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Answer Key

This answer key is for Linneys Latin Class, not for the textbook itself; therefore the answers given here will not include every exercise given in the textbook. Instead, this answer key will follow the course of study covered in the recorded lectures. The answers given will be kept as simple and literal as possible, and synchronized with the answers given in the recorded lectures as much as possible. Understood words (i.e., words not literally present in but implied by the Latin text) will be placed in parenthesis so the reader can identify them more easily. Occasional parenthetical notes or footnotes will provide extra information when needed. For a more detailed analysis of each exercise, please consult the recorded lectures. The second person singular will be expressed using the word you. The second person plural will be expressed using the word yall. I will be grateful to you if you notify me by email (William.Linney@ArmeldAcademicPress.com) if you notice either of the following:

Translation errors Places where the translation given here diers from that given in the lectures.

By notifying me of such instances, you will help me greatly to weed out errors and improve the synchronization between the written answer key and the recorded lectures. There are two editions of the textbook, The First Year of Latin. The older edition contains some typographical errors. A later edition was made that corrects these errors. These dierences between the two versions are very rare, but when they come up I will mention them to avoid any confusion they might cause.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 1
Section 27
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Road (genitive or dative). Province (genitive or dative). Land (accusative). Province (accusative). Broad land (nominative). Broad bank (ablative). Road (ablative). The road (ablative) of Helvetia. Small province (genitive or dative). The Seine is long. The province is large. The bank is broad. The road is long and broad. Gaul is a large country. Helvetia is small. Gaul is divided.

Section 28
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Terrae l atae. Altae S equanae. Via Helv etiae. omitted R pa est alta. Pr ovincia est parva terra. Terra est Helv etia. Helv etia est d v sa.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 2
Section 33
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Of the sailors. Of the victories. omitted omitted The victory of the sailors. Banks (accusative plural). omitted omitted omitted Small gate (nominative plural, genitive singular, or dative singular). The banks are broad. The roads are long and broad. Gaul and Helvetia are countries. The provinces are not large. The letter is not small.1

Section 34
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. omitted Terr arum parv arum. omitted Am citiae pr ovinci arum. Victoria Helv etiae est m agna. Terrae sunt parvae. R pae non sunt altae.

1 The word litterae here is written in the plural but translated as though it were singular. Sunt is also translated in a singular fashion to agree with the singular subject.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 3
Section 41
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. They carry, they announce, they establish. We subdue, we carry. You establish, you announce. Yall carry, yall subdue. The Belgians are announcing the victory. We are praising the troops. The Celts are establishing friendship. Messala is subduing a large province. The sailor is carrying a letter.2 Yall are praising the Celts and the Belgians. omitted The troops are not sailors.

Section 42
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Portat, pacat, c onf rmat. Nunti atis, conrm atis Laudant, conrmant Parv as pr ovinci as pac amus. omitted Messalam et naut as laud atis. Nauta m agnam victoriam nuntiat. Am citiam conrm as. Helvetiam pacat.

2 The word litter as here is written in the plural but translated as though it were singular.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 4
Section 51
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. We command, we persuade. Yall move. You persuade, you move. They command, they persuade. The Celts have a large country. The land of the Celts is large. The land of the Celts extends from the Belgians to Aquitania. Messala has the sailors letter.3 We see the long and broad roads of the Belgians. omitted He is warning Messalas sailors. You see the broad forests of Helvetia. The cause of the Celts ight is Messalas victory.

Section 52
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Vid emus, mov emus. Iub etis, persuad etis. Iubet, nuntiat. Pertinent, movent. S equana lat as rip as habet. Nautae fugam copi arum vident. Sunt longae viae per provinciam nostram. M agna silva ab Hispani a ad pr ovinciam pertinet. Magn as copi as hab emus. Caus as victoriae nuntiant.

3 The word litter as here is written in the plural but translated as though it were singular.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 5
Section 59
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. omitted omitted omitted omitted Through the messenger. Between the horses. With the Gauls, with the son. The friends horses. District (nominative plural or genitive singular), district (accusative plural). To the town. Into the towns.4 In the towns.5 Javelin (dative singular or ablative singular), javelin (genitive plural). Before the war.

Section 64
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. A friend is giving a horse to the lieutenant. They are giving horses to the sons and daughters of the lieutenants. omitted Messala sees the messenger. Helvetia is divided into four districts.6 He persuades (his) friend.7 They persuade (their) friends. In the towns of the Celts there are horses and javelins. We are announcing the cause of the war.

Section 65
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Equ os Gall orum in silv a vide o. omitted Legatus Aqu t an os pacat. Fili legat Messalae victoriam nuntiant. Cum copi s Aqu t an orum pugnant. Gall s persuad emus.8

4 When the word in takes the accusative, it is often translated into. 5 When the word in takes the ablative, it is often translated in or on. 6 When the word in takes the accusative, it is often translated into. 7 The verb persuade o takes the dative case. 8 The verb persuade o takes the dative case.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 6
Section 75
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. The Helveti are burning (their) towns.9 I hear the signals of battle. The Romans ght with swords and javelins. The wall of the camp does not extend to the riverbank. The forces of the Romans are in the camp. The forces of the Romans are coming into the camp. omitted The Belgians continually wage war with the Germans. The lieutenant is waging war with the cantons of Helvetia. The Germans dwell across the Rhine. The Aquitan and Belgians and Celts inhabit Gaul. The Garonne divides the Gauls from the Aquitan . omitted

