai&ed to see th"o+gh the na",issist ea"&ie" on. =o"e he"e: The Classification of C#lt#res Michael: Sti&&, in so,ieties, t"a+matised )! di,tato"shi s high &e'e& o* g"o+ an>iet! &eads to a tenden,! o* the +ni'e"sa& ado tion o* ma&ada ti'e mode o* inte" e"sona& ,omm+ni,ation, so st"iking&! di**e"ent to an o+tside o)se"'e" *"om non-t"a+matised so,iet!. These di**e"en,es ha'e the otentia& *o" ,omm+ni,ation di**i,+&ties )et-een eo &e -ho "eside in so,ieties -ith high &e'e& o* g"o+ s!,ho atho&og! and those &i'ing in a so,iet! -ith "e&ati'e&! &o- &e'e& o* g"o+ s!,ho atho&og!. Sam: (ss+ming, o* ,o+"se, -e ,an ag"ee on -hat ,onstit+tes s!,ho atho&og!. "Ho# can know the name of a ird in all the lang#ages of the world, #t when yo#Fre finished, yo#Fll know a sol#tely nothing whatever a o#t the irdI So letFs look at the ird and see what itFs doing B thatFs what co#nts' , learned very early the difference etween knowing the name of something and knowing something'" %i,ha"d <e!nman, Ph!si,ist and @AED No)e& P"iCe &a+"eate 4@A@I-@AII5

"Ho# have all , dare say heard of the animal s)irits and how they are transf#sed from father to son etcetera etcetera B well yo# may take my word that nine )arts in ten of a manFs sense or his nonsense, his s#ccesses and miscarriages in this world de)end on their motions and activities, and the different tracks and trains yo# )#t them into, so that when they are once set a?going, whether right or wrong, away they go cl#ttering like hey?go?mad'" #a-"en,e Ste"ne 4@F@B-@FDI5, 0The #i*e and O inions o* T"ist"am Shand!, 9ent&eman0 4@FDA5 I" Ove(vie< Someone is ,onside"ed menta&&! 0i&&0 i*: @. 6is ,ond+,t "igid&! and ,onsistent&! de'iates *"om the t! i,a&, a'e"age )eha'io" o* a&& othe" eo &e in his ,+&t+"e and so,iet! that *it his "o*i&e 4-hethe" this ,on'entiona& )eha'io" is mo"a& o" "ationa& is immate"ia&5, o" 2. 6is $+dgment and g"as o* o)$e,ti'e, h!si,a& "ea&it! is im ai"ed, and B. 6is ,ond+,t is not a matte" o* ,hoi,e )+t is innate and i""esisti)&e, and 4. 6is )eha'io" ,a+ses him o" othe"s dis,om*o"t, and is D. D!s*+n,tiona&, se&*-de*eating, and se&*-dest"+,ti'e e'en )! his o-n !a"dsti,ks. Des,"i ti'e ,"ite"ia aside, -hat is the essence o* menta& diso"de"sL ("e the! me"e&! h!sio&ogi,a& diso"de"s o* the

)"ain, o", mo"e "e,ise&! o* its ,hemist"!L I* so, ,an the! )e ,+"ed )! "esto"ing the )a&an,e o* s+)stan,es and se,"etions in that m!ste"io+s o"ganL (nd, on,e eK+i&i)"i+m is "einstated . is the i&&ness 0gone0 o" is it sti&& &+"king the"e, 0+nde" -"a s0, -aiting to e"+ tL ("e s!,hiat"i, "o)&ems inhe"ited, "ooted in *a+&t! genes 4tho+gh am &i*ied )! en'i"onmenta& *a,to"s5 . o" )"o+ght on )! a)+si'e o" -"ong n+"t+"an,eL These K+estions a"e the domain o* the 0medi,a&0 s,hoo& o* menta& hea&th. Othe"s ,&ing to the s i"it+a& 'ie- o* the h+man s!,he. The! )e&ie'e that menta& ai&ments amo+nt to the meta h!si,a& dis,om os+"e o* an +nkno-n medi+m . the so+&. Thei"s is a ho&isti, a "oa,h, taking in the atient in his o" he" enti"et!, as -e&& as his mi&ie+. The mem)e"s o* the *+n,tiona& s,hoo& "ega"d menta& hea&th diso"de"s as e"t+")ations in the "o e", statisti,a&&! 0no"ma&0, )eha'io"s and mani*estations o* 0hea&th!0 indi'id+a&s, o" as d!s*+n,tions. The 0si,k0 indi'id+a& . i&& at ease -ith himse&* 4ego-d!stoni,5 o" making othe"s +nha ! 4de'iant5 . is 0mended0 -hen "ende"ed *+n,tiona& again )! the "e'ai&ing standa"ds o* his so,ia& and ,+&t+"a& *"ame o* "e*e"en,e. In a -a!, the th"ee s,hoo&s a"e akin to the t"io o* )&ind men -ho "ende" dis a"ate des,"i tions o* the 'e"! same e&e hant. Sti&&, the! sha"e not on&! thei" s+)$e,t matte" . )+t, to a ,o+nte" int+iti'e&! &a"ge deg"ee, a *a+&t! methodo&og!. (s the "eno-ned anti- s!,hiat"ist, Thomas SCasC, o* the State 3ni'e"sit! o* Ne- Jo"k, notes in his a"ti,&e "The Lying Tr#ths of Psychiatry", menta& hea&th s,ho&a"s,

"ega"d&ess o* a,ademi, "edi&e,tion, in*e" the etio&og! o* menta& diso"de"s *"om the s+,,ess o" *ai&+"e o* t"eatment moda&ities. This *o"m o* 0"e'e"se enginee"ing0 o* s,ienti*i, mode&s is not +nkno-n in othe" *ie&ds o* s,ien,e, no" is it +na,,e ta)&e i* the e> e"iments meet the ,"ite"ia o* the s,ienti*i, method. The theo"! m+st )e a&&-in,&+si'e 4anamneti,5, ,onsistent, *a&si*ia)&e, &ogi,a&&! ,om ati)&e, mono'a&ent, and a"simonio+s. Ps!,ho&ogi,a& 0theo"ies0 . e'en the 0medi,a&0 ones 4the "o&e o* se"otonin and do amine in mood diso"de"s, *o" instan,e5 . a"e +s+a&&! none o* these things. The o+t,ome is a )e-i&de"ing a""a! o* e'e"-shi*ting menta& hea&th 0diagnoses0 e> "ess&! ,ent"ed a"o+nd Geste"n ,i'i&isation and its standa"ds 4e>am &e: the ethi,a& o)$e,tion to s+i,ide5. Ne+"osis, a histo"i,a&&! *+ndamenta& 0,ondition0 'anished a*te" @AI0. 6omose>+a&it!, a,,o"ding to the (me"i,an Ps!,hiat"i, (sso,iation, -as a atho&og! "io" to @AFB. Se'en !ea"s &ate", na",issism -as de,&a"ed a 0 e"sona&it! diso"de"0, a&most se'en de,ades a*te" it -as *i"st des,"i)ed )! <"e+d. ,,' Personality !isorders Indeed, e"sona&it! diso"de"s a"e an e>,e&&ent e>am &e o* the ka&eidos,o i, &ands,a e o* 0o)$e,ti'e0 s!,hiat"!. The ,&assi*i,ation o* (>is II e"sona&it! diso"de"s . dee &! ing"ained, ma&ada ti'e, &i*e&ong )eha'io" atte"ns . in the Diagnosti, and Statisti,a& =an+a&, *o+"th edition, te>t "e'ision M(me"i,an Ps!,hiat"i, (sso,iation. DS=IV-T%, Gashington, 2000N . o" the DS=-IV-T% *o" sho"t . has ,ome +nde" s+stained and se"io+s ,"iti,ism *"om its in,e tion in @AD2, in the *i"st edition o* the DS=.

The DS= IV-T% ado ts a ,atego"i,a& a "oa,h, ost+&ating that e"sona&it! diso"de"s a"e ""#alitatively distinct clinical syndromes" 4 . EIA5. This is -ide&! do+)ted. E'en the distin,tion made )et-een 0no"ma&0 and 0diso"de"ed0 e"sona&ities is in,"easing&! )eing "e$e,ted. The 0diagnosti, th"esho&ds0 )et-een no"ma& and a)no"ma& a"e eithe" a)sent o" -eak&! s+ o"ted. The o&!theti, *o"m o* the DS=?s Diagnosti, C"ite"ia . on&! a s+)set o* the ,"ite"ia is adeK+ate g"o+nds *o" a diagnosis . gene"ates +na,,e ta)&e diagnosti, hete"ogeneit!. In othe" -o"ds, eo &e diagnosed -ith the same e"sona&it! diso"de" ma! sha"e on&! one ,"ite"ion o" none. The DS= *ai&s to ,&a"i*! the e>a,t "e&ationshi )et-een (>is II and (>is I diso"de"s and the -a! ,h"oni, ,hi&dhood and de'e&o menta& "o)&ems inte"a,t -ith e"sona&it! diso"de"s. The di**e"entia& diagnoses a"e 'ag+e and the e"sona&it! diso"de"s a"e ins+**i,ient&! dema",ated. The "es+&t is e>,essi'e ,o-mo")idit! 4m+&ti &e (>is II diagnoses5. The DS= ,ontains &itt&e dis,+ssion o* -hat disting+ishes no"ma& ,ha"a,te" 4 e"sona&it!5, e"sona&it! t"aits, o" e"sona&it! st!&e 4=i&&on5 . *"om e"sona&it! diso"de"s. ( dea"th o* do,+mented ,&ini,a& e> e"ien,e "ega"ding )oth the diso"de"s themse&'es and the +ti&it! o* 'a"io+s t"eatment moda&ities. N+me"o+s e"sona&it! diso"de"s a"e 0not othe"-ise s e,i*ied0 . a ,at,ha&&, )asket 0,atego"!0. C+&t+"a& )ias is e'ident in ,e"tain diso"de"s 4s+,h as the

(ntiso,ia& and the S,hiCot! a&5. The eme"gen,e o* dimensiona& a&te"nati'es to the ,atego"i,a& a "oa,h is a,kno-&edged in the DS=-IV-T% itse&*: J*n alternative to the categorical a))roach is the dimensional )ers)ective that Personality !isorders re)resent malada)tive variants of )ersonality traits that merge im)erce)ti ly into normality and into one anotherK 4 .EIA5 The *o&&o-ing iss+es . &ong neg&e,ted in the DS= . a"e &ike&! to )e ta,k&ed in *+t+"e editions as -e&& as in ,+""ent "esea",h. ;+t thei" omission *"om o**i,ia& dis,o+"se hithe"to is )oth sta"t&ing and te&&ing:

The &ongit+dina& ,o+"se o* the diso"de"4s5 and thei" tem o"a& sta)i&it! *"om ea"&! ,hi&dhood on-a"dsH The geneti, and )io&ogi,a& +nde" innings o* e"sona&it! diso"de"4s5H The de'e&o ment o* e"sona&it! s!,ho atho&og! d+"ing ,hi&dhood and its eme"gen,e in ado&es,en,eH The inte"a,tions )et-een h!si,a& hea&th and disease and e"sona&it! diso"de"sH The e**e,ti'eness o* 'a"io+s t"eatments . ta&k the"a ies as -e&& as s!,ho ha"ma,o&og!.

,,,' The $iochemistry and %enetics of Mental +ealth Ce"tain menta& hea&th a**&i,tions a"e eithe" ,o""e&ated -ith a statisti,a&&! a)no"ma& )io,hemi,a& a,ti'it! in the )"ain . o" a"e ame&io"ated -ith medi,ation. Jet the t-o facts a"e

not ine&+di)&! *a,ets o* the same +nde"&!ing henomenon. In othe" -o"ds, that a gi'en medi,ine "ed+,es o" a)o&ishes ,e"tain s!m toms does not ne,essa"i&! mean the! -e"e ca#sed )! the "o,esses o" s+)stan,es a**e,ted )! the d"+g administe"ed. Ca+sation is on&! one o* man! ossi)&e ,onne,tions and ,hains o* e'ents. To designate a atte"n o* )eha'io" as a menta& hea&th diso"de" is a 'a&+e $+dgment, o" at )est a statisti,a& o)se"'ation. S+,h designation is e**e,ted "ega"d&ess o* the *a,ts o* )"ain s,ien,e. =o"eo'e", ,o""e&ation is not ,a+sation. De'iant )"ain o" )od! )io,hemist"! 4on,e ,a&&ed 0 o&&+ted anima& s i"its05 do e>ist . )+t a"e the! t"+&! the "oots o* menta& e"'e"sionL No" is it ,&ea" -hi,h t"igge"s -hat: do the a)e""ant ne+"o,hemist"! o" )io,hemist"! ,a+se menta& i&&ness . o" the othe" -a! a"o+ndL That s!,hoa,ti'e medi,ation a&te"s )eha'io" and mood is indis +ta)&e. So do i&&i,it and &ega& d"+gs, ,e"tain *oods, and a&& inte" e"sona& inte"a,tions. That the ,hanges )"o+ght a)o+t )! "es,"i tion a"e desi"a)&e . is de)ata)&e and in'o&'es ta+to&ogi,a& thinking. I* a ,e"tain atte"n o* )eha'io" is des,"i)ed as 4so,ia&&!5 0d!s*+n,tiona&0 o" 4 s!,ho&ogi,a&&!5 0si,k0 . ,&ea"&!, e'e"! ,hange -o+&d )e -e&,omed as 0hea&ing0 and e'e"! agent o* t"ans*o"mation -o+&d )e ,a&&ed a 0,+"e0. The same a &ies to the a&&eged he"edit! o* menta& i&&ness. Sing&e genes o" gene ,om &e>es a"e *"eK+ent&! 0asso,iated0 -ith menta& hea&th diagnoses, e"sona&it! t"aits, o" )eha'io" atte"ns. ;+t too &itt&e is kno-n to esta)&ish i""e*+ta)&e seK+en,es o* ,a+ses-and-e**e,ts. E'en &ess is "o'en a)o+t the inte"a,tion o* nat+"e and n+"t+"e, genot! e and henot! e, the &asti,it! o* the )"ain and the s!,ho&ogi,a& im a,t o* t"a+ma, a)+se,

+ )"inging, "o&e mode&s, ee"s, and othe" en'i"onmenta& e&ements. No" is the distin,tion )et-een s!,hot"o i, s+)stan,es and ta&k the"a ! that ,&ea"-,+t. Go"ds and the inte"a,tion -ith the the"a ist a&so a**e,t the )"ain, its "o,esses and ,hemist"! - a&)eit mo"e s&o-&! and, e"ha s, mo"e "o*o+nd&! and i""e'e"si)&!. =edi,ines . as Da'id :aise" "eminds +s in "*gainst $iologic Psychiatry" 4Ps!,hiat"i, Times, Vo&+me RIII, Iss+e @2, De,em)e" @AAE5 . t"eat s!m toms, not the +nde"&!ing "o,esses that !ie&d them. ,6' The 6ariance of Mental !isease I* menta& i&&nesses a"e )odi&! and em i"i,a&, the! sho+&d )e in'a"iant )oth tem o"a&&! and s atia&&!, a,"oss ,+&t+"es and so,ieties. This, to some deg"ee, is, indeed, the ,ase. Ps!,ho&ogi,a& diseases a"e not ,onte>t de endent . )+t the atho&ogiCing o* ,e"tain )eha'io"s is. S+i,ide, s+)stan,e a)+se, na",issism, eating diso"de"s, antiso,ia& -a!s, s,hiCot! a& s!m toms, de "ession, e'en s!,hosis a"e ,onside"ed si,k )! some ,+&t+"es . and +tte"&! no"mati'e o" ad'antageo+s in othe"s. This -as to )e e> e,ted. The h+man mind and its d!s*+n,tions a"e a&ike a"o+nd the -o"&d. ;+t 'a&+es di**e" *"om time to time and *"om one &a,e to anothe". 6en,e, disag"eements a)o+t the "o "iet! and desi"a)i&it! o* h+man a,tions and ina,tion a"e )o+nd to a"ise in a s!m tom-)ased diagnosti, s!stem. (s &ong as the )se#do?medical de*initions o* menta& hea&th diso"de"s ,ontin+e to "e&! e>,&+si'e&! on signs and s!m toms . i.e., most&! on o)se"'ed o" "e o"ted )eha'io"s . the! "emain '+&ne"a)&e to s+,h dis,o"d and de'oid o* m+,h-so+ght +ni'e"sa&it! and "igo".

6' Mental !isorders and the Social /rder The menta&&! si,k "e,ei'e the same t"eatment as ,a""ie"s o* (IDS o" S(%S o" the E)o&a 'i"+s o" sma&& o>. The! a"e sometimes K+a"antined against thei" -i&& and ,oe",ed into in'o&+nta"! t"eatment )! medi,ation, s!,hos+"ge"!, o" e&e,t"o,on'+&si'e the"a !. This is done in the name o* the g"eate" good, &a"ge&! as a "e'enti'e o&i,!. Cons i"a,! theo"ies not-ithstanding, it is im ossi)&e to igno"e the eno"mo+s inte"ests 'ested in s!,hiat"! and s!,ho ha"ma,o&og!. The m+&ti)i&&ion do&&a" ind+st"ies in'o&'ing d"+g ,om anies, hos ita&s, managed hea&th,a"e, "i'ate ,&ini,s, a,ademi, de a"tments, and &aen*o",ement agen,ies "e&!, *o" thei" ,ontin+ed and e> onentia& g"o-th, on the "o agation o* the ,on,e t o* 0menta& i&&ness0 and its ,o"o&&a"ies: t"eatment and "esea",h. 6,' Mental *ilment as a -sef#l Meta)hor ()st"a,t ,on,e ts *o"m the ,o"e o* a&& )"an,hes o* h+man kno-&edge. No one has e'e" seen a K+a"k, o" +ntang&ed a ,hemi,a& )ond, o" s+"*ed an e&e,t"omagneti, -a'e, o" 'isited the +n,ons,io+s. These a"e +se*+& meta ho"s, theo"eti,a& entities -ith e> &anato"! o" des,"i ti'e o-e". 0=enta& hea&th diso"de"s0 a"e no di**e"ent. The! a"e sho"thand *o" ,a t+"ing the +nsett&ing K+iddit! o* 0the Othe"0. 3se*+& as ta>onomies, the! a"e a&so too&s o* so,ia& ,oe",ion and ,on*o"mit!, as =i,he& <o+,a+&t and #o+is (&th+sse" o)se"'ed. %e&egating )oth the dange"o+s and the idios!n,"ati, to the ,o&&e,ti'e *"inges is a 'ita& te,hniK+e o* so,ia& enginee"ing. The aim is "og"ess th"o+gh so,ia& ,ohesion and the "eg+&ation o* inno'ation and ,"eati'e dest"+,tion.

Ps!,hiat"!, the"e*o"e, is "ei*ies so,iet!?s "e*e"en,e o* e'o&+tion to "e'o&+tion, o", -o"se sti&&, to ma!hem. (s is o*ten the ,ase -ith h+man Endea'o+", it is a no)&e ,a+se, +ns,"+ +&o+s&! and dogmati,a&&! +"s+ed. 6,,' The ,nsanity !efense ",t is an ill thing to knock against a deaf?m#te, an im ecile, or a minor' +e that wo#nds them is c#l)a le, #t if they wo#nd him they are not c#l)a le'" DMishna, $a ylonian Talm#dE I* menta& i&&ness is ,+&t+"e-de endent and most&! se"'es as an o"ganiCing so,ia& "in,i &e - -hat sho+&d -e make o* the insanit! de*ense 4N9%I- Not 9+i&t! )! %eason o* Insanit!5L ( e"son is he&d not "es onsi)&e *o" his ,"imina& a,tions i* s1he ,annot te&& "ight *"om -"ong 40&a,ks s+)stantia& ,a a,it! eithe" to a "e,iate the ,"imina&it! 4-"ong*+&ness5 o* his ,ond+,t0 - diminished ,a a,it!5, did not intend to a,t the -a! he did 4a)sent 0mens "ea05 and1o" ,o+&d not ,ont"o& his )eha'io" 40i""esisti)&e im +&se05. These handi,a s a"e o*ten asso,iated -ith 0menta& disease o" de*e,t0 o" 0menta& "eta"dation0. =enta& hea&th "o*essiona&s "e*e" to ta&k a)o+t an im ai"ment o* a 0 e"son?s e",e tion o" +nde"standing o* "ea&it!0. The! ho&d a 0g+i&t! )+t menta&&! i&&0 'e"di,t to )e ,ont"adi,tion in te"ms. (&& 0menta&&!-i&&0 eo &e o e"ate -ithin a 4+s+a&&! ,ohe"ent5 -o"&d'ie-, -ith ,onsistent inte"na& &ogi,, and "+&es o* "ight and -"ong 4ethi,s5. Jet, these "a"e&! ,on*o"m to the -a! most eo &e e",ei'e the -o"&d. The menta&&!-i&&, the"e*o"e, ,annot )e g+i&t! )e,a+se s1he has a ten+o+s g"as on "ea&it!. Jet, e> e"ien,e tea,hes +s that a ,"imina& ma!)e menta&&!

