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Ano - 13 Revista no 48 JAN/FEV/MARO - 2011

Redes inteligentes prometem revolucionar o setor eltrico Smart Grids promise revolution in electric sector
e mais

and more

Empreendedores traam cenrio para as PCHs


Entrepreneurs trace scenario for SHPs

Artigos Tcnicos
Technical Articles

Agenda de Eventos
Events Schedule

Comit Diretor do CERPCH Director Committee Geraldo Lcio Tiago Filho


tiago@UNIFEI.edu.br

Secretrio Executivo CEMIG FAPEPE IEE/USP FURNAS IME Eletrobrs ANEEL MME

Gilberto Moura Valle Filho


gvalle@cemig.com.br

Patrcia Cristina P. Silva


fapepe@UNIFEI.edu.br

Clio Bermann

cbermann@iee.usp.br

Cludio G. Branco da Motta


claudio@furnas.com.br jcamorim@ime.eb.br

Editorial
Editorial

Jos Carlos Csar Amorim Antonio Marcos Renn Azevedo


antoniorenno@eletrobras.gov.br

03 04

Jamil Abid
jamil@aneel.gov.br

Inovao
Innovative

Hamiltom Moss

hamiltom@mme.gov.br

Redes inteligentes prometem revolucionar o setor eltrico Smart Grids promise revolution in electric sector

Comit Editorial Editorial Committee Presidente - President Geraldo Lcio Tiago Filho - CERPCH UNIFEI Editores Associados - Associated Publishers Adair Matins - UNCOMA - Argentina Alexander Gajic - University of Serbia Alexandre Kepler Soares - UFMT ngelo Rezek - ISEE UNIFEI Antnio Brasil Jr. - UNB Artur de Souza Moret - UNIR Augusto Nelson Carvalho Viana - IRN UNIFEI Bernhard Pelikan - Bodenkultur Wien - ustria Carlos Barreira Martines - UFMG Clio Bermann - IEE USP Edmar Luiz Fagundes de Almeira - UFRJ Fernando Monteiro Figueiredo - UNB Frederico Mauad - USP Helder Queiroz Pinto Jr. - UFRJ Jaime Espinoza - USM - Chile Jos Carlos Csar Amorim - IME Marcelo Marques - IPH UFRGS Marcos Aurlio V. de Freitas - COPPE UFRJ Maria Ins Nogueira Alvarenga - IRN UNIFEI Orlando Anbal Audisio - UNCOMA - Argentina Osvaldo Livio Soliano Pereira - UNIFACS Zulcy de Souza - LHPCH UNIFEI Expediente Editorial Editor Coord. Redao Jornalista Resp. Redao Colaborador Projeto Grfico Diagramao e Arte Traduo Estagiria Reviso Geraldo Lcio Tiago Filho Camila Rocha Galhardo Adriana Barbosa MTb-MG 05984 Adriana Barbosa Camila Rocha Galhardo Fabiana Gama Viana Angelo Stano Net Design Lidiane Silva Cidy Sampaio Adriana Candal Joana Sawaya Almeida Adlia Oliveira Isabela Renn Goulart de Siqueira

Legislao
Legislation
O custo das mudanas climticas The cost of climatic changes

Novo Cdigo Florestal Brasileiro: ruralistas X ambientalistas New Brazilian Forest Code: Agrarians vs. Environmentalists

16

Artigos Tcnicos
Technical Articles

23

Curtas
News

60

Empreendedores traam cenrio para as PCHs Entrepreneurs trace scenario for SHPs Centro de pesquisa da UNIFEI recebe consultor da Guatemala Research Center of UNIFEI receives consultant from Guatemala Workshop discute regulamentao do cadastro socioeconmico Workshop deals with regulation of socio-economic registration

Opinio 66
Opinion
Tendncias tecnolgicas para PCHs verdes SHP Technological Trends Greens

PCH Notcias & SHP News uma publicao trimestral do CERPCH The PCH Notcias & SHP News is a three-month period publication made by CERPCH Tiragem/Edition: 6.100 exemplares/issues contato comercial: pchnoticias@UNIFEI.edu.br Av. BPS, 1303 - Bairro Pinheirinho Itajub - MG - Brasil - cep: 37500-903 e-mail: pchcomunicacao@UNIFEI.edu.br pchnoticias@UNIFEI.edu.br Fax/Tel: (+55 35) 3629 1443

Agenda
Schedule

69

ISSN 1676-0220
2

EDITORIAL
Prezado Leitor, Em Outubro de 2010, nossa equipe editorial foi Romnia para participar do 25 Simpsio de Mquinas Hidrulicas e Sistemas, quando iniciou a negociao junto maior associao de pesquisa de mquinas hidrulicas no mundo para formalizao de uma parceria no mbito da Amrica Latina. Esta edio premiada como primeiro exemplar a contar com apoio da Associao Internacional de Pesquisa Hidrulica (IAHR). Faz-se necessrio um forte agradecimento ao nosso incentivador, Prof. Franois Avellan, coordenador do IAHR e diretor do Laboratrio de mquinas hidrulicas da Universidade de Lausanne e toda a equipe do comit tcnico da associao que nos recebeu de braos abertos. Aproveitando os novos ares, nossa publicao passa por uma renovao editorial, ampliando seus horizontes novas editorias foram criadas, e muitas mudanas viro para melhor atender nossos leitores. Contaremos com uma sesso internacional, mais informao qualificada e novos profissionais. A maior novidade ser o novo nome que ser publicado na edio 49. Em tempos de mudana, mais do que nunca sua participao importante para ns, aguardamos seu retorno com sugestes e/ou crticas para continuarmos melhorando. Esta edio conta com cobertura sobre inovaes tecnolgicas com uma iniciao s Redes Inteligentes que promete revolucionar o setor eltrico mundial, acompanhamento da mudana do cdigo florestal, decreto sobre a limitao de emisses de gases do efeito estufa para novos empreendimentos, desafios do empreendedor de PCHs, e o cadastro socioeconmico aplicado a todas as centrais hidreltricas no Brasil. Aproveite a leitura e colabore conosco dando a sua opinio. Geraldo Lcio Tiago Filho Dear Reader, In October 2010, our editorial team went to Romania to attend the 25th Annual Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, where the largest research association of hydraulic machinery in the world began negotiations to create a partnership with Latin America. This edition is prized as the first issue to have the support of the International Association of Hydraulic Research (IAHR). Tremendous thanks must be given to a strong supporter, our Professor Francois Avellan, IAHR coordinator and the director for the Hydraulic Machinery Laboratory, University of Lausanne, and also to the entire technical committee staff of the association who welcomed us with open arms. With this fresh, new air our publications will go through an editorial renovation. With broadened horizons new editorials have been created as well as many other changes so as to better serve our readers. We will have an international section, more information and new, qualified professionals. The biggest news will be in launching the new name to be published in Issue 49. In times of change, more than ever, your participation is important to us, and we await your responses with suggestions and concerns to continue on with improvements. This edition will include coverage on technological innovations with initiation of the Intelligent Networks, which promises to revolutionize the global energy sector, the monitoring of changes to the forest code, an act to limit greenhouse gases in new ventures, entrepreneurial challenges with SHPs, and the socio-economic registration applied to all hydroelectric plants in Brazil. Enjoy reading and help us by submitting your opinion. Geraldo Lcio Tiago Filho

IAHR DIVISION I: HYDRAULICS TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: HYDRAULIC MACHINERY AND SYSTEMS

TECHNICAL COMMITTEE Prof. Franois AVELLAN, EPFL cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne, Switzerland, francois.avellan@epfl.ch, Chair; Prof. Eduardo EGUSQUIZA, UPC Barcelona, Spain, egusquiza@mf.upc.es, Vice-Chair; Dr. Richard K. FISHER, VOITH Hydro Inc., USA, richard.fisher@voith.com, Past-Chair; Mr. Fidel ARZOLA, EDELCA, Venezuela, farzola@edelca.com.ve; Dr. Michel COUSTON, ALSTOM Hydro, France, michel.couston@power.alstom.com; Dr. Niklas DAHLBCK, VATENFALL, Sweden, niklas.dahlback@vattenfall.se; Mr. Normand DESY, ANDRITZ Hydro Ltd., Canada, normand.desy@andritz.com; Prof. Chisachi KATO, University of Tokyo, Japan, ckato@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Prof. Jun Matsui, Yokohama National University, jmat@ynu.ac.jp; Dr. Andrei LIPEJ, TURBOINSTITUT, Slovenija, andrej.lipej@turboinstitut.si; Prof. Torbjrn NIELSEN, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway, torbjorn.nielsen@ntnu.no; Mr. Quing-Hua SHI, Dong Feng Electrical Machinery, P.R. China, qhshi@dfem.com.cn; Prof. Romeo SUSAN-RESIGA, Politehnica University Timisoara, Romania, resiga@mh.mec.utt.ro; Prof. Geraldo TIAGO F, Universidade Federal de Itajub, Brazil, tiago@UNIFEI.edu.br.

INOVAO
REDES INTELIGENTES PrOMETEM rEVOLUCIONAr O SETOr ELTrICO
Por Adriana Barbosa Consideradas por muitos a grande inovao no setor eltrico nos ltimos anos, as Smart Grids ou redes inteligentes esto entrando nesse setor para revolucionar o papel das concessionrias, alm de transformar o consumidor em agente ativo nesse novo conceito de medio. Atualmente, na maior parte dos pases, a transmisso e distribuio de energia eltrica utilizam um senso de controle, operao de sistema na qual j est inserido um conceito de inteligncia. Conceito esse por meio do qual se torna possvel detectar falhas nas redes, alm de contemplar o sistema de proteo das linhas de transmisso, para evitar falhas na distribuio. O que est faltando a interao do consumidor com a rede, esse que o avano do conceito Smart Grid. O sistema de transmisso no tem como praticar essa interao com o consumidor, porque est muito distante do mesmo. J a distribuio est acessvel ao consumidor, uma vez que as concessionrias de distribuio de energia esto mais prximas do consumidor final. A ideia dessa interao trazer ao consumidor uma maior confiabilidade e um menor custo da energia eltrica. Essa interao com a rede se dar por meio, principalmente, da melhoria do medidor. Hoje o consumidor tem um medidor que est instalado do lado de fora de sua casa ou em alguns casos, at mesmo no poste, para evitar o furto de energia. Tal prtica faz com que o consumidor fique longe de seu gerenciador de custo de energia. Isto, por exemplo, j no acontece nas linhas de telecomunicaes, onde o consumidor consegue monitorar o servio com mais facilidade por meio do aparelho telefnico. O conceito de Smart Grid vem para conscientizar o consumidor de que a energia consumida por ele pode no estar acessvel em um curto espao de tempo e se estiver, a qual preo? E para informar isso ao consumidor, uma das formas melhorar o contato do consumidor com a rede. E isso se dar atravs da melhoria do contato do consumidor com seu medidor de energia, por meio da implantao de medidores eletromecnicos que estejam disponveis a qualquer momento. Para isso, o mesmo poderia, por exemplo, ser implantado na cozinha onde o consumidor ser informado sobre o consumo real de energia em determinada hora e o custo da energia nesse perodo. Dessa forma, o consumidor comearia a entender seu consumo. SMArT GrIDS REDES INTELIGENTES O conceito de Smart Grid bem amplo, essas redes inteligentes podem ser atreladas s reas de telecomunicaes, automao, regulao e economia. O Smart Grid vem para quebrar paradigmas tecnolgicos, sociais e econmicos. O elo entre o consumidor e as distribuidoras de energia ser o smart meters. Este ltimo ser a ferramenta capaz de receber e transmitir dados por meio de um protocolo de comunicao. Alm de executar operaes como corte e religamento de energia que podero ser efetuadas remotamente. O conceito de redes inteligentes depende das caractersticas culturais de cada cidade, regio e pas. Uma vez que o perfil de consumo varia de uma regio para outra. MErCADO Nos Estados Unidos, a mudana para os medidores eletromecnicos se deu para induzir os consumidores a entenderem o funcionamento da energia eltrica, e assim, tomarem a deciso de como efetuar seu consumo. Os dois pontos que motivam as concessionrias no Brasil a investirem em Smart Grid so: coibir o furto de energia e a eliminao do leiturista, uma vez que a leitura dos medidores poder ser feita remotamente, gerando uma diminuio de custo para a concessionria. Muitas concessionrias que j esto investindo no conceito de Smart Grid esto incorporando outros servios, para melhorar seu atendimento aos clientes e proporcionar uma interao maior com seus consumidores. Estudos realizados por empresas do setor apontam que entre 2010 e 2013, cerca de R$ 4 bilhes sero investidos em tecnologias de redes inteligentes por empresas que atuam no Brasil. CONCESSIONrIAS A Cemig e a Light, em parceria, montaram uma empresa para trabalharem na criao de um medidor com caractersticas diferenciadas para atender esse novo conceito de Smart Grid. J a concessionria EDP (Energias de Portugal), por meio da Bandeirante Energia, est iniciando um projeto piloto em Trememb, interior de So Paulo, de uma cidade inteligente. A concessionria encomendou de fabricantes chineses, a fabricao de 20 mil medidores para serem instalados na cidade e assim comearem as pesquisas e os testes. O conceito no contempla apenas a medio, pois alm de gerar os dados, necessrio compreender a manipulao e anlise dos mesmos. Para analisar esses dados necessrio criar um sistema de informao, o que gera investimentos em hardwares e softwares. Normalmente, para que sejam aferidos ganhos e benefcios, criam-se projetos pilotos para avaliao. As empresas esto escolhendo cidades para comear a trabalhar e verificar se o investimento ser vivel. SUSTENTABILIDADE X SMArT GrIDS Na Europa, o governo incentiva a gerao de energia eltrica em residncia, onde utilizada a tecnologia das pequenas centrais geradoras elicas e solar concomitantemente com a questo da sustentabilidade. A exemplo disso, menciona-se a minimizao da emisso de CO2, em que consumidores so incentivados a comprarem placas solares e energia elica, para que o investimento realizado pelo consumidor seja descontado de sua conta de energia eltrica. Desta forma, o governo est induzindo o consumidor a ter sua gerao prpria. Com isso, o consumidor passa a ter uma gerao dentro da sua casa, fazendo com que ele interaja com o medidor instalado em seu domiclio. Desta forma, alm de medir o consumo, pode aferir uma injeo de gerao dentro da casa do consumidor, gerao esta que eventualmente pode ser passada para a rede. Desta forma, o Smart Grid gerou um medidor bidirecional, ou seja, com duplo sentido de medio. O Smart Grid no veio para melhorar a sustentabilidade e diminuio da emisso de CO2, como tambm, o Smart Grid um facilitador para a implementao de demais iniciativas para a diminuio da emisso de CO2 na atmosfera. ECONOMIA Com medidores inteligentes que sinalizam valores de consumo no qual o equipamento responsvel pelo consumo do arcondicionado, chuveiro, etc... possvel alterar o perfil de consumo. Hoje a tarifa residencial no Brasil uma tarifa flat, em que o consumo a qualquer hora do dia fixo pagando o quilowatt-hora

