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MEANING, SCOPE & FUNCTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

Contents

1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Meaning of the Philosophy and Education 1.3 Concept of Philosophy of Education 1.4 Scope of Philosophy of Education 1. Nature of Philosophy of Education Modes of Philosophical Inquiry 1.! unctions of Philosophy of Education

1." !elationship bet"een Philosophy of #eaching and #eaching Styles

1.0

O#$ECTI%ES

$fter reading this unit you "ill be able to% & & & & 'iscuss the (eaning of philosophy of education) e*plain the unli(ited scope of philosophy of education+ enu(erate the various functions of philosophy of education+ State the various (ethods of Philosophical inquiry describe the relationship bet"een philosophy of teaching and teaching styles+

1.1 INT&ODUCTION
Philosophy is a search for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative rather than observational (eans+ It signifies a natural and necessary urge in hu(an beings to ,no" the(selves and the "orld in "hich they live and (ove and have their being+ -estern philosophy re(ained (ore or less true to the ety(ological (eaning of philosophy in being essentially an intellectual quest for truth+ .indu philosophy is intensely spiritual and has al"ays e(phasi/ed the need for practical reali/ation of #ruth+ Philosophy is a co(prehensive syste( of ideas about hu(an nature and the nature of the reality "e live in+ It is a guide for living) because the issues it addresses are basic and pervasive) deter(ining the course "e ta,e in life and ho" "e treat other people+ .ence "e can say that all the aspects of hu(an life are influenced and governed by the philosophical consideration+ $s a field of study philosophy is one of the oldest disciplines+ It is considered as a (other of all the sciences+ In fact it is at the root of all ,no"ledge+ Education has also dra"n its (aterial fro( different philosophical bases+ Education) li,e philosophy is also closely related to hu(an life+ #herefore) being an i(portant life activity education is also greatly influenced by philosophy+ 0arious fields of philosophy li,e the political philosophy) social philosophy and econo(ic philosophy have great influence on the various aspects of education li,e educational procedures) processes) policies) planning and its i(ple(entation) fro( both the theoretical and practical aspects+ In order to understand the concept of Philosophy of education it is necessary to first understand the (eaning of the t"o ter(s1 Philosophy and Education+

1.2 MEANING OF PHILOSOPHY & EDUCATION


Me'n(n) o* P+(,oso-+. #he "ord philosophy literally (eans love of wisdom1 It is derived fro( t"o 2ree, "ords i+e+ 3phileo3 4love5 and 3Sophia3 4"isdo(5+ #his tells us so(ething about the nature of philosophy) but not (uch) because (any disciplines see, "isdo(+ Since ti(es i((e(orial there have been various pursuits for unfolding the (ystery of the universe) birth and death) sorro" and joy+ 0arious ages have produced different thoughts thro"ing light upon the (ystic region+ #he ulti(ate truth is yet to be found out+ #his eternal quest for truth 3lends the origin of philosophy+ $ love of "isdo( is the essence for any philosophy investigation+ On the standard "ay of telling the story) hu(anity3s first syste(atic inquiries too, place "ithin a (ythological or religious fra(e"or,% "isdo( ulti(ately "as to be derived fro( sacred traditions and fro( individuals thought to possess privileged access to a supernatural real() "hose o"n access to "isdo() in turn) generally "as not questioned+ .o"ever) starting in the si*th century 6CE) there appeared in ancient 2reece a series of thin,ers "hose inquiries "ere co(paratively secular 4see 7#he Milesians and the Origin of Philosophy75+ Presu(ably) these thin,ers conducted their inquiries through reason and observation) rather than through tradition or revelation+ #hese thin,ers "ere the first philosophers+ $lthough this picture is ad(ittedly si(plistic) the basic distinction has stuc,% philosophy in its (ost pri(eval for( is considered nothing less than secular inquiry itself+ #he subject of philosophical inquiry is the reality itself+ #here are different schools of philosophy depending on the ans"ers they see, to the question of reality+ It is the search for understanding of (an) nature and the universe+ #here are different branches of philosophy8Episte(ology) Metaphysics) etc+ #here are different fields of philosophy such as educational philosophy) social philosophy) political philosophy) econo(ic philosophy etc+ #here are also different philosophical approaches such as idealis() naturalis() prag(atis() (aterialis() and so on+ Me'n(n) o* E/01't(on Ety(ologically) the "ord education is derived fro( educare 49atin5 7bring up7) "hich is related to educere 7bring out7) 7bring forth "hat is "ithin7) 7bring out potential7 and ducere) 7to lead7+ E/01't(on in the largest sense is any act or e*perience that has a for(ative effect on the (ind) character or physical ability of an individual+ In its technical sense) education is the process by "hich society deliberately trans(its its accu(ulated ,no"ledge) s,ills and values fro( one generation to another+