Section 76
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. omitted omitted Nauta gladi o et pil o pugnat. German mur o oppidum muniunt. omitted

9 The word their is not present in the Latin, but should be added to the English translation because that is the intended meaning in the Latin sentence.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 7
Section 80
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. I am warning the sailors. We are persuading (our) friends. Yall hear the trumpets. The road through town is long. The Rhone divides our province from the Helveti . The Gauls have towns between the Rhine and the Rhone. The Helveti are coming to the bank of the Rhone. The messenger is carrying a letter from the province to Aquitania. The troops are ghting with swords and javelins near the forest. The lieutenant is ordering the troops to fortify the camp. We see the standards of the Gauls, who are coming into the camp. The swords, which the Romans have, are small.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 8
Section 89
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The forests of the large district are dense. In the dense forest there are many horses. omitted The Romans are moving (their) large camp. The troops are ghting with many swords and javelins. He is giving his (own) daughter in marriage to the lieutenant. The Helveti surpass the remaining Gauls. omitted

Section 90
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. omitted omitted Ad angustam viam. omitted Gladi o parv o et pil o long o pugnat. omitted omitted Mess ala li abus su s litter as long as dat. omitted omitted

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 9
Section 97
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Many men are coming out of the elds. Our men are ghting to evening. The Haedu are giving elds to the friends of the Helveti . We see the danger of the standard bearer, and we are defending him. The standard bearers are carrying (their) banners into the camp. Yall are the daughters of a free man. We are friends of the wretched men in the town. Yalls children are in much danger. The remaining men are defending the town. The crops in the elds are not ripe. Yall are persuading the boys. He is defending the boys with the remaining arms.

Section 98
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. omitted omitted Mur long ad agr os pertinent. omitted omitted omitted omitted omitted S gnifer Celt arum sum.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 10
Section 102
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. You are being carried, you are being ordered, you are being led. We are being restrained, we are being led. They are being given, they are being fortied. He-she-it is being given, he-she-it is being fortied, he-she-it is being ordered. Yall are being restrained, yall are being led. omitted omitted omitted omitted omitted

Section 106
The Celts in our language are called Gauls. We call the Celts Gauls. The neighbors of the Helveti are being subdued. The signal is being seen by the Helveti . The forces of the Romans are being sent under the yoke by the Helveti . omitted The camp is being fortied by the lieutenant with a wall and a ditch. The elds of the Haedu are being laid waste, children are being led away, and town are being captured by (their) neighbors. 9. omitted 10. We are called friends. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Section 107
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. omitted Mult nunti ad castra mittuntur. Equ in agrum latum ducuntur. omitted Oppida alt s mur s muniuntur. omitted omitted omitted

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 11
Section 116
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Marcus Messala and Marcus Piso were consuls. Casticus father was a friend of the Roman people. Merchants do not often travel back and forth to the Belgians. Gaul lies to the north. A great number of people was in Helvetia. One legion was in Gaul. Caesar is hastening into Gaul and is arriving near Geneva. With one legion, Caesar constructs a long wall and a ditch. The Helveti had a plan.10 My brother has many horses. The merchants had Roman arms.11

Section 117
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Caesar erat imper ator mult arum legi onum. Caesare erant multae legi on es. o hominum oppida expugnat. Multitud multitudine Oppida a hominum expugnantur. c Pr ovincia a onsule pacatur. Merc atores in Aquitani a er amus. Fratr es c onsulis multa c onsilia habent. Er atis s gniferi legi onum Roman arum.

10 Dative of the posessor. 11 Dative of possession.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 12
Section 124
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. We were recalling, we were reporting. Yall were reporting, they were subduing. I was going back and forth. He-she-it was being carried, they were being given. You were carrying. You were being carried. He-she-it was calling the boy. The name of the town was Geneva. The depth of the river is small. The Helveti were establishing friendship with their neighbors. Ariovistus was being called a friend of the Roman people. On account of the time of year they were not ghting. Our troops were being called back from the fortication. Many tribes of men were in Gaul. The Helveti quickly conquered the town. omitted omitted

Section 125
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. N omen generis omitted Revoc ab amur Voc ab amin Puer tub as et gladi os port abant. omitted omitted omitted omitted omitted omitted omitted omitted

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 13
Section 129
The legions were laying waste to the remaining places. The place was suitable for a camp. The river is not long. Many long rivers are in Gaul. The children were in danger. Our legions were in arms outside of camp. The remaining Gauls were being praised by the Helveti . The Helveti are sending the Roman troops under the yoke. The merchants, who are coming from the Roman province, are reporting the conspiracy of the Gauls. 10. omitted 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 14
Section 137
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. They were coming, they were burning, they were inhabiting. We were seeing, yall were leading, you were defending. He-she-it was being commanded, we were being seen, yall were being defended. Caesar, the commander-in-chief, hastened into Gaul. The legion which he had was the tenth. One road through the Sequan was remaining. The Helveti were laying waste to the elds of the Haedu , friends of the Roman people. The camp was always being fortied. omitted Caesar was restraining his (soldiers) from battle. omitted The council was being dismissed quickly. omitted

Section 138
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. omitted omitted Oppidum munieb atur. omitted Caesar C onsidium, l eg atum, cum expl or at oribus mitt ebat. Celeriter concilium dimitt ebat. proeli C opiae Caesaris a o contin ebantur. omitted omitted