innovative
SMArT GrIDS PrOMISE rEVOLUTION IN ELECTrIC SECTOr
Translation: Adriana Candal Considered by many as the greatest innovation in the electric sector over the past few years, Smart Grids are entering this sector to change the roles of the utilities and transform consumers into an active agent in this new concept of metering. Today, the transmission and distribution of electric power in most of the countries use a control sensus, which is a system operation where the concept of intelligence is already part of it. By using this concept it is possible to detect failures in the grids, and also, verify the protection system of the power lines in order to avoid problems in the distribution. What is missing is the interaction between the consumers and the grid. This is the advance of the Smart Grid concept. The transmission system cannot practice this interaction with the consumers, given that it is considerably distant. On the other hand, the distribution is close to the consumers, given that energy distribution utilities are closer to the end-consumers. The idea of this interaction is to bring the consumers a higher reliability and a lower power cost. This interaction with the grid will be carried out, mainly, by improving the meter. Today, consumers have meters installed outside their houses and in some cases on the street poles in order to avoid power theft. Such practice leaves consumers away from their power cost manager. Such a thing does not happen with telecommunication lines, for consumers can monitor the service easily through the telephone set. The concept of Smart Grids comes to make consumers aware that the power they spend is not accessible in a short period of time and if it is, what would the price be? In order to inform consumers about this, one of the ways is to improve their contact with the grid, which will be done by establishing a better contact between consumers and their power meter by installing smart meters that are available at any time. For that, the meter could be installed in the kitchen, for example, where consumers will be informed about the real power consumption at a certain time and the power cost at that period. This way, consumers would start to understand their power consumption. SMArT GrIDS The concept of Smart Grid is considerably wide. These can be linked to other areas including telecommunication, automation, regulation and economics. The Smart Grid comes to break technological, social and economic paradigms. The link between the consumer and power distributers will be the Smart Meters, which will be the tool able to receive and send data through a communication protocol. Also, it can carry out power cut and re-establishment operations which can be done remotely. Given that consumers profiles will changes from one region to the other, the concept of Smart Grids depend on the cultural characteristics of the city, the region and the country. MArKET In the USA the change to the Smart Meters took place in order to make consumers understand how electric power works, so they would be able to make decisions about their consumption. Two points motivated the utilities in Brazil to invest in Smart Grids: avoiding power thefts and the termination of the reader the person who goes door to door to measure the amount of power that was used given that this can be done remotely, reducing costs to the utility. Many utilities that have already been inventing in the Smart Grid concept are also incorporating other services to improve the assistance to their customers and propitiate a better interaction with them. Studies that have been carried out by companies of the sector show that between 2010 and 2013 about R$ 4 billion will be invested in Smart Grid technologies by companies here in Brazil. UTILITIES Cemig (Power Company of the state of Minas Gerais) and Light (Rio de Janeiro) decided to start a partnership and created a company to work on the creation of a reader with different characteristics to meet the demands of this new concept the Smart Grid. On the other hand, EDP(Energy of Portugal) Power Company, through Bandeirante Energia, is about to start a pilot project in the city of Trememb, So Paulo, dealing with a Smart City. The utility ordered 20 thousand meters from a Chinese manufacturer to be installed in the city so that the research and tests can start. The concept does not reach only the metering part, for besides generating data, it is necessary to create an information system, which causes investments in software and hardware. Normally, pilot projects are created for the assessment of the gains and benefits, and the companies have been choosing cities where to implement their projects and assess whether the investment is feasible or not. SUSTAINABILITY x SMArT GrIDS In Europe governments encourage electric power generation in residences, where the technology of small wind and solar generating plants is used combined with the concept of sustainability. As an example, the minimization of the emissions of CO2 can be mentioned: consumers are encouraged to purchase solar panels and windmills, and the investment carried out by the consumer will be deducted from their electricity bill. This way, governments are inducing consumers to generate their own power. Thus, consumers will generate power in their own properties, interacting with the meter installed in their house. So, besides metering the consumption, they can assess a generation injection in their own house, generation which, eventually, can be sent to the grid. This way, the Smart Grid generated a bi-directional reader, i.e., a reader that works both ways. The Smart Grid did not come just to improve sustainability or reduce emission of CO2. The Smart Grid also enables the implementation of other initiatives aiming at the reduction of CO2 emission to the atmosphere. ECONOMY By using Smart Readers, which can show consumption values, as well as which appliance is responsible for the consumption, air conditioner, shower, fridge it is possible to change consumption profile. Today, residential tariffs in Brazil are flat the price of the kilowatt is pre-established and does not change at any time of the

INOVAO
pr-determinado. A ideia que com o Smart Grid facilite a implementao de um tipo de tarifa chamada real time price, onde o consumidor ter tarifas mais baratas noite ou de madrugada em comparao ao incio da tarde e da noite, quando o consumo aumenta muito, horrios em que as tarifas sero mais caras. Para o consumidor saber disso ele tem que ter uma sinalizao, esta informao ser demonstrada no visor do medidor. Com essa interao, o consumidor vai saber o quanto est gastando, assim ele ser um gerenciador de sua demanda, mas para que isso ocorra, necessria uma mudana no sistema de tarifa.

Saiba mais!
entrevista com Prof. Marangon

Acredito que a parte tecnolgica das redes inteligentes est bastante adiantada, uma vez que os fabricantes tm interesse em adaptar suas tecnologias para esse setor..., afirma o professor titular da Universidade Federal de Itajub, e tambm pesquisador no grupo de pesquisas para reestruturao do setor eltrico, mercado de energia eltrica, tarifao da transmisso e distribuio, operao de sistemas eltricos e confiabilidade composta, Jos Wanderley Marangon Lima.

PCH Notcias & SHP News: Como as redes inteligentes esto sendo implantadas no Brasil? Prof. Marangon: Atualmente, essas redes esto sendo implantadas por meio de projetos pilotos, sendo a primeira etapa na rea de medio, uma vez que as empresas concessionrias na rea de gerao so diretamente afetadas por essa tecnologia. Tenho conhecimento de que a concessionria Bandeirantes instalou seu projeto piloto na cidade de Trememb, no interior paulista e a Cemig, em parceria com a Light, est desenvolvendo um projeto na cidade mineira de Sete Lagoas. J a Eletropaulo, instalou alguns medidores aleatoriamente em alguns bairros da grande So Paulo, para avaliar seus consumidores. A meu ver, estas so algumas aes que j foram tomadas, mas a tendncia no Brasil de que as redes inteligentes cresam cada vez mais. PCH Notcias & SHP News: Como o senhor avalia essa implementao? Prof. Marangon: Acredito que a parte tecnolgica est bastante adiantada, uma vez que os fabricantes tm interesse em adaptar suas tecnologias para esse setor, alm de investirem em uma tecnologia barata para melhor atender a demanda. Seja ela por meio de celulares ou pela prpria linha de transmisso de energia. Acredito que hoje a questo mais no aspecto econmico, afinal, quanto vai custar esse servio ao consumidor. Outro ponto que est sendo discutido o que fazer com tantos dados, como gerir essas informaes, quais dados que sero relevantes. Alm das novas possibilidades como gerao distribuda, microgerao, ao de tarifas junto ao consumidor, e o ajuste dessas tarifas conforme o perfil do consumidor. PCH Notcias & SHP News: Quais so os entraves para a implantao das Smart Grids no Brasil? Prof. Marangon: Acredito que um dos maiores entraves o financiamento para o processo todo, uma vez que hoje as despesas das distribuidoras so todas controladas pela agncia reguladora. Qualquer investimento que a distribuidora faa tem que ter o aval da agncia reguladora, seno a agncia no transfere esse investimento em tarifa. Assim, gera-se a necessidade de um acordo para viabilizar esses investimentos. Atualmente, o investimento em medidores gera um retorno financeiro, por causa da diminuio dos casos de furto de energia e a diminuio de investimento em leituristas. Solucionando esses problemas, os novos investimentos so para proporcionar uma maior comodidade ao consumidor, melhorar a tarifa de uma forma global, o que requer uma anlise detalhada pela agncia regulatria. PCH Notcias & SHP News: O senhor acredita que os modelos implantados nos EUA e Europa podem ser aplicados em nosso pas? Prof. Marangon: Muita coisa acredito que sim, mas h uma necessidade de adaptao devido diferente realidade cultural, social e econmica de nosso pas. Um exemplo bastante relevante em relao ao furto de energia, essa prtica no ocorre na Europa e nem nos Estados Unidos. Outro ponto relevante seria como atender o consumidor com faixa salarial distinta e consequentemente, com necessidades diferentes. Por isso, acredito que as ferramentas de redes inteligentes devero ser personalizadas para cada caso. PCH Notcias & SHP News: H investimentos em P&D para Smart Grids? Prof. Marangon: A Agncia Nacional de Energia Eltrica (ANEEL), fez uma audincia pblica recente com intuito de definir a forma de como sero implantadas as redes inteligentes no Brasil. Se ser regional, local e quais os tipos redes, quais sero as funcionalidades. Com a divulgao desse trabalho, acredito que teremos um macrodirecionamento desses projetos nos quais receberam o apoio da ANEEL. O Ministrio de Minas e Energia (MME) tambm criou um grupo para estudar e direcionar o tipo de ao que dever acelerar a implantao dos Smart Grids. Nos moldes realizados pelos Estados Unidos, onde foi realizado um macroprojeto para acelerao da implantao das redes inteligentes, com um enfoque na sustentabilidade, visando a incorporao da gerao junto ao consumidor final para energia renovvel. As universidades esto comeando a realizar estudos em parceria com algumas empresas com o foco em estabelecer os tipos de protocolos, sistemas operacionais, sistemas de comunicao, criao de softwares para gerenciar essa rede e a interao com o consumidor; alm da questo econmica e regulatria da tarifa, j que as tarifas passaro a ser diferenciadas. A nossa universidade, em particular, possui um grupo de pesquisas que est realizando estudos na rea econmica, onde estamos buscando junto s concessionrias inserir as tarifas diferenciadas, para verificar a reao do consumidor a essa mudana.

Adriana Barbosa

innovative
day. The idea is that the Smart Grid facilitates the implementation of a type of tariff called Real Time Price, where consumers will pay different tariffs according to the time the energy is consumed cheaper tariffs late at night or in the early morning and more expansive ones in the beginning of the afternoon and night, when the consumption levels are very high. The consumers will have access to all this information through a display in the reader, and with this interaction, consumers will be able to know how much they are spending. This way they will be the managers of their demand, but for that to happen, a change is the tariff system is necessary.

interviewing with Prof. Marangon

I believe that the technological part of the Smart Grids is fairly advanced, given that the manufacturers are interested in adjusting their technologies to this sector, says professor Marangon (Federal University of Itajub). Professor Marangon Lima is also a researcher in a group that works on the re-structuring of the electric sector, electric energy market, transmission and distribution tariffs, Operation of electrical systems and composite reliability. PCH Notcias & SHP News: How have the Smart Grids been implemented in Brazil? Prof. Marangon: Today these grids have been implemented through pilot projects, whose first phase is the measurement area, given that the utilities of the generation area are directly affected by this technology. I know that the Bandeirantes have installed its pilot project in the city of Trememb, So Paulo, and that Cemig is developing a project in the city of Sete Lagoas. Eletropaulo (Electric Power Company of the state of So Paulo) installed some readers randomly in some neighborhoods of the city of So Paulo to assess the consumers. In my opinion, these are actions that have already been taken, but the tendency in Brazil is that Smart Grids will keep growing. PCH Notcias & SHP News: How do you assess this implementation? Prof. Marangon: I believe that the technological part of the Smart Grids is fairly advanced, given that the manufacturers are interested in adjusting their technologies to this sector. In addition, they will invest in a cheap technology to better satisfy the demand, either through mobile phones or through the power line itself. I believe that today the issue is the economic aspect, after all, what is the cost of this service for the consumers. Another aspect that has been discussed is what to do with so much information, how to manage this information, which information will be relevant. New possibilities such as distributed generation, micro-generation, the tariffs signals to the consumers, and the adjustment of these tariffs according to the profile of each consumer have also been dealt with. PCH Notcias & SHP News: What are the obstacles for the implementation of Smart Grids in Brazil? Prof. Marangon: I believe that one of the greatest obstacles is funding for the whole process, given that today the expenses of the distributors is fully controlled by the regulating agency. Any investment the distributor carries out must be approved by the regulating agency. Otherwise the agency will not compensate this investment in the tariffs. This way, it is necessary to find an agreement to make these investments feasible. Today, investments in meters generate financial return due to the reduction in power thefts and the reduction in the investments in readers. Solving these problems, the new investments aim at providing more comfort to the consumers and improving the tariffs as a whole, which needs a detailed analysis that must be carried out by the regulating agency. PCH Notcias & SHP News: Do you believe that the models implemented in the USA and Europe can be implemented in Brazil? Prof. Marangon: I believe that many things can be the same, but it will be necessary to make some adjustments because of the cultural, social and economic differences of our country. A very significant example is the theft of power, which does not happen in Europe or in the USA. Another point that must be taken into account is to meet the needs of families with different wage ranges and, consequently, with different needs. That is the reason why I think that the Smart Grid tools must be customized for each case. PCH Notcias & SHP News: Are there investments in R&D for Smart Grids? Prof. Marangon: Recently, ANEEL (National Agency for Electric Energy) carried out a public hearing aiming at defining how the Smart Grids will be implemented in Brazil, whether they will be regional or local, the types of grids and their functions. By disseminating this work, I believe that there will be projects with a different range of directions that will receive ANEELs support. The MME (Ministry of Mines and Energy) also created a group to study and orient the type of actions that must accelerate the implementation of the Smart Grids. The USA created a macro-project to accelerate the implementation of the Smart Grids, focusing on sustainability, encouraging final consumers to build their own micro-generation renewable-based plants. Universities have started to carry out studies, sometimes in partnerships with some companies, aiming at establishing the types of protocols, types of operational systems, communication systems, the creation of software to manage this grid and the interaction with the consumers and, also, the economic and regulating aspects of the tariff, given that these tariffs will be differentiated. Our university, particularly, has a research group that is carrying out studies on the economic area. We are trying to incorporate differentiated tariffs to the utilities to check the reaction of the consumers to this change.