4 -ebster defines education as the process of educating or teaching 4no" that3s really useful) isn3t it:5 Educate is further defined as 7to develop the ,no"ledge) s,ill) or character of+++7 #hus) fro( these definitions) "e (ight assu(e that the purpose of education is to develop the ,no"ledge) s,ill) or character of students+ In ancient 2reece) Socrates argued that education "as about dra"ing out "hat "as already "ithin the student+ 4$s (any of you ,no") the "ord education co(es fro( the 9atin e-ducere (eaning 7to lead out+75 $t the sa(e ti(e) the Sophists) a group of itinerant teachers) pro(ised to give students the necessary ,no"ledge and s,ills to gain positions "ith the city8state+ #hus "e see that there are different vie"s and understandings of the (eaning of the ter( education+ In the (odern ti(es it has acquired t"o different shades of (eaning na(ely% 415 an institutional instruction) given to students in school colleges for(ally 1and 4;5 a pedagogical science) studied by the student of education+ #he "ords of $da( education is the dyna(ic side of philosophy+ Philosophy ta,es into its orbit) all the di(ensions of hu(an life+ Si(ilarly education also reflects the (ultifaceted nature of hu(an life+ #herefore) education is closely related to various aspects of hu(an life and environ(ent+ .ence) the ter( education has a "ide connotation+ It is difficult to define education by single definition+ Philosophers and thin,ers fro( Socrates to 'e"ey in "est and a host of Indian philosophers have atte(pted to define education+ .o"ever education can be understood as the deliberate and syste(atic influence e*erted by a (ature through instruction) and discipline+ It (eans the har(onious develop(ent of all the po"ers of the hu(an being1 physical social) intellectual) aesthetic and spiritual+ #he essential ele(ents in the educative process are a creative (ind) a "ell integrated self) socially useful purposes and e*perience related to the interests of the individual) needs and abilities of the individual as a of a social group+ In the historical develop(ent of (an) education has been the right of a privileged fe"+ It is only in recent centuries that education has co(e to be recogni/ed as a hu(an right+ $ll have equal right to be educated as education has beco(e sine qua non of civili/ation+ Our discussion of the concept of education and the concept of philosophy for( the basis of arriving at the definition of philosophy of education+

