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Describe one way a region affected by earthquakes can prepare for this hazard (2) Outline one impact

of an earthquake (2)

RESTLESS

EARTH

For either an earthquake or a volcanic eruption you have studied, describe the immediate responses in managing its impact (4) Using an example(s), describe the effects of earthquakes on people and property (4)

Earths 4 main layers

There are two types of crust Continental crust this forms the land and is made of granite. It is 30-50 km thick Oceanic crust this is under the oceans and is made of basalt. It is 6-8km thick.

Volcanoes Mount Nyiragongo in the Democratic Republic of Congo (a developing country) last big eruption was in 2002 It lies on a constructive plate boundary It is a gentle volcano and lava just oozes out of the volcano but it is often accompanied by gas The lava is runny and formed from basalt so it can travel fast The lava sometimes triggers earthquakes and buildings can collapse People die from the poisonous gases People can be evacuated as scientists are able to predict when it will erupt Some people become refugees After the eruption in 2002 the UN sent food Mount Sakurajima in Japan (a developed country) This lies on a destructive plate boundary and is very explosive It sends out lava, ash and volcanic bombs It has thick andesitic magma inside which makes it even more explosive It is a strata volcano made from layers of lava and ash People live near it because of the fertile soil which is good for growing crops There are also ports nearby which get affected when it erupts People are evacuated when Scientists think it is about to erupt

Inner core - densest part of the earth Outer core Mantle - Viscous Crust a rigid hard surface

The centre of the Earth is extremely hot. It generates convection currents which pull the tectonic plates at the surface in different directions. These convection currents also drive the Earths magnetic field.

You also need to know about the asthenosphere. This is the top section of the mantle and is partly molten and partly solid. The crust is split up into tectonic plates. Between these tectonic plates are plate boundaries Destructive boundaries Constructive boundaries Conservative boundaries

To the left is a map of the earths tectonic plates. Learn the location of the Eurasian, African and Pacific plate To the right is a diagram of a destructive plate boundary you should be able to label this to say why earthquakes and volcanoes happen here. An example is the Japanese coast. To the left is a constructive boundary. The plates pull apart and form a gap which new magma comes up to fill. Therefore volcanoes happen here. An example is the midAtlantic ridge.

Earthquakes LAquila Earthquake ( a developed country) 6.9 magnitude on the Richter scale, April 2009 Cost of Damage: Around $15 billion Preparation: There are laws on construction standards, but some modern buildings hadn't been built to withstand earthquakes. Italy has a civil protection departmant where their train volunteers to help with things like e.g rescue operations. Effects: Around 290 deaths. Hundreds of people were injured. Thousands of buildings were damaged or destroyed. 58,000 people homeless. $4bn impact the economy. Business disrupted. Streets impassable and bridges collapsed. Some landslides triggered by the earthquake. Preparation conservative plate boundary response Continental crust Sichuan Earthquake (a developing country) 8.0 on the Richter scale, May 2008 The buildings were poorly constructed because they are not a wealthy country The earthquake triggered a land slide There are ways in which buildings in poor countries can be designed to withstand earthquakes, but they are not common This earthquake was near a collision plate boundary Many people were killed, buildings were destroyed and giant panda habitats were badly affected. Some people lost their only child because of the one child policy.

Above is a diagram of a conservative plate boundary. Plates can move in the opposite direction too. Plates get stuck together because of the rough rock and friction. Pressure builds up before they finally give way and move causing an earthquake .An example is the San Andreas fault

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Short term emergency relief

Evacuation

Magnitude Tectonic hazards

Prediction convection currents

Constructive plate boundary destructive plate boundary core