Internet

Further Information

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entrevista com Paulo Henrique Silvestri AGNCIA REGULADOrA
O conceito de redes inteligentes amplo e envolve vrias tecnologias. A ANEEL j regulamentou alguns temas e outros ainda esto em fase de anlise e discusso, destaca o Superintendente de Regulao dos Servios de Distribuio da ANEEL, Paulo Henrique Silvestri Lopes. PCH Notcias & SHP News: Qual a posio da ANEEL em relao implementao do Smart Grid em nosso setor eltrico? Paulo Henrique Silvestri Lopes: De uma forma geral, a implantao das redes inteligentes deve ser uma iniciativa das empresas distribuidoras de energia eltrica. Entretanto, cabe ANEEL algumas aes no sentido de coordenar a implantao de novas tecnologias que busquem benefcios para toda a sociedade. A ANEEL incentiva a melhoria da qualidade do fornecimento de energia, a reduo de custos operacionais das distribuidoras, o combate s perdas e a eficincia energtica. nesse mbito que se inserem as redes inteligentes. O conceito de redes inteligentes amplo e envolve vrias tecnologias. A ANEEL j regulamentou alguns temas e outros ainda esto em fase de anlise e discusso. Conforme destacado no item seguinte, existem aes da ANEEL na rea de gerao microdistribuda, PLC, informaes georeferenciadas e medio eletrnica. A posio da ANEEL sobre a implantao de redes inteligentes pode ser entendida pela postura tomada pela Agncia com relao medio inteligente. Assim, especificamente para medio, ainda no h no Brasil uma regulamentao especfica para o uso de medidores eletromagnticos nas redes de distribuio e isto se configura em uma das razes porque a aplicao da tecnologia ainda no ampla no pas. Sem a coordenao da ANEEL, nada impede que as distribuidoras faam uso da medio eletrnica por opo estratgica empresarial, processo este que j est acontecendo em certos casos. Nesta situao, as empresas assumem a iniciativa da implantao, mas a utilizao de todo o potencial disponibilizado pela tecnologia tende a ser limitada, pois a empresa procura solucionar problemas pontuais de sua rea de atuao. Consequentemente, os consumidores podem usufruir apenas de parte dos benefcios em longo prazo. Como a medio desempenha um papel importante em quase todos os aspectos do setor eltrico (planejamento, operao, tarifas, etc.), do interesse do rgo regulador criar um quadro ideal para a infraestrutura de medio. Ou seja, a falta de regulamentao e determinaes da ANEEL sobre a matria pode prejudicar o aperfeioamento de processos relativos tarifao, faturamento, apurao dos indicadores de qualidade e combate a perdas, perdendo-se a oportunidade de evoluo coordenada do parque de medio brasileiro em baixa tenso. Portanto, como h um grande potencial no uso das redes inteligentes, a ANEEL est debatendo o uso compulsrio de medidores dotados de funcionalidades adicionais para parte das unidades consumidoras conectadas em baixa tenso. PCH Notcias & SHP News: H algum estudo em andamento para implementao das redes inteligentes? Paulo Henrique Silvestri Lopes: Para a criao de regulamentos, a ANEEL adota a postura de transparncia e de incentivo participao da sociedade. Nesse sentido, so realizadas reunies tcnicas, seminrios e principalmente consultas e audincias pblicas. Especificamente para o tema de medio, desde 2008 quando os estudos se iniciaram, a ANEEL vem realizando reunies com fabricantes de medidores e sua associao, distribuidoras, INMETRO, consumidores e associaes representativas e provedores de tecnologias (telecomunicaes, TI, etc.), entre outros agentes envolvidos no tema.

Aes da ANEEL no mbito das redes inteligentes


Todas as resolues citadas abaixo passaram pelo processo de consulta e/ou audincia pblica. Sistema de Informaes Geogrficas SIG: Em Dezembro de 2008, com aprovao da primeira verso dos Procedimentos de Distribuio PRODIST pela Resoluo Normativa n 345/2008, foi regulamentada a implantao do Sistema de Informaes Geogrficas SIG (Geographic Information System GIS). Posteriormente, a regulamentao foi inserida na Resoluo Normativa n 395/2009. Power Line Communications PLC: Em agosto de 2009, foi expedida a Resoluo Normativa no 375/2009, regulamentando a utilizao das instalaes de distribuio de energia eltrica como meio de transporte para a comunicao digital ou analgica de sinais (utilizao da tecnologia Power Line Communications PLC). Microgerao: Sobre microgerao distribuda, tema tambm inserido no mbito das redes inteligentes, a SRD atualmente desenvolve estudos e j estuda formar para diminuir os obstculos ao acesso de pequenas centrais geradoras ao sistema de distribuio. Foi realizada a Consulta no 015/2010, que ainda est em fase de anlise de contribuies. Para o primeiro semestre de 2011, existe a previso para realizao de nova audincia pblica. Medio Eletrnica: Sobre a utilizao de medio eletrnica em unidades consumidoras de baixa tenso, a ANEEL promoveu, em setembro de 2008, o Seminrio Internacional sobre Medio Eletrnica. Em sequncia, a Consulta Pblica no 015/2009 foi instaurada. De outubro de 2010 a janeiro de 2011 foi realizada a Audincia Pblica no 043/2010 com objetivo de obter subsdios e informaes adicionais para estabelecimento de Resoluo Normativa acerca dos requisitos mnimos para os medidores eletrnicos em unidades consumidoras em baixa tenso (definio do padro do medidor). A AP 043/2010 ainda est em fase de anlise das contribuies recebidas. Para o segundo semestre de 2011, existe a previso para realizao de nova audincia pblica, que tratar do plano de substituio (prazos e metas para as distribuidoras realizarem a implantao do medidor). Tarifas Diferenciadas: Sobre a possibilidade de aplicao de tarifas diferenciadas em baixa tenso, a ANEEL instaurou a Consulta Pblica no 011/2010 e Audincia Pblica no 120/2010. O objetivo obter subsdios e informaes adicionais sobre a proposta de alterao da metodologia de definio da estrutura tarifria aplicada ao setor de distribuio de energia eltrica no Brasil, incluindo a definio de sinais de preo e tarifao da baixa tenso. Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento - P&D: A ANEEL tem competncia para regulamentar e acompanhar a implementao dos programas de pesquisa e desenvolvimento e de eficincia energtica. Nesse mbito, existem diferentes projetos envolvendo tecnologias de redes inteligentes, incluindo alguns projetos pilotos. Dentre os projetos em andamento, destaca-se o projeto no mbito da Chamada de Projeto de P&D Estratgico no 11/2010: Programa Brasileiro de Rede Eltrica Inteligente, atualmente desenvolvido conjuntamente por diversas empresas do setor eltrico nacional. Outros temas: Existe ainda a necessidade de estudos para verificar a necessidade e a viabilidade de regulamentao de outros temas, tais como a integrao dos carros eltricos s redes de distribuio, prestao de novos servios pelas distribuidoras, novas possibilidades de atuao das cessantes no mercado, entre outros temas.

http://www.ANEEL.gov.br/biblioteca/pesquisadigit.cfm

Todas as Resolues da ANEEL esto disponveis no site da Agncia:

Toda a documentao relacionada s Consultas e Audincias Pblicas est disponvel no site da Agncia: http://www.ANEEL.gov.br/area.cfm?idArea=12&idPerfil=3

innovative
interviewing with Paulo Henrique Silvestri REGULATING AGENCY
The concept of Smart Grids is wide and involves several technologies. ANEEL has already regulated some issues and others are still being analyzed and discussed, highlights the Superintended of Distribution Services Regulation of ANEEL, Mr. Paulo Henrique Silvestri Lopes.
ANEEL

specifically at measurement, ANEEL has been carrying out meetings with meter manufacturers and their associations, distributors, INMETRO, consumers, representative associations and technology suppliers (telecommunications, IT, etc.) among other agents involved in the theme since 2008, when the studies started.

ANEELs actions regarding Smart Grids


All of the resolutions below have gone under consult processes and/or public hearings. Geographic Information System GIS: In December 2008, with the approval of the first Distribution Procedures PRODIST by Normative Resolution No 345/2008, the implementation of the Geographic Information System was approved. Later on the regulation was inserted in the Normative Regulation No 395/2009. Power Line In August, regulating the as a means of signals (use of Communications PLC: 2009, Normative Resolution No 375/2009 was issued, use of the distribution installations of electric power transport for communication using digital or analogic Power Line Communications PLC technology).

PCH Notcias & SHP News: What is ANEELs position in relation to the implementation of Smart Grids in our electric sector? Paulo Henrique Silvestri Lopes: Generally speaking, the implementation of Smart Grids must de an initiative of the electric power distributing companies. However, ANEEL is responsible for some actions in the sense of coordinating the implementation of new technologies that aim at benefits for the society as a whole. ANEEL encourages improvements in the quality of power supply, the reduction in operational costs of the distributors, the fight against losses and the for energy efficiency. Smart Grids are within this scope. The concept of Smart Grids is wide and involves several technologies. ANEEL has already regulated some issues and others are still being analyzed and discussed. The next item will show that ANEEL has acted in areas such as micro-distributed generation, PLC, geo-referenced information and electronic measurement. ANEELs position on the implementation of Smart Grids can be understood according to the position taken by the agency in relation to the Smart metering. This way, specifically for metering, Brazil still does not have a specific regulation regarding the use of electromagnetic meters in the distribution grids and that is one of the reasons the technology is not used widely in the country. Without ANEELs coordination, nothing stops the distributors to use the electronic meters as a company strategy, and this process is already taking place in some cases, by the way. In this situation, the companies assume the initiative of the implementation, but the use of the whole potential of the technology tends to be limited, given that the company tries to solve specific problems in their area. Consequently, consumers can profit only from a small part of the long-term benefits. As the metering plays an important role in nearly all the aspects of the electric sector (planning, operation, tariffs, etc), its the regulating organ interest to create an ideal measuring infrastructure scenario, i.e., the lack of ANEELs regulation determinations on the subject may harm the improvements of the processes related to the tariffs, revenue, collection of quality indicators and fight against the losses, losing the opportunity of a coordinated evolution of the Brazilian low voltage measurement park. So, as there is a great potential towards the use of Smart Grids, ANEEL is discussing the mandatory use of meters that have additional functions for part of the consuming units connected at low voltage. PCH Notcias & SHP News: Are there any ongoing studies on the implementation of Smart Grids? Paulo Henrique Silvestri Lopes: For the creation of the regulations, ANEEL adopts a posture that is transparent and encourages the participation of the society. In this sense, there are technical meetings, seminaries and mainly public hearings. Aiming

Micro-generation: About distributed Micro-generation, issue that is also inserted in the scope of Smart Grids, the SDR has been developing studies and already studies a way to reduce the obstacles against the access of small generating plants to the distribution system. Hearing No 015/2010 was carried out, but it still being analyzed. A new public hearing is forecast to take place in the first half of 2011. Electronic Measurement: On the use of electronic measurement in low voltage consuming units, ANEEL carried out an International Seminar on Electronic Measurement in September, 2008. Afterwards Public Hearing No 015/2009 was established. From October 2010 to January 2011 Public Hearing No 043/2010 was carried out aiming at attaining subsidies and additional information to establish a Normative Resolution about the minimum requirements for Electronic meters at low voltage consuming units (definition of the meter standard). The contributions that came from Public Hearing 043/2010 are still being analyzed. There is another Public Hearing forecast to take place in the second half of 2011 which will deal with a replacement plan (deadlines and goals for the distributers to carry out the installation of the meter). Differentiated Tariffs: On the possibility of applying differentiated tariffs at low voltage, ANEEL established Public Consult No 011/2010 and a Public Hearing No 120/2010. The goal is to attain additional information on the proposal to change the methodology that defines the tariff structure applied to the power distribution sector in Brazil, including the definition of price signals and low voltage tariffs. Research and Development R&D: ANEEL is able to regulate and follow the implementation of research and development programs and energy efficiency programs. Within this scope there are different programs involving Smart Grid technologies, including some pilot projects. Among these ongoing projects it is possible to highlight Strategic R&D Project Call No 11/2010: Brazilian Program for Smart Power Grids, which is developed jointly by several companies of the national electric sector. Other themes: It is still necessary to carry out studies to verify the need and the regulation feasibility of other themes such as the integration of electrical cars to the distribution grid, new services rendered by the distributors, new possibilities to enter the market, etc. All ANEELs Resolutions are available at the agency website: http://www.ANEEL.gov.br/biblioteca/pesquisadigit.cfm All the documents regarding the Public Consults and Hearings are available at the agency website: http://www.ANEEL.gov.br/area.cfm?idArea=12&idPerfil=3

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Arquivo Pessoal

entrevista com Mark Northrup SMArT GrIDS NOS ESTADOS UNIDOS


O gerente de assessoria de implementao estratgica de Smart Grids da empresa Ernst & Young de Nova York, Mark Northrup, concedeu uma entrevista PCH Notcias onde explicou como as redes inteligentes vm sendo implantadas nos Estados Unidos.

PCH Notcias & SHP News: Como o Mercado de servios de energia est se desenvolvendo nos EUA? Mark Northrup: O governo dos EUA assegurou uma subveno chamada Subveno para Investimentos em Redes Inteligentes (SGIG) a qual financiou aproximadamente 100 projetos com fundos para uma das iniciativas seguintes: Infraestrutura de Medio Avanada, Sistemas de Consumo, Sistemas Eltricos de Distribuio, Sistemas Eltricos de Transmisso, Manufatura de Equipamentos, Sistemas Integrados e/ou Sistema de Reduo de Custo. O fundo total que est sendo fornecido pelo governo dos EUA de aproximadamente 4 bilhes de dlares. O financiamento recebido do governo deve ser totalmente investido nos projetos, o que agora alavancou os investimentos de mercado de projetos de Redes Inteligentes financiado pelo SGIG para aproximadamente 8 bilhes de dlares. Isso representa criar uma transformao na indstria e tem sido chamada de evoluo e em alguns casos, uma revoluo no setor de Energia e Concessionrias. As reas seguintes esto mudando rapidamente com o desenvolvimento das Redes Inteligentes: 1. Gerao/Produo Gerao descentralizada Novas fontes de produo de energia que causem mudanas no mix de gerao Fontes de abastecimento sustentveis e seguras 2. Comrcio C  om as mudanas na indstria, so necessrias uma crescente complexidade e sofisticao Todos os projetos selecionados 3. Transmisso Infraestrutura mais flexvel Fluxo em ambas direes 4. Distribuio A  introduo de Redes e Medidores Inteligentes garante o fluxo de/para/e dos consumidores 5. Medio R  edes e Medidores Inteligentes oferecem novas fontes de renda aos produtores e ao mercado 6. Varejo (Consumidor) C  onsumidores podero gerar sua prpria energia e energia renovvel E  les tero mais controle sobre seu consumo de energia O  "Inteligente" cria novos servios para os consumidores

FUNDOS DE INVESTIMENTOS EM REDES INTELIGENTES

O crculo indica projetos onde concessionria/reas especficas no so conhecidas

Tipos Infraestrutura avanada de medio Sistemas de consumo Sistemas eltricos de distribuio Sistemas eltricos de transmisso Manufatura de equipamentos Sistemas integrados e/ou sistema de reduo de custo
Out 21, 2009

100 Projetos

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interviewing with Mark Northrup SMArT GrIDS IN THE UNITED STATES Of AMErICA
The Smart Grid Implementation Manager of the company Ernst & Young, New York, Mr. Mark Northrup, gave us and interview, where he explained how Smart Grids have been implemented in the USA. PCH Notcias & SHP News: How are energy services markets developing in USA? Mark Northrup: The US Federal Government has enabled a grant called the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) in which it funded approximately 100 projects with funds toward one of the following initiatives: Advanced Metering Infrastructure, Customer Systems, Electrical Systems Distribution, Electric Transmission Systems, Equipment Manufacturing, Integrated and/or Cost reducing systems. The overall funding being provided by the US Federal Government is approximately $4 billion US dollars. The funding received from the US government must be matched by the recipient which has now pushed the market investment of Smart Grid projects funded by SGIG to approximately $8 billion plus. This is creating a transformation in the industry and it is often being called an evolution and even in some cases a "revolution" in the Power & Utilities sector. The following areas are changing rapidly with the development of Smart Grid: 1. Generation / Production Decentralized generation New sources of energy production which produce changes in the generation mix Sustainable, secure sources of supply 2. Trading  Increasing complexity and sophistication is All Selected Projects required with the changes to the industry 3. Transmission More flexible infrastructure Bi-directional flow 4. Distribution  The introduction of Smart Meters and Grids enable power flows of energy to and from customers 5. Metering S  mart Meters and Grids offer new sources of revenue to producers and marketers 6. Retail (Customer)  Customers are able to generate their own energy and renewable energy  They have more control over their energy consumption  "Smart" creates new services for the customers

Smart Grid INVESTMENT GRANTS

Circle indicates project where specific utility/ area is not known.