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 15
Section 145
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Among the Helveti was a chief by the name Orgetorix. The inuence of Orgetorix was great. He-she-it was sent to the states. He-she-it was establishing peace and friendship with the states. He had a large number of soldiers. The soldiers were coming together. omitted omitted The number of heads was ten. We see the heads of the horses. The Helveti surpass the remaining Gauls in valor. The soldier had a sword and a spear.12

Section 146
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Caesare convoc Pr ncipes Haedu orum a abantur. omitted omitted omitted omitted omitted omitted

12 Dative of possession.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 16
Section 152
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. They will report. You will command. Yall will call, yall will be called. We will see, we will be seen. The camp will be moved. The horsemen will bravely ght with the Gauls in battles. Hostages will be given to Ariovistus, king of the Germans. Caesar will give horses to the foot-soldiers. The valor of the Helveti will be held in memory (remembered) by the Romans. Cassius will be the leader of the Romans in the war with the Helveti . The scouts will be in great danger. The Roman people will call Ariovistus king and friend. The plans of war will not be reported by the leaders.

Section 153
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. omitted omitted omitted omitted omitted omitted omitted Gall duce Roman Virtus orum laud abitur, sed a o pac abuntur. omitted

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 17
From this point onward, there are no Latin composition assingments in Linneys Latin Classonly Latin to English translation exercises.

Section 160
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Gaul is divided into three parts. The Belgians inhabit one part. The Helveti are waging war in the territory of the Germans. omitted The territory of the Helveti is narrow. A bridge extends from Geneva to the Helveti . omitted The river is the Saone which ows through the territory of the Haedu and the Sequan into the Rhone. omitted In the third watch he was leading out three legions from the camp. The enemy was hastening to the river Axona, which was behind our camp. omitted The sea was restrained by high mountains.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 18
Section 167
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. We will inhabit, we will come, we will divide. Yall will ght, yall will be sent, yall will be defended. I will fortify, you will come, he-she-it will lead. I will be called, I will be seen, I will be defended. He-she-it will come to the town at night. The leader will send legions and auxiliary forces to the hill. omitted Within three years the villages and towns will be burned up by the Helvetians. Because the danger is great, the enemy will seek safety by means of ight. The hill, where the camp will be pitched, is not high. War will be waged in Gaul, because the Helveti are enemies of the Roman people. omitted

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 19
Section 172
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The Aquitan inhabit one part of Gaul. One part is hemmed in by the Garonne river, by the ocean, and by the territory of the Belgians. omitted Aquitania extends from the Garonne River to the Pyrenees mountains and to that part of the ocean which is near Spain. omitted This district was called Tigurinus. The state, Helvetia, is divided into four districts. The Allobroges, who had villages across the Rhone, are coming to Caesar. By means of the legion which he has, and also by means of the soldiers who will assemble from the province, Caesar will extend the wall and the ditch from Geneva to Mount Jura, which divides the territory of the Sequan from that of the Helveti . The Helveti were leading three parts of the troops across the river.

10.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 20
Section 180
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. I came, I saw, I conquered. You had, yall had. We fortied, yall fortied. He-she-it fought, they fought. Of one ship. The other standard. The whole province (dative singular). The conspiracy of the whole of Gaul. Caesar pitched camp in front of the town. The Helveti had no other plan. omitted Orgetorix was the chief of the Helveti and he persuaded the state. Orgetorix brought together his (own) family to (his) trial. Caesar joined the battle. Many men from the camp of the Helveti hastened to the Rhine and the territory of the Germans.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 21
Section 188
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. The town which is being fortied. The horsemen to whom they are giving the signal. The horsemen whom I persuaded. The ships which Caesar has.13 The road which yall saw. The soldiers to whom aid will be given. The king whom you saw. The Belgians whom we were praising. omitted The boys whose father will be the leader. The province which we inhabit. The soldiers whom we persuaded. The trumpet by which the signal is being given. The nations with whom they ght. There were two ways out of Helvetia. Orgetorix brought his debtors, of whom he had a great number, together. Two legions, which Caesar is enlisting in Gaul, will be sent to the town. omitted omitted

13 Dative of possession.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 22
Section 193
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Through them. With them, from them. For that reason, for those reasons. On that journey. That district. At the same time. A great part of them. Into that part. With the same trumpet. The same towns. Of those journeys. The same embassies. Of the same legions. omitted omitted By means of the same legion which he had. He waged war. omitted Orgetorix is giving his (own) daughter to him. After his death, the Helveti assembled. Our plans are being announced by the same (people). omitted omitted

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 23
Section 201
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. He is being send so that he might be commander-in-chief. We are being sent so that we might establish peace. The consuls are not being sent so that they might give hostages. Yall are being enlisted so that yall might ght in the province. The Romans will come into Helvetia so that they might subdue that part of Gaul. The commander-in-chief is calling together the soldiers so that he might give to them a new standard. The Raurac are burning down their (own) towns so that they (the towns) might not be captured by the enemy. omitted omitted The same states will surpass the Germans in valor.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 24
Section 207
He is warning him that he not join the battle (He is warning him not to join the battle). He fears that Caesar might conquer them.14 He fears that Caesar might not conquer them.15 The soldiers are ghting so that the hill may not be held by the enemy. omitted omitted omitted On the way, he is persuading Casticus, the son of Catamantaloedes, the Sequan , that he seize the kingship in his (own) state. 9. They are persuading the Raurac and the Tuling and the Latobrig , (their) neighbors, that they might burn up their (own) towns and villages. 10. omitted 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