i&& e'en as s1he maintains a e"*e,t "ea&it! test and th+s is he&d ,"imina&&! "es onsi)&e 48e**"e! Dahme" ,omes to mind5. The 0 e",e tion and +nde"standing o* "ea&it!0, in othe" -o"ds, ,an and does ,o-e>ist e'en -ith the se'e"est *o"ms o* menta& i&&ness. This makes it e'en mo"e di**i,+&t to ,om "ehend -hat is meant )! 0menta& disease0. I* some menta&&! i&& maintain a g"as on "ea&it!, kno- "ight *"om -"ong, ,an anti,i ate the o+t,omes o* thei" a,tions, a"e not s+)$e,t to i""esisti)&e im +&ses 4the o**i,ia& osition o* the (me"i,an Ps!,hiat"i, (sso,iation5 - in -hat -a! do the! di**e" *"om +s, 0no"ma&0 *o&ksL This is -h! the insanit! de*ense o*ten sits i&& -ith menta& hea&th atho&ogies deemed so,ia&&! 0a,,e ta)&e0 and 0no"ma&0 - s+,h as "e&igion o" &o'e. Conside" the *o&&o-ing ,ase: ( mothe" )ashes the sk+&&s o* he" th"ee sons. T-o o* them die. She ,&aims to ha'e a,ted on inst"+,tions she had "e,ei'ed *"om 9od. She is *o+nd not g+i&t! )! "eason o* insanit!. The $+"! dete"mined that she 0did not kno- "ight *"om -"ong d+"ing the ki&&ings.0 ;+t -h! e>a,t&! -as she $+dged insaneL +er elief in the eAistence of %od ? a eing with inordinate and inh#man attri #tes ? may e irrational' ;+t it does not ,onstit+te insanit! in the st"i,test sense )e,a+se it ,on*o"ms to so,ia& and ,+&t+"a& ,"eeds and ,odes o* ,ond+,t in he" mi&ie+. ;i&&ions o* eo &e *aith*+&&! s+)s,"i)e to the same ideas, adhe"e to the same t"ans,endenta& "+&es, o)se"'e the same m!sti,a& "it+a&s, and ,&aim to go th"o+gh the same e> e"ien,es. This sha"ed

s!,hosis is so -ides "ead that it ,an no &onge" )e deemed atho&ogi,a&, statisti,a&&! s eaking. She claimed that %od has s)oken to her' (s do n+me"o+s othe" eo &e. ;eha'io" that is ,onside"ed s!,hoti, 4 a"anoid-s,hiCo h"eni,5 in othe" ,onte>ts is &a+ded and admi"ed in "e&igio+s ,i",&es. 6ea"ing 'oi,es and seeing 'isions - a+dito"! and 'is+a& de&+sions - a"e ,onside"ed "ank mani*estations o* "ighteo+sness and san,tit!. Pe"ha s it -as the ,ontent o* he" ha&&+,inations that "o'ed he" insaneL She claimed that %od had instr#cted her to kill her oys' S#rely, %od wo#ld not ordain s#ch evilG (&as, the O&d and Ne- Testaments )oth ,ontain e>am &es o* 9od?s a etite *o" h+man sa,"i*i,e. ()"aham -as o"de"ed )! 9od to sa,"i*i,e Isaa,, his )e&o'ed son 4tho+gh this sa'age ,ommand -as "es,inded at the &ast moment5. 8es+s, the son o* 9od himse&*, -as ,"+,i*ied to atone *o" the sins o* h+manit!. ( di'ine in$+n,tion to s&a! one?s o**s "ing -o+&d sit -e&& -ith the 6o&! S,"i t+"es and the ( o,"! ha as -e&& as -ith mi&&ennia-o&d 8+deo-Ch"istian t"aditions o* ma"t!"dom and sa,"i*i,e. +er actions were wrong and incommens#rate with oth h#man and divine Dor nat#ralE laws' Jes, )+t the! -e"e e"*e,t&! in a,,o"d -ith a &ite"a& inte" "etation o* ,e"tain di'ine&!-ins i"ed te>ts, mi&&ennia& s,"i t+"es, a o,a&! ti, tho+ght s!stems, and *+ndamenta&ist "e&igio+s ideo&ogies 4s+,h as the ones

es o+sing the imminen,e o* 0"+ t+"e05. 3n&ess one de,&a"es these do,t"ines and -"itings insane, he" a,tions a"e not. -e a"e *o",ed to the ,on,&+sion that the m+"de"o+s mothe" is e"*e,t&! sane. 6e" *"ame o* "e*e"en,e is di**e"ent to o+"s. 6en,e, he" de*initions o* "ight and -"ong a"e idios!n,"ati,. To he", ki&&ing he" )a)ies -as the "ight thing to do and in ,on*o"mit! -ith 'a&+ed tea,hings and he" o-n e i han!. 6e" g"as o* "ea&it! - the immediate and &ate" ,onseK+en,es o* he" a,tions - -as ne'e" im ai"ed. It -o+&d seem that sanit! and insanit! a"e "e&ati'e te"ms, de endent on *"ames o* ,+&t+"a& and so,ia& "e*e"en,e, and statisti,a&&! de*ined. The"e isn?t - and, in "in,i &e, ,an ne'e" eme"ge - an 0o)$e,ti'e0, medi,a&, s,ienti*i, test to dete"mine menta& hea&th o" disease +neK+i'o,a&&!. 6,,,' *da)tation and ,nsanity ? Dcorres)ondence with Pa#l Shirley, MS=E 0No"ma&0 eo &e ada t to thei" en'i"onment - )oth h+man and nat+"a&. 0()no"ma&0 ones t"! to ada t thei" en'i"onment - )oth h+man and nat+"a& - to thei" idios!n,"ati, needs1 "o*i&e. I* the! s+,,eed, thei" en'i"onment, )oth h+man 4so,iet!5 and nat+"a& is atho&ogiCed. Michael: 9"o+ ma&ada ti'e "es onses a"e o*ten mis+nde"stood )! &eade"s and ,itiCens o* the de'e&o ed so,ieties, -hi,h do not ha'e to ,ontend -ith the a&&- e"'asi'e so,ieta& an>iet!. These "es onses a"e o*ten a,,o"ded the stat+s o* a o&iti,a& o" "e&igio+s do,t"ine, -hen in e**e,t the! a"e

nothing mo"e o" &ess than e> "essions o* a g"o+ s!,ho atho&og!. Sam: (s <"e+d o)se"'ed, o&iti,a& o" "e&igio+s do,t"ines ,an )e "ooted in s!,ho atho&og! - and e>e"t o-e"*+& "e&igio+s and o&iti,a& in*&+en,e. That the! a"e 0si,k0 does not det"a,t *"om thei" essen,e and oten,! as "e&igio+s and o&iti,a& ,"eeds. Michael: <o" the +" oses o* this dia&og I -i&& not int"od+,e s+,h 'a"ia)&es as histo"!, ,+&t+"e and ,+stoms, im o"tant as the! a"e. S+**i,e it to note, that in m! 'ie-, ,+&t+"e and ,+stoms, a a"t *"om the im o"tant *+n,tion o* ethni, identi*i,ation, a"e a th"ee*o&d henomenon: the! a"e g"o+ attem t at en'i"onmenta& ada tation, the "ed+,tion o* *ea" o* the +nkno-n and an int"od+,tion o* the e&ement o* "edi,ta)i&it! in the ,haos o* &i*e. (&& the ,om onents o* this henomenon ,o+&d )e said to se"'e the same +" ose - the "ed+,tion o* the &e'e&s o* g"o+ an>iet!. I -i&& o**e" an i&&+st"ation o* the e> "ession o* di**e"ing &e'e&s o* so,ieta& an>iet!: One o* the highest a,,o&ades one ,an a! to anothe" e"son in (+st"a&ian so,iet! is to sa!: 0=". So and So is so "e&a>ed and &aid-)a,k70. In "ea&it!, the e"son a!ing this ,om &iment is sa!ing, 0=". So and So is s+,h a ,onside"ate man. 6e does not )othe" me -ith his an>iet!,0 o", 0I do not *ee& his an>iet!, so I am not getting an>io+s m!se&*0. <+"the"mo"e, the ,a&ming "esen,e o* a 0&aid-)a,k, "e&a>ed e"son0 is K+ite the"a e+ti, *o" the an>io+s othe"s, -hi,h is e'en mo"e a "e,iated.

In t"a+matised so,ieties this kind o* ,onside"ation a&so e>ists )+t is "a"e as hens? teeth. P+)&i, dis &a!s o* emotion, agg"ession and an>iet! a"e an a,,e ted *o"m o* )eha'io". Con'e"se&!, in non-t"a+matised so,ieties o'e"t dis &a!s o* emotions, -hi,h might )e otentia&&! ha"m*+& to othe"s, a"e ,onside"ed so,ia&&! ina "o "iate. (nd, !es, an>iet! is ,ontagio+s. It does s "ead *"om e"son to e"son. It ,an a**e,t g"o+ s. I ha'e de,ided to e> &o"e the s!,hod!nami, as -e&& as o&iti,a& as e,ts o* te""o"ist )eha'io" +sing the "e*e"entia& *"ame-o"k, de"i'ed *"om the )&ending o* m! &i*e?s e> e"ien,es and the kno-&edge I a,K+i"ed as a s!,hiat"ist in t"aining. <"om a "a,ti,a& oint o* 'ie-, I )e&ie'e that the kno-&edge o* the me,hanisms o* g"o+ s!,ho atho&og! might )e he& *+& in de'ising s+,,ess*+& st"ategies *o" the ,ontainment and "e,ti*i,ation o* ,"iti,a& sit+ations. Personal ackgro#nd and view from inside of )rison I -as )o"n in -hat +sed to )e the 3SS%. (s a a"t o* o+" 0*"ee0 ed+,ation I, a&ong -ith mi&&ions o* m! *e&&ost+dents, had to st+d! =a">ist-#eninist theo"! and e'en had to ass e>ams in the kno-&edge o* 0the on&! ,o""e,t s!stem o* hi&oso hi,a& tho+ght in e>isten,e0. Ge -e"e iso&ated *"om the "est o* the -o"&d, )e,a+se o* the 0dange" o* ,o""+ t and de,adent )o+"geoisie, -hi,h -as o+t to get o+" mothe"&and one -a! o" anothe"0. The on&! so+",e o* a,,"edited in*o"mation -as the o**i,ia& "o aganda. It de i,ted the -o"&d as a mena,ing, da"k &a,e, *+&& o* sta"'ing ,hi&d"en, o "essed -o"ke"s and mothe"s *o",ed to )e "ostit+tes in o"de" to *eed thei" *ami&ies. Des ite an a&most a)so&+te &a,k o* a&te"nati'e so+",es o* in*o"mation, -e did not )e&ie'e the o**i,ia& "o aganda.

=o"eo'e", -hen -e sa- ,"o-ds demonst"ating against ,a ita&ism on the st"eets o* Geste"n ,ities in the o**i,ia& ne-s"ee&s, -e -e"e "eminded o* the #enin?s de*initions 0*e&&o--t"a'e&e"s0 and the &esse" kno-n o* his e> "essions - 0+se*+& idiots0. Sta&in, semi-,ontem t+o+s&!, ,a&&ed them 0 "o*essiona& inno,ents0. Ge kne- that the Geste"n 0 ea,e0 mo'ements -e"e a,ti'e a&&ies o* o+" o "esso"s, that at )est the! -e"e +nthinking and naT'e kids, )e&ie'ing o" -anting to )e&ie'e in goodness o* the 0Ne- Go"&d, a "og"essi'e *+t+"e o* the mankind0. (t -o"st the! -e"e in the h+""! to $+m on the -inning -agon and disso,iate themse&'es *"om the de,a!ing and ,o""+ t ,a ita&ist so,iet!, )e,a+se this so,iet! -as destined *o" a s,"a hea o* histo"! as "edi,ted )! immo"ta& =a">, Enge&s, #enin and Sta&in. Ge did not kno- it at the time, )+t the motto 0;ette" "ed, than dead0 -as K+ite o +&a". Ge -e"e ang"! -ith these mo'ements, )e,a+se o* the ease -ith -hi,h the! -e"e mani +&ated )! the So'iet se,"et se"'i,es. It -as an o en se,"et in the 3SS% that the Chai"man o* the :9; -as at the same time the Chai"man o* the Inte"nationa& (sso,iation o* the Demo,"ati, Jo+th, "es onsi)&e *o" mass demonst"ations in de*ense o* ea,e. In thei" eage"ness to "o,&aim thei" s+ o"t *o" o+" to"mento"s these mo'ements made o+" sit+ation -o"se. The! ga'e o+" "+&e"s an im "ession that -hat the! did to +s is not going to )e ,a&&ed to a,,o+nt, that no)od! ga'e a damn a)o+t -hat has )een done to eo &e &i'ing in the 3SS%. Ge &i'ed in *ea". Ge &i'ed in a state o* +n,e"taint! and se"'it+deH -e -e"e d"eading a night kno,k on the doo". Ge did not t"+st an!one and -e -e"e +tte"&! de endent on the State *o" o+" &i'e&ihoods. Ge e>isted in *ea" a&& o+" &i'es - se,"et in*o"me"s -e"e at a&& &e'e&s o*

so,iet!. (s a "es+&t o* a ,ontem t+o+s e> endit+"e o* So'iet so&die"s? &i'es d+"ing GGII, -omen made + the ma$o"it! o* the o +&ation, +"ges and )a,k-)"eaking &a)o+" *+"the" diminished ma&e &i*e e> e,tan,!. (s a "es+&t o* this t"agi, and )"+ta& histo"!, eo &e &i'ing in the So'iet so,iet! de'e&o ed a "ange o* ma&ada ti'e and end+"ing atte"ns o* anti-so,ia& )eha'io", emotiona& '+&ne"a)i&it! and seething ange". This ange" -as im ossi)&e to dis,ha"ge othe" than in the State-san,tioned di"e,tion 4Oionism, ,a ita&ism, (me"i,a, Is"ae&, !e&&o- "ess, )o+"geoisie de,aden,e, "o,k-n-"o&&5. =ass d"+nkenness -as a ,ommon &a,e. Inte" e"sona& 'io&en,e -as -ides "ead. Ve")a& agg"ession, ins+&ting and "+de )eha'io", dis"ega"d *o" the "ights o* othe"s, ett! thie'ing and shodd! -o"k -as a no"m. In sho"t, -e &i'ed in tota&ita"ian so,iet!. Dissent -as o+t&a-ed. The So'iet "+&e"s a,,e ted the e>isten,e o* the Geste"n &i)e"a& demo,"a,ies as a tem o"a"! in,on'enien,e to )e te"minated -ith e>t"eme "e$+di,e in a &i)e"ation -a". Its 4the Gest?s5 *+n,tion -as to s+ &! the 3SS% and its a&&ies 4,&ients, "ea&&!5 -ith ,"edits. #i)e"a& demo,"a,ies -e"e e> e,ted to ,ont"i)+te to thei" o-n demise -ith the sa&e o* te,hno&og!, kno--ho- and, a)o'e a&& - -ith in$e,tions o* ha"d ,+""en,! *o" the "od+,tion o* the -ea ons, di"e,ted against them. The iso&ation o* the So'iet eo &e *"om Geste"n ,onta,ts -as a o&iti,a& ne,essit! to the So'iet e&ite. <"ee ,onta,ts -o+&d?'e K+i,k&! e> osed ho- in,om etent, ,o""+ t and +tte"&! ,ontem t+o+s to-a"ds thei" o-n eo &e the So'iet Nomen,&at+"e "ea&&! -as. (s a "es+&t o* this a"anoid-de "essi'e osition as -e&& as *o" the "easons o* a dogma and *ee&ings o* in*e"io"it!,

So'iets had no ,hoi,e )+t to ado t an agg"essi'e stan,e to-a"ds the Gest, des ite thei" +tte" "e&ian,e on the Gest *o" a&most e'e"!thing, in,&+ding )"ead. 3na)&e to *a,e "ea&it!, the! +ti&ised mani, de*enses: =ega&omania - o+" missi&es a"e mo"e o-e"*+& than !o+"s, o+" )a&&et is mo"e e&egant than !o+"sH Pa"anoia - the Gest is o+t to get +s, 8e-ish do,to"s a"e o+t to ki&& o+" go'e"nmentH T"i+m ha&ism - -e?'e -on mo"e go&d meda&s than the (me"i,ans7 Denia& - no)od! -as as good as So'iets -e"e in stone-a&&ing, e'asi'eness and o+t"ight &!ing. So'iet &ite"at+"e o* the So,ia&ist %ea&ism -as anothe" e>am &e o* high&! so histi,ated *o"m o* denia&. Gh! has di,tato"shi ,o&&a sedL One o* the nota)&e So'iet-e"a dissidents, (nd"ei (ma&"ik, -"ote in the mid-si>ties, -hat t+"ned o+t to )e a "o heti, )ook&et, 0Gi&& the 3SS% sti&& e>ist in@AI4L0. In this )ook&et, he stated his )e&ie* that the ,o&&a se o* the 3SS% -o+&d ha en in the 'i,init! o* @AI4. 6e -as "om t&! gi'en a @D-!ea" senten,e in a ,on,ent"ation ,am *o" anti-So'iet a,ti'ities and died soon a*te". Inte"esting&!, (nd"ei (ma&"ik stated that the ost-So'iet e"a o* "e,o'e"! -i&& )e ,om &i,ated )! the o +&a" %+ssian +nde"standing o* the hi&oso hi,a& ,atego"! o* 08+sti,e0. 6e noted, that in &i)e"a& so,ieties, the -o"d 0$+sti,e0 ,onnotes an +nde"standing that no one is a&&o-ed to sta"'e and most eo &e a"e a)&e to "ea,h the &e'e& o* e>isten,e ,ommens+"ate -ith his1he" a)i&ities. In the %+ssian

inte" "etation, the -o"d 0$+sti,e0 means - no one is a&&o-ed to ha'e mo"e than I do. The ,on'e"se -o+&d mean 0in$+sti,e0. Ghi&e -e a"e at it, he"e?s anothe" e>am &e o* %+ssian e,+&ia"ities o* ma&ada ti'e inte" "etations. It goes &ike that: 6o- -o+&d !o+ disting+ish )et-een a %+ssian essimist and o timistL ( %+ssian essimist is a man -ho does not )e&ie'e that things ,an get an! -o"se. ( %+ssian o timist, on the othe" hand is a man -ho )e&ie'es that things ,an get -o"se and signi*i,ant&! so at that. So, -h! did this di,tato"shi ,o&&a seL It did not ,o&&a se )e,a+se o* its e,onomi, in,om eten,e - it -as a&-a!s in,om etent. Those -ho did not &ike it -e"e made to he& to sta)i&ise the e,onom! )! digging *o" go&d in ,on,ent"ation ,am s o* :o&!ma. It did not ,o&&a se )e,a+se the So'iets -e"e ,ontem t+o+s to-a"ds thei" o-n eo &e - the! a&-a!s -e"e. Those -ho -anted to in,"ease thei" *ee&ings o* se&*-"es e,t -e"e made to +nde"go a ,"ash ,o+"se: digging *o" +"ani+m in ,on,ent"ation ,am s o* Je&&o- Gate"s. It did not ,o&&a se )e,a+se o* a &oss o* the ,om a,t o* t"+st )et-een the 9o'e"nment and the go'e"ned - this ,om a,t ne'e" e>isted. Those -ho -e"e indignant a)o+t the &a,k o* t"+st ,o+&d.. The"e -e"e tho+sands o* &o,ations des,"i)ed in -e&&-"esea",hed to+" g+ide to 9+&ag (",hi e&ago )! (.So&sChenitC!n. (na&!sis o* the ,onste&&ation o* "easons *o" the ,o&&a se o* the 3SS% is )est to )e &e*t to a "o*essiona& o&iti,a& s,ientist. I s eak *"om a )ene*i,ia"!?s oint o* 'ie-. The 3SS% ,o&&a sed, I )e&ie'e, )e,a+se it -as +)&i,&! ,on*"onted and e> osed )! %ona&d %eagan *o" -hat it -as - a di,tato"shi , a tota&ita"ian State, a ,h+nk o* "ime "ea& estate "+&ed )! an i&&egitimate ,&iK+e, )ent on making a mis,hie* a"o+nd the -o"&d in o"de" to sa*eg+a"d and e>tend thei" o-e" - in itse&* a ma&ada ti'e st"ateg!. It

,o&&a sed, )e,a+se the Gest "e*+sed to a"ti,i ate in its o-n 0)+"ia&0, so e&oK+ent&! "omised )! Nikita :h"+sh,he' at the memo"a)&e session o* the 9ene"a& (ssem)&! o* the 3N. The Geste"n o&iti,a& -i&& demonst"ated that at &ong &ast the So'iet eo &e had a o-e"*+& a&&!. This a&&! -as K+ite o en: the &a,k o* o&iti,a& and e,onomi, *"eedoms in thei" ,o+nt"! -as "ega"ded as a se,+"it! th"eat to Geste"n &i)e"a& demo,"a,ies. The So'iet o +&ation, not a*"aid o* mass te""o" o* Sta&in e"a, e> osed to Geste"n media and e"sona& a,,o+nts o* the So'iet 8e-ish emig"ation sim &! &a+ghed o** attem ts to sa&'age "emnants o* "egime?s "es e,ta)i&it!. The *ea" has gone. The hea&ing )egan. ;esides, Geste"n m+si, and *ashion -e"e so m+,h )ette" than the So'iet ones. !anger, inherent in a lack of freedom #a,k o* *"eedom and im o'e"ishment in *ai&ing o" d!s*+n,tiona& states, is an ine'ita)&e se,+"it! th"eat to-a"ds Geste"n demo,"a,ies. <o" tota&ita"ian states and o"ganisations, ,on*"ontation -ith &i)e"a& demo,"a,! is not a matte" o* ,hoi,e, )+t a matte" o* s+"'i'a&, a matte" o* "o ing + thei" so"e&! &a,king &egitima,!, a matte" o* asse"ting thei" o&iti,a& and e,onomi, ,om eten,e, -he"e the"e is none. =a">ist do,t"ine "o'ided a theo"eti,a& $+sti*i,ation *o" the -o"&d "e'o&+tion. =a">, a se&*-hating, ang"! and de endent man, ,&ea"&! +nde"stood the im ossi)i&it! o* ,o-e>isten,e -ith &i)e"a& demo,"a,ies. <o" the So'iet 3nion and ,omm+nism the te""ito"ia& e> ansion -as a 'ita& ne,essit! - e&imination o* an! ,o+nt"! its ,itiCens ,o+&d )e a)&e to de*e,t to. C&ass -a" and the state o* e"manent "e'o&+tion -as a ,omm+nist $ihad. It di'ided the &anet into a So,ia&ist ,am - an a"ea o* )ea+t! and &a-, and a Ca ita&ist ,am - an a"ea o*