1.3

CONCEPT OF PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

$ll hu(an societies) past and present) have had a vested interest in education1 and so(e "its have clai(ed that teaching 4at its best an educational activity5 is the second oldest profession+ -hile not all societies channel sufficient resources into support for educational activities and institutions) all at the very least ac,no"ledge their centrality <and for good reasons+ or one thing) it is obvious that children are born illiterate and innu(erate) and ignorant of the nor(s and cultural achieve(ents of the co((unity or society into "hich they have been thrust1 but "ith the help of professional teachers and the dedicated a(ateurs in their fa(ilies and i((ediate environs 4and "ith the aid) too) of educational resources (ade available through the (edia and no"adays the internet5) "ithin a fe" years they can read) "rite) calculate) and act 4at least often5 in culturally8appropriate "ays+ So(e learn these s,ills "ith (ore facility than others) and so education also serves as a social8sorting (echanis( and undoubtedly has enor(ous i(pact on the econo(ic fate of the individual+ Put (ore abstractly) at its best education equips individuals "ith the s,ills and substantive ,no"ledge that allo"s the( to define and to pursue their o"n goals) and also allo"s the( to participate in the life of their co((unity as full8fledged) autono(ous citi/ens+ Equips individuals "ith the s,ills and substantive ,no"ledge that allo"s the( to define and to pursue their o"n goals) and also allo"s the( to participate in the life of their co((unity as full8fledged) autono(ous citi/ens+ 6ut this is to cast (atters in very individualistic ter(s) and it is fruitful also to ta,e a societal perspective) "here the picture changes so(e"hat+ It e(erges that in pluralistic societies such as the -estern de(ocracies there are so(e groups that do not "holeheartedly support the develop(ent of autono(ous individuals) for such fol, can "ea,en a group fro( "ithin by thin,ing for the(selves and challenging co((unal nor(s and beliefs1 fro( the point of vie" of groups "hose survival is thus threatened) for(al) state8provided education is not necessarily a good thing+ 6ut in other "ays even these groups depend for their continuing survival on educational processes) as do the larger societies and nation8 states of "hich they are part1 for as =ohn 'e"ey put it in the opening chapter of his classic "or, Democracy and Education 41>1?5) in its broadest sense education is the (eans of the @social continuity of lifeA 4'e"ey) 1>1?) B5+ 'e"ey pointed out that the @pri(ary ineluctable facts of the birth and death of each one of the constituent (e(bers in a social groupA (a,e education a necessity) for despite this biological inevitability @the life of the group goes onA 4'e"ey) B5+ #he great social i(portance of education is underscored) too) by the fact that "hen a society is sha,en by a crisis) this often is ta,en as a sign of educational brea,do"n1 education) and educators) beco(e scapegoats+

! It is not surprising that such an i(portant social do(ain has attracted the attention of philosophers for thousands of years) especially as there are co(ple* issues aplenty that have great philosophical interest+ abstractly) at its best education equips individuals "ith the s,ills and substantive ,no"ledge that allo"s the( to define and to pursue their o"n goals) and also allo"s the( to participate in the life of their co((unity as full8fledged) autono(ous citi/ens+ 6ut this is to cast (atters in very individualistic ter(s) and it is fruitful also to ta,e a societal perspective) "here the picture changes so(e"hat+ It e(erges that in pluralistic societies such as the -estern de(ocracies there are so(e groups that do not "holeheartedly support the develop(ent of autono(ous individuals) for such fol, can "ea,en a group fro( "ithin by thin,ing for the(selves and challenging co((unal nor(s and beliefs1 fro( the point of vie" of groups "hose survival is thus threatened) for(al) state8provided education is not necessarily a good thing+ 6ut in other "ays even these groups depend for their continuing survival on educational processes) as do the larger societies and nation8 states of "hich they are part1 for as =ohn 'e"ey put it in the opening chapter of his classic "or, Democracy and Education 41>1?5) in its broadest sense education is the (eans of the @social continuity of lifeA 4'e"ey) 1>1?) B5+ 'e"ey pointed out that the @pri(ary ineluctable facts of the birth and death of each one of the constituent (e(bers in a social groupA (a,e education a necessity) for despite this biological inevitability @the life of the group goes onA 4'e"ey) B5+ #he great social i(portance of education is underscored) too) by the fact that "hen a society is sha,en by a crisis) this often is ta,en as a sign of educational brea,do"n1 education) and educators) beco(e scapegoats+ It is not surprising that such an i(portant social do(ain has attracted the attention of philosophers for thousands of years) especially as there are co(ple* issues aplenty that have great philosophical interest+ #he follo"ing are so(e issues that philosophers have deeply thought about and philosophy is still in the process of ans"ering these questions+ Is Education as trans(ission of ,no"ledge versus education as the fostering of inquiry and reasoning s,ills that are conducive to the develop(ent of autono(y 4"hich) roughly) is the tension bet"een education as conservative and education as progressive) and also is closely related to differing vie"s about hu(an @perfectibilityA<issues that historically have been raised in the debate over the ai(s of education51 the question of "hat this ,no"ledge) and "hat these s,ills) ought to be<part of the do(ain of philosophy of the curriculu(1 the questions of ho" learning is possible) and "hat is it to have learned so(ething<t"o sets of issues that relate to the question of the capacities and potentialities that are present at birth) and also to the process 4and stages5 of hu(an develop(ent and to "hat degree this process is fle*ible and hence can be influenced or (anipulated1 the tension bet"een liberal education and vocational education) and the overlapping issue of "hich should be given