Type Advanced Metering Infrastructure Customer Systems Electric Systems Distribution Electric Transmission Systems Equipment Manufacturing Integrated and/or cost reducing systems

100 Projects

Oct 21, 2009

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PCH Notcias & SHP News: Qual ser a natureza e o tamanho do impacto das Redes Inteligentes nesses mercados? Quem est melhor posicionado para captar os valores desses mercados e por qu? Mark Northrup: Como mencionado anteriormente, isso est criando um significativo crescimento que no se tem visto na indstria de Energia & Concessionrias h dcadas aqui nos EUA, bem como em outros lugares. Com base nos grficos abaixo voc ver o financiamento real das novas reas de mercado que sero afetadas pela onda de investimentos nas Redes Inteligentes. Produtores de todas as reas do mercado que sofreram os impactos das Redes Inteligentes vero um aumento na demanda por mais dispositivos e servios "Inteligentes" e que a forma como as coisas eram feitas nessa indstria h pouco tempo atrs no mais aceitvel.
NMErO DE APLICAES Classificados/Habilitados 2/14 5/27 31/38 13/39 10/28 39/43 100/389 NMErO DE UNIDADES (estimativas autoregistradas) 877 205.983 671 176.814 170.218 18.179.912 1.183.265 12/100

rEA Manufatura de equipamento Sistemas de consumo Infraestrutura avanada de medio Distribuio eltrica Transmisso eltrica Integrado e sistema de reduo de custo Total REDES INTELIGENTES SISTEMAS E EQUIPAMENTOS Redes de PMU Transformadores inteligentes Subestaes automatizadas Dispositivos de controle de carga Termostatos inteligentes Medidores inteligentes Unidades de visores residenciais Estaes de carregamento para veculos eltricos

FINANCIAMENTO FEDErAL ($) 25.786.501 32.402.210 818.245.749 254.260.753 147.990.985 2.150.505.323 3.429.191.521 MELHOrIAS

APOrTE DO INVESTIDOr ($) 25.807.502 34.933.413 1.194.272.137 254.738.977 150.454.793 3.082.366.420 4.742.573.246

PArCELA DO INVESTIDOr (%) 50,02 51,88 59,34 50,05 50,41 59,09 58,04 IMPACTOS

C  obertura nacional praticamente completa 6x os 166 PMUs existentes na rede P  ossibilita manuteno preventiva 5  % das 12.466 subestaes de distribuio e transmisso nos EUA P  ossibilita reduo nas demandas de pico  Possibilita reduo nas demandas de pico 1  3% dos 142 milhes de consumidores nos EUA C  oncede mais poder ao consumidor Acelera entrada no mercado 1444 MW de reduo de demanda de pico por ano (estimativas autoregistradas) Mudanas transformacionais no comportamento do consumidor e no consumo de energia Comea a traar o caminho para a independncia energtica Aumenta a conscientizao sobre a situao e a confiabilidade e a resistncia dos sistemas eltricos

TI/Tecnologia

Regulamentao

Padres de Energia e Concessionria


Evoluir padres da indstria para tecnologias-chave e componentes das redes inteligentes reduz riscos de investimento para as companhias e custos (possibilitando as empresas a realizar economia de escala) Exemplos: NIST (Instituto Nacional de Padres e Tecnologia) nos Estados Unidos Redes Inteligentes  Planejamento Padres de interoperatividade  Demanda e estratgia de Segurana ciberntica de Redes Inteligentes Unio Europia abre padro para medidor

Valor de criao

Consumidor

Tecnologias novas surgem e mudam a racionalidade dos negcios de energia e empresas de servio pblico Exemplos: Gerao distribuda e energia renovveis como a elica, a solar deve ser integrada na rede e nos sistemas de eletricidade Telecomunicao e TI possibilitando as concessionrias a transferir, armazenar e utilizar mais dados (por exemplo: dados tcnicos sobre o status da rede) e melhor Integrao de veculos eltricos no sistema de eletricidade

Governos incentivam concessionrias a investir em redes inteligentes e medidores inteligentes com a finalidade de:  Melhorar a segurana do fornecimento  Evitar novas capacidades de gerao  Reduzir perdas na rede  Assegurar a cobrana correta e pontual Exemplos: Pacotes de estmulos (ARRA, China) Unio Europia diretiva exigindo a introduo de tarifas por tempo de uso e uma implementao mandatria dos medidores inteligentes at 2022 na Europa

Novas oportunidades de negcios: Redes inteligentes como meio importante para as empresas reduzir custos, aumentar os rendimentos e encontrar novos cursos de renda Exemplos: Reduo de custos (exemplo utilizao de bens, trabalho simplificado, reduo nas interrupes Proteo de bens (preveno de fraudes, tarifas corretas) Cria servios de valores adicionais para o consumidor aumentar as formas de renda e manter os consumidores existentes

Redes inteligentes so possibilitadores mais ativos no envolvimento do consumidor ao resolver assuntos energticos Exemplos: Consumidores esto tendo mais poder e esto ambientalmente inteligentes Uma crescente parte dos consumidores est produzindo energia (Prosumers) Consumidores querem participar na especificao de produtos e servios Expectativa de dados e servios serem imediatamente acessveis e atualizadas

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PCH Notcias & SHP News: How will the Smart Grid impact the size and nature of these markets? Who is best placed to capture the value from these markets and why? Mark Northrup: As stated above this is creating incredible growth that hasn't been seen in the Power & Utilities industry for decades here in the US as well as other geographies. From the charts below you will see the actual funding of new areas of markets that will be affected by the surge of spending in the Smart Grid arena. Producers of every area that is impacted by Smart Grid will see an increase in the demand for more "Intelligent" devices and services and that the way we did things before in this industry is no longer acceptable.
NUMBEr Of APPLICATIONS Selected/Conforming 2/14 5/27 31/138 13/39 10/28 39/143 100/389 NUMBErS Of UNITS (self-reported estimates) 877 205,983 671 176,814 170,218 18,179,912 1,183,265 12/100

TOPIC ArEA Equipment Manufacturing Customer Systems Advanced Metering Infrastructure Electric Distribution Electric Transmission Integrated and Cost reducing systems Total SMArT GrID SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Networked Phasor Measurement Units Smart Transformers Automated Substations Load Control Devices Smart Thermostats Smart Meters In-Home Display Units PHEVs/Charging Stations

FEDERAL FUNDING ($) 25,786,501 32,402,210 818,245,749 254,260,753 147,990,985 2,150,505,323 3,429,191,521

APPLICANT FUNDING ($) 25,807,502 34,933,413 1,194,272,137 254,738,977 150,454,793 3,082,366,420 4,742,573,246

APPLICANT COST SHARE (%) 50.02 51.88 59.34 50.05 50.41 59.09 58.04

IMPROVEMENTS Near-nationwide coverage 6  X the 166 existing networked PMUs E  nables preventative maintenance 5  % of 12,466 transmission and distribution substations in the U.S. E  nables peak demand reductions E  nables peak demand reduction 1  3% ofthe 142 million customers in the U.S. E  nables customer empowerment Accelerates market entry

IMPACTS

Enhanced situational awareness and electric system reliability and resiliency

1444 MWs of peak demand reduction per year (self-reported estimates) Transformational changes in consumer behavior and energy consumption Begins the path toward energy independence

IT/Technology

Regulation

Power & Utility standards


Evolving industry standards for key technologies and elements of Smart Grids reduces investment risks for companies and costs (enabling companies to realize economies of scale) Examples: NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) in the US: Smart Grid Interoperability Standard Roadmap Smart Grid Cyber Security Strategy and Requeriments European Union open meter standard

Value creation

Customer

New, disruptive technologies emerge and change business rationalities of the power & utilities industry Examples: Distributed generation (micro CHP) and renewable energies like wind, solar have to be integrated into the grid and the electricity system Telecommunication and IT enabling utilities to transfer, storage and utilize more data (e.g. technical data about the network status) and better Integration of electric vehicles into the electricity system

Governments encourage utilities to invest into Smart Grids and smart meters in order to Improving security of supply Avoiding new generation capacity Reducing network losses Guaranteeing correct and timely billing Examples: Stimulus packagens (ARRA, China) EU-Directive requesting the indroduction of timeof-use-tariffs and a mandatory roll-out of smart meters by 2022 in Europe

New business opportunities: Smart Grids as an important mean for companies to reduce costs, increase revenues and find new revenue streams Examples: Cost reduction (e. g. asset utilization, work simplification, outage reduction) Asset protection (fraud prevention, correct billing) Creating new added value services for customers in order increase the revenue stream and to retain existing customers

Smart Grids are the enable to involve customers more actively in solving energy issues Examples: Consumers are becoming more empowered and environmentally concerned Increasing share of consumers also producing energy (Prosumers) Consumers wish to be engaged in specifying products and services Expectation for data and services to be instantly accessible and up to date

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PCH Notcias & SHP News: Qual ser o papel do consumidor? Mark Northrup: O consumidor a chave para o sucesso das Redes Inteligentes. Sem a adoo e a aceitao dos Servios das Redes Inteligentes que sero fornecidos por essa revoluo na indstria, nada disso ser bem sucedido no mundo. Os ganhos em eficincia e operao sero preenchidos por atualizaes na Rede por Dispositivos Inteligentes, mas h muito a se dizer sobre o fato de que maiores benefcios sero vistos de modo geral se o consumidor comprar a ideia das Redes inteligentes.
Sistemas HEM possibilitam uma resposta de demanda e automao residencial

Consumidor Residencial
Gerao distribuda Termostato inteligente e HVAC inteligente aparelhos inteligentes

Exemplo de uxo de dados Uso Sinais DR Preos em tempo real

Companhia energtica/Rede

AMI

medidor inteligente

Sistema de gerenciamento energtico

interruptores inteligentes

sensores ambientais Armazenamento de energia Carregamento de Veculos Eltricos

rede de rea residencial (Zigbee, Z-Wave, WiFI, Power line comms, etc.)

Bloomberg
NEW ENERGY FINANCE

PCH Notcias & SHP News: O senhor poderia explicar o Consrcio de Rede Inteligente do Estado de Nova Iorque ou outro caso? Mark Northrup: O Consrcio de Rede Inteligente no Estado de Nova Iorque uma corporao sem fins lucrativos com o propsito de controlar os especficos recursos do estado enquanto gere o desenvolvimento colaborativo das Redes Inteligentes. Os princpios de operao so: Foco no Consumidor: Comprometimento com o desenvolvimento de Redes Inteligentes mais eficazes, eficientes e acessveis para beneficiar todos os consumidores e comunidades; Estrategicamente Alinhado: Comprometimento com a formao de uma infraestrutura eltrica robusta, dinmica e segura, focando coletivamente na execuo e progresso sustentveis da estratgia de Redes Inteligentes do Estado de Nova Iorque; Colaborativo: Comprometimento com a integrao e a arrecadao dos recursos da associao do consrcio atravs de indstrias, concessionrias, mercado, instituies acadmicas e governamentais para garantir um desenvolvimento aberto e eficaz do compartilhamento de conhecimento institucional; Inovador: Comprometimento com uma gama de P&D em tecnologias e sistemas de Redes Inteligentes bem definida e bem gerida de modo a acelerar os avanos tecnolgicos e a interoperabilidade institucional; Motivado: Comprometimento com o processo transparente de validao para assegurar a progresso e as realizaes a longo prazo das Redes Inteligentes do Estado de Nova Iorque para promover o desenvolvimento econmico.

Viso estratgica da rede inteligente do estado de Nova Iorque


FORAS MOTRIZES Fora Motrizes e Recursos de Nova Iorque
Emisses Interrupes Ameaas a Tecnologia Evoluo segurana inovadora dos de C02 de energia Padres

FONTES NICAS DE NOVA IORQUE


Pesquisas relacionadas Lder em Especializao energia das indstrias de limpa redes inteligentes Capital financeiro e de mdia

Metas da Poltica Energtica

SUSTENTABILIDADE

CONFIABILIDADE

PAGAMENTO

Controle de recursos

CONSRCIO DE REDES INTELIGENTES DO ESTADO DE NOVA IORQUE

Componentes da Rede Inteligente do Estado de Nova Iorque

Possibilitao do consumidor

Melhoria na rede

Integrao de fornecimento diverso

BENEFCIOS Desenvolvimento econmico Renovveis oportunos Menores interrupes Melhor confiabilidade

Benefcios da Rede Inteligente

Maior segurana

Aumento na eficincia

Maior satisfao dos consumidores

Energia e consumidor/ Economia nos custos

14

INNOVATIVE
PCH Notcias & SHP News: What role will the customer play? Mark Northrup: The Customer is key to the success of the Smart Grid. Without the adoption and acceptance of the "Smart Grid Services" that are provided by this "Revolution" in the industry then this will not be as successful for the world. Gains in efficiency and operations will be fulfilled by upgrades in the Grid by Intelligent devices but there is much to be said about the fact that greater benefits will be seen on a whole if the customer buys into Smart Grid.
HEM systems enable demand response and home automation

Residential Consumer
Example data ows: Usage DR signals Real-time prices
Distributed generation Smart thermostat & HVAC Smart appliances

Energy company /grid

AMI

Smart meter

Energy Mgmt System

Smart plugs

Environmental sensors Power storage Electric vehicle charging

Home area network (Zigbee, Z-Wave, WiFI, Power line comms, etc.)

Bloomberg
NEW ENERGY FINANCE

PCH Notcias & SHP News: Would you like to explain about the "New York State Smart Grid Consortium" or another case? Mark Northrup: The NYS Smart Grid Consortium is a non-for-profit corporation incorporated to harness the unique resources of the state as it manages the collaborative development of the Smart Grid. The operating principles are: Customer Focused: Committed to developing the most effective, efficient and accessible Smart Grid to benefit all customers and communities Strategically Aligned: Committed to building a robust, dynamic and secure electricity infrastructure by being collectively focused on the sustainable execution and progression of the NYS Smart Grid strategy Collaborative: Committed to integrating and leveraging the resources of the consortium membership - across the industry, utility, market, academic and government institutions- to assure the open and effective development of shared institutional knowledge Innovative: Committed to a well-defined and managed nexus of R&D Smart Grid technologies and systems to accelerate the advancement of technical and institutional interoperability Performance Driven: Committed to a transparent validation process to ensure the progression and long-term achievement of the NYS Smart Grid to foster economic development.