+g&iness and &a- o* the $+ng&e. The mission - ,"eation o* the Go"&d Comm+nist %e +)&i, and the a,hie'ement o* the -o"&d ea,e 4-hi,h is ossi)&e on&! -hen the enti"e -o"&d has )e,ome ,omm+nist5. Ge kno- ho- it ended. Sam: I hate to inte""+ t this e&oK+ent e> ose 4"ea&&!7 I am en$o!ing it g"eat&!75 - )+t Geste"n &i)e"a&-demo,"a,! is as missiona"! as so,ia&ism has e'e" )een. Sta&in, a,t+a&&!, -as (9(INST 0inte"nationa&ism0 and ,oined the h"ase 0so,ia&ism in one state0 4in %+ssia5. 6e )anished T"otsk! )e,a+se T"otsk! so+ght to e> o"t the "e'o&+tion to othe" ,o+nt"ies7 E'e"! dominant na""ati'e - Comm+nism, *as,ism, Is&am, &i)e"a&-demo,"a,! - in'ents 0enemies0, de'e&o s a 0-eagainst-the!0 menta&it!, and t"ies to e> o"t its ideo&og! -o"&d-ide. Ghat is the -a" in I"aKL Ghat -as the -a" in :oso'oL 06+manita"ian0 inte"'ention is the ,ode -o"d *o" Geste"n im osition o* Geste"n 'a&+es )! *o",e o* a"ms on 4o*ten +n-i&&ing5 o +&ations. Conside" the 6+ntingtonian ai" in the 0C&ash o* Ci'i&iCation - Is&am and #i)e"a&-Demo,"a,!. Is&am is not me"e&! a "e&igion. It is a&so - and e"ha s, *o"emost - a state ideo&og!. It is a&&- e"'asi'e and missiona"!. It e"meates e'e"! as e,t o* so,ia& ,oo e"ation and ,+&t+"e. It is an o"ganiCing "in,i &e, a na""ati'e, a hi&oso h!, a 'a&+e s!stem, and a 'ade me,+m. In this it "esem)&es Con*+,ianism and, to some e>tent, 6ind+ism. 8+daism and its o**s "ing, Ch"istianit! - tho+gh hea'i&! in'o&'ed in o&iti,a& a**ai"s th"o+gho+t the ages - ha'e

ke t thei" digni*ied distan,e *"om s+,h ,a"na& matte"s. These a"e "e&igions o* 0hea'en0 as o osed to Is&am, a "a,ti,a&, "agmati,, hands-on, +)iK+ito+s, 0ea"th&!0 ,"eed. Se,+&a" "e&igions - Demo,"ati, #i)e"a&ism, Comm+nism, <as,ism, NaCism, So,ia&ism and othe" isms - a"e mo"e akin to Is&am than to, &et?s sa!, ;+ddhism. The! a"e +ni'e"sa&, "es,"i ti'e, and tota&. The! "o'ide "e,i es, "+&es, and no"ms "ega"ding e'e"! as e,t o* e>isten,e indi'id+a&, so,ia&, ,+&t+"a&, mo"a&, e,onomi,, o&iti,a&, mi&ita"!, and hi&oso hi,a&. (t the end o* the Co&d Ga", Demo,"ati, #i)e"a&ism stood t"i+m hant o'e" the *"esh g"a'es o* its ideo&ogi,a& o onents. The! ha'e a&& )een e"adi,ated. This "e,i itated <+k+!ama?s "emat+"e diagnosis 4the End o* 6isto"!5. ;+t one state ideo&og!, one )itte" "i'a&, one im &a,a)&e o onent, one ,ontestant *o" -o"&d domination, one antithesis "emained - Is&am. =i&itant Is&am is, the"e*o"e, not a ,an,e"o+s m+tation o* 0t"+e0 Is&am. On the ,ont"a"!, it is the +"est e> "ession o* its nat+"e as an im e"ia&isti, "e&igion -hi,h demands +nmitigated o)edien,e *"om its *o&&o-e"s and "ega"ds a&& in*ide&s as )oth in*e"io" and a'o-ed enemies. The same ,an )e said a)o+t Demo,"ati, #i)e"a&ism. #ike Is&am, it does not hesitate to e>e",ise *o",e, is missiona"!, ,o&oniCing, and "ega"ds itse&* as a mono o&ist o* the 0t"+th0 and o* 0+ni'e"sa& 'a&+es0. Its antagonists a"e in'a"ia)&! o"t"a!ed as de "a'ed, "imiti'e, and )e&oa". S+,h m+t+a&&! e>,&+si'e ,&aims -e"e )o+nd to &ead to an a&&-o+t ,on*&i,t soone" o" &ate". The 0Ga" on Te""o"ism0 is

on&! the &atest "o+nd in a mi&&enni+m-o&d -a" )et-een Is&am and othe" 0-o"&d s!stems0. S+,h inte" "etation o* "e,ent e'ents en"ages man!. The! demand to kno- 4o*ten in ha"sh tones5: ? !onFt yo# see any difference etween terrorists who m#rder civilians and reg#lar armies in attleG ;oth "eg+&a"s and i""eg+&a"s s&a+ghte" ,i'i&ians as a matte" o* ,o+"se. 0Co&&ate"a& damage0 is the main o+t,ome o* mode"n, tota& -a"*a"e - and o* &o- intensit! ,on*&i,ts a&ike. The"e is a ma$o" di**e"en,e )et-een te""o"ists and so&die"s, tho+gh: Te""o"ists make ,a"nage o* non,om)atants thei" main ta,ti, - -hi&e "eg+&a" a"mies "a"e&! do. S+,h ,ond+,t is ,"imina& and de &o"a)&e, -hoe'e" the e" et"ato". ;+t -hat a)o+t the ki&&ing o* ,om)atants in )att&eL 6osho+&d -e $+dge the s&a!ing o* so&die"s )! te""o"ists in ,om)atL =ode"n nation-states ensh"ined the se&*-a "o "iated mono o&! on 'io&en,e in thei" ,onstit+tions and o"dinan,es 4and in inte"nationa& &a-5. On&! state o"gans the a"m!, the o&i,e - a"e e"mitted to ki&&, to"t+"e, and in,a",e"ate. Te""o"ists a"e t"+st-)+ste"s: the!, too, -ant to ki&&, to"t+"e, and in,a",e"ate. The! seek to )"eak the death ,a"te& o* go'e"nments )! $oining its "anks. Th+s, -hen a so&die" ki&&s te""o"ists and 40inad'e"tent&!05 ,i'i&ians 4as 0,o&&ate"a& damage05 - it is ,onside"ed a)o'e

)oa"d. ;+t -hen the te""o"ist de,imates the 'e"! same so&die" - he is de,"ied as an o+t&a-. =o"eo'e", the mis)eha'io" o* some ,o+nt"ies - not &east the 3nited States - &ed to the &egitimiCation o* te""o"ism. O*ten nation-states +se te""o"ist o"ganiCations to *+"the" thei" geo o&iti,a& goa&s. Ghen this ha ens, e"st-hi&e o+t,asts )e,ome 0*"eedom *ighte"s0, a"iahs )e,ome a&&ies, m+"de"e"s a"e "e,ast as sensiti'e so+&s st"+gg&ing *o" eK+a& "ights. This ,ont"i)+tes to the )&+""ing o* ethi,a& e",e ts and the )&+nting o* mo"a& $+dgment. ? =o#ld yo# rather live #nder sharia lawG !onFt yo# find Li eral !emocracy vastly s#)erior to ,slamG S+ e"io", no. Di**e"ent - o* ,o+"se. 6a'ing )een )o"n and "aised in the Gest, I nat+"a&&! "e*e" its standa"ds to Is&am?s. 6ad I )een )o"n in a =+s&im ,o+nt"!, I -o+&d ha'e "o)a)&! *o+nd the Gest and its "in,i &es e"'e"ted and o)no>io+s. The K+estion is meaning&ess )e,a+se it "es+ oses the e>isten,e o* an o)$e,ti'e, +ni'e"sa&, ,+&t+"e and e"iod inde endent set o* "e*e"en,es. #+,ki&!, the"e is no s+,h thing. ? ,n this clash of civili8ation whose side are yo# onG This is not a ,&ash o* ,i'i&iCations. Geste"n ,+&t+"e is ine>t"i,a)&! inte"t-ined -ith Is&ami, kno-&edge, tea,hings, and hi&oso h!. Ch"istian *+ndamenta&ists ha'e mo"e in ,ommon -ith =+s&im mi&itants than -ith East Coast o" <"en,h inte&&e,t+a&s. =+s&ims ha'e a&-a!s )een the Gest?s most de*ining Othe". Is&ami, e>isten,e and 0gaCe0 he& ed to mo&d the Gest?s eme"ging identit! as a histo"i,a& ,onst"+,t. <"om

S ain to India, the in,essant *"i,tion and *e"ti&iCing inte"a,tions -ith Is&am sha ed Geste"n 'a&+es, )e&ie*s, do,t"ines, mo"a& tenets, o&iti,a& and mi&ita"! instit+tions, a"ts, and s,ien,es. This -a" is a)o+t -o"&d domination. T-o in,om ati)&e tho+ght and 'a&+e s!stems ,om ete *o" the hea"ts and minds 4and +",hasing o-e"5 o* the deniCens o* the g&o)a& 'i&&age. #ike in the Geste"ns, )! high noon, eithe" one o* them is &e*t standing - o" )oth -i&& ha'e e"ished. Ghe"e does m! &o!a&t! "esideL I am a Geste"ne", so I ho e the Gest -ins this ,on*"ontation. ;+t, in the "o,ess, it -o+&d )e good i* it -e"e h+m)&ed, de,onst"+,ted, and "e,onst"+,ted. One )ene*i,ia& o+t,ome o* this ,on*&i,t is the demise o* the s+ e" o-e" s!stem - a "e&i, o* da!s )!gone and )est *o"gotten. I *+&&! )e&ie'e and t"+st that in mi&itant Is&am, the 3nited States has *o+nd its mat,h. In othe" -o"ds, I "ega"d mi&itant Is&am as a ,ata&!st that -i&& hasten the t"ans*o"mation o* the g&o)a& o-e" st"+,t+"e *"om +ni o&a" to m+&ti o&a". It ma! a&so ,omm+te the 3nited States itse&*. It -i&& de*inite&! "e$+'enate "e&igio+s tho+ght and ,+&t+"a& dis,o+"se. (&& -a"s do. *renFt yo# overdoing itG *fter all, al?Laida is <#st a #nch of terrorists on the r#nM The Gest is not *ighting a&-Qaida. It is *a,ing do-n the ,i",+mstan,es and ideas that ga'e "ise to a&-Qaida. Conditions - s+,h as o'e"t!, igno"an,e, disease, o "ession, and >eno ho)i, s+ e"stitions - a"e di**i,+&t to ,hange o" to "e'e"se. Ideas a"e im ossi)&e to s+ "ess. (&"ead!, mi&itant Is&am is *a" mo"e -ides "ead and

esta)&ished that an! Geste"n go'e"nment -o+&d ,a"e to admit. 6isto"! sho-s that a&& te""o"ist g"o+ ings +&timate&! $oin the mainst"eam. =an! ,o+nt"ies - *"om Is"ae& to I"e&and and *"om East Timo" to Ni,a"ag+a - a"e go'e"ned )! *o"me" te""o"ists. Te""o"ism enhan,es so,ia& + -a"d mo)i&it! and *oste"s the "edist"i)+tion o* -ea&th and "eso+",es *"om the ha'es to ha'es not. (&-Qaida, des ite its omino+s o"t"a!a& in the Geste"n "ess - is no e>,e tion. It, too, -i&& s+,,+m), in d+e time, to the t-in &+"es o* o-e" and mone!. Nihi&isti, and de,ent"a&iCed as it is - its e> "ess goa&s a"e the "+&e o* Is&am and eK+ita)&e e,onomi, de'e&o ment. It is )o+nd to get its -a! in some ,o+nt"ies. The -o"&d o* the *+t+"e -i&& )e t"+&! &+"a&isti,. The "ose&!tiCing Cea& o* #i)e"a& Demo,"a,! and Ca ita&ism has "ende"ed them i&&i)e"a& and into&e"ant. The Gest m+st a,,e t the *a,t that a siCa)&e ,h+nk o* h+manit! does not "ega"d mate"ia&ism, indi'id+a&ism, &i)e"a&ism, "og"ess, and demo,"a,! - at &east in thei" Geste"n g+ises - as +ni'e"sa& o" desi"a)&e. #i'e and &et &i'e 4and &i'e and &et die5 m+st "e &a,e the Gest?s ma&ignant o timism and inte&&e,t+a& and s i"it+a& a""ogan,e. Ed-a"d :. Thom son, the managing edito" o* 0#i*e0 *"om @A4A to @AE@, on,e -"ote: "FLifeF m#st e c#rio#s, alert, er#dite and moral, #t it m#st achieve this witho#t eing holier?than?tho#, a cynic, a know?it?all or a Pee)ing Tom'" The Gest has g"oss&! and tho"o+gh&! 'io&ated

Thom son?s edi,t. In its o*t-inte""+ ted inte",o+"se -ith these *o"saken "egions o* the g&o)e, it has a,ted, a&te"nate&!, as a Pee ing Tom, a ,!ni, and a kno- it a&&. It has in'a"ia)&! )eha'ed as i* it -e"e ho&ie"-than-tho+. In an +nmitigated and *antasti, s+,,ession o* )&+nde"s, mis,a&,+&ations, 'ain "omises, +nke t th"eats and +nkem t di &omats - it has d"i'en the -o"&d to the 'e"ge o* -a" and the "egions it 0ado ted0 to the th"esho&d o* e,onomi, and so,ia& + hea'a&. Enamo"ed -ith the ne- ideo&og! o* *"ee ma"ket"! ,+m demo,"a,!, the Gest *i"st ass+med the "o&e o* the omnis,ient. It designed ingenio+s mode&s, de'ised *oo& "oo* &a-s, im osed *ai&-sa*e instit+tions and st"ong&! 0"e,ommended0 meas+"es. Its "e "esentati'es, the t"i)+nes o* the Gest, "+&ed the &e)eian East -ith dete"mination "a"e&! eK+a&ed )! ski&& o" kno-&edge. Ve&'et hands ,o+,hed in i"on g&o'es, igno"an,e disg+ised )! e,onomi, ne-s eak, geost"ategi, inte"ests masK+e"ading as *o"ms o* go'e"nment, ,ha"a,te"iCed thei" dea&ings -ith the nati'es. P"ea,hing and )esee,hing *"om e'e" highe" +& its, the! o+"ed o "o)"i+m and s-eet de&+sions on the eage"&! d+ ed, nai'e, )e-i&de"ed masses. The de,eit -as e'ident to the indigeno+s ,!ni,s - )+t it -as the *ai&+"e that diss+aded them and othe"s )esides. The Gest &ost its *o"me" ,o&onies not -hen it &ied eg"egio+s&!, not -hen it "etended to kno- *o" s+"e -hen it s+"e&! did not kno-, not -hen it mani +&ated and ,oa>ed and ,oe",ed - )+t -hen it *ai&ed. To the eo &es o* these "egions, the king -as *+&&! d"essed. It -as not a &itt&e ,hi&d )+t an eno"mo+s de)a,&e that e> osed his n+dit!. In its "es+m t+o+sness and "etentio+sness, *eigned s+"et! and 'ain ,&i,hUs, im o"ted

e,onomi, mode&s and e> o"ted ,hea "a- mate"ia&s - the Gest s+,,eeded to demo&ish )e!ond "e,onst"+,tion -ho&e e,onomies, to "a'age ,omm+nities, to -"eak "+ination + on the ,ent+"ies-o&d so,ia& *a)"i,, -o'en di&igent&! )! gene"ations. It )"o+ght ,"ime and d"+gs and ma!hem )+t ga'e 'e"! &itt&e in "et+"n, on&! a ho"iCon )e,&o+ded and th+nde"ing -ith 'a,+o+s e&oK+en,e. (s a "es+&t, -hi&e totte"ing "egiona& go'e"nments sti&& a! &i se"'i,e to the 'a&+es o* Ca ita&ism, the masses a"e en"aged and "est&ess and "e)e&&io+s and )a&e*+& and anti-Geste"n to the ,o"e. The disen,hanted -e"e not &ike&! to a,K+ies,e *o" &ong not on&! -ith the Gest?s neo-,o&onia&ism )+t a&so -ith its in,om eten,e and ina tit+de, -ith the non,ha&ant e> e"imentation that it im osed + on them and -ith the a)!ss )et-een its "o,&amations and its e"*o"man,e. Th"o+gho+t this time, the en'o!s o* the Gest - its medio,"e o&iti,ians, its insatia)&! "+th&ess media, its o)ese to+"ists, its i&&ite"ate so&die"s, and its a"m,hai" e,onomists - ,ontin+e to &a! the "o&e o* 9od, -"eaking g"eate" ha'o, than e'en the o"igina&. Ghi&e ,on*essing to omnis,ien,e 4in )"ea,h o* e'e"! t"adition s,ienti*i, and "e&igio+s5, the! a&so de'e&o ed a kind o* -o"&d -ea"!, +nsha'en ,!ni,ism inte"&a,ed -ith *as,ination at the de ths &+m)ed )! the &o,a&s? immo"a&it! and amo"a&it!. The $et-set Pee ing Toms "eside in *i'e sta" hote&s 4o" &+>+"io+s a a"tments5 o'e"&ooking the ,omm+nist, o" =idd&e-Easte"n, o" (*"i,an shant!to-ns. The! d"i'e +ti&it! 'ehi,&es to the sha))! o**i,es o* the nati'e )+"ea+,"ats and dine in V@00 e" mea& "esta+"ants 40it?s so

,hea he"e05. In )et-een ke)a) and h+mm+s the! )emoan and g"ie'e the ,o""+ tion and ne otism and ,"on!ism 40I sim &! &o'e thei" ethni, *ood, )+t the! a"e so...05. The! mo+"n the a+to,hthono+s ina)i&it! to a,t de,isi'e&!, to ,+t "ed ta e, to man+*a,t+"e K+a&it!, to o en to the -o"&d, to )e &ess >eno ho)i, 4said -hi&e ,asting a disdain*+& g&an,e at the nati'e -aite"5. To them it &ooks &ike an an,ient *o",e o* nat+"e and, the"e*o"e, an ine'ita)i&it! - hen,e thei" ,!ni,ism. =ost&! "o'in,ia& eo &e -ith ho"iCons &imited )! ,ons+m tion and )! -ea&th, these he"a&ds o* the Gest ado t ,!ni,ism as sho"thand *o" ,osmo o&itanism. The! e""oneo+s&! )e&ie'e that *eigned sa",asm &ends them an ai" o* "+ggedness and "i,h e> e"ien,e and the 'i"i&e a"oma o* de,adent e"+dition. Jet a&& it does is make them o)no>io+s and e'en mo"e "e e&&ent to the "esidents than the! a&"ead! -e"e. E'e" the "ea,he"s, the Gest - )oth E+"o eans and (me"i,ans - + ho&d themse&'es as "o&e mode&s o* 'i"t+e to )e em+&ated, as oints o* "e*e"en,e, a&most inh+man o" s+ e"h+man in thei" taming o* the 'i,es, a'a"i,e + *"ont. Jet the ,haos and ,o""+ tion in thei" o-n homes is )"oad,ast &i'e, da! in and da! o+t, into the ,+)i,&es inha)ited )! the 'e"! eo &e the! seek to so t"ans*o"m. (nd the! ,ons i"e and ,o&&a)o"ate in a&& manne" o* 'ena&it! and ,"ime and s,am and "igged e&e,tions in a&& the ,o+nt"ies the! +t the gos e& to. In t"!ing to +t an end to histo"!, the! seem to ha'e "o'oked anothe" "o+nd o* it - mo"e 'i,io+s, mo"e end+"ing, mo"e t"a+mati, than )e*o"e. That the Gest is

a!ing the "i,e *o" its mistakes I ha'e no do+)t. <o" isn?t it a a"t and a",e& o* its tea,hings that e'e"!thing has a "i,e and that the"e is a&-a!s a time o* "e,koningL %ega"ding Comm+nism: The ,o"e ,o+nt"ies o* Cent"a& E+"o e 4the CCe,h %e +)&i,, 6+nga"! and, to a &esse" e>tent, Po&and5 e> e"ien,ed ind+st"ia& ,a ita&ism in the inte"--a" e"iod. ;+t the ,o+nt"ies ,om "ising the 'ast e> anses o* the NeInde endent States, %+ssia and the ;a&kan had no "ea& a,K+aintan,e -ith it. To them its Cea&o+s int"od+,tion is nothing )+t anothe" ideo&ogi,a& e> e"iment and not a 'e"! "e-a"ding one at that. It is o*ten said that the"e is no "e,edent to the e>tant *o"tean t"ansition *"om tota&ita"ian ,omm+nism to &i)e"a& ,a ita&ism. This might -e&& )e t"+e. Jet, nas,ent ,a ita&ism is not -itho+t histo"i,a& e>am &e. The st+d! o* the )i"th o* ,a ita&ism in *e+da& E+"o e ma! !et &ead to some s+" "ising and otentia&&! +se*+& insights. The ;a")a"ian ,onK+est o* the teete"ing %oman Em i"e 44@0-4FE (D5 he"a&ded *i'e ,ent+"ies o* e>istentia& inse,+"it! and ma!hem. <e+da&ism -as the ,o+nt"!side?s "ea,tion to this damnation. It -as a 6o)son?s ,hoi,e and an e> &i,it t"ade-o**. #o,a& &o"ds de*ended thei" 'assa&s against nomad int"+sions in "et+"n *o" e" et+a& se"'i,e )o"de"ing on s&a'e"!. ( sma&& e",entage o* the o +&ation &i'ed on t"ade )ehind the massi'e -a&&s o* =edie'a& ,ities. In most a"ts o* ,ent"a&, easte"n and so+theaste"n E+"o e, *e+da&ism end+"ed -e&& into the t-entieth ,ent+"!. It -as ent"en,hed in the &ega& s!stems o* the Ottoman Em i"e and o* CCa"ist %+ssia. E&ements o* *e+da&ism s+"'i'ed in