" priority<education for personal develop(ent or education for citi/enship 4and the issue of "hether or not this is a false dichoto(y51 the differences 4if any5 bet"een education and enculturation1 the distinction bet"een educating versus teaching versus training versus indoctrination1 the relation bet"een education and (aintenance of the class structure of society) and the issue of "hether different classes or cultural groups can< justly<be given educational progra(s that differ in content or in ai(s1 the issue of "hether the rights of children) parents) and socio8cultural or ethnic groups) conflict<and if they do) the question of "hose rights should be do(inant1 the question as to "hether or not all children have a right to state8provided education) and if so) should this education respect the beliefs and custo(s of all groups and ho" on earth "ould this be acco(plished1 and a set of co(ple* issues about the relation bet"een education and social refor() centering upon "hether education is essentially conservative) or "hether it can be an 4or) the5 agent of social change+ It is here that that philosophy of education plays an i(portant role in providing direction to education on the follo"ing issues as "ell as providing a theory of ,no"ledge tfor education to "or, upon+ Philosophy of education is essentially a (ethod of approaching educational e*perience rather than a body of conclusions+ It is the specific (ethod "hich (a,es it philosophical+ Philosophical (ethod is critical) co(prehensive and synthetic+ T+e2e*o2e, 1C Philosophy of education is the criticis( of the general theory of education+ ;C It consists of critical evaluation and syste(atic reflection upon general theories+ BC It is a synthesis of educational facts "ith educational values+ In brief) it is a philosophical process of solving educational proble(s through philosophical (ethod) fro( a philosophical attitude to arrive at philosophical conclusions and results+ #hus) it ai(s at achieving general as "ell as co(prehensive results+

1.4

SCOPE OF PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

#he scope of philosophy of education is confined to the field of education+ #hus) it is philosophy in the field of education+ #he scope of philosophy of education is concerned "ith the proble(s of education+

T+ese -2o3,e4s 4'(n,. (n1,0/e 5 & interpretation of hu(an nature) the "orld and the universe and their relation "ith (an) & interpretation of ai(s and ideals of education) & the relationship of various co(ponents of the syste( of education) & relationship of education and various areas of national life Decono(ic syste() political order) social progress) cultural reconstructions etc+C) & educational values) & theory of ,no"ledge and its relationship to education+ #he above (entioned proble(s constitute the scope of philosophy of education and e*plain its nature+ #hus) the scope of philosophy of education includes follo"ing+ '6 A(4s 'n/ I/e',s o* E/01't(on P+(,oso-+. Education critically evaluates the different ai(s and ideals of education+ #hese ai(s and ideals have been prorogated by various philosophers in different ti(es+ #hey are character building) (an (a,ing) har(onious hu(an develop(ent) preparation for adult life) 5develop(ent of citi/enship) 5utili/ation of leisure) training for civic life) training for international living) achieving social and national integration) 8scientific and technological develop(ent) education for all) equali/ing educational opportunities) strengthening de(ocratic political order and hu(an source develop(ent+ #hese and other ai(s of education presented by educational thin,ers in different ti(es and cli(es are scrutini/ed and evaluated+ #hus) philosophy of education critically evaluates different ai(s and ideals of education to arrive at+ 36 Inte2-2et't(on o* H04'n N't02e75 A -+(,oso-+(1', picture of hu(an nature is a result of the synthesis of the facts borro"ed fro( all the hu(an science "ith the values discussed in different nor(ative) sciences+ #he philosophical picture) therefore) is (ore broad as co(pared to the picture of (an dra"n by biology) sociology) psychology) econo(ics and anthropology and other hu(an science+