New York State Strategic Smart Grid Vision


Driving Forces and New York Resources DRIVING FORCES
CO2 Emissions Power Security Innovative Evolving Outoges Threots Technology Standards

UNIQUE NEW YORK RESOURCES


Research Nexus Clean Energy Leader SG Industry Financial and Expertise Media Capital

Energy Policy Goals

SUSTAINA BILITY

RELIABILITY

AFFORDABILITY

Harnessing Resources

NEW YORK STATE Smart Grid CONSORTIUM

New York State Smart Grid Components

Customer Enablement

Grid Enhancement

Diverse Supply Integration

BENEFITS Economic Development Smart Grid Benefits Higher Security Increased Efficiency Higher Customer Satisfaction Consumer Energy/ Cost Savings Timely Renewables Shorter Outages Improved Reliability

15

LEGISLAO
NOVO CDIGO FLOrESTAL BrASILEIrO: rUrALISTAS X AMBIENTALISTAS
Por Fabiana Gama Viana O tema polmico. De um lado, a defesa do meio ambiente e do outro a utilizao da terra para a agricultura e pecuria. As propostas para a reformulao do Cdigo Florestal Brasileiro reacenderam antigas discusses sobre a preservao do meio ambiente, a produo de alimentos e o crescimento do agronegcio nacional. Tudo em meio a um processo eleitoral e a uma dualidade que se instalou nos sales polticos brasileiros: os ruralistas e os ambientalistas. Nesse cenrio, por 13 votos a 5, o projeto de mudana do novo Cdigo Florestal foi aprovado pela Comisso Especial da Cmara dos Deputados no incio de julho de 2010, devendo ser levado para votao no primeiro semestre de 2011. De autoria do Deputado Federal Aldo Rebelo (PCdoB-SP), a proposta de reformulao do Cdigo Florestal nacional vem enfrentando muitas crticas. E no s por parte de ambientalistas, mas tambm de uma parcela do meio acadmico, pequenos produtores rurais e at mesmo de representantes do poder executivo federal. CDIGO FLOrESTAL BrASILEIrO O primeiro Cdigo Florestal Brasileiro de 1934, perodo em que a lenha e o carvo eram a base da matriz energtica nacional. Com a medida, Getlio Vargas, ento presidente do Brasil, aprovou os trabalhos de uma comisso parlamentar, criada em 1920, que se inspirou nas ideias do botnico suo Albert Loefgren, o qual defendia a manuteno de uma pequena rea de floresta em cada propriedade privada. Com a construo das primeiras hidreltricas e a consequente mudana da matriz energtica brasileira, a legislao florestal vigente caiu no esquecimento. No incio dos anos 60, uma nova comisso foi encarregada de reformular o Cdigo Florestal. O trabalho foi feito, mas acabou engavetado, sendo retomado em 1964. O Cdigo Florestal Brasileiro (Lei n 4771/1965) define os direitos e deveres dos cidados que se utilizam ou se beneficiam de terras e florestas no territrio nacional e delimita a Amaznia Legal. Estabelece limites de uso da propriedade, os quais devem respeitar a vegetao existente, considerada bem de interesse comum, com exceo para a retirada de vegetao para obras de interesse pblico, desde que com licenciamento ambiental e com o cumprimento da compensao ambiental estabelecida. Alm disso, as terras indgenas podem apenas ser exploradas pelos ndios, desde que com manejo sustentvel. O cdigo define tambm os percentuais de Reserva Legal (RL) e reas de Proteo Permanente (APPs) a serem mantidos na propriedade privada, as condies para a derrubada de vegetao em reas urbanas e de manuteno de rea verde no entorno de represas artificiais. Da mesma forma, estabelece a obrigatoriedade das empresas que utilizam matria-prima oriunda de florestas de que possuam reas de reflorestamento, dentre outras medidas. Desde sua aprovao, em 1965, foram sugeridas diversas alteraes no cdigo, sendo boa parte aprovada atravs de leis ou medidas provisrias. Em 2008, foi criado um Grupo de Trabalho com representantes dos ministrios da Agricultura, Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento Agrrio. Contudo, como o grupo no chegou a um consenso, foi dissolvido no incio de 2009. Neste mesmo perodo, a Comisso Coordenadora de Zoneamento Ecolgico-Econmico do Territrio Nacional modificou um ponto do cdigo no que diz respeito ao entorno das BRs 163 (CuiabSantarm) e 230 (Transamaznica) a reduo de 80% para 50% da reserva legal desobrigou a revegetao com espcies nativas de 700 mil hectares na Amaznia. No incio de 2010, foi apresentado o texto para reformulao do Cdigo Florestal, cujo relator Aldo Rebelo. O NOVO CDIGO FLOrESTAL Um dos pontos da reformulao do cdigo proposta por Rebelo a dispensa da necessidade de Reserva Legal (RL) e de recomposio florestal para propriedades de at quatro mdulos fiscais (o que varia de municpio para municpio). Nesse sentido, esperava-se que as pequenas propriedades, classificadas como agricultura familiar, tambm necessitassem fazer a recomposio florestal, mesmo que de uma forma mais flexvel sob o aspecto do que deveria ser plantado. No entanto, prev-se que no s a agricultura familiar e sim toda e qualquer propriedade tenha esse benefcio. Alm disso, as novas regras concedem anistia a quem no registrou Reserva Legal, desmatou reas de Proteo Permanente (APPs) ou outros crimes de desmatamento cometidos at 2008. Da mesma forma, prev-se a alterao do percentual destinado proteo de reas de cerrado na Amaznia. A atual legislao estabelece que a rea de RL deva ser de 80% na Amaznia Legal, 35% na regio de cerrado que esteja nos estados da Amaznia Legal e 20% nas demais regies do pas, sendo que a recomposio deve ser feita com espcies nativas. Pela nova proposta, as reas de cerrado na Amaznia podem ter reduzida a proteo para 20% da propriedade, e a recuperao da Reserva Legal ser feita com espcies exticas intercaladas a nativas. Outro ponto de discusso em relao s reas de Proteo Permanente (APPs). Pela legislao em vigor, no mnimo 30 metros nas margens de rios, reas de encosta, topos de morros e vrzeas devem ser protegidos. Dessa forma, quem desmatou, precisa recompor a vegetao. Com as novas propostas, a proteo mnima pode ser reduzida para at 15 metros, e as vrzeas deixam de ser consideradas APPs. Segundo a Constituio Federal, aquele que causar danos ao meio ambiente e infringir as leis ambientais deve reparar a perda. Contudo, o novo texto aponta que o governo responsvel por elaborar planos de regularizao ambiental em cinco anos e, se isso no for feito, o produtor no obrigado a recuperar a rea. MEIO AMBIENTE X AGrONEGCIO Alm das crticas em relao s alteraes nos limites de APP e RL e maior flexibilizao das penalizaes a crimes ambientais, pesquisadores e ambientalistas apontam que o relatrio no foi produzido a partir de critrios tcnicos e cientficos, alm de no ter sido debatido pela opinio pblica. Da mesma forma, critica-se a relao estabelecida entre o cdigo em vigor e o no desenvolvimento do agronegcio brasileiro e o conflito entre a preservao da vegetao natural e a produo de alimentos. Em recente artigo publicado pela Fundao de Amparo Pesquisa do Estado de So Paulo (FAPESP), os maiores entraves para a agricultura e pecuria no Brasil no esto na legislao ambiental e sim em fatores como a escassez de crdito agrcola, falta de assistncia tcnica, distribuio desigual de terras e carncia de investimentos em infraestrutura de armazenamento e escoamento de produo, dentre outras razes (A falsa dicotomia entre a preservao da vegetao natural e a produo agropecuria Revista Biota Neotropica FAPESP/2010/Luiz Antonio Martinelli, Carlos Alfredo Joly, Carlos Afonso Nobre e Gerd Sparovek).

16

legislation
NEW BrAZILIAN FOrEST CODE: AGrArIANS VS. ENVIrONMENTALISTS
Translation: Joana S. de Almeida The subject is controversial. On one hand, there is environmental protection and on the other, land use for agriculture and livestock. Proposals for reshaping the Brazilian Forest Code brought up old discussions on preserving the environment, food production and agribusiness growth. All of this in the midst of elections and a duality, which makes up the political salons of Brazil: large farmers and environmentalists. In this scenario, by a vote of 13 to 5, the proposed change in the new Forest Code was approved by the House of Representatives in early July 2010 and will be brought to vote in the first half of 2011. Approved by Congressman Aldo Rebelo (PCdoB-SP), the proposed reformation to the National Forest Code has faced a great amount of criticism not only from environmentalists but also from a portion of academic bodies, small farmers and even representatives of the federal executive branch. BrAZILIAN FOrEST CODE The first Brazilian Forest Code was in 1934, during which firewood and charcoal were the basis for the national energy matrix. With this measure, Getulio Varga, Brazils president at that time, approved work from the parliamentary commission, established in 1920 and inspired by the ideas of the Swiss botanist Albert Loefgren, which defended the maintenance of a small area forest of privately owned property. With the construction of the first hydroelectric plants and the consequent change in the Brazilian energy matrix, the current forest law was then forgotten. In the early 60s, a new committee was given the task to reform the Forest Code. Work on it was done, but it was put on hold and resumed again in 1964. The Brazilian Forest Code (Law No. 4771/1965) defines the rights and duties of citizens who use or benefit from land and forests in the country including the borders of the Amazon. Limits were set on the use of property, where existing vegetation must be respected and considered of common interest to all, except for the removal of vegetation for public service interests provided there are environmental licenses and compliance with established environmental compensation. Moreover, indigenous lands can only be exploited by native Indians, provided there is sustainable management. The code also defines the percentage of Legal Reserve (LR) and Permanent Protection Areas (PPAs) to be held and maintained on private property, the conditions for clearing vegetation in urban areas and the maintenance of green areas surrounding artificial dams. So, companies who use raw material from forests are obligated to reforest areas, among other measures. Since its approval in 1965, several changes were suggested in the code, and most were passed through to law or interim measures. In 2008, a working group with representatives from the Agriculture, Environmental and Agrarian Development Ministries was created. However, as the group did not reach a consensus, it was soon dissolved in 2009. In the same period, the Coordinating Committee of Ecological and Economic Zoning of National Territory changed a part of the code with respect to the surrounding areas of highways BR 163 (Cuiab-Santarm) and BR 230 (Trans-Amazonian) a reduction of 80% to 50% of legal reserve not legally required to re-vegetate native species of 700,000 hectares in the Amazon. In early 2010, a text for the reformation of the Forest Code was presented, which the rapporteur was Aldo Rebelo. THE NEW FOrEST CODE One of the reformations of the Code proposed by Rebelo is to scratch out the need for Legal Reserve and reforestation properties of up to four taxed modules (which varies from municipality to municipality). This way, it was expected that small farms be classified as family farms and would also need to reforest, even in a more flexible way under the aspect that it should be planted. However, it is expected that not only family farms, but also each and every property has this benefit. Moreover, the new rules grant amnesty to those who do not register in the Legal Reserve, deforested Permanent Protection Areas or other crimes of deforestation by 2008. So, change in the percentage destined for protection of savanna areas is expected. The current legislation states that an LR area should be of 80% in the Amazon, 35% in savanna regions of states that are located in the Amazon and 20% in other regions of the country. Reforestation should be done with native species. Under the new proposal, the savanna areas in the Amazon may have reduced the protection to 20% of the property and the restoration of the Legal Reserve should be done with exotic species interspersed with native species. Another discussion point is in regards to the Permanent Protection Areas (PPAs). According to current legislation, at least 30 meters from banks and rivers, areas of slopes, hilltops and wetlands should be protected. Thus, those who deforest need to restore vegetation. Under the new proposals, the minimum protection may be reduced to at least 15 meters, and meadows cease to be considered PPAs. Under the Federal Constitution, one whom causes damage to the environment and violates environmental laws must repair the loss. However, the report finds that the government is responsible for developing regulation plans within five years and if this is not done, the producer is no longer obligated to rehabilitate the area. ENVIrONMENT VS. AGrIBUSINESS Apart from criticism related to the changes in APP and LR limits and further flexibility in penalties against environmental crimes, researchers and environmentalists point out that the report was not produced from technical and scientific criteria and has not been debated by the public. In the same way, it criticizes the relationship between the code enforced and lack of Brazilian agribusiness development, and the conflict between the preservation natural vegetation and food production. In a recent article published by the Foundation for Research Support of So Paulo (Fundao de Amparo Pesquisa do Estado de So Paulo) FAPESP, the biggest obstacles for agriculture and livestock production in Brazil are not environmental legislation, but factors such as agricultural credit shortages, lack of technical assistance, uneven land distribution and lack of investment in infrastructure, production storage and disposal, among other reasons (the false dichotomy between of natural vegetation preservation and agricultural production Neotropic Biota Magazine FAPESP / 2010 / Luiz Antonio Matinelli, Carlos Alfredo Joly, Carlos Alfonso Nobre and Gerd Sparovek) In this sense, there was mobilization of academic and scientific non-governmental organizations and institutions. SOS Florestas (SOS Forest), for example, launched a pamphlet on the Forest Code, depicting the consequences of the changes proposed by

17

LEGISLAO
Nesse sentido, houve mobilizao de organizaes no governamentais e instituies representativas do meio acadmico e cientfico. A SOS Florestas, por exemplo, lanou uma cartilha sobre o Cdigo Florestal, apresentando as consequncias das mudanas propostas por Rebelo, com o objetivo de demonstrar a falta de embasamento cientfico das novas propostas. Da mesma forma, a Sociedade Brasileira para o Progresso da Cincia (SBPC) e a Academia Brasileira de Cincias (ABC) instituram um grupo de trabalho formado por cientistas e representantes dos setores ambiental e agrcola brasileiros com o propsito de analisar o Cdigo Florestal em vigor e as propostas para seu aperfeioamento. O OUTrO LADO Por outro lado, instituies ligadas ao agronegcio e produtores rurais afirmam que o atual Cdigo Florestal inviabiliza o processo de desenvolvimento agrcola no Brasil. A Confederao Nacional da Agricultura (CNA) aponta que 90% dos produtores rurais brasileiros esto em situao ilegal e transgridem de alguma forma o Cdigo Florestal, sendo que em torno de 1 milho de pequenos agricultores seriam impedidos de exercer suas atividades caso seguissem risca o atual cdigo. Ainda de acordo com dados da CNA, 42 milhes de hectares, equivalentes a 16% do territrio ocupado pela agropecuria, teriam de deixar de produzir para atender a atual legislao, sendo os estados de So Paulo e Paran os mais prejudicados. Em So Paulo, por exemplo, estima-se que o custo de transformar terras agrcolas em reas com vegetao com espcies nativas seja de R$37 bilhes. Independente de toda a polmica dentro dessa discusso, consenso que o Cdigo Florestal precisa de mudanas. De qualquer forma, independente do embate entre ruralistas e ambientalistas, enquanto as novas propostas no so votadas, continua valendo a legislao em vigor.

AS PRINCIPAIS ALTERAES DO CDIGO FLORESTAL Como era Regularizao Ambiental Q  uem no registrou reserva legal e desmatou reas de proteo permanente est sujeito a multas e embargo da produo A  legislao brasileira estabelece que a rea de Reserva Legal deva ser de 80% na Amaznia Legal, 35% na regio do cerrado que esteja nos estados da Amaznia Legal, e 20% nas demais regies do pas. A recomposio deve ser feita com espcies nativas Primeira Proposta C  oncede anistia a crimes e multas por desmatamentos cometidos at 2008 Como Ficou P  roposta mantida

Reserva Legal (RL)

P  ermite que os mdios e grandes proprietrios, quando impossvel cumprir a regra, faam compensaes em reas de preservao coletiva, a serem definidas pelo Estado  Aos proprietrios de at 4 mdulos rurais ser dispensada a obrigao da reserva legal

P  ropriedades de at quatro mdulos fiscais (varia de municpio para municpio) no precisam ter reserva, que passa a ser obrigatria apenas para as propriedades que excederam os quatro mdulos  reas de cerrado na Amaznia podem ter reduzida a proteo para 20% da propriedade  Recuperao da reserva legal pode ser feita com espcies exticas intercaladas a nativas A  proteo mnima pode ser reduzida para at 15 metros. Aldo retirou de seu texto a permisso de que os estados reduzam pela metade essa reserva. O relatrio, no entanto, abre a possibilidade para que algum rgo do Sistema Nacional de Meio Ambiente faa alteraes no tamanho das reas de preservao permanente V  rzeas deixam de ser consideradas reas de proteo permanente e podem ser desmatadas em decorrncia de empreendimento, quando no houver alternativa tcnica  reas de proteo permanente podem ser descontadas do clculo da reserva legal P  roposta mantida

reas de Preservao Permanente (APPs)

L  ei protege no mnimo 30 metros nas margens dos rios, reas de encosta e topos de morros e as vrzeas. Quem desmatou, tem de recompor

A  mata ciliar poderia ser reduzida para at 15 metros. Mas um dispositivo na proposta permitia que os estados decidissem sobre a reduo de at 50% das faixas mnimas de reas de preservao permanente. Dessa forma a reduo poderia chegar at 7,5 metros nos rios mais estreitos

Inverso da responsabilidade na reparao do dano ambiental

D  e acordo com a Constituio Federal aquele que infringir as leis ambientais, causar danos ao meio ambiente, obrigado a reparar a perda

E  stados tm cinco anos para definir programas de regularizao ambiental e podero desobrigar desmatadores a recompor rea abatida at julho de 2008

Fonte: Portal Mudanas Climticas (2010) As reas de Preservao Permanente (APPs), de acordo com o Cdigo Florestal, so reas protegidas, cobertas ou no de vegetao nativa, com a funo de preservar os recursos hdricos, a paisagem, a estabilidade geolgica, a biodiversidade, o fluxo gnico de fauna e flora, proteger o solo e assegurar o bem-estar das populaes humanas. As Reservas Legais (RLs) so reas localizadas no interior de uma propriedade rural, excetuada a de preservao permanente, necessria ao uso sustentvel dos recursos naturais, conservao e reabilitao dos processos ecolgicos, conservao da biodiversidade e ao abrigo e proteo de fauna e flora nativas.