the me&&i*&+o+s and "o&i> "ose o* the 6a)s)+"g ,odi,es and atents. =ost o* the deniCens o* these mo"i)+nd s-athes o* E+"o e -e"e *a"me"s - on&! the "o*&igate and a"asiti, mem)e"s o* a distin,t mino"it! inha)ited the ,ities. The "esent )"o)dignagian ag"i,+&t+"a& se,to"s in ,o+nt"ies as di'e"se as Po&and and =a,edonia attest to this ,ontin+it! o* *e+da& "a,ti,es. ;oth man+a& &a)o+" and t"ade -e"e de"ided in the (n,ient Go"&d. This de"ision -as a"tia&&! e"oded d+"ing the Da"k (ges. It s+"'i'ed on&! in "e&ation to t"ade and othe" 0non"od+,ti'e0 *inan,ia& a,ti'ities and e'en that not ast the thi"teenth ,ent+"!. =a> Ge)e", in his o +s, 0The Cit!0 4Ne- Jo"k, =a,=i&&an, @ADI5 des,"i)ed this menta& shi*t o* a"adigm th+s: 0The medie'a& ,itiCen -as on the -a! to-a"ds )e,oming an e,onomi, man ... the an,ient ,itiCen -as a o&iti,a& man.0 Ghat ,omm+nism did to the &ands it e"meated -as to *"eeCe this ea"&! *e+da& *"ame o* mind o* disdain to-a"ds 0non- "od+,ti'e0, 0,it!-)ased0 'o,ations. (g"i,+&t+"a& and ind+st"ia& o,,+ ations -e"e "omanti,a&&! e>to&&ed. The ,ities -e"e )e"ated as h+)s o* mo"a& t+" it+de, de,aden,e and g"eed. Po&iti,a& a-a"eness -as made a "e,ondition *o" e"sona& s+"'i'a& and ad'an,ement. The ,&o,k -as t+"ned )a,k. Ge)e"?s 06omo E,onomi,+s0 !ie&ded to ,omm+nism?s s+ e",i&io+s 'e"sion o* the an,ient 9"eeks? 0Ooon Po&itikon0. 8ohn o* Sa&is)+"! might as -e&& ha'e )een -"iting *o" a ,omm+nist agit "o de a"tment -hen he enned this in 0Po&i,"ati,+s0 4@@DA (D5: 0...i* 4"i,h eo &e, eo &e -ith "i'ate "o e"t!5 ha'e )een st+**ed th"o+gh e>,essi'e g"eed and i* the! ho&d in thei" ,ontents too o)stinate&!, 4the!5 gi'e "ise to ,o+nt&ess and in,+"a)&e i&&nesses and, th"o+gh thei" 'i,es, ,an )"ing a)o+t the "+in o* the )od! as a -ho&e0. The )od! in the

te>t )eing the )od! o&iti,. This inimi,a& attit+de sho+&d ha'e ,ome as no s+" "ise to st+dents o* eithe" +")an "ea&ities o" o* ,omm+nism, thei" a""i,ida& o**-s "ing. The ,it! &i)e"ated its ,itiCens *"om the )ondage o* the *e+da& &a)o+" ,ont"a,t. (nd it a,ted as the s+ "eme g+a"anto" o* the "ights o* "i'ate "o e"t!. It "e&ied on its t"ading and e,onomi, "o-ess to o)tain and se,+"e o&iti,a& a+tonom!. 8ohn o* Pa"is, a"g+a)&! one o* the *i"st ,a ita&ist ,ities 4at &east a,,o"ding to ;"a+de&5, -"ote: 04The indi'id+a&5 had a "ight to "o e"t! -hi,h -as not -ith im +nit! to )e inte"*e"ed -ith )! s+ e"io" a+tho"it! - )e,a+se it -as a,K+i"ed )! 4his5 o-n e**o"ts0 4in 9eo"ges D+)!, 0The age o* the Cathed"a&s: ("t and So,iet!, AI0-@420, Chi,ago, Chi,ago 3ni'e"sit! P"ess, @AI@5. Des ite the *a,t that ,omm+nism -as an +")an henomenon 4a&)eit -ith "+sti, "oots5 - it a)negated these 0)o+"geoisie0 'a&+es. Comm+na& o-ne"shi "e &a,ed indi'id+a& "o e"t! and se"'it+de to the state "e &a,ed indi'id+a&ism. In ,omm+nism, *e+da&ism -as "esto"ed. E'en geog"a hi,a& mo)i&it! -as se'e"e&! ,+"tai&ed, as -as the ,ase in *e+da&ism. The do,t"ine o* the Comm+nist a"t! mono o&iCed a&& modes o* tho+ght and e",e tion 'e"! m+,h as the ,h+",h-,ondoned "e&igio+s st"ain did F00 !ea"s )e*o"e. Comm+nism -as ,ha"a,te"iCed )! tensions )et-een a"t!, state and the e,onom! - e>a,t&! as the medie'a& o&it! -as &ag+ed )! ,on*&i,ts )et-een ,h+",h, king and me",hants-)anke"s. Pa"ado>i,a&&!, ,omm+nism -as a *aith*+& "e-ena,tment o* "e-,a ita&ist histo"!. Comm+nism sho+&d )e -e&& disting+ished *"om =a">ism. Sti&&, it is i"oni, that e'en =a">?s 0s,ienti*i, mate"ia&ism0 has an eK+i'a&ent in the t-i&ight times o* *e+da&ism. The e&e'enth and t-e&*th ,ent+"ies -itnessed a ,on,e"ted

e**o"t )! medie'a& s,ho&a"s to a &! 0s,ienti*i,0 "in,i &es and h+man kno-&edge to the so&+tion o* so,ia& "o)&ems. The histo"ian %. G. So+the"n ,a&&ed this e"iod 0s,ienti*i, h+manism0 4in 0<&esh and Stone0 )! %i,ha"d Sennett, #ondon, <a)e" and <a)e", @AA45. Ge mentioned 8ohn o* Sa&is)+"!?s 0Po&i,"ati,+s0. It -as an e**o"t to ma o&iti,a& *+n,tions and inte"a,tions into thei" h+man h!sio&ogi,a& eK+i'a&ents. The king, *o" instan,e, -as the )"ain o* the )od! o&iti,. =e",hants and )anke"s -e"e the insatia)&e stoma,h. ;+t this a a"ent&! sim &isti, ana&og! masked a s,hismati, de)ate. Sho+&d a e"son?s osition in &i*e )e dete"mined )! his o&iti,a& a**i&iation and 0nat+"a&0 &a,e in the o"de" o* things - o" sho+&d it )e the "es+&t o* his ,a a,ities and thei" e>e",ise 4me"it5L Do the e'e" ,hanging ,ontents o* the e,onomi, 0stoma,h0, its ka&eidos,o i, inno'ati'eness, its 0 e"manent "e'o&+tion0 and its "o ensit! to ass+me 0i""ationa&0 "isks - ad'e"se&! a**e,t this nat+"a& o"de" -hi,h, a*te" a&&, is )ased on t"adition and "o+tineL In sho"t: is the"e an inhe"ent in,om ati)i&it! )et-een the o"de" o* the -o"&d 4"ead: the ,h+",h do,t"ine5 and me"ito,"ati, 4demo,"ati,5 ,a ita&ismL Co+&d Thomas (K+inas? 0S+mma Theo&ogi,a0 4the -o"&d as the )od! o* Ch"ist5 )e "e,on,i&ed -ith 0Stadt #+*t =a,ht <"ei0 40,it! ai" &i)e"ates0 - the sign a)o'e the gates o* the ,ities o* the 6anseati, #eag+e5L This is the ete"na& tension )et-een the indi'id+a& and the g"o+ . Indi'id+a&ism and ,omm+nism a"e not ne- to histo"! and the! ha'e a&-a!s )een in ,on*&i,t. To ,om a"e the ,omm+nist a"t! to the ,h+",h is a -e&&--o"n ,&i,hU. ;oth "e&igions - the se,+&a" and the di'ine - -e"e th"eatened )! the s i"it o* *"eedom and initiati'e em)odied in +")an ,+&t+"e, ,omme",e and *inan,e. The o"de" the! so+ght to esta)&ish, "o agate and e" et+ate ,on*&i,ted -ith )asi, h+man d"i'es and desi"es.

Comm+nism -as a th"o-)a,k to the da!s )e*o"e the as,ent o* the +")ane, ,a ita&isti,, so histi,ated, in,"ed+&o+s, indi'id+a&isti, and "isK+U Gest. it so+ght to s+)stit+te one kind o* 0s,ienti*i,0 dete"minism 4the )od! o&iti, o* Ch"ist5 )! anothe" 4the )od! o&iti, o* 0the P"o&eta"iat05. It *ai&ed and -hen it +n"a'e&ed, it "e'ea&ed a &ands,a e o* to>i, de'astation, *"oCen in time, an ossi*ied nat+"a& o"de" )e"e*t o* ,ontent and adhe"ents. The ost,omm+nist ,o+nt"ies ha'e to i,k + -he"e it &e*t them, ,ent+"ies ago. It is not so m+,h a "o)&em o* &a,king in*"ast"+,t+"e as it is an iss+e o* atho&ogiCed minds, not so m+,h a matte" o* the )od! as a d!s*+n,tion o* the s!,he. The histo"ian Ga&te" 3&&man sa!s that 8ohn o* Sa&is)+"! tho+ght 4ID0 !ea"s ago5 that 0the indi'id+a&?s standing -ithin so,iet!... 4sho+&d )e5 )ased + on his o**i,e o" his o**i,ia& *+n,tion ... 4the g"eate" this *+n,tion -as5 the mo"e s,o e it had, the -eightie" it -as, the mo"e "ights the indi'id+a& had.0 4Ga&te" 3&&man, 0The Indi'id+a& and So,iet! in the =idd&e (ges0, ;a&timo"e, 8ohns 6o kins 3ni'e"sit! P"ess, @AEE5. I ,annot ,on,ei'e o* a mem)e" o* the ,omm+nist nomenk&at+"a -ho -o+&d not ha'e ado ted this *o"m+&a -ho&ehea"ted&!. I* mode"n ,a ita&ism ,an )e des,"i)ed as 0)a,k to the *+t+"e0, ,omm+nism -as s+"e&! 0*o"-a"d to the ast0. Michael: Sti&&, ,om a"e Comm+nism -ith the Is&ami, inte" "etation. <o" "adi,a& Is&amists the $+sti*i,ation o* te""ito"ia& e> ansion has )een "o'ided )! the "in,i &e o* 8ihad, esta)&ished )! =ohammed in "es onse to "e*+sa& to a,kno-&edge his "o heti, mission )! 8e-ish t"i)es o* 6i$aC. 6e di'ided the -o"&d into the da" a&-Is&am, the ea,e*+& te""ito"! o* Is&am, -he"e the #a- "+&es and da"

a&-6a"), the 0te""ito"! o* -a"0, ,ont"o&&ed tem o"a"i&! )! non-=+s&ims. Sam: So+nds to me &ike the di'ision o**e"ed )! the demo,"ati, states 4Is"ae&, the 3S(, the 3:5 toda!: #i)e"a&-demo,"a,! itted against the 0E'i& Em i"e0 43SS%5, o" the 0(>is o* E'i&0 4No"th :o"ea, I"an, and I"aK5. Ge-against-the!. E'e"! "egime m+st *ind an enem! - o", in the a)sen,e o* one, in'ent it. %ead O"-e&&?s 0@AI40. Michael: ;+t 8ihad is the necessary and )ermanent state o* -a" -aged against the da" a&-6a"), -hi,h ,an on&! end -hen enti"e -o"&d s+)mits to Is&am. The simi&a"ities )et-een the se,+&a" tota&ita"ian dogma o* ,omm+nism and the monotheisti, Is&am a"e "ema"ka)&e. Sam: 8ihad is the ,ontin+o+s *ight to a,hie'e e"*e,tion. It ,an and does - take &a,e -ithin ea,h and e'e"! indi'id+a& =+s&im. It is a st"i'ing, a state o* mind, not ne,essa"i&! an a,t. Po&iti,a&&!, it is the -a" against 0in*ide&s0 -ho ha"m =+s&ims, 'io&ate thei" "ights, and a,t against the inte"ests o* Is&am. 8ihad is "ea,ti'e - not "oa,ti'e. It is not missiona"! - it is intended to "ight -"ongs 4o" -hat =+s&ims e",ei'e to )e -"ongs5. Michael: So, -h! te""o"L Ghat has it got to do -ith s!,hod!nami, a "oa,hL Te""o"ism a,t+a&&! is not a ne- do,t"ine.

#ooking )a,k in "e,ent histo"!, -e -i&& *ind %+ssian te""o"ists o* the Peo &es? *"eedom, 8e-ish te""o"ists o* the Ste"n gang, Se")ian te""o"ists s+,h as Dani&o P"in,i -ho?s shots in Sa"a$e'o t"igge"ed GGI, ("a) te""o"ists o* 6amas and 6iC)+&&ah, Pa&estinian te""o"ists o* (&-<atah, Tami& te""o"ists o" Tige"s, I"ish te""o"ists *"om the I%( and man! othe"s. Sho+&d (tti&a the 6+n o" %o)in 6ood )e ,a&&ed te""o"istsL Semanti,s ,o+&d )e K+ite ,on*+sing. Ghat is te""o"ismL ;eing a &aneta"! henomenon te""o"ism ,o+&d )e de*ined as an a &i,ation o* +n,on'entiona&, +ne> e,ted and i&&ega& o-e" designed to a,hie'e o&iti,a& goa&s. Sam: 0?3n)o+nded? mo"a&it! +&timate&! )e,omes ,o+nte" "od+,ti'e e'en in te"ms o* the same mo"a& "in,i &es )eing so+ght. The &a- o* diminishing "et+"ns a &ies to mo"a&it!.0 Thomas Sowell The"e?s a sto"! a)o+t %o)es ie""e that has the "eeminent "a))&e-"o+se" o* the <"en,h %e'o&+tion &ea ing + *"om his ,hai" as soon as he sa- a mo) assem)&ing o+tside. 0I m+st see -hi,h -a! the ,"o-d is headed0, he is "e +ted to ha'e said: 0<o" I am thei" &eade".0 htt :11---.sa&on.,om1te,h1)ooks1@AAA1@@1041ne-2o timi sm1 Peo &e -ho e>e",ise 'io&en,e in the +"s+it o* -hat the! ho&d to )e $+st ,a+ses a"e a&te"nate&! kno-n as 0te""o"ists0 o" 0*"eedom *ighte"s0. The! a&& sha"e a *e- ,ommon ,ha"a,te"isti,s:

@. ( ha"d ,o"e o* idea&ists ado t a ,a+se 4in most ,ases, the *"eedom o* a g"o+ o* eo &e5. The! )ase thei" ,&aims on histo"! - "ea& o" hasti&! ,on,o,ted, on a ,ommon he"itage, on a &ang+age sha"ed )! the mem)e"s o* the g"o+ and, most im o"tant, on hate and ,ontem t di"e,ted at an 0enem!0. The &atte" is, a&most in'a"ia)&!, the h!si,a& o" ,+&t+"a& o,,+ ie" o* s a,e the idea&ists ,&aim as thei" o-n. 2. The &o!a&ties and a&&ian,es o* these eo &e shi*t e**o"t&ess&! as e'e" es,a&ating means $+sti*! an e'e" sh"inking ,a+se. The initia& )+"st o* g"andiosit! inhe"ent in e'e"! s+,h +nde"taking gi'es -a! to ,!ni,a& and )itte" "agmatism as )oth enem! and eo &e ti"e o* the ,on*&i,t. B. (n ine'ita)&e "es+&t o* the "ea& o&itik o* te""o"ism is the ,o&&a)o"ation -ith the &ess sa'o"! e&ements o* so,iet!. %e&egated to the *"inges )! the ine>o"a)&e ma",h o* ,ommon sense, the *"eedom *ighte"s nat+"a&&! g"a'itate to-a"ds &ike minded non-,on*o"mists and o+t,asts. The o"ganiCation is ,"imina&iCed. D"+g dea&ing, )ank "o))ing and othe" manne" o* o"ganiCed and ,ont+ma,io+s ,"imina&it! )e,ome integ"a& e>tensions o* the st"+gg&e. ( ,"imina& ,o" o"atism eme"ges, st"+,t+"ed )+t 'o&ati&e and gi'en to inte"ne,ine donn!)"ooks. 4. Ve"! o*ten an +n-ho&! ,o-de enden,e de'e&o s )et-een the o"ganiCation and its "e!. It is the inte"est o* the *"eedom *ighte"s to ha'e a ,ontem ti)&e and t!"anni,a& "egime as thei" o onent. I* not "one to s+ "ession and ,on'+&si'e massa,"es )! nat+"e - a,ts o* te""o" -i&&

de&i)e"ate&! "o'oke e'en the most )enign "+&e to a)ho""ent e)+&&ition. D. The te""o"ist o"ganiCation -i&& tend to em+&ate the 'e"! ,ha"a,te"isti,s o* its enem! it *+&minates against the most. Th+s, a&& s+,h g"o+ s a"e "e)a")ati'e&! a+tho"ita"ian, e>e,"a)&! 'io&ent, de'oid o* h+man em ath! o" emotions, s+ "essi'e, ostentatio+s, t"en,hant and o*ten m+"de"o+s. E. It is o*ten the *"eedom *ighte"s -ho ,om "omise thei" *"eedom and the *"eedom o* thei" eo &e in the most eg"egio+s manne". This is +s+a&&! done eithe" )! ,o&&a)o"ating -ith the de"ided enem! against anothe", ,om eting set o* *"eedom *ighte"s - o" )! in'iting a *o"eign o-e" to a")ite". Th+s, the! o*ten ,ata&!se the "e &a,ement o* one "egime o* o "essi'e ho""o" -ith anothe", mo"e te""i)&e and ent"en,hed. F. =ost *"eedom *ighte"s a"e assimi&ated and digested )! the 'e"! esta)&ishment the! *o+ght against o" as the *o+nde"s o* ne-, "i'i&eged nomenk&at+"as. It is then that thei" t"+e nat+"e is e> osed, mi"ed in g+&osit! and s+ e",i&io+sness as the! )e,ome. In'ete"ate 'io&ato"s o* )asi, h+man "ights, the! o*ten t"ans*o"m into the 'e"! demons the! he& ed to e>o",ise. =ost *"eedom *ighte"s a"e disg"+nt&ed mem)e"s o* the midd&e ,&asses o" the inte&&igentsia. The! )"ing to thei" a**ai"s the me",i&ess "+th&essness o* she&te"ed &i'es. =istaking ,om assion *o" -eakness, the! sho- none as the! +ns,"+ +&o+s&! +"s+e thei" se&*-agg"andiCement, the ego t"i o* sending othe"s to thei" death. The! a"e the st+**

ma"t!"s a"e made o*. ;o"ne on the ,"ests o* ,i",+mstantia& -a'es, the! &e'e" thei" +n)a&an,ed e"sona&ities and "o$e,t them to g"eat e**e,t. The! a"e the *ootnotes o* histo"! that ass+me the "o&e o* te>t. (nd the! "a"e&! en$o! the +nmitigated s+ o"t o* the 'e"! eo &e the! "o**e" to &i)e"ate. E'en the most ha"ang+ed and s+)$+gated eo &e *ind it ha"d to *o&&o- o" a,,e t the 'i,issit+dina& )eha'io" o* thei" se&*-a ointed &i)e"ato"s, thei" shi*ting *"iendshi s and enmities and thei" asi&a&! o* 'io&en,e. Te""o"ists ,an )e henomeno&ogi,a&&! des,"i)ed as na",issists in a ,onstant state o* de*i,ient na",issisti, s+ &!. The 0g"andiosit! ga 0 - the ain*+& and na",issisti,a&&! in$+"io+s ga )et-een thei" g"andiose *antasies and thei" d"ea"! and h+mi&iating "ea&it! )e,omes emotiona&&! ins+ o"ta)&e. The! de,om ensate and a,t o+t. The! )"ing 0do-n to thei" &e'e&0 4)! dest"o!ing it5 the o)$e,t o* thei" atho&ogi,a& en'!, the ,a+se o* thei" seething *"+st"ation, the s!m)o& o* thei" d+&& a,hie'ements, a&-a!s in,ommens+"ate -ith thei" in*&ated se&*-image. The! seek omni oten,e th"o+gh m+"de", ,ont"o& 4not &east se&* ,ont"o&5 th"o+gh 'io&en,e, "estige, *ame and ,e&e)"it! )! de*!ing *ig+"es o* a+tho"ities, ,ha&&enging them, and h+m)&ing them. 3n)ekno-nst to them, the! seek se&* +nishment. The! a"e at hea"t s+i,ida&. The! aim to ,ast themse&'es as 'i,tims )! *o",ing othe"s to +nish them. This is ,a&&ed 0 "o$e,ti'e identi*i,ation0. The! att"i)+te e'i& and ,o""+ tion to thei" enemies and *oes. These *o"ms o* a"anoia a"e ,a&&ed "o$e,tion and s &itting. These a"e a&& "imiti'e, in*anti&e, and o*ten e"se,+to"!, de*ense me,hanisms. Ghen ,o+ &ed -ith na",issism - the ina)i&it! to em athiCe, the e> &oitati'eness, the sense o* entit&ement,

the "ages, the deh+maniCation and de'a&+ation o* othe"s - this mindset !ie&ds a)!sma& ,ontem t. The o'e""iding emotion o* te""o"ists and se"ia& ki&&e"s, the ama&gam and ,+&mination o* thei" to"t+"ed s!,he - is dee seated disdain *o" e'e"!thing h+man, the *&i side o* en'!. It is ,ogniti'e dissonan,e gone amok. On the one hand the te""o"ist de"ides as 0*a&se0, 0meaning&ess0, 0dange"o+s0, and 0,o""+ t0 ,ommon 'a&+es, instit+tions, h+man inte",o+"se, and so,iet!. On the othe" hand, he de'otes his enti"e &i*e 4and o*ten "isks it5 to the e&imination and +&'e"iCation o* these 0insigni*i,ant0 entities. To $+sti*! this a a"ent ,ont"adi,tion, the te""o"ists ,asts himse&* as an a&t"+isti, sa'io+" o* a g"o+ o* eo &e 0endange"ed0 )! his *oes. 6e is a&-a!s se&*-a ointed and se&*- "o,&aimed, "a"e&! e&e,ted. The se"ia& ki&&e" "ationa&iCes and inte&&e,t+a&iCes his m+"de"s simi&a"&!, )! +" o"ting to 0&i)e"ate0 o" 0de&i'e"0 his 'i,tims *"om a *ate -o"se than death. The g&o)a& "ea,h, the se,"e,!, the im oten,e and g"o-ing ani, o* his 'i,tims, o* the +)&i,, and o* his +"s+e"s, the damage he -"eaks - a&& se"'e as e>te"na& ego *+n,tions. The te""o"ist and se"ia& ki&&e" "eg+&ate thei" sense o* se&* esteem and se&* -o"th )! *eeding s&a'ish&! on the "ea,tions to thei" heino+s deeds. Thei" ,osmi, signi*i,an,e is dai&! enhan,ed )! ne-s a e" head&ines, e'e" in,"easing )o+nties, admi"ing imitato"s, s+,,ess*+& a,ts o* )&a,kmai&, the st"ength and siCe o* thei" o onents, and the de'astation o* h+man &i*e and "o e"t!. ( easement -o"ks on&! to agg"a'ate thei" d"i'es and st"engthen thei" a etites )! em)o&dening them and )! "aising the th"esho&d o* e>,itation and 0na",issisti, s+ &!0. Te""o"ists and ki&&e"s a"e addi,ted to this d"+g o* )eing a,kno-&edged and "e*&e,ted. The! de"i'e thei" sense o* e>isten,e, a"asiti,a&&!, *"om the "ea,tions o* thei" 4o*ten