16E/01't(on', %',0es75 0alue is typically a philosophical subject since it is (ore abstract) integral and universal+ Philosophy8of education not only critically evaluates the values but also syste(ati/es the( in a hierarchy+ Educational values are3 deter(ined by philosophical values+ Educational values propagated by different philosophers have been derived fro( their o"n

< "orld) vie" and their outloo, on the purpose of hu(an life+ #herefore) a scrutiny of the "orld vie"s) outloo,) beliefs is the specific function of philosophy and it is necessary for the philosophical treat(ent of the values+ /6 T+eo2. o* 9no:,e/)e75 Education is related to ,no"ledge+ It is deter(ined by the source) li(its) criteria and (eans of ,no"ledge+ #he discussion of all these falls "ithin the jurisdiction of episte(ology) one of the branches of philosophy) therefore) an i(portant area of the functioning of philosophy of education is related to theory of ,no"ledge+ e6 &e,'t(ons+(- o* e/01't(on 'n/ ;'2(o0s '2e' o* n't(on', ,(*e 'n/ ;'2(o0s 1o4-onents o* t+e s.ste4 o* e/01't(on75 One of the (ost i(portant contributions of the philosophy of education to the cause of education is the provision of criteria for deciding the relationship of state and education) econo(ic syste( and education) curriculu() school organi/ation and (anage(ent) discipline etc+ #hese proble(s have led to the evaluation of different philosophies of education+ #he criteria of judg(ent every"here are deter(ined by philosophy) therefore) philosophy of education provides the criteria for critical evaluation and judg(ent in these fields+ 1.1.! N't02e o* P+(,oso-+. o* E/01't(on Philosophy of education is one of the areas of applied philosophy+ #here are three branches of philosophy na(ely 3(etaphysics) episte(ology and a*iology+

Met'-+.s(1s is a branch of philosophy that investigates principles of reality transcending those of any particular science+ It is concerned "ith e*plaining the funda(ental nature of being and the "orld+ Metaphysics is the study of the nature of things+ Metaphysicians as, "hat ,inds of things e*ist) and "hat they are li,e+ #hey reason about such things as "hether or not people have free "ill) in "hat sense abstract objects can be said to e*ist) and ho" it is that brains are able to generate (inds+ $*iology% the branch of philosophical enquiry that e*plores% o $esthetics% the study of basic philosophical questions about art and beauty+ So(eti(es philosophy of art is used to describe only questions about art) "ith 7aesthetics7 the (ore general ter(+ 9i,e"ise 7aesthetics7 so(eti(es applied even (ore broadly than to 7philosophy of beauty7 %to the 7subli(e)7 to hu(our) to the frightening88to any of the responses "e (ight e*pect "or,s of art or entertain(ent to elicit+ o Ethics% the study of "hat (a,es actions right or "rong) and of ho" theories of right action can be applied to special (oral proble(s+ Sub disciplines include (eta8ethics) value theory) theory of conduct) and applied ethics+