18

legislation
Rebelo, with an aim in demonstrating the lack of scientific basis in the new proposals. Likewise, the Brazilian Society for Scientific Advancements (Sociedade Brasileira para o Progresso da Cincia) SBPC and the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (Academia Brasileira de Cincias) ABC established a working group composed of scientists and representatives of environmental and agricultural sectors in Brazil to deeply consider the Forest Code and its proposals for improvement. THE OTHEr SIDE Moreover, institutions related to agribusiness and farmers say the Forest Code prevents the process of agricultural development in Brazil. The National Agriculture Confederation (Confederao Nacional da Agricultura) CNA suggests that 90% of Brazilian farmers are breaking the law and in some way violating the Forest Code. Of those 90%, around 1 million small farmers would be restricted in exercising their activities if the new code was enforced by the book. Yet, according to data from the CNA, 42 million hectares, the equivalent to 16% of the territory that is occupied agriculturally, would have to cease production to meet current legislation. The states of So Paulo and Paran are the most affected. In So Paulo, for example, it is estimated that the cost of turning agricultural land into areas replanted with native vegetation would be R$37 billion. Putting any controversy from this discussion aside, the consensus is that the Forest Code needs to be changed. In any way, the clash between large farmers and environmentalists, while the new proposals are being voted on, is still worth the legislation.

MAIN CHANGES TO THE FOREST CODE How it was Environmental Regulation W  hoever did not register Legal Reserve and reforested protected areas is subject to fines and seizure of production Initial Proposal G  rants amnesty for fines and crimes committed for deforestation until 2008 How it is P  roposal maintained

Legal Reserve (LR)

B  razilian law provides that the Legal Preserve should be 80% in the Amazon, 35% in savanna regions with in Amazonian states, and 20% in other regions in the country. The reforestation should be done with species native to the area

P  ermits average and large landowners, while impossible to follow this rule, compensate in the form of collective preservation areas, to be define by the state  The owners of up to four rural modules will be waived of the obligation of a legal reserve

P  roperties of up to 4 taxed modules (varies among different municipalities) do not need to have a reservation, which will be mandatory only for properties that exceed four modules  Savanna areas in the Amazon may have a reduced protected area of 20% of the property  Recovery of legal reserves can be interspersed with exotic and native species

Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs)

L  aw protects that at least 30 meters of riverbanks, hillside areas, hilltops and slopes. Whoever deforests, must reforest

T  he riparian Forest can be reduced by up to 15 meters. However, a device in the proposal allows states to decide on a reduction of up to 50% of the minimum strips of permanent preservation areas. Therefore, the reduction could reach 7.5 meters for narrower rivers

T  he minimum protection could reach up to 15 meters. Aldo departed from his text to permit states to reduce the reservation by half. The report, however, opens up the possibility of an organ of the National Environment system to make changes to the size of permanent reservation areas W  etlands are no longer considered permanent protection areas and can be cleared as a result of development, when there is no technical alternative P  ermanent protection areas can be deducted from the legal reserve calculation

Shift of responsibility for repairing environmental damages

A  ccording to the Federal Constitution, whoever violates environmental laws by causing damage to the environment is required to repair the loss

S  tates have 5 years to enforce environmental regulations programs and those who deforest may be relieved of reforesting the area by July 2008

P  roposal maintained

Source: Portal for Climatic Change (2010) Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs), according to the Forest Code, are protected areas, covered on not by native vegetation, for the purpose of preserving water resources, landscape, geological stability, biodiversity, the gene flow of wild fauna and flora, protecting the soil and ensuring the well being of the human populous. The Legal Reserves (LRs) are areas localized within a farm, with exception to permanent preservation areas, necessary for sustainable uses of natural resources, conservation and rehabilitation of ecological processes, conservation of biodiversity, and the shelter and protection for native fauna and flora.

19

LEGISLAO
Entrevista Decio Michellis Jr. Diretor de Energia do Departamento de Infraestrutura da Federao das Indstrias do Estado de So Paulo (Fiesp) e Assessor Especial de Meio Ambiente da Vice-Presidncia Corporativa de Distribuio da Rede Energia
Com o novo cdigo, o que muda para o setor eltrico? O principal benefcio esperado sobre a exigncia de Reserva Legal RL sobre os ativos do setor eltrico (um instituto aplicvel ao solo com vocao agrcola/pecuria somente localizada no interior de uma propriedade rural no incidindo para imveis urbanos e outros tipos de bens como os pblicos de uso especial). Antes a RL era uma obrigao sem previso legal e imposta no mbito do licenciamento hoje o empreendedor (pblico ou privado) poder ser qualificado como infrator. A atividade do setor eltrico e as reas utilizadas so declaradas de utilidade pblica no so atividades rurais, portanto no se aplica a exigncia legal inerente Reserva Legal. Mesmo com as questes controvrsias e imprevisibilidade legal, queles empreendimentos em que for imposta a obrigatoriedade de reserva legal estaro sujeitos a sano administrativa. O Decreto 6.514/08 tipificou como infrao administrativa deixar de averbar reserva legal, que hoje sujeita o infrator multa de R$ 50,00 a R$ 500,00 por hectare ou frao da rea de reserva legal que no estiver devidamente averbada na matrcula do imvel rural. O Decreto 7029/09 Programa Mais Ambiente Termo de Adeso e Compromisso prorrogou o prazo para cumprimento desta obrigao para julho de 2011. A partir desta data, os agentes estariam em situao de ilicitude permanente e estariam sujeitos a multas estimadas entre R$ 67 e 673 milhes, alm da obrigao de fazer: averbar a reserva legal, um passivo ambiental estimado em aproximadamente R$ 11,2 bilhes + custo anual de R$ 337 milhes para financiar as aes de conservao e fiscalizao destas reas. Isto implicaria num aumento mdio do custo final da energia eltrica para o consumidor entre 3,5% a 5%. O PL 1876/99 (o novo Cdigo Florestal) prev no 3, do Art. 5, que Os empreendimentos hidreltricos ou de abastecimento pblico ou de interesse pblico previstos neste artigo e vinculados concesso no esto sujeitos a constituio de nova Reserva Legal. E no que diz respeito viabilidade ambiental dos empreendimentos hidroenergticos? De forma objetiva e direta pouco contribui para aumentar a viabilidade ambiental dos empreendimentos hidreltricos. De forma indireta reduz o potencial passivo ambiental da incidncia da Reserva Legal sobre as reas onde esto localizados os empreendimentos e desenvolvidas as atividades vinculadas gerao, transmisso e distribuio de energia eltrica. Poder eliminar o risco estimado para os ativos existentes das hidreltricas em aproximadamente R$ 9,1 bilhes + custo anual de R$ 272 milhes para financiar as aes de conservao e fiscalizao destas reas. Os objetivos maiores e os requisitos essenciais do desenvolvimento sustentvel so a erradicao da pobreza (a hidroeletricidade como fonte confivel e flexvel de energia para reduzir a pobreza e melhorar os padres de vida), a mudana de padres insustentveis de produo e consumo e a proteo e gesto da base de recursos naturais que fundamenta o desenvolvimento econmico e social. As hidreltricas asseguram sua viabilidade ambiental medida que criam mais valor com menos impacto ambiental por meio do conceito de ecoeficincia, reduzindo o consumo de recursos naturais (renovveis ou no) e o impacto sobre a natureza. Pressupe a avaliao de impactos sinrgicos e cumulativos da hidroeletricidade na matriz eltrica, na definio de uso da terra e nas prioridades ambientais, assim como objetivos para reduo da pobreza e crescimento econmico. A hidroeletricidade (com reservao) tem um importante papel no desenvolvimento de fontes renovveis de energia (no despachveis): fornecer um produto flexvel e confivel que suporta outros sistemas menos flexveis na matriz eltrica. Precisamos de reservatrios com regularizao (abandono das UHEs e PCHs a fio d'gua) como imprescindveis para o futuro da segurana energtica nacional, como seguro s mudanas climticas (aumento do intemperismo e ocorrncias de eventos crticos) para amortecer frentes de cheia e estocagem para as secas (menor despacho de termeltricas). Quais so os impactos para as PCHs? Igualmente de forma indireta, reduz o potencial passivo ambiental da incidncia da Reserva Legal sobre as reas onde esto localizados os empreendimentos e desenvolvidas as atividades vinculadas gerao, transmisso e distribuio de energia eltrica. Poder eliminar o risco estimado para os ativos existentes em aproximadamente R$ 547 milhes + custo anual de R$ 16,3 milhes para financiar as aes de conservao e fiscalizao destas reas. Na sua opinio, h a necessidade de reformular o Cdigo Florestal vigente? Sim, compartilho da posio do Dep. Aldo Rebelo sobre a atual legislao ambiental que gera uma situao de insegurana jurdica e inibe o desenvolvimento do setor rural brasileiro e tambm impacta de forma negativa o setor eltrico em relao exigncia das reservas legais. A aprovao do novo Cdigo Florestal imprescindvel para o futuro da segurana alimentar nacional, da segurana jurdica aos produtores rurais, assentados e pequenos produtores e para a modicidade tarifria ao evitar aumento de custos ambientais no gerenciveis. Ele contribui para reduzir as relaes de assimetria materializadas nas polticas ambientais que apresentam caractersticas segregacionistas, protecionistas, discriminatrias, socialmente excludentes, e que no raro so acompanhadas de ciclos de ecloso, colapso econmico e ambiental, pois sem riqueza econmica impossvel investir na conservao e recuperao ambiental e numa economia de baixo carbono. Com as novas regras propostas para o Cdigo Florestal Brasileiro, a discusso se polarizou em torno dos ambientalistas e dos produtores rurais. Como fica a questo energtica nessa discusso? Na viso dos ecocentristas radicais, o Produto Interno Bruto est sendo feito custa do Produto Terrestre Bruto, atravs de uma viso de mundo mecanicista, utilitarista, antropocntrica, sem respeito aos limites dos ecossistemas liquidando com as condies ecolgicas que nos permitem manter nossa civilizao e a vida humana na terra. Seria uma nova era geolgica: o antropoceno (a idade das grandes dizimaes perpetradas pela irracionalidade do ser humano em grego ntropos). Nesta viso, estariam includos (quase) todos os agentes do setor produtivo, setor eltrico idem. Quanto menos rvores, menos proteo do solo e mais eventos climticos extremos. Para os ecocentristas, radicais hidreltricas sempre degradam o meio ambiente, no importa os inmeros programas e medidas de controle adotadas. Os impactos ambientais que no puderem ser totalmente eliminados sero impactos residuais sem significao relevante e/ou que esto dentro dos limites permitidos pela legislao ambiental, que concilia o desenvolvimento econmico com a preservao do meio ambiente, ambos de vital importncia para a sadia qualidade de vida da populao. Igualmente, o setor eltrico teria grande poder econmico e deveria subsidiar, alm de suas obrigaes, outras aes ambientais e sociais que caberiam ao Poder Pblico. Entendem que isto no acarretar maior nus, j que o valor pago ser repassado ao preo da energia eltrica. Esta percepo tem efeitos sinrgicos e cumulativos com o conceito do outrismo. O outrismo se caracteriza por um modo de pensar bastante popular na difcil arte de lidar com prejuzos difusos na questo ambiental: a culpa dos problemas ambientais sempre dos outros, nunca de si mesmo. Porm, as necessidades comuns e particulares, combinadas com outros princpios tais como: a participao daqueles especialmente vulnerveis, levaro o setor eltrico assumir novas responsabilidades no imputveis aos empreendimentos, com pesados encargos financeiros pelos impactos de terceiros, resultantes da soma de milhes de pequenas aes individuais de supresso de vegetao e perda da biodiversidade. O setor eltrico realiza e paga vrias compensaes previstas em leis, tais como: as medidas compensatrias no licenciamento ambiental (art. 12, pargrafo nico, da lei 6.981/81); compensao ambiental da lei do SNUC (art. 36, 47, 48 da Lei 9.985/00); compensao florestal para supresso de vegetao da lei 4771/65; compensao para supresso de vegetao em mata atlntica (art. 17 e 32 da Lei 11.428/06); compensao por supresso de APP (art. 4, pargrafo 4, do Cdigo Florestal) e compensaes financeiras, sem contar as demais compensaes impostas por processos judiciais e nas condicionantes das licenas. Porm, considerando as eventuais perdas sobre a tica conservacionista, pela aprovao do novo cdigo florestal, sero geradas novas presses inflacionrias sobre as aes de compensao florestal e indenizao por impactos dos empreendimentos, o que poder levar ao aumento de custos e at mesmo reduo da atratividade dos empreendimentos.
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legislation
Decio Michellis Jr. Interview Energy Director of the Department of Infrastructure of the Industry Federation of the State of So Paulo (Departamento de Infraestrutura da Federao das Indstrias do Estado de So Paulo) FIESP, and Environmental Special Advisor for the Corporate Vice-President of the Energy Distribution Network
With the new code, what changes for the energy sector? The main expected benefit is about the Legal Reserve (RL) requirement on the assets in the energy sector (applicable to an institute with soil suitable for agriculture/livestock only located within rural property is not born for urban property and other assets like the special use of public ones). Before the RL was a requirement and enforced no legal provision under the license now the developer (public or private) can be considered a violator. The activity of the Energy Sector and the areas used are declared as public utility they are not rural activities, so they do not apply to the legal requirement inherent in the Legal Reserve. Even with issues and controversies legal unpredictability, those developments that have had legal obligation to the Legal Reserve will be subject to administrative sanction. Decree 6.514/08 was typified as an administrative violation failure to endorse the legal reserve, which now subjects the violator to a fine of between R$50.00 and R$500.00 per hectare of the rural property. Decree 7029/09 the More Environment Program (Programa Mais Ambiente) Adhesion and Commitment Term extended the deadline for fulfilling this obligation to July 2011. From this date on, the officers would be in a situation of permanent illegality and be subject to fines estimated between R$67 million and R$673 million, and the obligation to: either endorse the Legal Reserve, environmental liabilities estimated at about R$11.2 billion plus the annual cost of R$337 million to fund conservation actions and monitoring of these areas. This would imply an average increase of the final cost of electric energy consumers from 3.5%-5%. And with regard to the environmental feasibility of hydropower ventures? Objectively and directly, it contributes little to increase the environmental feasibility of hydropower projects. Indirectly, it reduces the potential environmental liabilities of the impact of the Legal Reserve on the areas where the developments are located and where activities related to generation, transmission and distribution of electric energy is developed. You can eliminate the estimated risk for the existing assets of hydroelectric dams of about R$9.1 billion plus the annual cost of R$272 million to fund conservation actions and the monitoring of these areas. The main goals and basic requirements of sustainable development are poverty eradication (hydroelectricity as a source of reliable and flexible energy to reduce poverty and improve living standards), the change of unsustainable patterns of production and consumption and protecting, and managing the natural resource base that supports economic and social development. The hydroelectric dams ensure its environmental sustainability to the extent that they generate high numbers with less impact through the concept of eco-efficiency, reducing consum-ption of natural resources (renewable or not) and the impact to nature. It assumes the evaluation of synergistic and cumulative impacts of hydropower in the energy matrix under the definition of land use and environmental priorities, and goals for poverty reduction and economic growth. Hydroelectricity (with reservation) has an important role in the development of renewable energy (non-dispatchable): Providing flexible and reliable systems that support other less flexible systems in the energy matrix. We need reservoirs with regularization (abandonment of HPPs and river SHPs) as fundamental for the future of national energy security, as to secure climate changes (increased weathering and instances of critical events) to absorb rain fronts and store for droughts (lowest order of plants). What impacts are there to SHPs? It also indirectly reduces the incidence of potential environmental liabilities of the Legal Reserve in the areas where developments are located and activities related to generation, transmission and distribution of electricity are developed, could eliminate the risk to existing assets estimated at approximately R$547 million plus annual costs of R$16.3 million to fund conservation actions and the monitoring of these areas. In your opinion, is there a need to reform the existing Forest Code? Yes, share the same stand as Rep. Aldo Rebelo on the current environmental legislation that creates a situation of legal uncertainty and inhibits the development or the rural sector of Brazil and also negatively affects the energy sector in relation to the Legal Reserve requirement. The approval of the new Forest Code is essential for the future of national food security, legal certainty for farmers, settlers and small farmers, and to moderate tariffs to prevent increased unmanageable environmental costs. It helps to reduce the relations of materialized asymmetry in environmental policies that have segregationist, protectionist, discriminatory and socially exclusionary characteristics, and often are accompanied by cycles of outbreak, environmental and economic collapse, because without economic wealth, it is impossible to invest in environmental conservation and recovery, and a low-carbon economy. With the proposed new rules for the Brazilian Forest Code, the discussion became polarized around the environmentalists and agrarians. How is it the issue of energy in this dispute? In the view of eco-centrist radicals, the Gross Domestic Product is being done at the expense of the Gross Terrestrial Product, by the point of view of a mechanistic, utilitarian and anthropocentric world, without respect to ecosystem limits liquidating the ecological conditions that allows us to sustain our civilization and human life on earth. It would be a new geological era: the Anthropocene (the age of large decimations perpetrated by the irrationality of human beings in Greek, Anthropos). This vision would include (almost) all agents of the productive sector, as well as the energy sector. The fewer trees, the less soil protection and more extreme weather events. For the radical eco-centrists, hydropower always degrades the environment, no matter the countless programs and control measures taken. The environmental impacts that could not be completely eliminated are residual impacts without relevant significance and/or are within the limits allowed by environmental legislation, which reconciles economic development with environmental preservation, both vital to the healthy populous, quality of life. Equally so, the energy sector would have great economic power and should support, in addition to its obligations, other environmental and social actions that would be fit for the Government. Understand that this does not cause higher costs, since the amount paid will be passed on to the price of electric energy. This perception is synergistic and cumulative effects with the concept of other-ism. Other-ism is characterized by the very popular way of thinking in the difficult art of dealing with vague damages in environmental issues: the blame for environmental problems is always someone elses, never he himself. However, the common and particular needs, combined with other principles such as participation in those particularly those who are vulnerable (energy sector) lead one to assume new responsibilities that are not attributable to the ventures with heavy financial burden for the impacts of third parties resulting from the sum of millions of small individual actions of suppression of vegetation and the loss of biodiversity. The energy sector performs and pays compensation provided in several laws, such as compensatory measures in the environmental permit (Art. 12, sole paragraph, of Law 6.981/81); environmental compensation law of the SNUG (Art. 36, 47, 48 of Law 9.985/00); reforestation of removed vegetation from Law 4771/65, compensation for the removal of vegetation in the rain forest (Art. 17 and 32 of Law 11.428/06), compensation from PPA deforestation (Art. 4, paragraph 4, of the Forest Code) and financial compensation, not counting other compensations imposed by lawsuits and restrictions on licenses. However, considering the potential losses of the conservationist perspective, adopting the new Forest Code will generate new inflationary pressures on the forest compensation actions and damages for impacts to the projects, which may lead to increased costs and even reduce the appeal of companies.