,a ti'e5 a+dien,e. See this: Pathological .arcissism, %ro#) $ehavior, and Terrorism Michael: <"om a s!,hod!nami, 'ie-, ho-e'e", te""o"ism is one o* the "es+&ts o* the inhe"ent inse,+"it! o* the tota&ita"ian mindH its ,&aim to signi*i,an,e, an attem t to +)&i,&! de,&a"e the e",ei'ed s+**e"ing, th+s $+sti*!ing the "ight to in*&i,t s+**e"ing in "et+"n. ;eing ins i"ed )! -hate'e" g"ie'an,es the te""o"ist -ants "e,ti*ied, he +ses a sim &e "e*"aming te,hniK+e: deh+maniCing an o osition. #a)e&ing a&& non-=os&ems as ?in*ide&s? he gi'es and "e,ei'es e"mission to +se -hate'e" *o",e he deems ne,essa"! to -in. C+"io+s&!, in the ,onte>t o* the ongoing ,on*&i,t )et-een the te""o"ist and the "est o* the ,i'i&iCed -o"&d the"e might )e an e&ement o* a de endent ,hi&d, ang"i&! hitting a dadd! -ho ho&ds him, to indi,ate the dist"ess he *ee&s. Sam: O)$e,ti*!ing 4and, th+s, deh+maniCing5 &ang+age is +sed )! a&& o&iti,a& "egimes and instit+tions, te""o"ist o" not. Ghat is 0,o&&ate"a& damage0 i* not an o)$e,ti*!ing, deh+maniCing *o"m o* s ee,hL The (ng&o-Sa>on mem)e"s o* the mot&e! 0Coa&ition o* the Gi&&ing0 -e"e "o+d o* thei" ai","a*t?s and missi&es? 0s+"gi,a&0 "e,ision. The &ega& 4and mo"a&5 im e"ati'e to s a"e the &i'es o* inno,ent ,i'i&ians -as -e&& o)se"'ed,

the! )"agged. 0Co&&ate"a& damage0 -as minimiCed. The! -e"e &+,k! to ha'e ,on*"onted a di&a idated enem!. P"e,ision )om)ing is e> ensi'e, in te"ms o* &i'es - o* *ighte" i&ots. =i&ita"! &anne"s a"e -e&& a-a"e that the"e is a h+shed t"ade-o** )et-een ,i'i&ian and ,om)atant ,as+a&ties. This di&emma is )oth ethi,a& and "a,ti,a&. It is o*ten 0"eso&'ed0 )! a &!ing - e> &i,it&! o" im &i,it&! - the "in,i &e o* 0o'e"-"iding a**i&iation0. (s +s+a&, 8+daism -as the"e *i"st, agoniCing o'e" simi&a" mo"a& ,on*&i,ts. T-o 8e-ish sa!ings amo+nt to a "e&+,tant admission o* the "e&ati'it! o* mo"a& ,a&,+&+s: 0One is ,&ose to onese&*0 and 0Jo+" ,it!?s oo" deniCens ,ome *i"st 4-ith "ega"ds to ,ha"it!50. One?s )ro)er ,ond+,t, in othe" -o"ds, is de,ided )! one?s se&*-inte"est and )! one?s a**i&iations. (**i&iation 4to a ,omm+nit!, o" a *"ate"nit!5, in t+"n, is dete"mined )! one?s ositions and, mo"e so, e"ha s, )! one?s o ositions. Ghat a"e these 0 ositions0 and 0o ositions0L

The most *+ndamenta& osition - *"om -hi,h a&& othe"s a"e de"i'ed - is the ositi'e statement 0I am a h+man )eing0. ;e&onging to the h+man "a,e is an imm+ta)&e and ina&iena)&e osition. Den!ing this &eads to ho""o"s s+,h as the 6o&o,a+st. The NaCis did not "ega"d as h+mans the 8e-s, the S&a's, homose>+a&s, and othe" mino"ities - so the! so+ght to e>te"minate them. (&& othe", s!ntheti,, ositions a"e made o* ,o+ &es o* ositi'e and negati'e statements -ith the st"+,t+"e 0I am and I am not0. ;+t the"e is an im o"tant as!mmet"! at the hea"t o* this neat a""angement.

The negati'e statements in ea,h ,o+ &e a"e *+&&! de"i'ed *"om - and th+s a"e enti"e&! de endent on and im &ied )! the ositi'e statements. Not so the ositi'e statements. The! ,annot )e de"i'ed *"om, o" )e im &ied )!, the negati'e one. #est -e get dist"a,ting&! a)st"a,t, &et +s ,onside" an e>am &e. St+d! the ,o+ &e 0I am an Is"ae&i0 and 0I am not a S!"ian0. (ss+ming that the"e a"e 220 ,o+nt"ies and te""ito"ies, the ositi'e statement 0I am an Is"ae&i0 im &ies a)o+t 220 certain 4t"+e5 negati'e statements. Jo+ ,an de"i'e ea,h and e'e"! one o* these negati'e statements *"om the ositi'e statement. Jo+ ,an th+s ,"eate 220 e"*e,t&! 'a&id ,o+ &es. 0I am an Is"ae&i ...0 The"e*o"e: 0I am not ... 4a ,itiCen o* ,o+nt"! R, -hi,h is not Is"ae&50. Jo+ ,an sa*e&! de"i'e the t"+e statement 0I am not a S!"ian0 *"om the statement 0I am an Is"ae&i0. Can I de"i'e the statement 0I am an Is"ae&i0 *"om the statement 0I am not a S!"ian0L Not -ith an! ,e"taint!. The negati'e statement 0I am not a S!"ian0 im &ies 220 )ossi le ositi'e statements o* the t! e 0I am ... 4a ,itiCen o* ,o+nt"! R, -hi,h is not India50, in,&+ding the statement 0I am an Is"ae&i0. 0I am not a S!"ian and I am a ,itiCen o* ... 4220 ossi)i&ities50

Negati'e statements ,an )e de"i'ed -ith ,e"taint! *"om an! ositi'e statement. Negati'e statements as -e&& as ositi'e statements ,annot )e de"i'ed -ith ,e"taint! *"om an! negati'e statement. This *o"ma&-&ogi,a& t"ait "e*&e,ts a dee "ea&it! -ith +nsett&ing ,onseK+en,es. s!,ho&ogi,a&

( ositi'e statement a)o+t one?s a**i&iation 40I am an Is"ae&i05 immediate&! gene"ates 220 ,e"tain negative statements 4s+,h as 0I am not a S!"ian05. One?s ositi'e se&*-de*inition a+tomati,a&&! e>,&+des a&& othe"s )! assigning to them negati'e 'a&+es. ", am" a&-a!s goes -ith ", am not"' The ositi'e se&*-de*initions o* othe"s, in t+"n, negate one?s se&*-de*inition. Statements a o#t oneFs affiliation are inevita ly eAcl#sionary' It is ossi)&e *o" man! eo &e to sha"e the same ositi'e se&*-de*inition. ()o+t E mi&&ion eo &e ,an t"+&! sa! 0I am an Is"ae&i0. (**i&iation - to a ,omm+nit!, *"ate"nit!, nation, state, "e&igion, o" team - is "ea&&! a ositi'e statement o* se&*de*inition 40I am an Is"ae&i0, *o" instan,e5 sha"ed )! a&& the a**i&iated mem)e"s 4the a**i&iates5. One?s mo"a& o)&igations to-a"ds one?s a**i&iates o'e""ide and s+ e"sede one?s mo"a& o)&igations to-a"ds nona**i&iated h+mans. Th+s, an (me"i,an?s mo"a& o)&igation to sa*eg+a"d the &i'es o* (me"i,an *ighte" i&ots o'e""ides and s+ e"sedes

4s+)o"dinates5 his mo"a& o)&igation to sa'e the &i'es o* inno,ent ,i'i&ians, ho-e'e" n+me"o+s, i* the! a"e not (me"i,ans. The &a"ge" the n+m)e" o* ositi'e se&*-de*initions I sha"e -ith someone 4i.e., the mo"e a**i&iations -e ha'e in ,ommon5 , the &a"ge" and mo"e o'e""iding is m! mo"a& o)&igation to him o" he". E>am &e: I ha'e mo"a& o)&igations to-a"ds a&& othe" h+mans )e,a+se I sha"e -ith them m! a**i&iation to the h+man s e,ies. ;+t m! mo"a& o)&igations to-a"ds m! ,o+nt"!men s+ e"sede these o)&igation. I sha"e -ith m! ,om at"iots t-o a**i&iations "athe" than one. Ge a"e a&& mem)e"s o* the h+man "a,e - )+t -e a"e a&so ,itiCens o* the same state. This at"iotism, in t+"n, is s+ e"seded )! m! mo"a& o)&igation to-a"ds the mem)e"s o* m! *ami&!. Gith them I sha"e a thi"d a**i&iation - -e a"e a&& mem)e"s o* the same ,&an. I o-e the +tmost to m!se&*. Gith m!se&* I sha"e a&& the a*o"ementioned a**i&iations &+s one: the a**i&iation to the one mem)e" ,&+) that is me. ;+t this s,heme "aises some di**i,+&ties. Ge ost+&ated that the st"ength o* one?s mo"a& o)&igations to-a"ds othe" eo &e is dete"mined )! the n+m)e" o* ositi'e se&*-de*initions 40a**i&iations05 he sha"es -ith them. =o"a& o)&igations a"e, the"e*o"e, ,ontingent. The! a"e,

indeed, the o+t,omes o* inte"a,tions -ith othe"s - )+t not in the immediate sense, as the e"sona&ist hi&oso he" Emman+e& #e'inas s+ggested. %athe", ethi,a& "in,i &es, "ights, and o)&igations a"e me"e&! the so&+tions !ie&ded )! a mo"a& ,a&,+&+s o* sha"ed a**i&iations. Think a)o+t them as mat"i,es -ith s e,i*i, mo"a& 'a&+es and o)&igations atta,hed to the n+me"i,a& st"engths o* one?s a**i&iations. Some mo"a& o)&igations a"e +ni'e"sa& and a"e the o+t,omes o* one?s o"gani, osition as a h+man )eing 4the 0)asi, a**i&iation05. These a"e the 0t"ans,endent mo"a& 'a&+es0. Othe" mo"a& 'a&+es and o)&igations a"ise on&! as the n+m)e" o* sha"ed a**i&iations in,"eases. These a"e the 0de"i'ati'e mo"a& 'a&+es0. =o"eo'e", it -o+&d -"ong to sa! that mo"a& 'a&+es and o)&igations 0a,,+m+&ate0, o" that the mo"e *+ndamenta& ones a"e the st"ongest. On the 'e"! ,ont"a"!. The +ni'e"sa& ethi,a& "in,i &es - the ones "e&ated to one?s osition as a h+man )eing - a"e the weakest. The! a"e s+)o"dinate to de"i'ati'e mo"a& 'a&+es and o)&igations !ie&ded )! one?s a**i&iations. The +ni'e"sa& im e"ati'e 0tho+ sha&& not ki&& 4anothe" h+man )eing50 is easi&! o'e"-"+&ed )! the mo"a& o)&igation to ki&& *o" one?s ,o+nt"!. The im e"ati'e 0tho+gh sha&& not stea&0 is s+ e"seded )! one?s mo"a& o)&igation to s ! *o" one?s nation. T"eason is -hen -e "e*e" +ni'e"sa& ethi,a& "in,i &es to de"i'ati'es ones, di,tated )! o+" a**i&iation 4,itiCenshi 5. This &eads to anothe" sta"t&ing ,on,&+sion:

The"e is no s+,h thing as a se&*-,onsistent mo"a& s!stem. =o"a& 'a&+es and o)&igations o*ten ,ont"adi,t and ,on*&i,t -ith ea,h othe". In the e>am &es a)o'e, ki&&ing 4*o" one?s ,o+nt"!5 and stea&ing 4*o" one?s nation5 a"e mo"a& o)&igations, the o+t,omes o* the a &i,ation o* de"i'ati'e mo"a& 'a&+es. Jet, the! ,ont"adi,t the +ni'e"sa& mo"a& 'a&+e o* the san,tit! o* &i*e and "o e"t! and the +ni'e"sa& mo"a& o)&igation not to ki&&. 6en,e, ki&&ing the non-a**i&iated 4,i'i&ians o* anothe" ,o+nt"!5 to de*end one?s o-n 4*ighte" i&ots5 is mo"a&&! $+sti*ied. It 'io&ates some *+ndamenta& "in,i &es - )+t + ho&ds highe" mo"a& o)&igations, to one?s kin and kith. The t"+th is that in an age o* te""o"ism, g+e"i&&a and tota& -a"*a"e the medie'a& do,t"ine o* 8+st Ga" needs to )e "ede*ined. =o"eo'e", iss+es o* &egitima,!, e**i,a,! and mo"a&it! sho+&d not )e ,on*+sed. #egitima,! is ,on*e""ed )! instit+tions. Not a&& mo"a&&! $+sti*ied -a"s a"e, the"e*o"e, a+tomati,a&&! &egitimate. <"eK+ent&! the e**i,ient e>e,+tion o* a )att&e &an in'o&'es immo"a& o" e'en i&&ega& a,ts. (s inte"nationa& &a- e'o&'es )e!ond the an,ient e",e ts o* so'e"eignt!, it sho+&d in,o" o"ate ne- thinking a)o+t "e-em ti'e st"ikes, h+man "ights 'io&ations as ,as+s )e&&i and the "o&e and standing o* inte"nationa& o"ganiCations, ins+"gents and &i)e"ation mo'ements. Jet, ine'ita)&!, -hat ,onstit+tes 0$+sti,e0 de ends hea'i&! on the ,+&t+"a& and so,ieta& ,onte>ts, na""ati'es, mo"es, and 'a&+es o* the dis +tants. Th+s, one ,annot ans-e" the de,ei'ing&! sim &e K+estion: 0Is this -a" a $+st -a"L0 -itho+t *i"st asking: 0(,,o"ding to -homL In -hi,h

,onte>tL ;! -hi,h ,"ite"iaL ;ased on -hat 'a&+esL In -hi,h e"iod in histo"! and -he"eL0 ;eing mem)e"s o* Geste"n Ci'i&iCation, -hethe" )! ,hoi,e o" )! de*a+&t, o+" +nde"standing o* -hat ,onstit+tes a $+st -a" is ,"+,ia&&! *o+nded on o+" shi*ting e",e tions o* the Gest. See these: +itler and the ,nvention of the =est The !emise of the =estG The .ew &ome ? *merica, the &el#ctant Em)ire The !octrine of :#st =ar Michael: The"e is a&so an attem t to &e'e& the &a!ing *ie&d )! desta)i&iCing the e,onomies and o&iti,a& st"+,t+"es o* the Gest in o"de" to )"ing the Geste"n demo,"a,ies to a &o-e" &e'e& o* ?*+n,tioning?. S+ e"io" *+n,tioning o* Geste"n so,ieties has +na,,e ta)&e im &i,ations to the te""o"ist. One o* these im &i,ations is &o-e" so,ieta& an>iet! &e'e&. 06o- ,o+&d !o+ )e so ,a&m, -hen I am h+"tingL70. The ,on*&i,t )et-een high and &o- g"o+ an>iet! so,ieties is ine'ita)&e -he"e the "+&e"s o" as i"ants to this tit&e ,&aim a messiani, mant&e -ith nothing to sho- in tangi)&e )ene*its *o" the eo &e the! ,&aim to eman,i ate. Sta&in )&amed 0-"e,ke"s0 *o" his *ai&+"es, Osama )in #aden is )&aming the Gest *o" the sK+a&o" in -hi,h his eo &e &i'e. One o* the most dange"o+s *eat+"es o* the tota&ita"ian mind is a tota& &a,k o* insight ,o+ &ed -ith messiani, as i"ations on the )a,kg"o+nd o* na",issism.

6e has to ha'e an enem!, someone -ho is "es onsi)&e *o" the *a,t that his ,hosen ath to ni"'ana *o" the masses has &ed to e"sona& disa ointment, em)a""assment and +ni'e"sa& o'e"t!. Na",issisti, &a,k o* em ath! and antiso,ia& dis"ega"d o* the "ights and as i"ations o* othe"s means that these se&*- "o,&aimed =essiahs ha'e no "o)&em -ith deaths o* the othe"s, )e it thei" o-n eo &e o" not. =estern fellow travelers Ghen I sta"ted to "a,ti,e in (+st"a&ia in ea"&! @AI0?s m! mento" in'ited me to ,ome a&ong to the meeting o* the &o,a& )"an,h o* PND 4Peo &e *o" N+,&ea" Disa"mament5 and -as 'e"! s+" "ised that I de,&ined. (s a matte" o* *a,t he -as sho,ked: 0("e !o+ s+ o"ting n+,&ea" -a"L0. I ,o+&d?'e to&d him that I ,ame *"om a ,o+nt"! -he"e the"e -as no *ami&! that did not &ose someone in the *ight against the NaCis, that *o" me to s+ o"t an! -a" is a shee" im ossi)i&it!, )+t I a&so did not *ee& &ike so,ia& s+i,ide. 6o-e'e", I did not -ant to o**end an essentia&&! -e&&meaning man, so instead I e> &ained, that I -i&& take a"t in the a,ti'ities o* the PND immediate&! a*te" a )"an,h o* this o"ganisation 4o" its So'iet eK+i'a&ent5 -i&& )e a&&o-ed *"ee and +n*ette"ed "ight o* assem)&! in =os,o- and othe" ,ities o* the So'iet 3nion. I *ind it ha"d to *o"get hosm+g and se&*-"ighteo+s, ho- indignant and hosti&e he -as to-a"ds 0"ea,tiona"ies0. 6e "ea&&! )e&ie'ed, that the "ea,tiona"ies -e"e an!one -ho did not think, that the #i)e"a&s 4the (+st"a&ian eK+i'a&ent o* (me"i,an %e +)&i,ans5 -e"e *as,ists. The"e -as not a hint o* to&e"an,e o" "es e,t *o" a di**e"en,e in o inion. This en,o+nte" -ith an othe"-ise sane and de,ent man "o*o+nd&! sho,ked me. This -as the *i"st time, sin,e &ea'ing the 3SS% I ,ame a,"oss the ho&d the #e*t had on

hea"ts and minds o* the (+st"a&ian inte&&igentsia. =an! !ea"s &ate" I attended a semina" dedi,ated to the to i, o* te""o"ism as a s!,hod!nami, henomenon. It -as designed "ima"i&! *o" s!,hiat"i, "egist"a"s and -as add"essed )! one o* the "ominent mem)e"s o* s!,hothe"a e+ti, ,omm+nit!. This esteemed a,ademi, &e*t no one in an! do+)t, that the te""o"ism, es e,ia&&! the A1@@ e'ents -e"e "om ted, indeed "o'oked )!, (me"i,an a""ogan,e, its na",issisti, 'ie- o* itse&* and its inhe"ent insensiti'it! to the 'a&+es, ho es and as i"ations o* othe"s. The a+dien,e -as ass+"ed that the t"+e ,a+se o* te""o"ism -as the (me"i,an stat+s o* o'e"-he&ming s+,,ess and (me"i,an *ai&+"e to )e em athi, to-a"ds s+**e"ings o* othe"s. In o"de" to de,ei'e masses, -e -e"e to&d, (me"i,an o&iga",h! +ses mani, de*enses. The de&i'e"! -as not dissimi&a" to the &e,t+"e on the same to i,, gi'en )! 6anna Sega&, o* the ;"itish Ps!,hoana&!ti,a& So,iet!. The on&! statement o* ,onseK+en,e d+"ing the =e&)o+"ne semina" -as a statement a)o+t the im ossi)i&it! to negotiate -ith te""o"ists, )e,a+se o* the e**e,ti'eness o* the )"ain-ashing te,hniK+es thei" &eade"s +se. I &istened to this in a state o* astonishment. I attem ted to de'e&o a dis,+ssion, )! ointing o+t that *ai&+"e to negotiate -ith te""o"ists a,t+a&&! might )e a "es+&t o* the ,on'i,tion he&d )! a te""o"ist, -ith the intensit! )o"de"ing on a de&+sion, that his a,tions a"e the +&timate e> "ession o* goodness. =! attem t -as met -ith *"eeCing disa "o'a&. I +nde"stood that the "esente"?s o&iti,a& 'ie-s "e'ented ,&ini,a& dis assion and o)$e,ti'it!. I de,ided to "isk )eing sho+ted do-n o" igno"ed in m! he"es! The *o&&o-ing is the "es+&t. Gh!L