10 Episte(ology is the branch of philosophy that studies ,no"ledge+ It atte(pts to ans"er the basic question% "hat distinguishes true 4adequate5 ,no"ledge fro( false 4inadequate5 ,no"ledge: Practically) this question translates into issues of scientific (ethodology% ho" can one develop theories or (odels that are better than co(peting theories: It also for(s one of the pillars of the ne" sciences of cognition) "hich developed fro( the infor(ation processing approach to psychology) and fro( artificial intelligence) as an atte(pt to develop co(puter progra(s that (i(ic a hu(an3s capacity to use ,no"ledge in an intelligent "ay+ -hen "e loo, at the history of episte(ology) "e can discern a clear trend) in spite of the confusion of (any see(ingly contradictory positions+ #he first theories of ,no"ledge stressed its absolute) per(anent character) "hereas the later theories put the e(phasis on its relativity or situation8dependence) its continuous develop(ent or evolution) and its active interference "ith the "orld and its subjects and objects+ #he "hole trend (oves fro( a static) passive vie" of ,no"ledge to"ards a (ore and (ore adaptive and active one+ $s you can tell) the different branches of philosophy overlap one another+ $ philosopher considering "hether people ought to give e*cess "ealth to the poor is as,ing an ethical question+ .o"ever) his investigations (ight lead hi( to "onder "hether or not standards of right and "rong are built into the fabric of the universe) "hich is a (etaphysical question+ If he clai(s that people are justified in ta,ing a particular stance on that question) he is (a,ing at least a tacit episte(ological clai(+ $t every step in his reasoning) he "ill "ant to e(ploy logic to (ini(i/e the chance of being led into error by the great co(ple*ity and obscurity of the questions+ .e (ay very "ell loo, to so(e of the ethical) (etaphysical) and episte(ological "ritings of past philosophers to see ho" his brightest predecessors reasoned about the (atter+ $spects of each branch of philosophy can be studied in isolation) but philosophical questions have a "ay of leading to other philosophical questions) to the point that a full investigation of any particular proble( is li,ely eventually to involve al(ost the "hole of the philosophical enterprise+ One vie" on education believes or subscribes to the vie" that philosophy of education co(es under the u(brella of a*iology+ $s a branch of philosophy it utili/es philosophical (ethods for the solution of philosophical proble(s "ith a philosophical attitude to arrive at philosophical conclusion+ In this co(prehensive process it includes facts concerning education and synthesi/es the( "ith values+ #he other school of thought believes that education as a discipline utili/es or needs to incorporate all (odes of philosophical inquiry1 (etaphysical) a*iological and episte(ological+ $s individuals involved in the process of education right fro( the ai(s) purpose) functions and building theory "e need to loo, at any body of ,no"ledge or generate ne" ,no"ledge based on the three (odes of philosophical inquiry+

11

1.! FUNCTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION


Philosophy of education perfor(s various functions+ #hey area discussed belo"% '= Dete24(n(n) t+e '(4s o* e/01't(on Philosophy of education provides original ideas regarding all aspects of education particularly educational ai(s+ It is said that educational philosophy gives different vie"s) but this situation is not har(ful) rather it helps in providing education according to the need of society+ #he difference in vie" of philosophy of education reflects the (ultiplicity and diversities of hu(an life+ Philosophy of education guides the process of education by suggesting suitable ai(s fro( the diversities of life and selecting the (eans accordingly+ 3= H'24on(>(n) o,/ 'n/ ne: t2'/(t(ons (n t+e *(e,/ o* e/01't(on5 In the process of social develop(ent the old traditions beco(e outdated for the people+ #hey are replaced by the ne" traditions+ 6ut this process of replace(ent is not al"ays s(ooth+ It is faced "ith lots of opposition fro( certain orthodo* sections of the society+ $t the sa(e ti(e it (ust be ,ept in (ind that every 3old3 is not outdated and every 3ne"3 is not perfect #herefore) there is a need of co8coordinating the t"o in order to (aintain the har(ony bet"een both+ #his function can be perfor(ed by philosophy of education+ 1= P2o;(/(n) t+e e/01't(on', -,'nne2s, '/4(n(st2'to2s 'n/ e/01'to2s :(t+ t+e -2o)2ess(;e ;(s(on to '1+(e;e e/01't(on', /e;e,o-4ent75 Spencer has rightly pointed that only a true philosopher can give a practical shape to education+ Philosophy of education provides the educational planners) ad(inistrators and educators "ith the right vision "hich guides the( to attain the educational goals efficiently+ /= P2e-'2(n) t+e .o0n) )ene2't(on to *'1e t+e 1+',,en)es o* t+e 4o/e2n t(4e75 Social co((entators have given (any labels to the present period of history for so(e it is the infor(ation age and for others it is post (odernity) later (odernity) high (odernity or even the age of uncertainty+ One (ore addition to this list (ay be that 3present age is an age of 2lobali/ation as a pheno(enon arrived on the econo(ic scene in the 1>>E in India+ #his "atch"ord has had its i(plications in the social political) econo(ic fabric of the country of "hich education is a part+ Philosophy of education is a guiding) steering and liberating force that helps young people to and society at large to face the challenges of the (odern ti(e+