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LEGISLAO
O novo Cdigo Florestal e suas implicaes para o setor eltrico nacional
Fora do embate entre ruralistas e ambientalistas em torno das mudanas do Cdigo Florestal Brasileiro est o que tais propostas ocasionam para o setor eltrico nacional. Nesse sentido, a discusso no fica em torno de reas agricultveis ou de produo de alimentos, mas sim nos impactos que tais mudanas implicam para a gerao de energia eltrica no pas. A polarizao est se dando entre ambientalistas e ruralistas justamente porque as mudanas mais profundas esto relacionadas com a atividade agrcola. Quanto ao setor eltrico, no causaram controvrsias, justamente por no ter sido nem penalizado, nem muito beneficiado, afirma o Coordenador do Grupo de Trabalho de Sustentabilidade da Associao Brasileira de Gerao de Energia Limpa (Abragel), Tarcsio Borin Junior. De acordo com Borin Junior, as propostas para o Cdigo Florestal trazem importantes mudanas para o setor eltrico, principalmente no que diz respeito Reserva Legal (RL). Com base no cdigo vigente, os rgos ambientais vm cobrando de maneira sistemtica que o empreendedor faa a averbao da RL de toda a rea adquirida para a implantao do projeto. Em que pese a polmica sobre o assunto, nosso entendimento que esta cobrana totalmente incabvel, lamenta o Coordenador do Grupo de Trabalho de Sustentabilidade da Abragel. Os servios de gerao, transmisso e distribuio de energia eltrica, explica a Coordenadora Socioambiental da Associao Brasileira dos Investidores em Autoproduo de Energia (Abiape), Adriana Coli Pedreira, no se caracterizam como explorao agrcola, pecuria ou agroindustrial, ou seja, so atividades de carter eminentemente industrial. Os bens vinculados ao servio pblico de energia eltrica se enquadram na definio de bem pblico de uso especial, reservados a determinada espcie de servio pblico e no na definio de imvel rural, explica Pedreira. Nesse sentido, o principal benefcio esperado para o setor eltrico com as mudanas no Cdigo Florestal em relao exigncia de Reserva Legal. Dessa forma, a proposta contida no novo cdigo coloca que os reservatrios de guas artificiais resultantes de concesso no esto sujeitos RL. A partir da, as propostas de aperfeioamento do Cdigo Florestal Brasileiro foram muito bem vistas por instituies representativas do setor eltrico. As propostas apresentam avanos no atual processo de reformulao do Cdigo Florestal vigente, trazendo luz e pragmatismo discusso, afirma a Diretora de Meio Ambiente da Associao Brasileira de Companhias de Energia Eltrica (ABCE), Alacir Borges. Segundo Borges, a expectativa da ABCE que, com as propostas, haver modernizao da legislao, visando ao desenvolvimento do Brasil, com menos judicializao nos processos, instituio na lei de aes que hoje ocorrem na prtica.

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Diretora de Meio Ambiente da Associao Brasileira de Companhias de Energia Eltrica (ABCE), Alacir Borges. Environmental Director of Brazilian Association of Electricity Companies (ABCE), Alacir Borges. A Coordenadora Socioambiental da Associao Brasileira dos Investidores em Autoproduo de Energia (Abiape), Adriana Coli Pedreira, tambm concorda com a necessidade de reformulao do cdigo em vigor. O Cdigo Florestal de 1965. De l pra c, sofreu vrias emendas tentando se adequar realidade. Entendemos que no cabem mais remendos. hora dos setores envolvidos conversarem e convergirem a um resultado satisfatrio ao meio ambiente, sociedade, governo e investidores, afirma. Pedreira ainda explica que, com as mudanas, o setor ter maior segurana jurdica nos processos de licenciamento e a consequente reduo dos custos socioambientais. Nesse sentido, a expectativa da Abiape que, com a aprovao do novo cdigo, os custos do processo de licenciamento sejam reduzidos, j que hoje representam de 15% a 20% do custo total de implantao de empreendimentos hidreltricos.

The new Forest Code and its implications to the national energy sector
Aside from the clash between agrarians and environmentalists about the change in the Brazilian Forest Code lies the cause of such proposals for the energy sector. In this sense, the discussion is not about agricultural areas or food production, but the impacts that such changes would imply for the generation of power in the country. The polarization is taking place between environmentalists and large farmers precisely because the greatest changes are related to agricultural activities. As for the energy sector, no controversy was caused, just as it was not even penalized, not so much as benefited, said the Coordinator of the Working Group on the Sustainability of the Brazilian Association for Clean Energy Generation (Abragel), Tarcisio Borin Junior. According to Borin Junior, proposals for the Forest Code bring important changes to the energy sector, especially with regard to the Legal Reserve (RL). Based on the existing code, environmental agencies have, in a systematic way, demanded that the entrepreneur make an annotation of the RL of the entire area acquired for the project to be implemented. Despite the controversy on the matter, our understanding is that this demand is completely unfitted, complains the Coordinator for the Sustainability Working Group of Abragel. The services of generation, transmission and distribution of electric energy, says the Socio-Environmental Coordinator of the Brazilian Association of Investors in Auto-Generation of Energy (Socioambiental da Associao Brasileira dos Investidores em Autoproduo de Energia)- Abiape, Adriana Pedreira Coli, would not qualify as farming, ranching or agribusiness, or activities which are eminently industrial. The assets related to public service of electric power falls within the definition of special use of a public asset, reserved for a particular kind of public service not defined as rural property, said Pedreira. So, the main, expected benefit to the energy sector with the changes to the Forest Code is in relation to the Legal Reserve requirement. Thus, the proposal within the new code makes it that the resulting artificial water reservoirs are not subject to the concession of RL. Thereafter, the proposals for the improvements to the Brazilian Forest Code were well viewed by institutions representing Coordenadora the energy sector. The proposals present advances in the current reform process of the existing Forest Code, shedding Socioambiental da light and pragmatism to the discussion, said the Environmental Director of Brazilian Association of Electricity Companies Associao Brasileira (Associao Brasileira de Companhias de Energia Eltrica) ABCE, Alacir Borges. According to Borges, the expectation is that dos Investidores em the ABCE, as proposed, there will be modernizations to legislation, aimed at developing Brazil, under the legislative process, Autoproduo de the institution of law of actions that currently take place in practice. Energia (Abiape), The Socio-Environmental Coordinator of the Brazilian Association in Auto-Generation of Energy (Abiape), Adriana Pedreira Adriana Coli Pedreira. Coli, also agrees with the need to reform the existing code. The Forest Code is from 1965. Since then it has undergone several Socio-Environmental amendments trying to adjust to reality. We understand that patches are no longer fitted. It is time for the sectors involved to Coordinator of the talk and converge to a satisfactory outcome for the environment, society, government and investors, she says. Pedreira also Brazilian Association explains that with the changes, the sector will have greater legal certainty in the licensing process and the consequent reduction of Investors in Autoin environmental costs. In this way, the expectation of Abiape is that the, along with approval of the new Code, the costs of the Generation of Energy (Abiape), Adriana Coli licensing process are reduced, since they currently represent 15%-20% of the total cost for the implementation of hydropower Pedreira. projects.
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Technical Articles Seccion


CENTER OF EXCELLENCE AT KATHMANDU UNIVERSITY FOR R&D AND TEST CERTIFICATION OF HYDRAULIC TURBINES Biraj Singh Thapa, Bhola Thapa, Ole G. Dahlhaug PORTARIA 463/2009: Novos Desafios e Oportunidades na OtimiZao da Viabilidade de ProJetos de PCHs Cristiano Tessaro ESTUDO DO POTENCIAL DE RECEITAS DECORRENTES DE CRDITOS DE CARBONO PROVENIENTES DE PROJETOS DE MDL PARA PCHs COM BASE NA EVOLUO DA POTNCIA INSTALADA (2010 2019) Marcela Fernandes Pieroni, Regina Mambeli Barros, Geraldo Lcio Tiago Filho CFD APPROACH FOR PREDICTION OF EFFICIENCY OF FRANCIS TURBINE Sanjay Jain, R. P. Saini, Arun Kumar THE COMBINED OF SMALL HYDROELETRIC POWER AND WIND POWER PLANTS Occia, G. C., Santos, L. H, Essi, J. Occia, N. C. CONTRIBUIES PARA O ESTUDO DE DESCOMISSIONAMENTO DE BARRAGENS Amarlio Costa, Carvalho Pinto, Rodolfo Scarati Martins 24

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IAHR DIVISION I: HYDRAULICS TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: HYDRAULIC MACHINERY AND SYSTEMS