14 Clause of fearing. 15 Clause of fearing.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 25
Section 214
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. An easy journey. By means of an easy journey. A powerful nation. Through the powerful nations. By the brave boy. By the brave boys. The recent victory. The recent battle. Before the recent victory. The heavy swords. All the grain. All of their (own) towns. Of them all. With all the troops. All Gaul. omitted The soldiers were experienced in war. The strong men will have the plunder.16 The legion was desirous of plunder. The footsoldiers were swift and brave. The route through the Sequan was narrow and dicult: the route through our province (was) easy. omitted The Romans were ghting with the Germans in a cavalry battle. Caesar will not blot out the memory of the recent injustices. Casticus will seize the kingship so that the state might be powerful. We fear that the danger might be great.

16 Dative of possession.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 26
Practice Sentences from Lesson 26A Supplemental Document
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. All Gaul is divided. The rst part The second river. The third law. The Aquitan inhabit Gaul. These dier with regard to laws. A river divides the Gauls from the Aquitan . They are called Celts. They dier among themselves.

Section 220
All Gaul is divided into three parts; one of which the Belgians inhabit, another the Aquitan (inhabit), the third those who in the language of they themselves are called Celts, in our (language) are called Gauls. All these (people groups) dier among themselves with regard to language, customs, (and) laws. The Garonne river divides the Gauls from the Aquitan , the Marne and the Seine divide (the Gauls) from the Belgians.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 27
Section 226
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. The scout warned the lieutenant that he not remain. They persuaded the Gauls that they burn down their (own) towns. Some, so that they might avoid the suspicion of fear, were remaining. They sent ambassadors to Dumnorix, so that they might obtain (a request) from the Sequan . omitted omitted The cavalry fought in all places so that they might blot out the disgrace of (their) ight with valor. omitted We avoided the heavy javelins which were being hurled by the footsoldiers. Within four hours you will learn all the plans of the enemy.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 28
Section 234
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. They say that they grain is being transported. He says that our plans are being announced to the enemy. Dumnorix is said to have a great number of troops. We are arranging to not give hostages. He is commanding that Diviciacus be called. Caesar is commanding that Labienus ascend the mountain. omitted They say that the Helveti have a narrow territory. The Helveti were not able to persuade these (people). Caesar is fortifying the fortress so that he might stop the Helveti . One part, which is is said that the Gauls hold, extends from the Rhone river. They compelled Orgetorix to plead (his) case.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 29
Section 246
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. The soldiers despairing concerning the ght. omitted Diviciacus, weeping, is seeking help from Caesar. The Helveti , weeping, were asking for peace. The Helveti , coming into our (territory), were throwing spears. The time of ghting. The cause of passing the winter. For the cause of avoiding suspicion. For the purpose of weakening minds. Desiring of waging war. The desire of possessing the kingship. Caesar is taking a day for the purpose of deliberating. Caesar is learning that the causes of the the conspiracy are many. The tenth legion is prepared to wage war. omitted

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 30
Section 253
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. We make, we throw. Yall were making, yall were throwing. We will make, we will throw. They are throwing, they will throw. The spears are being thrown. The attempts will be completed. Yall are marching. The opportunity of making plunder. The opportunity of marching through the province. The son of the leader was being taken. He-she-it is accomplishing. It is easy to accomplish the undertakings. The Roman people will make peace with the Helveti . The enemy is marching into the territories of (their) neighbors. The enemy coming into our territory were throwing spears. This place will take (its) name from the disaster of the Roman people. Liscus was doing it with great danger. The mountain is quickly being captured by our (men). An opportunity to march through the province is not being given to the Helveti . They are waging war with great valor. One part of Gaul begins at the Rhone river.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 31
Section 259
1. This district killed Lucius Cassius the consul. 2. These are the rst (people) beyond the province across the Rhine. 3. Of these, the bravest are the Belgians, for the reason that they are far away from the civilization of the province. 4. That place. 5. That war. 6. By that plan. 7. That part of the cavalry threw spears. 8. They gave elds to (their) neighbors. 9. He himself hastened into Italy by means of forced marches. 10. They themselves are waging war in their (someone elses) territory. 11. In the language of they themselves, they are called Celts, in our (language) Gauls. 12. The consuls themselves. 13. Orgetorix will secure the kingships for them, for the reason that he himself will hold the command of his (own) state. 14. At that same time Caesar learned through scouts that the enemy was near the camp itself. 15. Caesar is asking that either he himself (Diviciacus) decide concerning him (Dumnorix) or that he command that the state decide.

