Você está na página 1de 44

STEAM TRAPS 1

By M.M.Sorour

What is a steam trap?


Steam traps are automatic valves that release condensed steam (condensate) from a steam space while preventing the loss of live steam. They also remove air and non-condensable from the steam space.

Why recover condensate?


Efficient utilization of energy. Economy of use of steam.

Why Why recover recover condensate? condensate?

Heat Heat content content

Treated Treated water water

Less Lessfuel fuel combustion combustion and andemissions emissions

chemicals chemicals

oxygen oxygenremoved removed

scale/corrosion scale/corrosioninhibitords inhibitords

Steam Circuit with a multiple set of steam traps

Componentse a steam trap?


A trap consists of:
A vessel in which the condensate accumulates, An orifice through which the condensate is discharged, A valve to close the orifice port, Mechanisms to operate the valve, Inlet and outlet openings for the entrance and discharge of the condensate from the trap vessel

Steam Traps

Steam Traps
Unfortunately, when it comes to steam traps, people often ignore them. This is costing steam users much more than they realize. The hard reality of a plant maintaining its boiler and forgetting about the rest of the steam system can be a horribly wasteful proposition. Losses can include not only wasted energy but replacement of damaged equipment and misuse of man-hours. It is not uncommon to discover system losses in the hundreds of thousands of dollars.

Steam Traps
Fortunately, much of these potential losses can be averted by a cautious steam management system that includes a program for steam trap surveys. Corrective actions can add substantially to a companys bottom line as "found money." In some business circles, it has been estimated that $10.00 in-house savings is the equivalent $1,000 in sales. In other words, if a steam system generated $10,000 in savings, it would be the same as achieving $1 million in sales for that company.

Steam Traps
In order to create savings by producing steam system efficiencies, it is important to understand the basics of a steam system. Steam loss can occur in both the supply and return side. Such elements as pipe layout, slope angles, sizing and trap type all contribute to the effective use of steam.

Steam Traps
The principal design consideration is to balance the condensing rate and the import rate of the control device on the input side with the exiting condensate.

Types of Steam Traps


There are many types of steam traps because there are many different types applications. Each type of trap has a range of applications for which it is best suited.

Types of Steam Traps

MECHANICAL

THERMOSTATIC

THERMODYNAMIC

Dependent operating property


Mechanical MechanicalTraps Traps Thermostatic ThermostaticTraps Traps Thermodynamic ThermodynamicTraps Traps

Density

temperature

Kinetic Energy

Thermostatic Traps
Thermostatic traps use temperature difference to distinguish between condensate and live steam. This difference is used to open or close a valve. Under normal operating conditions, the condensate must cool below the steam temperature before the valve will open.

Thermostatic Traps
General Characteristics
They can never discharge condensate immediately as they are formed. They are very small and light. They remove the air efficiently. They can work at any pressure. They can work in conditions of movement and vibrations. They are unsuitable for handling very large quantities of condensate.

Balanced Pressure Expansion Trap

Bimetallic Expansion Traps

Thermostatic Traps

Metallic Expansion Traps

Liquid Expansion Traps

Balanced Pressure Expansion Traps


The trap will open whenever it is in contact with anything that is cooler than condensate at the pressure at which the plant is working. It will therefore pass air whenever the air has cooled to below steam temperature. Balanced pressure traps are very light, small and cheap. They are not suitable for handling large quantities.

Balanced Pressure Expansion Traps


The expansion element consists of one or more capsules or bellows. This element expands and contracts in response to temperature changes.
An alcohol mixture with a boiling point lower than that of water is contained inside the element and provides the necessary force to change the position of the valve. At start up, the bellows trap is open. This operating condition allows air to escape and provides maximum condensate removal when the load is the highest. Bellows traps can fail either open or closed.

Typical response of a balanced pressure steam trap Y-Y

Advantages of the balanced pressure steam trap:


Small, light and has a large capacity for its size. The valve is fully open on start-up, allowing air and other non-condensable gases to be discharged freely and giving maximum condensate removal when the load is greatest. This type of trap is unlikely to freeze when working in an exposed position (unless there is a rise in the condensate pipe after the trap, which would allow water to run back and flood the trap when the steam is off).