1."

&ELATIONSHIP #ET?EEN PHILOSOPHY OF TEACHING AND TEACHING STYLES

12 Philosophy guides the process of education in different "ays+ $ teacher approaching education philosophically needs to ans"er four basic questions that guide the teaching learning process+ #hey are% -hat is the nature of the learner: -hat is the nature of subject (atter: .o" should one use the subject (atter to guide students to"ards (eaningful learning activities: -hat behavior trend should one e*hibit in order to carry out oneFs philosophical position: #he ans"ers to these questions only "ill help the teacher to identify a series of preferences) as opposed to a set of behavior that belong to (utually e*clusive categories for the follo"ing questions+ $n atte(pt to ans"er these questions is nothing but philosophy of teaching+ Philosophy and various philosophical vie" points infor( us that each of these questions have different philosophical perspectives that can be considered as e*tre(es in a continuu(+ o N't02e o* t+e Le'2ne2 or the question about the nature of 9earner) It "ill be defined in ter(s of e*tre(es of the continuu( by using the ter(s @9oc,eanA 4passive5 and @PlatonicA 4active5 @9oc,eanA is a position because it "as =ohn 9oc,e) in his Essay Concerning .u(an Gnderstanding) "ho first "rote about (ind) is a tabula rasa+ .e envisioned the operation of the (ind as si(ilar to a blan, "a* tablet on "hich data ta,en in through the senses "ould (a,e @i(pressionsA+ Sensory data "hich a learner absorbed for(ed the true source of ,no"ledge+ $ny co(ple* (ental operations involving association) interpretation) or evaluation of secondary data led to the for(ulation of increasingly co(ple* ,no"ledge+ @PlatonicA I(age is that of a teacher "ho has so (uch respect for "hat the learner can contribute to the learning environ(ent that he or she definitely does not "ant the( to @absorbA prescribed subject (atter) as the teacher sees the subject (atter+ Gnder such circu(stances learners are vie"ed as the (ost i(portant ingredient of the classroo( environ(ent because they teach each other and their teacher about proble(s "hich are (eaningful to the(+ It is al(ost that learners have the ,no"ledge "hich is loc,ed inside the( "hich is released through interaction+ Platonic concept believes in the doctrine of !e(iniscence+ o N't02e o* S03@e1t M'tte2 #he ter(s @$(orphousA or @StructuredA are used to delineate e*tre(es on the continuu( of teacherFs vie" on the nature of subject