Section 261
Of all these, the bravest are the Belgians, for the reason that they are farthest away from the renement and civilization of the province, merchants very seldom go back and forth to them and bring in those things which pertain to the weakening of minds; and they are nearest to the Germans who dwell across the Rhine, with whom they continually wage war. And for this reason the Helveti also surpass the rest of the Gauls in valor, because they ght with the Germans in almost daily battles, when either they (the Helveti ) keep them (the Germans) out of their (own) territory or (when) they themselves (the Helveti ) wage war in their (the Germans) territory.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 32
Section 267
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. He-she-it had had, he-she-it had said. He-she-it had learned, they had set re to. He-she-it will have done, we will have collected. You will have commanded. We will have pitched camp. Considius had been with Crassus. The father of Casticus had possessed the kingship. Caesar will have recalled his (own) soldiers. The soldiers had assembled out of the province. The soldiers, whom he had commanded, assembled. This district had sent his (someone elses) troops under the yoke. The Helveti had turned aside (their) route from the Arar. omitted The Boi had dwelled across the Rhine and had fought Noreia. omitted The Helveti had already led their (own) troops through narrow passes and the territories of the Sequan , and they arrived in the territory of the Haedu .

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 33
Section 271
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Diviciacus, weeping, is seeking these things from Caesar. Caesar is learning that these things are the causes of conspiring. The tenth legion is prepared to wage war. The Helveti coming into our (territory) were throwing javelins. The opportunity of making a journey through the province was being given. The town was fortied by the nature of the place in such a way that it gave a great opportunity to consider war. This place will take its name from the disaster of the Roman people. Liscus did it with great danger. The mountain is being seized quickly by our men. Caesar learned through scouts that the mountain was held by his own men. The Helveti determined to establish friendship and peace. omitted The Boi had dwelled across the Rhine and they had attacked Noreia. The Helvetians had led across their (own) troops through a narrow pass and (through) the territory of the Sequan . They persuaded the Gauls to set re to the towns. Some, in order to avoid the suspicion of fear, were remaining. Caesar sent the scouts so that they might learn of what kind the nature of the mountain was. The cavalry fought in all places so that they might blot out the disgrace of the ight with valor. They say that the grain is being brought together. They said that the Helveti had a narrow territory. They compelled Orgetorix to plead (his) case. Caesar asks that either he himself (Diviciacus) decide concerning him (Dumnorix) or that he command that the state decide.

Section 271
Of these one part, which it has been said that the Gauls possess, starts at the Rhone river; it is bound by the Garonne river, by the ocean, and by the territory of the Belgians. It borders on the Rhine river on the side of the Sequan and Helveti ; it lies to the north. The Belgians rise at the farthest territory of Gaul, they extend to the lower part of the Rhine river, they face the into the north and the east (the rising sun). Aquitania extends from the Garonne river to the Pyrenees mountains and to that part of the ocean which is near Spain; it faces between the west (the setting of the sun) and the north.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 34
Section 281
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. The kingship having been seized. This battle having been reported. If the arms are surrendered. The Gauls, induced by this speech, are making a conspiracy. This work having been completed, Caesar is stationing the guards. The Helveti , having joined the ships, are crossing the river.17 The signal having been given, our (men) made an attack. The leaders having been called together, Caesar is accusing them. The cavalry, having been sent by the state, came to Caesar. Labienus, having seized the mountain, was waiting for our (men).18 When Messala and Piso were consuls, Orgetorix, induced by a desire for the kingship made a conspiracy of the nobility. 12. Galba, inuenced by the lack of grain, hastened into the province, and, no enemy preventing, he led the legion through into the Allobroges. 13. Caesar ordered the lieutenants to wait for the ships. 14. The soldiers themselves are prepared to ght against Noreia.

17 This translation uses the active construction explained in section 278 of the textbook. 18 This translation uses the active construction explained in section 278 of the textbook.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 35
Section 289
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. I will have been sent. Yall will have been sent. Yall were sent. Yall had been sent. I had been sent to Gaul. Peace will have been established. Two legions will have been enlisted. It was announced. They were called. The javelins had been brought in. We will have been captured by the enemy. You will have been seen by the soldier. It had been announced to Caesar. This conspiracy was reported to the Helvetians through an informer. The father of Casticus had been called friend by the Roman people. The Rhone ows between the territories of the Helvetians and the Allobroges, who had been subdued recently. Gaul, as it was said before, was placed under the seven plow oxen (i.e. the northern sky). Caesars troops had been seen near the camp of the enemy. The elds having been laid waste, the state surrendered (its) arms. He-she-it will throw. He-she-it had seen, he-she-it will have seen. Seeing. For the sake of seeing. Prepared to see the camp.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 36
Section 298
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. The wider river / The rather wide river. Of the wider river / Of the rather wide river. Higher banks / Rather high banks. Heavier spears / Rather heavy spears (could be dative plural or ablative plural). Through denser forests / Through rather dense forests. Into the densest forests / Into very dense forests. By the rear guard. Between the rear guard of the enemy and our vanguard. Through three very powerful and very strong peoples. The Helveti will be more prepared to wage war / The Helveti will be rather prepared to wage war. Of all these the bravest are the Belgians. Among the Helveti the most noble was Orgetorix. The march is rather easy. The march was not very dicult. The elds are very wide and very fertile. Publius Considius was considered very experienced. A very high mountain was hanging over. The Helveti are sending as ambassadors the most noble men of the state. From one direction, Helvetia is bound by the Rhine River, very wide and very deep. The cohorts were led around by a rather long route. omitted