<o" the g"eat ma$o"it! o* eo &e "aised in the 8+deoCh"istian *"ame-o"k o* emotiona& and so,ieta& "e*e"en,e, s+i,ide is "ega"ded as an +&timate se&*-denia& and add"essed as a dange"o+s i&&ness. In this "e&igio+s ,onte>t s+i,ide and homi,ide a"e "ega"ded as an +&timate sin. The ,on,e t o* the san,tit! o* &i*e is a ,o"ne"stone o* the s,a&e o* the 'a&+es go'e"ning Geste"n ,i'i&isation. 6o-e'e", the Is&ami, inte" "etation o* this ,on,e t is di**e"ent. Sam: Those -ho )e&ie'e in the *ina&it! o* death 4i.e., that the"e is no a*te"-&i*e5 . the! a"e the ones -ho ad'o,ate s+i,ide and "ega"d it as a matte" o* e"sona& ,hoi,e. On the othe" hand, those -ho *i"m&! )e&ie'e in some *o"m o* e>isten,e a*te" ,o" o"ea& death . the! ,ondemn s+i,ide and $+dge it to )e a ma$o" sin. Jet, "ationa&&!, the sit+ation sho+&d ha'e )een "e'e"sed: it sho+&d ha'e )een easie" *o" someone -ho )e&ie'ed in ,ontin+it! a*te" death to te"minate this hase o* e>isten,e on the -a! to the ne>t. Those -ho *a,ed 'oid, *ina&it!, non-e>isten,e, 'anishing . sho+&d ha'e )een g"eat&! dete""ed )! it and sho+&d ha'e "e*"ained e'en *"om ente"taining the idea. Eithe" the &atte" do not "ea&&! )e&ie'e -hat the! "o*ess to )e&ie'e . o" something is -"ong -ith "ationa&it!. One -o+&d tend to s+s e,t the *o"me". S+i,ide is 'e"! di**e"ent *"om se&* sa,"i*i,e, a'oida)&e ma"t!"dom, engaging in &i*e "isking a,ti'ities, "e*+sa& to "o&ong one?s &i*e th"o+gh medi,a& t"eatment, e+thanasia, o'e"dosing and se&* in*&i,ted death that is the "es+&t o* ,oe",ion. Ghat is ,ommon to a&& these is the o e"ationa& mode: a death ,a+sed )! one?s o-n a,tions. In a&& these )eha'io"s, a *o"ekno-&edge o* the "isk o* death is "esent ,o+ &ed -ith its a,,e tan,e. ;+t a&& e&se is so di**e"ent that the! ,annot )e "ega"ded as )e&onging to the same

,&ass. S+i,ide is ,hie*&! intended to te"minate a &i*e . the othe" a,ts a"e aimed at e" et+ating, st"engthening and de*ending 'a&+es. Those -ho ,ommit s+i,ide do so )e,a+se the! *i"m&! )e&ie'e in the *initeness o* &i*e and in the *ina&it! o* death. The! "e*e" te"mination to ,ontin+ation. Jet, a&& the othe"s, the o)se"'e"s o* this henomenon, a"e ho""i*ied )! this "e*e"en,e. The! a)ho" it. This has to do -ith o+t +nde"standing o* the meaning o* &i*e. 3&timate&!, &i*e has on&! meanings that -e att"i)+te and as,"i)e to it. S+,h a meaning ,an )e e>te"na& 49od?s &an5 o" inte"na& 4meaning gene"ated th"o+gh a")it"a"! se&e,tion o* a *"ame o* "e*e"en,e5. ;+t, in an! ,ase, it m+st )e a,ti'e&! se&e,ted, ado ted and es o+sed. The di**e"en,e is that, in the ,ase o* e>te"na& meanings, -e ha'e no -a! to $+dge thei" 'a&idit! and K+a&it! 4is 9od?s &an *o" +s a good one o" notL5. Ge $+st 0take them on0 )e,a+se the! a"e )ig, a&& en,om assing and o* a good 0so+",e0. ( h! e"-goa& gene"ated )! a s+ e"st"+,t+"a& &an tends to &end meaning to o+" t"ansient goa&s and st"+,t+"es )! endo-ing them -ith the gi*t o* ete"nit!. Something ete"na& is a&-a!s $+dged mo"e meaning*+& than something tem o"a&. I* a thing o* &ess o" no 'a&+e a,K+i"es 'a&+e )! )e,oming a"t o* a thing ete"na& . than the meaning and 'a&+e "eside -ith the K+a&it! o* )eing ete"na& . not -ith the thing th+s endo-ed. It is not a K+estion o* s+,,ess. P&ans tem o"a& a"e as s+,,ess*+&&! im &emented as designs ete"na&. (,t+a&&!, the"e is no meaning to the K+estion: is this ete"na& &an 1 "o,ess 1 design s+,,ess*+& )e,a+se s+,,ess is a tem o"a& thing, &inked to endea'o"s that ha'e ,&ea" )eginnings and ends. This, the"e*o"e, is the *i"st "eK+i"ement: o+" &i*e ,an )e,ome meaning*+& on&! )! integ"ating into a thing, a

"o,ess, a )eing ete"na&. In othe" -o"ds, ,ontin+it! 4the tem o"a& image o* ete"nit!, to a"a h"ase a g"eat hi&oso he"5 is o* the essen,e. Te"minating o+" &i*e at -i&& "ende"s them meaning&ess. ( nat+"a& te"mination o* o+" &i*e is nat+"a&&! "eo"dained. ( nat+"a& death is a"t and a",e& o* the 'e"! ete"na& "o,ess, thing o" )eing -hi,h &ends meaning to &i*e. To die nat+"a&&! is to )e,ome a"t o* an ete"nit!, a ,!,&e, -hi,h goes on *o"e'e" o* &i*e, death and "ene-a&. This ,!,&i, 'ie- o* &i*e and the ,"eation is ine'ita)&e -ithin an! tho+ght s!stem, -hi,h in,o" o"ates a notion o* ete"nit!. ;e,a+se e'e"!thing is ossi)&e gi'en an ete"na& amo+nt o* time . so a"e "es+""e,tion and "ein,a"nation, the a*te"&i*e, he&& and othe" )e&ie*s adhe"ed to )! the ete"na& &ot. Sidg-i,k "aised the se,ond "eK+i"ement and -ith ,e"tain modi*i,ations )! othe" hi&oso he"s, it "eads: to )egin to a "e,iate 'a&+es and meanings, a ,ons,io+sness 4inte&&igen,e5 m+st e>ist. T"+e, the 'a&+e o" meaning m+st "eside in o" e"tain to a thing o+tside the ,ons,io+sness 1 inte&&igen,e. ;+t, e'en then, on&! ,ons,io+s, inte&&igent eo &e -i&& )e a)&e to a "e,iate it. Ge ,an *+se the t-o 'ie-s: the meaning o* &i*e is the ,onseK+en,e o* thei" )eing a"t o* some ete"na& goa&, &an, "o,ess, thing, o" )eing. Ghethe" this ho&ds t"+e o" does not . a ,ons,io+sness is ,a&&ed *o" in o"de" to a "e,iate &i*e?s meaning. #i*e is meaning&ess in the a)sen,e o* ,ons,io+sness o" inte&&igen,e. S+i,ide *&ies in the *a,e o* )oth "eK+i"ements: it is a ,&ea" and "esent demonst"ation o* the t"ansien,e o* &i*e 4the negation o* the N(T3%(# ete"na& ,!,&es o" "o,esses5. It a&so e&iminates the ,ons,io+sness and inte&&igen,e that ,o+&d ha'e $+dged &i*e to ha'e )een meaning*+& had it s+"'i'ed. (,t+a&&!, this 'e"! ,ons,io+sness 1 inte&&igen,e de,ides, in the ,ase o*

s+i,ide, that &i*e has no meaning -hatsoe'e". To a 'e"! &a"ge e>tent, the meaning o* &i*e is e",ei'ed to )e a ,o&&e,ti'e matte" o* ,on*o"mit!. S+i,ide is a statement, -"it in )&ood, that the ,omm+nit! is -"ong, that &i*e is meaning&ess and *ina& 4othe"-ise, the s+i,ide -o+&d not ha'e )een ,ommitted5. This is -he"e &i*e ends and so,ia& $+dgment ,ommen,es. So,iet! ,annot admit that it is against *"eedom o* e> "ession 4s+i,ide is, a*te" a&&, a statement5. It ne'e" ,o+&d. It a&-a!s "e*e""ed to ,ast the s+i,ides in the "o&e o* ,"imina&s 4and, the"e*o"e, )e"e*t o* an! o" man! ,i'i& "ights5. (,,o"ding to sti&& "e'ai&ing 'ie-s, the s+i,ide 'io&ates +n-"itten ,ont"a,ts -ith himse&*, -ith othe"s 4so,iet!5 and, man! might add, -ith 9od 4o" -ith Nat+"e -ith a ,a ita& N5. Thomas (K+inas said that s+i,ide -as not on&! +nnat+"a& 4o"ganisms st"i'e to s+"'i'e, not to se&* annihi&ate5 . )+t it a&so ad'e"se&! a**e,ts the ,omm+nit! and 'io&ates 9od?s "o e"t! "ights. The &atte" a"g+ment is inte"esting: 9od is s+ osed to o-n the so+& and it is a gi*t 4in 8e-ish -"itings, a de osit5 to the indi'id+a&. ( s+i,ide, the"e*o"e, has to do -ith the a)+se o" mis+se o* 9od?s ossessions, tem o"a"i&! &odged in a ,o" o"ea& mansion. This im &ies that s+i,ide a**e,ts the ete"na&, imm+ta)&e so+&. (K+inas "e*"ains *"om e&a)o"ating e>a,t&! ho- a distin,t&! h!si,a& and mate"ia& a,t a&te"s the st"+,t+"e and 1 o" the "o e"ties o* something as ethe"ea& as the so+&. 6+nd"eds o* !ea"s &ate", ;&a,kstone, the ,odi*ie" o* ;"itish #a-, ,on,+""ed. The state, a,,o"ding to this $+"idi,a& mind, has a "ight to "e'ent and to +nish *o" s+i,ide and *o" attem ted s+i,ide. S+i,ide is se&*-m+"de", he -"ote, and, the"e*o"e, a g"a'e *e&on!. In ,e"tain ,o+nt"ies, this sti&& is the ,ase. In Is"ae&, *o" instan,e, a so&die" is ,onside"ed to )e 0a"m! "o e"t!0 and an! attem ted s+i,ide is se'e"e&! +nished as )eing 0attem t

at ,o""+ ting a"m! ossessions0. Indeed, this is ate"na&ism at its -o"st, the kind that o)$e,ti*ies its s+)$e,ts. Peo &e a"e t"eated as ossessions in this ma&ignant m+tation o* )ene'o&en,e. S+,h ate"na&ism a,ts against ad+&ts e> "essing *+&&! in*o"med ,onsent. It is an e> &i,it th"eat to a+tonom!, *"eedom and "i'a,!. %ationa&, *+&&! ,om etent ad+&ts sho+&d )e s a"ed this *o"m o* state inte"'ention. It se"'ed as a magni*i,ent too& *o" the s+ "ession o* dissiden,e in &a,es &ike So'iet %+ssia and NaCi 9e"man!. =ost&!, it tends to )"eed 0'i,tim&ess ,"imes0. 9am)&e"s, homose>+a&s, ,omm+nists, s+i,ides . the &ist is &ong. (&& ha'e )een 0 "ote,ted *"om themse&'es0 )! ;ig ;"othe"s in disg+ise. Ghe"e'e" h+mans ossess a "ight . the"e is a ,o""e&ati'e o)&igation not to a,t in a -a! that -i&& "e'ent the e>e",ise o* s+,h "ight, -hethe" a,ti'e&! 4 "e'enting it5, o" assi'e&! 4"e o"ting it5. In man! ,ases, not on&! is s+i,ide ,onsented to )! a ,om etent ad+&t 4in *+&& ossession o* his *a,+&ties5 . it a&so in,"eases +ti&it! )oth *o" the indi'id+a& in'o&'ed and *o" so,iet!. The on&! e>,e tion is, o* ,o+"se, -he"e mino"s o" in,om etent ad+&ts 4the menta&&! "eta"ded, the menta&&! insane, et,.5 a"e in'o&'ed. Then a ate"na&isti, o)&igation seems to e>ist. I +se the ,a+tio+s te"m 0seems0 )e,a+se &i*e is s+,h a )asi, and dee set henomenon that e'en the in,om etents ,an *+&&! ga+ge its signi*i,an,e and make 0in*o"med0 de,isions, in m! 'ie-. In an! ,ase, no one is )ette" a)&e to e'a&+ate the K+a&it! o* &i*e 4and the ens+ing $+sti*i,ations o* a s+i,ide5 o* a menta&&! in,om etent e"son . than that e"son himse&*. The ate"na&ists ,&aim that no ,om etent ad+&t -i&& e'e" de,ide to ,ommit s+i,ide. No one in 0his "ight mind0 -i&& e&e,t this o tion. This ,ontention is, o* ,o+"se, o)&ite"ated )oth )! histo"! and )! s!,ho&og!. ;+t a de"i'ati'e

a"g+ment seems to )e mo"e *o",e*+&. Some eo &e -hose s+i,ides -e"e "e'ented *e&t 'e"! ha ! that the! -e"e. The! *e&t e&ated to ha'e the gi*t o* &i*e )a,k. Isn?t this s+**i,ient a "eason to inte"'eneL ()so&+te&!, not. (&& o* +s a"e engaged in making i""e'e"si)&e de,isions. <o" some o* these de,isions, -e a"e &ike&! to a! 'e"! dea"&!. Is this a "eason to sto +s *"om making themL Sho+&d the state )e a&&o-ed to "e'ent a ,o+ &e *"om ma""!ing )e,a+se o* geneti, in,om ati)i&it!L Sho+&d an o'e" o +&ated ,o+nt"! instit+te *o",ed a)o"tionsL Sho+&d smoking )e )anned *o" the highe" "isk g"o+ sL The ans-e"s seem to )e ,&ea" and negati'e. The"e is a do+)&e mo"a& standa"d -hen it ,omes to s+i,ide. Peo &e a"e e"mitted to dest"o! thei" &i'es on&! in ,e"tain "es,"i)ed -a!s. (nd i* the 'e"! notion o* s+i,ide is immo"a&, e'en ,"imina& . -h! sto at indi'id+a&sL Gh! not a &! the same "ohi)ition to o&iti,a& o"ganiCations 4s+,h as the J+gos&a' <ede"ation o" the 3SS% o" East 9e"man! o" CCe,hos&o'akia, to mention *o+" "e,ent e>am &es5L To g"o+ s o* eo &eL To instit+tions, ,o" o"ations, *+nds, not *o" "o*it o"ganiCations, inte"nationa& o"ganiCations and so onL This *ast dete"io"ates to the &and o* a)s+"dities, &ong inha)ited )! the o onents o* s+i,ide. See these: The Myth of the &ight to Life Ethical &elativism and * sol#te Ta oos Michael: The"e is a "o'ision, that a e"son -ho is ki&&ed -hi&e de*ending Is&am )e,omes a ma"t!" and is g+a"anteed a &a,e in Pa"adise -ith a&& the attendant )ene*its, in,&+ding se"'i,es o* K+ite a n+m)e" o* 'i"gins. This a"ti,+&a"

Is&ami, )e&ie* is e>tensi'e&! +sed in the "o,ess o* t"aining o* s+i,ide )om)e"s. (s a histo"i,a& aside, the ;"itish o,,+ ation a+tho"ities d+"ing the time o* the Pa&estine =andate -hen ,on*"onted -ith simi&a" ta,ti,s +sed to -"a the "emains o* te""o"ists in the ig?s skin *o" )+"ia&. This "a,ti,e a+tomati,a&&! "e'ented the as i"ation o* the )om)e" to e>ist in the state o* e" et+a& o"gasm in a"adise. The te""o"ist ,am aign ete"ed o+t. Sam: (&& so&die"s a"e )"ain-ashed into )e&ie'ing that the! a"e *ighting *o" a highe" ,a+se and a&& -a" ,as+a&ties a"e t"eated )! thei" ,o+nt"ies o" o"ganiCations as se,+&a" saints. Is"ae&i so&die"s 4I ha'e )een one m!se&*5 a"e "aised on m!ths o* se&*-sa,"i*i,e 4as -e"e So'iet so&die"s5. =+s&im s+i,ide )om)e"s "ega"d themse&'es as *ighte"s *i"st and ma"t!"s se,ond. The! a"e no di**e"ent than an! othe" so&die"s in the -o"&d. In -a", one is e> e,ted to die and sa,"i*i,e one?s &i*e. Michael: Gh! no-L Gh! at a&&L This K+estion is not as naT'e as it seems. It is inte"esting to note, that te""o"ism as -e +nde"stand it no- ,ame to )eing a*te" the ,o&&a se o* the So'iet 3nion and its ignominio+s "et"eat *"om (*ghanistan. I )e&ie'e that these e'ents a"e inte",onne,ted. Sam: In m! 'ie-, this is sim &! -"ong. =ode"n te""o"ism m+&tinationa&, amo" hi, net-o"ks, -ith a,,ess to te,hno&og! - is at &east D0 !ea"s o&d. The on&! 0ne-0

e&ement is the "e&igio+s o'e"tones. %e&igion "e &a,ed nationa&ism as an ideo&og! - on&! to )e e> e,ted in a ostnationa&isti, -o"&d. Michael: D+"ing its he!da!, So'iet 3nion and its a&&ies -e"e "o'iding t"aining *a,i&ities as -e&& as t+ition *o" a 'a"iet! o* 0*"eedom *ighte"s0 - the P#O, I%(, %ed ;"igades and man! othe"s. To a g"eate" e>tent, the So'iets -e"e a)&e to ,ont"o& te""o"ist a,ti'ities )! )ank"o&&ing them and "o'iding &ogisti,a&, o"ganisationa& and in*"ast"+,t+"a& s+ o"t. Sam: (s did the 3nited States and Is"ae&. ;in-#aden, *o" e>am &e, -as )ank"o&&ed )! the CI(. Is"ae& aided the nas,ent 6amas and 6iC)+&&ah. Michael: The ,o&&a se o* the So'iet 3nion, its "et"eat *"om (*ghanistan and (me"i,an h+mi&iation in the Teh"an Em)ass! has &e*t a &ot o* mi&itants -itho+t So'iet o" (me"i,an s+ o"t. No do+)t, the"e -e"e a &ot o* an>io+s te""o"ists a"o+nd. The! ma! ha'e tho+ght that the! -e"e not needed an!mo"e. Simi&a" an>ieties -e"e &a!ed o+t in the S e,ia& Se"'i,es o* se'e"a& Geste"n nations - the end o* the Co&d Ga" has &e*t them *ee&ing s+ e"*&+o+s. Gith mi&itants, -ho )e*o"e the 3SS% disinteg"ation -e"e a)&e to mi&k )oth sides o* the ,on*&i,t, things -e"e e'en mo"e ,om &i,ated. ;e*o"e, the"e -e"e Is"ae&is to s,a"e, (me"i,ans to *oo&, So'iets to massage - &i*e -as good. C&assi, s &itting in othe" -o"ds. No-, the! had to *ind a&te"nati'e so+",es o* *inan,e. Nat+"e does not to&e"ate a 'a,++m. Othe" a!maste"s -e"e *o+nd.

The +&timate so+",e o* mone! s+ the same. The Gest.