Advantages of the balanced pressure steam trap:


The modern balanced pressure trap automatically adjusts itself to variations of steam pressure up to its maximum operating pressure. It will also tolerate up to 70 C of superheat. Trap maintenance is simple. The capsule and valve seat are easily removed, and replacements can be fitted in a few minutes without removing the trap from the line.

Disadvantages of the balanced pressure steam trap


The older style balanced pressure steam traps had bellows which were susceptible to damage by waterhammer or corrosive condensate. Welded stainless steel capsules introduced more recently, are better able to tolerate such conditions.

Disadvantages of the balanced pressure steam trap


In common with all other thermostatic traps, the balanced pressure type does not open until the condensate temperature has dropped below steam temperature (the exact temperature difference being determined by the fluid used to fill the element). This is clearly a disadvantage if the steam trap is chosen for an application in which waterlogging of the steam space can not be tolerated, for example; mains drainage, heat exchangers, critical tracing.

Simple Bimetallic Trap


Fig. 11.2.10 Operation of a bimetel steam trap with two leaf element

Simple Bimetallic Trap

Double Ported Trap

Thermostatic Trap with Bimetallic Plates

Thermostatic Trap with Bimetallic Plates

Typical response of a single element bimetal steam trap

Typical response of a two leaf element Z Z

Comparing the operating temperatures of single leaf and multileaf bimetallic traps

Advantages of Bimetallic Type


Bimetallic traps are usually small in size and yet can have a large condensate discharge capacity. The valve is wide open when the trap is cold, giving a good air venting capability and maximum condensate discharge capacity under start up conditions. Bimetallic traps can be constructed to withstand water-hammer, corrosive condensate, high steam pressures and superheated steam.

Advantages of Bimetallic Type


The bimetal elements can work over a wide range of steam pressures without any need for a change in the size of the valve orifice If the valve is on the downstream side of the seat it will act as a check valve and prevent any reverse flow through the trap. Maintenance of this type of trap presents few problems, as the internals can be replaced without the trap body being removed from the line.

Disadvantages of the Bimetallic Type


Bimetallic traps do not usually respond quickly to changes in load or pressure because the bimetal is relatively slow to react to variations in temperature. As condensate is discharged below steam temperature, water-logging of the steam space will occur unless the trap is fitted to the end of a fairly long cooling leg. Bimetallic traps are not generally suitable for fitting to process plant where immediate condensate removal is vital if maximum output is to be achieved. If the trap has to discharge against a back pressure, the condensate must cool down further than normal before the valve will open. It may be necessary to adjust the trap to meet this condition.

Disadvantages of the Bimetallic Type

Bimetallic steam trap with cooling leg

Metallic Expansion Trap


In this design condensate enters the tube A and flow out past the valve C. The tube A is made of copper which expands considerably more than the iron body B. When the tube A expands it closes the opening at C by moving towards C. The valve C is pressed towards the tube A by spring E. The two nuts D allow adjustment to be made so that the valve shuts tight at any desired temperature.

Liquid Expansion Type

Liquid Expansion Type

Thermal expansion traps contain a thermostatic element that is filled with oil. As the oil heats up and expands, it causes a piston to move and thereby close a valve. During start up, air and condensate are expelled from the open valve. When the oil is sufficiently heated by the steam, the valve closes to keep the steam from escaping

Liquid Expansion Type

This trap contains an oil-filled cylinder encasing a sealed bellows with an enclosed piston driven rod with a valve on one end. When the temperature of the condensate, flowing through the trap housing, begins to rise the oil in the cylinder begins to expand in response. As the oil expands it drives the rod assembly toward a valve seat located in the inlet of the trap body.

Liquid Expansion Type

As the condensate surrounding the cylinder cools down the oil contracts allowing the rod assembly to retract from the valve seat. Condensate begins to flow until it heats sufficiently to close the valve again. The Liquid Expansion Trap also has an adjustable nut on one end. This allows the set temperature to be adjusted within the operating range of the trap.

Response of a liquid expansion steam trap X - X

Installation of a liquid expansion Trap


Because of its fixed temperature discharge characteristic, the liquid expansion trap may be used as a shutdown drain trap . Here its outlet must always point upwards to enable continuous immersion of the oil filled element. As the trap can only discharge between 60-100C it will only normally open during start up

Installation of a liquid expansion Trap