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 37
Section 305
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. The smallest depth of the river. More Germans were led across the Rhine. All the elders came to the commander-in-chief. The Helveti had learned from their fathers and ancestors. Caesar led out four legions into a larger camp. He arranged auxiliaries for the smaller camp. Among the Helvetians the noblest and the richest was Orgetorix. omitted The diculty of sailing. As many states as possible. They are making the plantings as large as possible. The Helvetians are buying up as great a number as possible of beasts of burden and carts. Caesar placed soldiers onto his own horses so that he might have as friendly a guard as possible. We were seeing that nights in Britain were shorter than on the continent. In winter, the days are shorter than the nights. The fortune of the Sequan is more wretched than the fortune of the rest of the Gauls.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 38
Section 315
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Inner Gaul. From a higher place. From a lower place. To the lower part of the Rhine. In farther Gaul. The farthest nations. From the farthest territory of Gaul. To the nearest hill. With the nearest states. A much braver soldier. A much smaller part of the army. The retreat was like a ight. The farthest town of the Allobroges and the nearest to the territory of the Helveti is Geneva. The higher places having been seized, they are keeping the troops away from their route. The top of the mountain was being held by Labienus. The bottom of the hill was exposed. He erected fortresses near the ends of the trenches. The towers are ten feet higher than the wall. He is advising that he avoid all suspicions. The boys learned that Spain was next to Gaul.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 39
Section 321
Among the Helveti , the noblest and richest by far was Orgetorix. He, during the consulship of Marcus Messala and Marcus Piso, induced by the desire of kingship, made a consipiracy of the nobility, and persuaded the state that they should go out from their territory with all (their) supplies. (He said) it was easy to secure the command of all Gaul since they surpassed all men in valor.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 40
Section 327
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Least often. The Belgians are the farthest away from the province. They are waging war continually. Orgetorix persuaded them rather easily. Less widely. Less easily. Orgetorix was very popular with the common people. Our (men) are joining the battle with the Helveti rather eagerly. They are ghting more boldly. Caesar is severely accusing the leaders. Much more severely. Liscus is speaking rather freely and also rather boldly. Caesar was away from Bibracte, a town of the Haedu by far the greatest and wealthiest. On the top of the ridge he stationed his (own) legions, which he had enrolled last in nearer Gaul, and all the auxiliaries. They fought for a long time and also bitterly. He commanded his (own) soldiers not to throw (their) javelins. He permitted this man to place a legion in these places. To be placed.19 Placing.20 Of placing.21 To be placed.22

19 Passive innitive. 20 Present active participle. 21 Gerund (genitive case). 22 Gerundive, also known as a future passive participle.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 41
Section 334
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. They are away from the civilization of the province. The Germans praised the civilization of the Gauls. Aquitania faces between the setting of the sun and the north. From the third direction, Helvetia is bound by Lake Geneva. He had been called friend by the senate of the Roman people. Dumnorix was holding the leadership in (his) state. I will win the kingship with my army. In sight of our army, the elds of the Haedu were being laid waste. Dumnorix has a great number of cavalry. Caesar sent the cavalry to withstand the attack of the enemy. The enemy did not withstand the attacks of our (men) for very long. The town had been fortied by both the nature of the place and by hand. The inuence of Diviciacus was great at home and also in the rest of Gaul. Two legions will be stationed on the right wing.

Section 336
For this reason he persuaded them of this rather easily, because on all sides the Helveti are bound by the nature of the place: from one direction by the very broad and very deep Rhine river, which divides the Helvetian territory from the Germans; from the other direction by the very high Jura mountain (range), from the third by Lake Geneva and the Rhone river, which divides our province from the Helveti .

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 42
Section 342
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. On account of this thing. For the purpose of accomplishing these things. They were inuenced by these things. The Roman nation is a witness of this thing. This day. Caesar did it in one day which the Helvetians had accomplished with great diculty in twenty days. All things having been prepared for the purpose of (their) departure, they are appointing the day. By the entire rank. The rst and also the second rank. Toward our rst rank. In a higher rank. Crassus sent the third rank. The Helveti were disappointed in this hope. Dumnorix had the highest hope of possessing the kingship. All things had been prepared for the Helvetian war.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 43
Section 353
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Caesar is ordering Diviciacus to be summoned to him. The Allobroges are retreating to Caesar by ight. The Helveti were thinking that they would either persuade or compel the Allbroges. They are burning up all the grain except that which they were going to carry with them. Orgetorix declares that he will win over the kingdoms with his troops and with his army. The Helveti are saying that they have a narrow territory. The Helveti are prohibiting them (someone else) from their (referring to the Helvetii) territory. The Helveti thought that two years was enough for them to accomplish these things. Orgetorix undertook an embassy to the states. He was about to possess command of his own state. The Gauls dier from each other. Dumnorix is doing (this) so that they might give hostages among themselves.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 44
Section 361
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. The Belgae rise from farthest territory of Gaul. It is very easy to secure the command of all of Gaul. The result was that the Helvetians were roaming about less widely. The Helvetians were thinking that they had a narrow territory. omitted Orgetorix peruaded Dumnorix to try the same thing. While the state, on account of this situation roused to arms, was trying to enforce its justice, Orgetorix died. The Helveti thought that they were prepared for this endeavor. The Helveti are persuading (their) neighbors to use the same plan. The Helveti are persuading (their) neighbors to set out with them. The Helveti are persuading (their) neighbors to set out with them, having used the same plan. The Allobroges did not permit the Helvetians to go through their territory. It is said that they are trying to march through our province. Caesar is setting out from the city. Having encouraged his (men), he joined battle.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 45
This lesson has been omitted because it is a review lesson and all the exercises are included in previous lessons.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 46
Section 372
1. When it had been announced to Caesar, he hastened 23 to set out from the city. 2. When Diviciacus, weeping, was seeking these things from Caesar, Caesar grasped his right hand. 3. When the state was trying to enforce its justice and the magistrates were collecting a multitude of men out of the elds, Orgetorix died. 4. There is no doubt that Orgetorix committed suicide. 5. When ghting had gone on for a long time, our men got possession of the baggage train and the camp. 6. When Caesar had advanced toward the town and was pitching camp there, the children and the women sought peace from the Romans. 7. When the Helveti had met him on the way and, weeping, had sought peace, and also when Caesar had ordered them to expect his arrival, they obeyed. 8. The magistrate is encouraging them to pursue the friendship of the Roman people. 9. To obey 10. Approaching 11. For hastening OR by hastening (this gerund could be dative or ablative) 12. For the sake of inciting the common people.