&!, ho-e'e", "emained

Geste"n so,ieties ,ontin+ed to )+! oi& and na",oti,s, +&timate&! *inan,ing the te""o"ist assa+&t + on themse&'es. Sam: I &a"ge&! ag"ee -ith the "est o* this do,+ment - -ith one, 'e"! &a"ge, "ese"'ation: The Gest needs enemies at &east as m+,h as its enemies need the Gest. 6a'ing an enem! is good *o" e'e"! "+&e", demo,"ati,a&&! e&e,ted o" not. (sk 9eo"ge ;+sh. Michael: Clash of Civilisations The"e has )een m+,h dis,+ssion a)o+t the ossi)i&it! o* the ,&ash o* ,i'i&iCations. I s+ ose it is -ithin the *"ame o* Geste"n in*ide&s 'e"s+s =+s&im de*ende"s o* "ighteo+sness. Geste"n "e&+,tan,e to ta&k a)o+t the ,&ash o* ,i'i&iCations is +nde"standa)&e - no)od! sane and "es onsi)&e &ikes to s+ o"t in*&ammato"! and "o'o,ati'e ,on,e ts. I am t"!ing to +nde"stand m! enem! and, i* ossi)&e, to &ea"n *"om him. I a&so think that it is se&*-de*eating to den! the o osition?s h+manit! o" to t"i'ia&ise his s+**e"ing. 6o-e'e", in m! attem ts to +nde"stand I am not ham e"ed )! e"se,+to"! a,ti'ities o* the state, "e&igion o" the mo). (s an e>am &e, I am s+"e, that the"e a"e K+ite a n+m)e" o* eo &e, -ho -i&& *ind m! -"iting *ai"&! disag"eea)&e, e'en, do-n"ight o**ensi'e. Ne'e"the&ess, I am *"ee to enK+i"e, to e> &o"e and to K+estion. Thank 9od, ne'e" again I -i&& ha'e to go th"o+gh the e> e"ien,e o*

)+"ning e"sona& &ette"s at night on the meado- o+tside o* m! *&at at the tho+ght that the :9; might a""est me. I -o+&d not -ish it on to an!one. =! ,o+nte" a"ts in the Is&ami, theo,"a,ies a"e not in the same "i'i&eged sit+ation. The ,on,e ts o* se,+&a"ism and indi'id+a&?s "ights, the g"eatest a,hie'ements o* the Geste"n &i)e"a& so,ieties a"e &a"ge&! +nkno-n in the Is&ami, ,o+nt"ies. =o"eo'e", the into&e"an,e to the e>isten,e and "a,ti,e o* a&te"nati'e )e&ie* s!stems is &ike&! to att"a,t "et"i)+tion and +t the adhe"ents o* these )e&ie*s in the ha"ms? -a!. It is signi*i,ant to note that in Is&ami, so,iet! a ,hange o* e"sona& "e&igio+s do,t"ine, so easi&! a'ai&a)&e in the Gest, is not ossi)&e. ( e"son, )o"n =+s&im ,an not ,hange his1he" "e&igion *o" *ea" o* an a ostas! ,ha"ge and ossi)&e death. The"e is a sta"t&ing simi&a"it! )et-een the +nishment meted o+t )! the So'iets and Is&ami, theo,"ats to those, -ho a"e "ega"ded as a ostates. Ghe"e does dange" ,ome *"omL (t the "esent time, the ("a) dominated -o"&d is a )asket ,ase. The &eade"shi o* these ,o+nt"ies, gi'en *"ee and sa*e e&e,tion, -o+&d )e )ooted o+t o* the o**i,e at the nea"est e&e,tions as in,om etent and ,o""+ t. ;+t the"e a"e no *"ee and sa*e e&e,tions. These ,o+nt"ies, des ite the e>o")itant oi& -ea&th in some, ha'e the highest ,hi&d mo"ta&it! "ates, &o-est e" ,a ita in,omes and &o-est &ite"a,! "ates in the -o"&d. The e>oti, destinations o* Geste"n to+"ists a"e stagnating, &i'ing *"om hand to mo+th. The go'e"nment ,ont"o&s e'e"!thing, -omen a"e "ega"ded as ,hatte&s and &a,k o* "es e,t *o" h+man "ights is the no"m. The "es+&t is, o'e"-he&ming&! o'e"t!, the o)no>io+s, deg"ading kind, the kind -he"e

the"e is no se-e", ,hi&d"en do not kno- -hat se,+&a" s,hoo& is, -he"e the -eak a"e not "ote,ted, -he"e o**i,ia&s a"e ,o""+ t and a do,to" is not a,,essi)&e. Diseases a"e "i*e, the !o+ng a"e ang"!, the o&d a"e he& &ess, the *+t+"e is )&eak. The! see Geste"n "i,hes on TV, the inte"net is )e,oming a'ai&a)&e, the! &isten to the Geste"n m+si,, -at,h Geste"n mo'ies and a"e asking K+estions - -h! do -e not ha'e the sameL Ghat?s -"ong -ith +sL Ghose *a+&t is itL The"e a"e t-o 'e"sions o* an ans-e" the! a"e gi'en. One - the! 4Geste"ne"s1(me"i,a5 do not -ant +s to ha'e it, the! -ant to dominate +s. T-o - the 8e-s a"e o+t to dest"o! o+" eo &e and den! o+" ,+&t+"a& he"itage to +s. ;oth ans-e"s a"e inte",hangea)&e and, -hat is mo"e im o"tant, a)so&'e )oth "+&e"s and s+)$e,ts *"om assessing "ea&it! o)$e,ti'e&!. This oint o* se&*- e",e tion o* 'i,timhood as a "es+&t o* ,o&&e,ti'e denia& is one o* the 'e"! *e- oints o* a ta,it ag"eement )et-een "+&e"s and the "+&ed in the ("a) -o"&d. This state o* denia& is *a,i&itated )! ,ons i"a,! theo"ies, so ,ommon in ,&osed so,ieties. The in,"ease o* ent"o ! ine'ita)&! &eads to stagnation and ossi)i&it! o* im &osion as ha ened in the 3SS%. In s!,hod!nami, te"ms one ,an h! othesiCe that the dominant emotiona& )a,kg"o+nd o* this eo &e?s e>isten,e -o+&d )e the d+a&it! o* +n"eso&'ed ange" and +n"e&ie'ed state o* na",issisti, in$+"! in the ,onte>t o* e" et+a&&! "ein*o",ed an>iet!. It is not )! ,han,e that the most ,ommon se&*-des,"i tions o* the agg"ie'ement s+**e"ed )! ("a)s in most o* the en,o+nte"s -ith the Is"ae&is o" othe" non-("a)s is one o*

h+mi&iation. In histo"i,a& te"ms, the h+mi&iation o" its e",e tion, as a )a,kg"o+nd o* a nationa& *ee&ing state, ,o+&d )e mani +&ated *o" o&iti,a& goa&s, as ha ened -ith 9e"man eo &e a*te" the signing o* the Ve"sai&&es T"eat!. Ghat as e,ts o* Is&ami,-in*o"med so,iet! seem to )e &ike&! to "o'oke a ,on*&i,t -ith the Geste"n &i)e"a& demo,"a,iesL ("a) eo &e, as an! othe" o "essed, a"e +na)&e to e> "ess dissatis*a,tion -ith thei" "+&e"s &egitimate&!. (s -e kno-, tota&ita"ian "egimes a"e not dis osed kind&! to-a"ds thei" ,"iti,s. Tota&ita"ian go'e"nments "+&e )! *ea" and te""o". (,,o"ding to NadeChda =ande&shtam, -i*e o* the *amo+s %+ssian oet Osi -ho -as ki&&ed on Sta&in?s o"de"s, as a "es+&t o* a te""o" ,am aign, - 0%+ssian eo &e -e"e s&ight&! +n)a&an,ed menta&&! - not e>a,t&! i&&, )+t not no"ma& eithe"0. <ea" a**e,ts eo &e "ega"d&ess o* geog"a h! - )e it Sta&inist %+ssia, NaCi 9e"man!, %-andan geno,ide o" 6+ssein?s I"aK. To ,"iti,iCe the go'e"nment o en&! a ,itiCen o* an ("a) State m+st )e eithe" a mem)e" o* the mi&itant Is&ami, o"thodo>! o" "e,k&ess&! indi**e"ent to-a"ds his o-n sa*et! o" )oth. <ea" is a ,ontin+o+s state o* mind o* an o"dina"! ("a) ,itiCen. 6e kno-s, that the "+&e"?s dis &eas+"e -i&& )e e> "essed 'io&ent&! - s+ "ession o* S!"ian "e'o&t )! 6a*eC (ssad, gassing o* the :+"ds and mass g"a'es o* Shiites )! Saddam 6+ssein, massa,"e o* the Pa&estinians in 8o"dan the &ist is K+ite &ong. On the othe" hand the"e is a "e&ent&ess e"sona& ne,essit! to e> "ess ange", to &et it s i&& o+t, no matte" in -hi,h di"e,tion. The ange" ,a+sed )! the dai&! assa+&t on h+man dignit!, h+mi&iation and $ea&o+s! *e&t )! the ,itiCens o* the ("a) states to-a"ds "i,h and *"ee Geste"ne"s, ange" to-a"ds ("a) "+&ing e&ites, ino"dinate&! e>tensi'e in*&+en,e o* Is&ami, "a,ti,es on the so,iet!?s

&i*e - a&& these *a,to"s ,ont"i)+te to the in,"ease o* the "ess+"e in the emotiona& "ess+"e ,ooke". The emotiona& )a,kg"o+nd is "ema"ka)&! simi&a" to the g&o"io+s da!s o* the So'iet 3nion. The a)sen,e o* inde endent $+sti,e, ,o""+ t &a- en*o",ement, non-e>istent *"eedom o* "ess, "e&igion, assem)&ies, s ee,h, &a,k o* se,+&a" ed+,ation the &ist is end&ess. It is in the inte"est o* the e>isting "+&ing e&ites in the Is&ami, ,o+nt"ies to di"e,t this e'e" "esent, simme"ing ange" o* the o +&+s to-a"ds o+tside"s, s+,h as Geste"ne"s o" 8e-s. Gho a"e the 0Shaheeds0L In the "o,ess o* s+i,ide, o" ma"t!"dom as Is&ami, e>t"emists "e*e" to ,a&& it, the"e a"e t-o im o"tant ,om onents - moti'ation o* the deed and the e"sona&it! o* the 0shaheed0. =oti'ation o* the e" et"ato" ,onsists o* the man! *a,to"s. To sta"t -ith, he 4most&! shaheeds a"e ma&es5 is s+""o+nded )! h+man mise"!. The ,onditions o* &i*e in the most ("a)i, ,o+nt"ies a"e inimi,a& to h+man dignit! and "e "esent -hat I ,onside" to )e a state o* a e"manent ins+&t - o'e"t!, *i&th, &a,k o* sa*et!, o-e"&essness, ,o""+ tion, ,ontem t and des otism, to name $+st a *e-. I* -e a"e to a,,e t the +ni'e"sa&it! o* h+man s e,ies, these ,onditions -hi,h a"e 'i"t+a&&! athognomoni, to the tota&ita"ian so,iet!, a"e )o+nd to t"a+matiCe eo &e. The! &i'e in the state o* e" et+a& emotiona& t"a+ma. This t"a+ma need not )e e"sona&. On the ,ont"a"!, e"sona& *+&*i&&ment and "os e"it! ma! enhan,e the *ee&ings o* g+i&t to-a"ds &ess *o"t+nate )"eth"en and "edis ose the e"son to mani +&ation )! "e,"+ite"s. Peo &e?s mise"!, a&t"+ism, ange", "e&ent&ess g&o"i*i,ation o* ma"t!"dom and

dis"ega"d *o" h+man &i*e )egets ,andidates. =ani +&ati'e ta,ti,s o* "e,"+ite"s into the "anks o* shaheeds in,&+de the +se o* menta&&! "eta"ded ado&es,ents and !o+ng -omen g+i&t! o* e>t"ama"ita& a**ai"s. =em)e"s o* &eade"shi *ami&ies a"e e>,&+ded as a "+&e. Es e,ia&&! t"a+mati, e> e"ien,es a"e the &ot o* Pa&estinians. These +n*o"t+nate eo &e -ho, on to o* the +s+a& set o* "i'ations e> e"ien,ed )! the ma$o"it! o* ("a)s, had to go th"o+gh -a"s, *&ight, &oss o* ossessions and ha)itat, the! ha'e s+**e"ed +n,e"taint!, *ea" and ,ontem t o* thei" )"eth"en. The! a"e ke t in the "e*+gee ,am s -ith the e> "essed +" ose o* )"eeding hat"ed, "esentment and ange" to-a"ds Is"ae&is and the Gest. The! &i'e in sK+a&o", de endent on the &a"gesse o* the ("a) go'e"nments and an im otent 3N, -ho, *o" o&iti,a& "easons -i&& not a&&o- o" *a,i&itate the "esett&ement o* these eo &e in the h+ge &andmass o* the ("a) -o"&d. ("a) 9o'e"nments a"e *inding it e> edient to ha'e a &i'ing e>am &e o* the )"+ta&it! o* Is"ae&is and Geste"ne"s. The! 4the go'e"nments5 +nde"stand 'e"! -e&&, that the state o* t"a+ma o* thei" o-n eo &e ,o+&d )e t"ans&ated into a demand *o" "e*o"ms o" e'en ins+""e,tion. The! kno- -e&& the deg"ee o* 'o&ati&it! and otentia& e> &osi'eness o* a )"+ta&iCed o +&ation. Vi"t+a&&!, these go'e"nments ha'e no ,hoi,e, )+t to ha'e an identi*ia)&e enem! and to *eed the o +&ation a diet o* a"anoia and ,ons i"a,! th"o+gh the State-,ont"o&&ed media. ("a) 9o'e"nments a"e inhe"ent&! +nsta)&e. Thei" &egitima,! is s+s e,t. Thei" )o"de"s a"e the "es+&t o* the histo"i,a& ,han,e. The! a"e ,o""+ t and in,om etent. Thei" on&! ,"iti,s o* s+)stan,e, and some meas+"e o* sa*et!, a"e the O"thodo> =+s&ims, -ho ,"iti,iCe the go'e"nment *"om the osition o* iet! and mi&itant Is&amism.

On this )a,kg"o+nd, the e>isten,e o* the "i,h Gest in gene"a& and Is"ae& in a"ti,+&a" is a ,onstant, ,&ea" and -e&&-identi*ied th"eat to the "+&ing ("a) e&ite o" the as i"ants to this tit&e, e> osing thei" ina)i&it! to im "o'e the &i'es o* thei" ,itiCen"!. It is e> edient to maintain the state o* te""o" in the ,o+nt"ies -he"e the t"eat is ,oming *"om. Shaheeds a"e e> enda)&e -hi,h is ,onsistent -ith the ,ontem t ("a) eo &e a"e t"eated )! thei" &eade"s. It a&so "eminis,ent o* the ,ontem t the So'iet "+&e"s t"eated thei" o +&ation in simi&a" ,i",+mstan,es. ,srael as =est $erlin of the Middle East' In o&iti,a& te"ms Is"ae& ,o+&d )e ,om a"ed -ith the Gest ;e"&in o* the Co&d Ga". To the So'iet "+&e"s, the 'i"+&ent, 'is,e"a& hat"ed o* the Gest ;e"&in, the tin! is&and o* &ight in the sea o* ,omm+nist da"kness -as ins i"ed )! the geog"a hi, ,&oseness o* the o)$e,ti'e *a,t o* its )ette" *+n,tioning and a)i&it! to "o'ide its ,itiCens -ith )ette" &i*e. It -as "ett! di**i,+&t *o" the So'iet nomenk&at+"a to des,"i)e East ;e"&in as a"adise, &ooking a,"oss the Ga&& at the g&itte"ing :+"*+"stendamm o" a*te" -at,hing Geste"n TV. The"e*o"e, the So'iet Nomen,&at+"a *e&t th"eatened )! the demonst"ation o* its in,om eten,e and dishonest!. Simi&a"&!, the e>isten,e o* Is"ae& in the immediate 'i,init! o* the de,"e it and d!s*+n,tiona& ("a) ,o+nt"ies i* "ega"ded )! )oth - the o +&ation as -e&& as a go'e"nment as an ins+&t, a g"oss h+mi&iation, an +ns oken )+t "ea& a,,+sation o* in,om eten,e and im oten,e. In the ma,ho ("a)i, ,+&t+"a& t"adition this is too m+,h to )ea". To add an ins+&t to in$+"!, the "ote,ti'e stan,e )! the 3S( to-a"ds Is"ae&, ho-e'e" &a,king ,onsisten,! and ,ontin+it! is e",ei'ed )! the ("a)s in "athe" )i)&i,a& te"ms as a "e$e,tion o* one son in *a'o" o* anothe". <ea" o* "e$e,tion and a)andonment is one o* ha&&ma"ks o* a

t"a+matised, de endent and an>io+s h+man. In this ,onte>t, the ,onst"+,tion o* the se a"ation e"imete" )et-een Pa&estinians and Is"ae&is and the Pa&estinian "ea,tion to it has *ai"&! signi*i,ant s!,hod!nami, ,onnotation. The ange" and dist"ess Pa&estinians *ee& at the sight o* this -a&&, a a"t *"om o&iti,a&, mi&ita"! and e,onomi, im &i,ation has a&so a dee &! dist+")ing dimension o* "e$e,tion )! the enem!. This "e$e,tion and a)andonment, i* an!thing, has a 'e"! o-e"*+& an>iet! "o'oking ,a a,it!. (n>iet! o* a de endent h+man, te""i*ied o* )eing a)andoned. The ,o"o&&a"! to this is in,om ati)i&it! o* the ("a) and Is"ae&i aims. ("a) 9o'e"nments ha'e no tangi)&e )ene*its *"om ea,e -ith Is"ae&. The! ha'e nothing to gain and stand to &ose o-e" in ,ase o* a gen+ine ea,e -ith Is"ae&, as a "es+&t o* ine'ita)i&it! o* "e*o"mist demands )! thei" o +&ation. Ghat a"e the ,onditions &ike&! to )"eed te""o"L ( ,om)ination o*: W s+),ons,io+s *ea" o* "e$e,tion and a)andonment )! the s!stem, go'e"nment, 0the Gest0 - an!thing o" an!)od! identi*ied as int"o$e,ted s!m)o& o" o)$e,t o* a+tho"it!H im o"tant othe". W e"manent state o* t"a+matiCation )! the ,onditions o* &i'ing in a o'e"t!-st"i,ken, ,&osed tota&ita"ian so,iet! &eading to high deg"ee o* an>iet!1*ea" W na",issisti, in$+"! o* im &ied in,om eten,e1im oten,e, ,om o+nded )! shame and "age -hi,h is di**i,+&t and dange"o+s to e> "ess W imme"sion into and identi*i,ation -ith the most mi&itant

and &ite"a& inte" "etation o* the Is&ami, do,t"ine as a means o* se&*--o"th enhan,ement, a,K+isition o* the *ee&ing o* a&oo*ness and s e,ia&ness W &a,k o* the t"adition o* +nim eded inte&&e,t+a& +"s+it, ,+&t+"e o* K+estioning the -"itten -o"d and to&e"an,e o* the di**e"en,es o* o inion W dee -seated in*e"io"it! ,om &e> W the agg"essi'e hat"ed o* the &i)e"a& Gest and Is"ae& as the on&! a "o'ed ,hanne& o* dis,ha"ging ange" The oints &isted a)o'e ,"eate a )a,kg"o+nd o* a K+iet dete"mination, )+"ning ange", -hi,h at &ast had *o+nd an e**e,ti'e o+t&et and "eso&+te ,on'i,tion o* one?s o-n in*a&&i)i&it!. ( te""o"ist is im &a,a)&! dete"mined to in*&i,t a ma>im+m o* damage to the eo &e, st"+,t+"es o" do,t"ines, -hi,h he e",ei'es to )e -"ong. 6e is not ,a a)&e o* ,on,ei'ing that the"e a"e a&te"nati'e )e&ie* s!stems -o"th! o* taking them se"io+s&! o" a,,o"ding these )e&ie*s a &egitima,! o* an int"insi, 'a&+e ,ontent. ;esides, it m+st )e a -onde"*+&&! em o-e"ing *ee&ing - to ha'e a 9od-&ike o-e" o* $+dgment, o-e" o* gi'ing o" -ithho&ding &i*e o" death. <o" someone, -ho s ent his &i*e in sK+a&id st"eets o* Pesha-a" o" "e*+gee ,am a"o+nd ;ei"+t, it "e "esents an +&timate high - to )e a)&e to ha'e this m+,h o-e". (&so, ,oming *"om the ,+&t+"a& )a,kg"o+nd ,ond+,i'e to the de'e&o ment o* the )o"de"&ine t"aits - as e'iden,ed )! the se&*-*&age&&ation o* the Shiite i&g"ims - se&*-m+ti&ation and se&*-in*&i,tion o* ain has some att"a,ti'e ,onnotations. <o" instan,e, it "ed+,es the o'e"-he&ming an>iet! in the s+**e"e". 6o-e'e", it a&so )es eaks the e>isten,e o* s+**e"ing, -hi,h ,annot )e e> "essed )!

,on'entiona& means *o" a 'a"iet! o* "easons. I think this is an im o"tant oint, -hi,h sho+&d )e e&a)o"ated + on. This t! e o* )eha'io" ,o+&d )e ,om a"ed -ith the a,ting o+t o* the "o*o+nd&! de endent h+man, -ho *o+nd o+t that he is not &o'ed )! the im o"tant othe". The ,"ashing "ea&iCation o* a)andonment, +nsatis*ied de enden,! needs - )e it mate"ia&, emotiona& o" s i"it+a& - ange" at the "e$e,to" and desi"e to in*&i,t damage ,ommens+"ate -ith the s+**e"ing e> e"ien,ed )! the "e$e,tee ,"eates the desi"e *o" "e'enge. It )"ings +s )a,k to the heightened state o* na",issisti, in$+"!, -hi,h )"ooks no &ogi,, "eason o" mo&&i*i,ation. This emotiona& state, ,om o+nded )! ,on*o+nde"s o* "e&igion and ,+&t+"e, o&iti,a& and e,onomi, e> edien,!, a&t"+isti, and mani, de*enses is ski&&*+&&! mani +&ated )! the &eade"s o* the te""o"ist o"ganisations. (s &ong as ("a) ,o+nt"ies -i&& )e &ag+ed )! tota&ita"ianism, mono o&isti, Is&ami, theo,"a,!, nea" tota& a)sen,e o* h+man "ights and o'e"t! - -e -i&& s+**e" *+"the" te""o"ist atta,ks. =hat is gro#) )sycho)athologyG It sho+&d )e ,&ea" )! no-, that I took as a mode& o* the ,on,e t o* a g"o+ s!,ho atho&og! a ,om a"ison )et-een seeming&! in,om ati)&e state s!stems - the So'iet 3nion and ("a) states ,ong&ome"ation. I ha'e to a,,e t, that in doing so I ha'e dis &a!ed a signi*i,ant )ias - )e it "e&igio+s, ,+&t+"a& o" emotiona&. On the othe" hand, the *o"mation o* this a"ti,+&a" mode& -as di,tated )! m! e>tensi'e e"sona& e> e"ien,e o* &i'ing inside a tota&ita"ian state: m! )e&ie* in the +ni'e"sa&it! o* h+man s e,ies and the +ni'e"sa&it! o* h+man emotiona& "ea,tions to *ea". In this ,ase - +ni'e"sa&it! o* the h+man "ea,tion to *ea" in*&i,ted )! a tota&ita"ian "egime. I )e&ie'e that it )ea"s "e eating, that the *ea", in*&i,ted )! the tota&ita"ian "egime is the )"eeding g"o+nd *o" te""o". This *ea", )!

t"a+matiCing tho+sands, ,"eates a mi&ie+ o* g"o+ s!,ho atho&og! o" -hat -e, in the "e&ati'e&! ,a&m Gest ,a&& e"sona&it! diso"de". The"e*o"e, the a)ho""en,e o* tota&ita"ian "egimes is not on&! in thei" denia& o* h+man "ights, *"eedom and sa*et! to thei" o-n and othe"s. The dange" o* these "egimes is a&so in in*&i,ting on m+&tit+des the state o* mass *ea" and, ,onseK+ent&!, the state o* s!,ho&ogi,a& a)no"ma&it!. Ge kno- that a signi*i,ant e"sona& s!,ho atho&og! might )e the "es+&t o* ,hi&dhood t"a+ma - )e it se>+a&, h!si,a& o" emotiona&. T"a+matisation o* a g"o+ -o+&d &ead to the same o+t,ome. The "es+&ts, *o" the g"o+ in'o&'ed -i&& )e o* the most se"io+s kind. The g"o+ ,ohesion, t"+st, ,&oseness, intima,!, "es e,t *o" othe"s, *ee&ing o* se&* -o"th, se&* "es e,t - a&& o* these a"amete"s -i&& )e a**e,ted. On the othe" hand, the mig"ation to so,ieties -ith the "e&ati'e&! &o- &e'e&s o* *ea" has hea&ing "o e"ties *o" the mig"ants and "e*+gees *"om the tota&ita"ian so,ieties. <a" *"om )eing t"a+mati,, s+,h a mig"ation &a!s a "o&e o* a hea&e". E'e"!da! a,ts o* sim &e kindness, "es e,t*+& t"eatment )! a+tho"ities and a)i&it! to s&ee -itho+t *ea" o* a")it"a"! a""est - a&& o* that is a otent "esto"ati'e. In m! ,hoi,e o* a mode& *o" "esenting m! 'ie-s, I am mind*+&, that the"e a"e man! othe" tota&ita"ian "egimes on the &anet. The 3N 9ene"a& (ssem)&! is *+&& o* them. I -o+&d &ike to make it ,&ea", that the "in,i &e o* +ni'e"sa&it! o* h+man s e,ies a &ies - it does not matte", -he"e the *ea" is in*&i,ted - in Sta&inist %+ssia, the ("a) =idd&e East, S+danese Da"*+" o" :hme" %o+ge Cam)odia, the ,onseK+en,es a"e eK+a&&! de'astating. +ow the .ation Ngro#) healG