13 (atter+ #he ter( Ha(orphous label has been reserved for rote learning) "hich e(phasi/es that each ite( to be learned is equal in i(portance to every other ite( to be learned 1 hence youngsters are not encouraged to find relationships a(ong ite(s to be learned and no ite( is seen to be (ore i(portant than the other+ #he other e*tre(e @structuredA "e (ay e*pect to find a position represented by those "ho have a quite realistic vie" of "hat the subject (atter can never acco(plish+ #he ter( @StructuredA as used in this conte*t) is fro( 6runerFs understanding that any subject (atter should be vie"ed as having a natural structure "hich can help to e*plain relationships a(ong its co(ponents and "hich can be used to find ne" infor(ation+ o Ho: s+o0,/ S03@e1t 4'tte2 )0(/e st0/ents ,e'2n(n) '1t(;(t(esA #he t"o end points of the continuu( is @cognitiveA and @affectiveA+ #hese concepts are not (utually e*clusive categories) but rather (atters of e(phasis and preferences+ In order to illu(inate factors involved in any teacherFs decision to e(phasi/e cognitive or affective learning activities it is useful to consider the follo"ing addendu(+ Cognitive 'o(ain I fact) concept and generali/ation $ffective 'o(ain8 belief and value Evidence abounds that students bring into the classroo( attitudes "hich influence the "ay they perceive facts) concepts and generali/ations+ So(eti(es teachers are fortunate to have students "ho bring "ith the( positive attitudes to"ards the subject (atter at hand+ Most often "e have students "ho bring "ith the( not very positive attitudes+ In such situations the teachersF role "ill be to help students thin, critically by transfor(ing generali/ation) beliefs and values into hypotheses that can be tested+ #hen the teacher resorts to the affective do(ain+ o #e+';(o2 t2en/ (n o2/e2 to 1'22. o0t oneBs P+(,oso-+(1', Pos(t(on #he ter(s authoritarian and non8authoritarian are t"o e*tre(es of the continuu() but should be understood as not (erely being HstrictF or Hper(issiveF+ #hese "ords should go beyond the aspect of classroo( (anage(ent as it is (ore inclusive approach to classroo( (anage(ent+ It is an over vie" of the student and the subject (atter "hich this indicator has been designed to e*a(ine+ or instance) suppose so(e teachers encourage students to vie" subject (atter only as e*perts in that field (ight vie" it1 hence these teachers habitually accept for each (ajor question under e*a(ination only one right ans"er "hich all students are e*cepted to adopt and understand+ -e can thus say that these teachers are said to encourage convergent thin,ing and hence in this conte*t "e can ter( the( as HauthoritarianF teachers+

14 T+e 1on;e2se 1'n 3e s'(/ o* Cnon '0t+o2(t'2('n te'1+e2sB #eacher need to be a"are of the HPhilosophical PositionsF that they ta,e and have ta,en "hile they enter into classroo(s or plan to enter into classroo(s Philosophical positions affect the "ay they interact "ith students and facilitate learning in learners individually or collectively+ #hus "e see that the "ay "e ans"er the questions of nature of learner) subject (atter etc+ definitely affects our teaching style+ -hether a teacher is authoritative or non authoritarian) "hether teaching (ethods are constructivist or lecture (ethod are influenced based on the philosophical position that they hold+ 6ac,ground for approaching the educational proble(s effectively+ #herefore) it is essential for the educators to have the deep insight into the philosophy of education+ &e*e2en1es 1C Chandra S+ S+) !+ Shar(a) !ejendra J 4;EE;5 7 Philosophy of Education+7 Ne" 'elhi) $llantic publishers+ ;C Cha,raborty $+ J+4;EEB5+7 Principles and Practices of Education+7 Meerut) 9al 6oo, 'epot+ BC 2upta S+ 4;EEK5+ 7 Education in E(erging India+ #eachers role in Society+7 Ne" 'elhi) Shipra Publication+ LC Seethara(u) $+ S+ 41>M>5+ Philosophy of Education+ Ne" 'elhi) 3 $shish Publishing .ouse+ KC #aneja) 0+ !+ 4;EEE5+ 7 Educational #hought and Practice+7 Ne" 'elhi) Sterling+ &e*e2en1es% On8line Sources% a+ Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Ed+% """+educao+pro+brN1lin,s+ht( b+ #he Center for 'e"ey Studies% """+siu+eduNOde"yctrN c+ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy% """+plato+stanford+eduN
d+ http%NN"""+objectivistcenter+orgNcth88LE>8 $PQPhilosophy+asp*