23 For educational purposes I changed this verb tense from m aturat to matur avit.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 47
Section 380
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. They were away, they will be present. I am able to carry the standard. We will be able to capture the town. The mountain was nearby. Two years remained. Caesar hastened into Gaul by the greatest possible marches. As quickly as he possibly could. They are able to make war upon (their) neighbors. There is no doubt that the Helveti are the most powerful of all Gaul. They hope that they are able to get possession of all Gaul. He is strongly fortifying the fortresses so that he might be able to keep out the enemy. The Helveti were not able to persuade the Sequan . The Haedu , since they were not able to defend themselves and their property from them, are sending ambassadors to Caesar. Everyone who was present began to seek help from Caesar. He put Labienus the lieutenant in command of the fortication which he had made. Although Diviciacus had great inuence at home and also in the rest of Gaul, Dumnorix had very little inuence on account of (his) youth. Caesar is saying that he will put Labienus in command. These things having been learned, Caesar hoped that Ariovistus would put an end to the injustices.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 48
Section 388
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. A great number of Germans was being led across the Rhine. Orgetorix collected about ten thousand men. The journey was stopped for no part of the night. On this day he was following the enemy and he is pitching camp three miles from their camp. Because the mountain was nearby by about a mile, there they began to withdraw. Caesar led (them) through a wall ten miles in length. The Allobroges are pointing out that they have nothing left except the soil of the eld. The territory of the Helveti extended 240 miles in length, 180 miles in width. About 130,000 men survived. About six thousand men of this district, which is called Verbigenus, hastened to the Rhine and to the territory of the Germans. 11. They fear that I may not have enough protection.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 49
Section 395
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. The attack will be made by the legion. Caesar is ordering the bridge to be made. The Helveti were informed about his arrival. Galba was informed that the mountains were held by a very great multitude. Caesar was being informed with Labienuss letter that all the Belgians were conspiring against the Roman people. The Haedui informed Caesar that they were not easily keeping out the enemy from (their) towns. Because of these circumstances, it was resulting that that they were wandering less widely. It resulted from many reasons that the enemy was not able to sustain the attack. Having been inuenced by this speech, they give a pledge among themselves. He was doing it for this reason. For the sake of help. From which reason they, men desirous of making war, were aected with great sorrow. Labienus was waiting for our men, so that an attack might be made on the enemy on all sides at one time. They had killed the Lucius Marcus Piso the lieutenant in the same battle in which they had killed Cassius.

Section 397
Because of these circumstances it was resulting that they were wandering less widely and could less easily make war on (their) neighbors; from which reason they, men desirous of making war, were aected with great sorrow. Furthermore, considering (their) great number of men and considering (their) reputation for war and also for bravery, they were thinking that they had narrow boundaries, which extended 240 Roman miles in length, 180 in width.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 50
Section 406
So great is the depth of the river that the army is not able to cross. On the same night, it happened that there was a full moon. Our men so captured the ships of the enemy that very few reached land. Thus we learned from our fathers and ancestors that we fought more with valor than with trickery. Thus were the Helveti trained by their ancestors that they were accustomed to receive hostages, not to give (them). 6. We deserved thus from the Roman people that, almost in the sight of the army, our elds ought not to have been destroyed, our children ought not to have been led away into slavery, (and) our towns ought not to have been stormed. 7. Thus they marched for around fteen days so that no more than ve or six miles was between the last formation of the enemy and our rst. 8. Not absent is the suspicion that Orgetorix made a conspiracy. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 51
Section 410
Inuenced by these considerations and strongly moved by the authority of Orgetorix, they determined to prepare those things which pertained to (their) departure, to buy up the greatest possible number of yoke-animals and carts (and) to make the greatest possible crop-seedings, so that plenty of grain would be on hand on (their) journey, (and) to establish peace and friendship with the neighboring states. They considered that two years would be enough for them for the purpose of accomplishing these tasks; by law they xed (their) departure for the third year.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 52
Section 416
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Very easy to do. It is very easy to do. He is showing that it is very easy to do. He is showing them that completing the undertakings is very easy to do. The Haedu are sending ambassadors to ask for help. Dumnorix gave in marriage his (own) (female) relatives. The leaders of the states came together to congratulate Caesar. The Haedu were coming together to complain because the Harudes were devastating their territory. One legion had been sent to gather grain. A large part of the cavalry was sent for the sake of gathering grain. They began to fortify the camp so that they might be able to withstand the attacks of the enemy more easily. He is ordering the camp to be moved so that he might more easily give the suspicion of fear to the enemy. He was thinking that Labienus was suitable for learning these things.