( task o* s+,h magnit+de is ,&ea"&! )e!ond the s,o e o* this dia&og. Ne'e"the&ess, I ha'e some oints to make. <i"st&!, the +nde"standing o* the e>isten,e and e>tent o* g"o+ s!,ho atho&og! is an im o"tant *i"st ste . The "eason I am sa!ing this is that one ,annot t"eat an i&&ness -itho+t a kno-&edge that the i&&ness e>ists to sta"t -ith. Se,ond&!, the 'i,to"! in the Co&d -a" -as )"o+ght a)o+t not on&! )e,a+se o* o'e"-he&ming s+ e"io"it! o* the 3S(, )+t a&so )e,a+se o* the othe" *a,to"s, s+,h as "o aganda, e,onomi, otentia&, o&iti,a& -i&&, "e&ent&ess "ess+"e in a&& ossi)&e oints. The"e is a t"eas+"e t"o'e o* the a,,+m+&ated e> e"ien,e in nation )+i&ding. In m! a"t o* the dia&og I made a a"ti,+&a" oint o* ,om a"ing ("a) states -ith the 3SS%. I )e&ie'e, -hat -o"ked then, -i&& -o"k again. Thi"d&!, the"e is a t"eas+"e t"o'e o* s+,,ess*+& nation)+i&ding in 9e"man!, 8a an, :o"ea, Tai-an, Singa o"e )! the m+,h ma&igned 3S(. These e>e",ises , -itho+t the a"a&&e& in histo"!, 4some o* them ,o+&d )e se"'ed as the "ema"ka)&e e>am &es o* magnanimit! in 'i,to"!5, ,&ea"&! sho- the ossi)i&ities and )ene*its *o" the o +&ation o* the *o"me"&! hosti&e states. I a&so )e&ie'e, that -e sho+&d sto *inan,ing te""o"ism against o+"se&'es - -e sho+&d not )+! the oi& *"om ,o+nt"ies -hi,h +se o+" mone! to s+ o"t mi&itant Is&amists. ConseK+ent&!, the "esea",h and de'e&o ment o* the a&te"nati'es to the *ossi& *+e& sho+&d )e "ega"ded as a"t o* the nationa& se,+"it! "io"ities. <o+"th, -e sho+&d a&so h!si,a&&! e&iminate the "amate"ia&s +sed *o" the "od+,tion o* na",oti,s. (s a

h!si,ian, I ,annot )e &a,id a)o+t -hat I see e'e"! da! o* m! "o*essiona& &i*e. (s a *athe", I am te""i*ied o* the "os e,ti'e, that m! ,hi&d"en -i&& )e,ome d"+g addi,ts and -i&& not a)&e to +ti&iCe 9od?s gi'en o o"t+nities to +se thei" h+man ,a a,ities, )e,a+se some ,"ook so&d them mind-a&te"ing d"+gs. O+" -o"k, as do,to"s, is 'e"! m+,h in*&+en,ed )! the s+ &! and demand o* the i&&ega& na",oti,s. <"ank&!, I don?t gi'e a toss, that the *a"me"s -ho g"o- o ies o" ,o,a &ea'es a"e not a)&e to g"oan!thing e&se. To me, it is a o&iti,a& "o)&em, &ike manmade *amines in (*"i,a. It might )e ossi)&e to he& these *a"me"s o+t th"o+gh the 3N. The iss+e he"e is that the na",oti,s do not on&! se"'e as a mone! "od+,ing s+)stan,e, the! a&so se"'e as a 'e"! e**e,ti'e -ea on against the *"ee -o"&d. The ,on,e t o* the dest"+,tion o* the 3S( )! the d"+gs -as ,on,ei'ed )! the 3SS%. It -as ,a&&ed 0O"+Chie indi'id+a&nogo o"aCheni!a0 -ea on o* indi'id+a& dest"+,tion. I am dea&ing -ith this -ea on e'e"! da! o* m! "o*essiona& &i*e - kids -ho )e,ome s!,hoti, and "emain so *o" the "est o* thei" &i'es. <i*th, the theo,"ati, mono o&! o* the m+&&ahs ,ont"i)+tes to the ,&oseness o* Is&ami, so,ieties. EK+a&it! o* othe" "e&igions, instead o* Dhimmi stat+s, -o+&d )e +se*+& in )"inging these so,ieties in to a *ami&! o* demo,"ati, nations. Se,+&a", "athe" than e>,&+si'e&! "e&igio+s ed+,ation -o+&d )e ,"+,ia&. It is ,on,ei'a)&e, that a host o* meas+"es, designed to "ed+,e the &e'e& o* the so,ieta& *ea" -i&& )e most ,ond+,i'e to the )eginning o* the "o,ess o* hea&ing o* a t"a+matiCed nation. Concl#sion

Sigm+nd <"e+d -as a good hate". 6e did not to&e"ate a ostas! -e&&. To those, -ho &e*t the ne- ,h+",h he esta)&ished, he -as e"sistent&! 'enomo+s. Q+oting 6eine, he -"ote: 0One m+st *o"gi'e one?s enemies, )+t not )e*o"e the! ha'e )een hanged.0 Ghen one o* his dissidents, (d&e", died in @ABF on the t"i to ()e"deen, <"e+d -"ote to O-eig: 0I don?t +nde"stand !o+" s!m ath! *o" (d&e". <o" a 8e--)o! o+t o* Viennese s+)+"), a death in ()e"deen is an +nhea"d - o* ,a"ee" in itse&*0. <"e+d?s )"eak + -ith 8+ng -as e'en mo"e a,"imonio+s. ;oth ha'e ne'e" *o"gi'en ea,h othe" *o" the &ost ho es, as i"ations and d"eams. 8+ng, +ndo+)ted&! gi*ted and ta&ented h!si,ian, -as s,a""ed eno+gh )! this se a"ation to seek a she&te" in the sed+,ti'e sim &i,it! o* the NaCiona&So,ia&ism. 8+ng -"ote:0 One ,an not o* ,o+"se a,,e t that <"e+d o" (d&e" is a gene"a&&! 'a&id "e "esentati'e o* E+"o ean mankind. The 8e- as a "e&ati'e nomad has ne'e" ,"eated, and "es+ma)&! ne'e" -i&& ,"eate, a ,+&t+"a& *o"m o* his o-n, *o" a&& his instin,ts and ta&ent a"e de endent on a mo"e o" &ess ,i'i&ised host eo &e. In m! 'ie- it has )een a g"eat mistake o* medi,a& s!,ho&og! to a &! 8e-ish ,atego"ies, -hi,h a"e not e'en 'a&id *o" a&& 8e-s, to Ch"istian 9e"mans and S&a's. In this -a! the most "e,io+s se,"et o* Te+toni, man, the dee -"ooted, ,"eati'e a-a"eness o* his so+&, has )een e> &ained a-a! as a )ana& in*anti&e s+m , -hi&e m! -a"ning 'oi,e, o'e" the de,ades, -as s+s e,ted o* anti-Semitism. has the might! henomenon o* Nationa&-So,ia&ism, at -hi,h the -ho&e -o"&d gaCes in astonishment, ta+ght them to kno)ette"L0

#ea'ing the e",e ti)&e ange" o* the +n*o"gi'en son to-a"ds ha"sh and "e$e,ting *athe" aside, I?d &ike to get to the ,o"e o* 8+ng?s a,,+sation. Ghat he is sa!ing, in m! mind, is that the"e a"e di**e"ent me,hanisms, )! -hi,h di**e"ent h+mans "ea,t to the same st"esso"s. I disag"ee. (s I ha'e -"itten )e*o"e, I )e&ie'e, that *ea" a**e,ts h+mans, as mem)e"s o* the same )io&ogi,a& s e,ies, in the same -a!, "ega"d&ess o* "a,e, ,o&o", "e&igion o" o"igin. Ghi&e the ,"itiK+e o* <"e+d?s -"iting is a &egitimate inte&&e,t+a& e>e",ise, the a,,e tan,e o* the +ni'e"sa&it! o* h+man "ea,tions to simi&a" stim+&i ,o+&d not )e o osed on an! "easona)&e g"o+nd. =! ,ont"i)+tions to this dia&og -e"e -"itten *"om the distin,t&! 8e-ish oint o* 'ie-. Can this 'ie- )e "ega"ded as +ni'e"sa& L I g+ess, it de ends -hi,h oint o* 'ie- m! "eade" s+ o"ts - <"e+d?s o" 8+ng?s. %et+"n

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;o"n in @AE@ in Qi"!at-Jam, Is"ae&. Se"'ed in the Is"ae&i De*en,e <o",e 4@AFA-@AI25 in t"aining and ed+,ation +nits.

9"ad+ated a *e- semeste"s in the Te,hnion . Is"ae& Instit+te o* Te,hno&og!, 6ai*a. Ph.D. in Phi&oso h! 4ma$o": Phi&oso h! o* Ph!si,s5 . Pa,i*i, Geste"n 3ni'e"sit!, Ca&i*o"nia, 3S(. =! do,to"a& thesis and othe" )ooks a"e a'ai&a)&e th"o+gh the #i)"a"! o* Cong"ess. 9"ad+ate o* n+me"o+s ,o+"ses in <inan,e Theo"! and Inte"nationa& T"ading. Ce"ti*ied E-Comme",e Con,e ts (na&!st )! ;"ain)en,h. Ce"ti*ied in Ps!,ho&ogi,a& Co+nse&&ing Te,hniK+es )! ;"ain)en,h. Ce"ti*ied <inan,ia& (na&!st )! ;"ain)en,h. <+&& "o*i,ien,! in 6e)"e- and in Eng&ish.

B1siness E?&e(ien'e
12C3 to 12C4

<o+nde" and ,o-o-ne" o* a ,hain o* ,om +te"ised in*o"mation kiosks in Te&-('i', Is"ae&. 12C0 to 12C9 Senio" ositions -ith the Nessim D. 9aon 9"o+ o* Com anies in 9ene'a, Pa"is and Ne--Jo"k 4NO9( and (P%O<I= S(5: . Chie* (na&!st o* Edi)&e Commodities in the 9"o+ ?s 6eadK+a"te"s in S-itCe"&and . =anage" o* the %esea",h and (na&!sis Di'ision . =anage" o* the Data P"o,essing Di'ision . P"o$e,t =anage" o* the Nige"ian Com +te"ised Cens+s . Vi,e P"esident in ,ha"ge o* %ND and (d'an,ed Te,hno&ogies . Vi,e P"esident in ,ha"ge o* So'e"eign De)t <inan,ing 12C9 to 12C; %e "esented Canadian Vent+"e Ca ita& <+nds in Is"ae&. 12C; to 12C@ 9ene"a& =anage" o* IPE #td. in #ondon. The *i"m *inan,ed inte"nationa& m+&ti-&ate"a& ,o+nte"t"ade and &easing t"ansa,tions.

12CC to 1223 Co-*o+nde" and Di"e,to" o* 0=ik)ats-Tes+ah0, a o"t*o&io management *i"m )ased in Te&-('i'. (,ti'ities in,&+ded &a"ge-s,a&e o"t*o&io management, +nde"-"iting, *o"e> t"ading and gene"a& *inan,ia& ad'iso"! se"'i,es. 1223 to Present <"ee&an,e ,ons+&tant to man! o* Is"ae&?s ;&+e-Chi *i"ms, main&! on iss+es "e&ated to the ,a ita& ma"kets in Is"ae&, Canada, the 3: and the 3S(. Cons+&tant to *o"eign %ND 'ent+"es and to 9o'e"nments on ma,"o-e,onomi, matte"s. P"esident o* the Is"ae& ,ha te" o* the P"o*esso"s Go"&d Pea,e (,adem! 4PGP(5 and 4)"ie*&!5 Is"ae& "e "esentati'e o* the 0Gashington Times0. 1224 to 1227 Co-o-ne" and Di"e,to" o* man! )+siness ente" "ises: . The Omega and Ene"g! (i"-Conditioning Con,e"n . (VP <inan,ia& Cons+&tants . 6andiman #ega& Se"'i,es Tota& ann+a& t+"no'e" o* the g"o+ : @0 mi&&ion 3SD. Co-o-ne", Di"e,to" and <inan,e =anage" o* COSTI #td. . Is"ae&?s &a"gest ,om +te"ised in*o"mation 'endo" and de'e&o e". %aised *+nds th"o+gh a se"ies o* "i'ate &a,ements &o,a&&! in the 3S(, Canada and #ondon. 1224 to 122; P+)&ishe" and Edito" o* a Ca ita& =a"kets Ne-s&ette"

dist"i)+ted )! s+)s,"i tion on&! to doCens o* s+)s,"i)e"s ,o+nt"!-ide. In a &ega& "e,edent in @AAD . st+died in )+siness s,hoo&s and &a- *a,+&ties a,"oss Is"ae& . -as t"ied *o" his "o&e in an attem ted takeo'e" o* Is"ae&?s (g"i,+&t+"e ;ank. Gas inte"ned in the State S,hoo& o* P"ison Ga"dens. =anaged the Cent"a& S,hoo& #i)"a"!, -"ote, +)&ished and &e,t+"ed on 'a"io+s o,,asions. =anaged the Inte"net and Inte"nationa& Ne-s De a"tment o* an Is"ae&i mass media g"o+ , 06a-Tiksho"et and Name"0. (ssistant in the #a- <a,+&t! in Te&-('i' 3ni'e"sit! 4to P"o*. S.9. Shoham5. 122; to 1222 <inan,ia& ,ons+&tant to &eading )+sinesses in =a,edonia, %+ssia and the CCe,h %e +)&i,. Co&&a)o"ated -ith the (gen,! o* T"ans*o"mation o* ;+siness -ith So,ia& Ca ita&. E,onomi, ,ommentato" in 0No'a =akedoni$a0, 0Dne'nik0, 0=akedoni$a Denes0, 0IC'estia0, 0("g+menti i <akti0, 0The =idd&e East Times0, 0The Ne- P"esen,e0, 0Cent"a& E+"o e %e'ie-0, and othe" e"iodi,a&s, and in the e,onomi, "og"ams on 'a"io+s ,hanne&s o* =a,edonian Te&e'ision. Chie* #e,t+"e" in ,o+"ses o"ganised )! the (gen,! o* T"ans*o"mation, )! the =a,edonian Sto,k E>,hange, and )! the =inist"! o* T"ade. 1222 to 0330

E,onomi, (d'iso" to the 9o'e"nment o* the %e +)&i, o* =a,edonia and to the =inist"! o* <inan,e. 0331 to 0334 Senio" ;+siness Co""es ondent *o" 3nited P"ess Inte"nationa& 43PI5.

#e0 and @o1(nalis%i' '%ivi%ies

(+tho" o* e>tensi'e Ge) sites in: . Ps!,ho&og! 40=a&ignant Se&* #o'e05 - (n O en Di"e,to"! Coo& Site, . Phi&oso h! 40Phi&oso hi,a& =+sings05, . E,onomi,s and 9eo o&iti,s 40Go"&d in Con*&i,t and T"ansition05. O-ne" o* the Na",issisti, ()+se (nno+n,ement and St+d! #ist and the Na",issism %e'isited mai&ing &ist 4mo"e than 4A00 mem)e"s5. O-ne" o* the E,onomies in Con*&i,t and T"ansition St+d! #ist and the #ink and <a,toid St+d! #ist. Edito" o* menta& hea&th diso"de"s and Cent"a& and Easte"n E+"o e ,atego"ies in 'a"io+s Ge) di"e,to"ies 4O en Di"e,to"!, Sea",h E+"o e, =enta&he& .net5. Edito" o* the Na",issisti, Pe"sona&it! Diso"de", the Ve")a& and Emotiona& ()+se, and the S o+sa& 4Domesti,5 ()+se and Vio&en,e to i,s on S+ite @0@ and ;e&&aon&ine. Co&+mnist and ,ommentato" in 0The Ne- P"esen,e0, 3nited P"ess Inte"nationa& 43PI5, Inte"netContent, e;ookGe), Po =atte"s, and 0Cent"a& E+"o e %e'ie-0.

+10li'a%ions and <a(ds

0=anaging In'estment Po"t*o&ios in States o* 3n,e"taint!0, #imon P+)&ishe"s, Te&-('i', @AII 0The 9am)&ing Ind+st"!0, #imon P+)&ishe"s, Te&-('i', @AA0 0%eK+esting =! #o'ed One . Sho"t Sto"ies0, Jedioth (ha"onot, Te&-('i', @AAF 0The S+**e"ing o* ;eing :a*ka0 4e&e,t"oni, )ook o* 6e)"e- and Eng&ish Sho"t <i,tion5, P"ag+e and Sko $e, @AAI-2004 0The =a,edonian E,onom! at a C"oss"oads . On the Ga! to a 6ea&thie" E,onom!0 4dia&og+es -ith Niko&a 9"+e'ski5, Sko $e, @AAI 0The E> o"te"s? Po,ket)ook0, =inist"! o* T"ade, %e +)&i, o* =a,edonia, Sko $e, @AAA 0=a&ignant Se&* #o'e . Na",issism %e'isited0, Na",iss+s P+)&i,ations, P"ag+e and Sko $e, @AAA, 200@, 200B, 2004 The Na",issism Se"ies 4e-)ooks "ega"ding "e&ationshi s -ith a)+si'e na",issists5, Sko $e, @AAA-2004 0(*te" the %ain . 6o- the Gest #ost the East0, Na",iss+s P+)&i,ations in asso,iation -ith Cent"a& E+"o e %e'ie-1CEEN=I, P"ag+e and Sko $e, 2000 Ginne" o* n+me"o+s a-a"ds, among them Is"ae&?s Co+n,i& o* C+&t+"e and ("t P"iCe *o" =aiden P"ose 4@AAF5, The %ota"! C&+) (-a"d *o" So,ia& St+dies 4@AFE5, and the ;i&ate"a& %e&ations St+dies (-a"d o* the (me"i,an Em)ass! in Is"ae& 4@AFI5.

6+nd"eds o* "o*essiona& a"ti,&es in a&& *ie&ds o* *inan,es and the e,onom!, and n+me"o+s a"ti,&es dea&ing -ith geo o&iti,a& and o&iti,a& e,onomi, iss+es +)&ished in )oth "int and Ge) e"iodi,a&s in man! ,o+nt"ies. =an! a ea"an,es in the e&e,t"oni, media on s+)$e,ts in hi&oso h! and the s,ien,es, and ,on,e"ning e,onomi, matte"s.

Con%a'% De%ails:
a&ma/+net.,om.mk 'aknin/&ink.,om.mk

.2 #e0 Si%es:
Economy N Politics:

htt :11,eeand)a&kan.t"i od.,om1


htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1inde>.htm&


htt :11 hi&oso hos.t"i od.,om1


htt :11sam'ak.t"i od.,om1,ontents.htm& %et+"n

After the Rain

How the West Lost the East
The Book
This is a series of articles written and published in 1996-2000 in Macedonia, in ussia, in !"#pt and in the $%ech epublic. &ow the 'est lost the !ast. The econo(ics, the politics, the "eopolitics, the conspiracies, the corruption, the old and the new, the plou"h and the internet ) it is all here, in colourful and pro*ocati*e prose. +ro( ,The Mind of -ar.ness,/ ,0The 1al.ans0 ) I sa# ) 0is the unconscious of the world0. 2eople stop to di"est this (etaphor and then the# nod enthusiasticall#. It is here that the repressed (e(ories of histor#, its trau(as and fears and i(a"es reside. It is here that the ps#chod#na(ics of hu(anit# ) the tectonic clash between o(e and 1#%antiu(, 'est and !ast, 3udeo-$hristianit# and Isla( ) is still easil# discernible. 'e are seated at a 4ew 5ear0s dinin" table, loaded with a roasted pi" and e6otic salads. I, the 3ew, onl# half forei"n to this cradle of 7la*onics. +our 7erbs, fi*e Macedonians. It is in the 1al.ans that all ethnic distinctions fail and it is here that the# pre*ail anachronisticall# and ata*isticall#. $ontradiction and chan"e the onl# two fi6tures of this tor(ented re"ion. The wo(en of the 1al.an - buried under pro*ocati*e (as.li.e (a.e up, retro hairst#les and too narrow dresses. The (en, clad in sepia colours, old fashioned suits and turn of the centur# (oustaches. In the bac."round there is the cr#in" "a(e that is 1al.anian (usic/ litur"# and fol. and ele"# co(bined. The s(ells are hea*# with (us.ular perfu(es. It is li.e ti(e tra*el. It is li.e re*isitin" one0s childhood.,

T$e 1%$o( Sam +aknin is the author o' =a&ignant Se&* #o'e Na",issism %e'isited and (*te" the %ain - 6o- the Gest #ost the East. ,e is a columnist 'or Cent"a& E+"o e %e'ie- and e-ook.eb , a 3nited P"ess Inte"nationa& 43PI5 Senio" ;+siness Co""es ondent, and the editor o' mental health and $entral %ast %urope categories in The /pen 0irector# and Suite1!1 * 2ntil recentl#, he served as the %conomic Advisor to the 3overnment o' 4acedonia* +isit Sam5s .eb site at http677samvak*tripod*com