Section 418
Orgetorix is chosen to complete these tasks. He undertook for himself a diplomatic mission to the states. On this journey he persuades Casticus, the son of Catamantaloedes, a Sequani, whose father had held the kingship among the Sequani for many years, and had been named friend by the senate of the Roman people, that he sieze the kingship in his own state, which (his) father had held before him; and likewise he persuades Dumnorix, a Haedu , the brother of Diviciacus, who at that time was holding the supremacy in (his) state, and also was extremely popular with the people, that he attempt the same thing, and he (Orgetorix) gives his daughter to him (Dumnorix) in marriage.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 53
Section 423
We are reporting that the town is fortied. They replied that peace had been established. They said that they had learned from (their) fathers. Divico replied that the Helveti had been trained by their ancestors. Liscus is saying that he kept silent on account of this reason. You said that the enemy had encamped at the foot of the mountain. Caesar was informed that that the Helveti had led three parts of (their) troops across the river. Caesar is discovering that Dumnorix prepared great resources for bribing. He was discovering that the beginning of the ight of the cavalry had been done by Dumnorix. Considius is saying that he learned it from the Gallic troops. He learned that the mountain was being held by his own (men) and that the Helveti had moved (their) camp. 12. He persuaded them to ask for help. 13. When they had encamped, the commander-in-chief praised the legion which had been the bravest. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Section 427
He demonstrates to them that to accomplish the undertakings is very easy to do, because he himself would obtain the command of his (own) state: that there is no doubt that the Helveti were the most powerful of the whole of Gaul; he declares that he will win over the kingdoms for them with his own resources and army. Inuenced by this speech, they give among themselves a pledge and an oath, and having seized the kingdom, they hope that they are able to take possession of all Gaul through the three most powerful and strongest nations.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 54
Section 432
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. It is necessary that punishment follow. omitted It will be necessary to give grain to the soldiers. It was announced that the ascent of the mountain was easy. Fighting went on for a long time and ercely. same as number 4 There had been ghting from the seventh hour to the evening. same as 4 and 5 The Helveti intend to make a journey. The envoys are saying that they intend to journey through the province without any mischief. It is permitted for them to do it. The envoys are asking that it be permitted for them to do it. According to the custom of Caesar. According to the customs of the Helveti . Caesar says that, according to the custom of the Roman people, he is not able to allow the march. There was added the fact that the Gauls were thinking that the Romans were trying to seize the towns. 15. He fears that you might do this. 16. He fears that you might not do this.

Section 434
This scheme was reported to the Helveti through intelligence. According to their customs, they compelled Orgetorix to plead (his) cause in chains. (If) condemned, it was necessary that punishment followthat he be burned to death.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 55
Section 440
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. They are ghting with the Germans. Caesar is endeavoring to go with ve legions. The Boi had crossed into Norican territory. The Rhone is crossed in some places by fording. The Helveti are trying to do that which they had determinedthat they go out from their territory. They were prepared to undergo every danger. With Caesar unwilling, the Helveti will not try to cross. Having set out from camp with three legions at about the third watch, he arrived at that part of the Helveti , which had not yet crossed the river. This district, when it had gone out from home, had killed Cassius the consul. Ariovistus said that he did not dare to come into Gaul without an army.

Section 442
On the day appointed for the pleading of (his) cause, Orgetorix brought together to the trial his entire family from everywhere, about ten thousand people, and he gathered at the same (place) all (his) dependents and debtors, of whom he had a great number; through them he saved himself so that he might not plead his cause. While the state, enraged on account of this act, was trying to enforce its justice by arms, and the magistrates were gathering a large number of men from the elds, Orgetorix died; and the suspicion is not absent, as as the Helveti think, that he himself committed suicide.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 56
Section 449
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. The spears are being gathered. The Helveti brought together (their) baggage into one place. The Haedui will not collect the grain, which they owe. The enemy ed toward the baggage train. Those (men), who had crossed the river, were not able to bring aid to their own (countrymen). The hope of a return home was taken away. They are bringing war upon (their) neighbors. This part of the Helvetian state had brought disaster upon the Roman people. The soldier is bringing meal for himself from home. They are ordering the soldiers to bring our for themselves from home. Caesar went to Bibracte. Of those who returned home, the number was 110,000. Diviacus had great inuence at home and in the rest of Gaul. The soldiers were being held back from battle. Caesar is able to defend all of Gaul from the injustice of Ariovistus.

Section 451
After his death, the Helveti nevertheless attempt to do that which they had decidedthat they go out from their territory. When at length they thought that they were prepared for this journey, they set re to all their towns, about twelve in number, to their villages about 400 in number, and to the remaining private buildings: they burn up all the grain, except what they were going to carry with them, so that the hope of a return home removedthey would be more prepared to undergo all dangers. They order each one to carry out mealthree months worthfor himself from home.

Linneys Latin Class

Lesson 57
Section 455
They persuade the neighboring Rauraci and Tulingi and Latobrigi, their neighbors, that, having used the same plan, their towns and villages having been burned up, they might set out together with them. And, they unite to themselves the Boi , who had dwelt across the Rhine and had crossed into Norican territory and had attacked Noreia, having been recieved to them (as) allies.