Classificao Qualis/Capes

B5

ENGENHARIA III INTERDISCIPLINAR ENGENHARIAS I

reas de: Recursos Hdricos Meio Ambiente Energias Renovveis e no Renovveis

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ARTIGOS TCNICOS

TECHNICAL ARTICLES

ARTIGOS TCNICOS
CENTER OF EXCELLENCE AT KATHMANDU UNIVERSITY FOR R&D AND TEST CERTIFICATION OF HYDRAULIC TURBINES
1

Biraj Singh Thapa, 2 Bhola Thapa, 3 Ole G. Dahlhaug

ABSTRACT Growth in global demand of clean energy has also increased hydropower development activities. This has also increased the necessity of overall efficiency improvements in hydropower plants for producing larger power with same site conditions. Efficiency improvement by design optimization of turbines is primary task in elevating performance of any hydropower projects. Institutional laboratory test facilities, which are expensive and demand high level of proficiency, are needed to certify performance of turbines. Due to the lack of well equipped and standard test facilities at South Asia region, efficiency measurement of turbines is mostly done at project sites. Kathmandu University (KU) is an autonomous, not-for-profit, non-government institution dedicated to maintain high standards of academic excellence. With technical support from Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology (NTNU), KU has been upgrading its competency to support the ambitious plan of Government of Nepal (2010) to develop 38,000 MW of Hydropower in 25 years. KU is collaborating with national and international experts and institutions for this venture. Turbine Testing Laboratory (TTL), under construction at KU with financial assistance from NORAD, Norway, aims to deliver its facilities to local and international developers and consultants by the mid of 2011. With 30 meter open head and 150 meter closed head, TTL is capable of testing different range prototypes up to 300kW and conduct model tests for larger sizes. Internationally recognized certification endorsed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC-60193) will be maintained at TTL for model tests. The technical support for the laboratory will be provided by Waterpower Laboratory, NTNU which has experience of turbine testing for almost 100 years. In coming years, TTL intends to include state of the art technologies such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis for new design or upgrading existing turbines, innovative design of hydro-mechanical components for power plants, and specialized trainings to engineers and technicians. This paper elaborates the utility of TTL in South Asia region with its objectives and specifications. Scope and partnerships for developing a center of excellence at TTL for R&D of hydraulic turbines are also presented. Need and possibilities of creating a new turbine manufacturer in Nepal, by the combined effort of academic institutions and manufacturing industries has been analyzed. Beside these, the progress of design optimization of Francis turbine at Jhimruk power plant for reduction of adverse impact of sediment erosion has been discussed. KeyWords: Kathmandu University, performance test, hydraulic turbines, design optimization, sediment erosion 1. INTRODUCTION Even after more than a century of progressive experiences, hydraulic machinery design is a challenging domain for engineers. The design process ranges from geometry manipulation to predicting performance analysis [1]. Hydro turbines are generally tailor made machines designed to suit a particular site condition. The designs need verification as they are based on empirical assumptions. The verification processes also can be carried out in a controlled environment such as by conducting experiments in a well-equipped and standardized laboratory. Over the last few decades, the use of computer aided tools such as CAD, CFD, FEM, etc. for design of turbine has greatly improved turbine performance due to iterative and optimized design process [1,2]. However, use of computing software in design process includes many assumptions. To overcome some of these theoretical designed flaws model tests may be performed. The model test methodology for hydraulic turbines has been prescribed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC-60193) standards. Following the same standard of model tests for turbines designed by differing assumptions will still bring uniformity for comparisons and performance guarantee of each design. The center of excellence for R&D of hydraulic turbines at TTL, as conceived by KU, provide state of the art engineering solutions to design problems of hydraulic turbines along with model test certification of IEC standard. 2. Turbine desiGn and model tests Practice of design optimization and verification Equations of classical theories were used as primary means to shape the blade of turbine runner up to early sixties. Optimizations of such design were based on hit and trial modification with model experiments. The current trend for turbine design is to shape blade geometry based on classical approach and optimize the design by using the CFD techniques [2,3]. The new approach is to see the design process of a turbine as an optimization problem. Final design of turbine is optimum solution enhanced from existing designs to suit a special set of

1 Thapa is a MS by Research student in Mechanical Engineering Department at KU with the topic New Design Philosophy of Francis Turbine for Sediment Erosion. He is also an active researcher for Renewable Nepal Project with KU, NTNU, NHE and DynaVec as partners to develop new turbine manufacturing facility in Nepal. Corresponding address: bst@ku.edu.np 2 Obtained his PhD in Mechanical Engineering at The Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Currently he is a Professor at Department of Mechanical Engineering and Dean of School of Engineering at the University. His research area is Sand Erosion of Hydraulic Machinery. Corresponding address: bhola@ku.edu.np 3 Obtained his PhD in Mechanical Engineering at The Norwegian University of Science and Technology. From 1992 to 1998 he worked at SINTEF as Research Scientist, with Research and testing pumps and turbines. Currently he is a Professor at Waterpower Laboratory at NTNU. He has been actively working in Nepalese hydropower plants in research of sand erosion of turbine components and efficiency measurements of hydropower plants. Corresponding address: ole.g.dahlhaug@ntnu.no 1,2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal 3 The Waterpower Laboratory, Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology, NTNU Norway

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TECHNICAL ARTICLES

FIG. 1: Optimization for runner design [1]

FIG. 2: Procedures for calculating comparative test results [4]

conditions. CFD techniques are used for optimization and validity of the optimum design is assured by the model test at standard test laboratory. Fig. 1 & Fig. 2 show the optimization methodology and model test verification process that would be applied for R&D at TTL. The design problem is formulated mathematically to interpret solution as combination of geometric parameters. Due to variation in design criteria for each hydro power plant, design problem of turbine is unique in itself. Hence many factors ranging from the geometric shape definition, evaluation and optimizing computing algorithms need to be carefully considered for every individual case. The following points provide some insight to be considered when formulating the design optimization (Fig. 1). Parameterization: It is to establish a fixed number of parameters, which are able to represent the geometric entity that is expected to be improved. The most important factor is their number. A high parameter number may increase the shape manipulation complexity, where a low number may provide a poor and a limited range of feasible solutions. Performance Evaluation: The performance of new design is estimated by running (CFD, FEM, etc.) simulations. Depending on the model the time consumed at this stage can be significant. Thus simplified models are used to accelerate the process. However, it leads to accurate results to support decisions. Objective Function: It is the relation between design solutions with input variables. Moreover, the best solution changes from case to case. Optimization Technique: It is improvement in design resulting from fine tuning each variable in relation to desired solution. The main hydraulic performance parameters, which can be verified by model tests, are: power, discharge and/or specific hydraulic energy, efficiency, pressure oscillations, cavitation performance, and runaway speed. A basic requirement for determining prototype performance from model tests is to have geometric similarity between model and prototype. Model tests are seldom carried out at the same Reynolds number as the prototype. Hence, the hydraulic efficiency calculated for each point with different Reynolds (ReM) number is scaled to prototype Reynolds number (Rep). Results of model tests are presented in form of Hill Diagrams of prototype as a function of prototype perfor-

mance parameters, which are derived from the model Hill Diagram with appropriate scaling methods (Fig. 2). Turbine Test verification practices and facilities Large turbines neither can be tested at site nor in real condition for which it is designed. The tests are done on scaled models on scaled hydraulic conditions [5]. Such model tests process is a time consuming job and it demands well calibrated equipment, which are costly and often tailor made. Larger turbine companies such as Andritz, Voith and Rainpower (Formerly Kvaerner) have their own test facilities. However, smaller developers and consultants concerned with hydro power cannot afford such a big investment. Consequently several projects have faced surprises during their operation. There are some renowned independent or university owned laboratories in Europe and Asia for R&D, education and training in hydraulic turbines. They include: Waterpower Laboratory, NTNU, Norway Laboratory for Hydraulic Machinery (LHM), EPFL, Switzerland Global Scale Model Test Laboratory, ALSTOM Hydro, France Toshiba Hydraulic Research Laboratory, Japan The Hydraulic Machinery Laboratory of IWHR, China The facilities available in such laboratories are used not only for research but also as means to generate revenue for universities. Turbo institute in Croatia is has tested more than 100 turbines. LHM-EPFL has carried out model test of more than 42 projects ranging from 18 MW to 770 MW for North American hydropower industries [5]. With its model test facility of 1000 kW, Toshiba is able to conduct model tests for hydro power plant with net head of 2000 m [6]. With the rise in necessity of design verification and performance guarantee, model tests of turbines have become an international business. Nepal does not have much experience of turbine model testing. Until now, model tests of turbines purchased by Nepal Electric Authority and other Independent Power Producers in Nepal are carried out by laboratories abroad. Model tests of major hydropower projects in Nepal, Kaligandaki (144 MW, Toshiba), Marsyangdi (69 MW, Voith) and Middle Marsyangdi (70 MW, Voith) were conducted by the respective manufacturers at their own test facilities. Nepal Hydro Electric Pvt. Ltd. (NHE) had tested smaller turbines for certification of their product manufactured for Indian market.

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BalajuYantraShala, a private limited company in Nepal developed its design competence for cross flow turbine due to testing of its turbines. However, both these company turbines were for microhydro projects, both tests were done on prototypes and both tests were done at smaller laboratories [5,7]. There is an institution in Nepal, Hydro Lab Pvt. Ltd. for physical and civil engineering modeling of hydraulic systems, but there is no institution to carry out research and development of hydro-mechanical components. A survey is being conducted by Roorkee University to assimilate the need of a modern test facility for hydraulic turbines in India [8]. An advertisement was published by Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) in India, for consultation to modernize its existing hydro turbine testing lab to meet the international standards [9]. These scenario show that a well equipped test facility to conduct model test of turbines for larger projects is necessary but lacking in South Asia. Prospects of modern turbine test facility in South Asia region There is an additional challenge in operation of hydropower plants in Nepal and South Asia region due to special problems like excessive sedimentation and sand erosion of turbine components. The test facility in the region can assist for design modification and performance analysis for sediment resistant hydro turbines. In the absence of test facilities in the region, there is no significant contribution in R&D of hydro turbines to tackle the local problems. In summary, justification for the need of a turbine testing laboratory in the region is presented in Table 1. TABLE 1: Objectives and activities of new turbine test facility in the region
S.N. Objectives Build competence and knowledge in Nepal and for South Asia region Activities Teaching/learning facility 1 Industrial courses Staff training for the industry R&D back-up for industrial development Certification of mini and micro-turbines sold on the Nepali and the regional market Model testing of turbines for larger power plants Sand erosion research in turbines 3 Center for research Turbine and pump development Maintenance of turbines 4 Meeting place for the industry and university Student projects for the industry Share information and experience at regional level

issues related to sand erosion of turbine components. Five different Pelton bucket profiles designed at KU are being tested for impact and flow visualization (Fig. 3b) [11]. Francis turbine for 130 kW micro hydro projects (Fig. 3c) is under development by Center of excellence for production and transportation of electrical energy at KU. The turbine will be tested at TTL facilities. Sand erosion tests have been carried out with Rotating Disc Apparatus developed by a post graduate student research studies. Erosion tests have been done for the stainless steel and HVOF-coated WC-Co-Cr coating used in Kaligandaki hydropower project in Nepal [12]. Test objective was to compare performance of HVOF coatings with stainless steel (Fig. 3d). This provided an opportunity for accelerated sand erosion testing for a comparison of different materials. The same setup is used for studying combined effect of sand erosion and cavitation [13].

Build a laboratory for hydro turbines

Fig. 3: Research at the miniature turbine laboratory at Kathmandu University:


A

800 W Propeller Turbine designed and tested at Pico turbine


B

test laboratory [10], laboratory [11], TTL,


D C

Flow visualization in Pelton bucket at water power

130 kW Francis turbine waiting for model test at new

Sand erosion test of stainless steel and HVOF coating [5].

With the establishment of turbine laboratory in the country, the investment in hydropower projects will be saved by reducing uncertainties of turbine performance and competence in turbine design and manufacturing will be established. 3. Hydraulic turbine R&D experiences at KU From different miniature laboratory setups up to TTL Since its establishment, KU has been putting its effort into development of hydro turbines for Nepalese context. At present KU have two miniature turbine laboratories Pico Turbine Laboratory and Waterpower Laboratory. The Pico Turbine Laboratory is dedicated for research and development of axial flow Pico propeller turbines. It has produced one low-cost 800 W Pico set having 90% overall efficiency (Fig. 3a). Now it is developing a similar 1.5 kW set, amenable to mass-production at low cost [10]. The Waterpower Laboratory is dedicated for design and performance analysis of Pelton and Francis turbines and also provides professional trainings. This laboratory is also used for research on

The TTL is in final stage of civil construction. It will have a system connected with lower and upper reservoirs to circulate water necessary to run turbines (Fig. 4). The topography of the laboratory location (at the main campus) provides 30 meter natural static head. This is a unique feature of such a test laboratory, as it provides natural flow conditions to the tests. The water from the lower reservoir will be re-circulated to the upper reservoir by two pumps of 160 kW, head 75 m, flow rate 0.25 m3/sec. The laboratory will be equipped with a state of the art control system with electromagnetic flow meters, pressure transducers and sensors. The two pumps can be operated in series as well as parallel circuits in a close loop to obtain different operational regimes with maximum head of 150m. With this system, the largest turbine that can be tested will be 300 kW. The system will be able to test both reaction and impulse turbines (Fig. 5). There is a provision to calibrate appropriate instruments against weight of water. The estimated cost of development of the laboratory is NRs. 97 million (about US$1.31 million). NORAD has contributed 60% of the cost. KU and Nepalese industries have shared equally to the remaining expenses. The lab will be operated on business principles under the direction of a board representing KU and other stakeholders by the mid of year 2011.

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FIG. 4: Piping and Pump Arrangement of Turbine Testing Laboratory

FIG. 5: Schematic layout for turbine testing and calibration arrangement

4. Current utiliZation of TTL Strategic planning for long term use of TTL is underway. However, TTL is already active in several areas of Hydropower development some of them are as follows: a) Combined R&D activities with RenewableNepal support: RenewableNepal is research program leading to business development funded by NORAD and managed by KU in cooperation with SINTEF Energy Research, Norway. This support is making Nepal more independent and self-reliant in utilizing its own huge hydropower resources as well as other renewable energy resources. Under the RenewableNepal Program, TTL has been granted sum of 5.7 million NRs. to initiate combined R&D works for design of hydro turbines to resist sediment erosion. KU and NTNU as Nepalese and Norwegian research institutes, and NHE and DynaVec as Nepalese and Norwegian manufacturing industries, have formed a project consortium with the following objectives:

1.  Develop a new design philosophy for Francis turbine to minimize losses due to sediment erosion by technology transfer and innovation. 2.  Create a Center of Excellence at TTL for research and development of hydraulic turbines as a foundation for a new turbine manufacturer in Nepal. 3.  Prepare technical background and understanding between local and international institutions and industries for establishing a new turbine manufacturer in Nepal. The project has duration of three years, with start date of August 2010. This project is aimed to transfer the Norwegian turbines R&D competency of to Nepalese research institute and Norwegian expertise in manufacturing of turbines to Nepalese manufacturer. The ultimate goal is the holistic and long-term sustainable development of hydropower business in Nepal. NTNU will support KU to develop the Center of Excellence at TTL, which will provide professional consultancy to the manufacturing industries and other developers in the region for design and tests of turbines. By combined R&D activities a new design philosophy of erosion resistant Francis turbines will be developed and verified at TTL. DynaVec and NHE will cooperate together for creating a turbine manufacturer in Nepal for commercialization of the new design in local and international market (Fig. 6 & Table 2).

TABLE 2: Renewable Nepal Project Stage and Goals


S.N. 1 Project Stage Development of Theoretical Foudation Develop Research Competency at TTL, KU Design Verification Background for Commercialization Goal New Design Philosophy of Francis Runner Hardware, software and expertise for CFD tools in R&D of Turbines New Design ready to be implemented Commercially Motivate investors for a new turbine manufacturer in Nepal

3 4

FIG. 6: Renewable Nepal Project objective at TTL

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b)  Design improvements of turbines for micro/mini hydropower projects: KU waterpower laboratory will be incorporated under TTL with following activities: Further improvements of Pelton buckets: Improvements of Pelton buckets are on the R&D stage. It is expected to reach to manufacturer after second stage of optimization as a result from past research. Target has been set for runners up to 500 kW with efficiency of 85%. Test verification and improvements of Francis runner: The modified 130 kW Francis runner is under development process. The test would be done at new TTL facility. The results will be evaluated and optimization will be done for its commercial use. The design of the runner for the projects up to 1 MW by local manufacturing has been expected to match subsidy policy of government of Nepal up to 1 MW. Pump-as-turbine for micro hydro projects: Nepalese MicroHydropower plants are suffering from low plant efficiency particularly due to poorly designed and manufactured turbines. Possibilities of use of pumps as turbines have been attempted at several sites in other developing countries. New thread of research has been initiated at TTL to optimize impeller of centrifugal pump to be used as generating unit in micro-hydro projects. c) Data bank and Technical support: Apart from the R&D works, TTL has also been commencing other relevant activities, which will directly or indirectly support hydropower development in the country and in region. This includes: i.  Data bank of design and performance of Hydro-Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical equipments of major Hydropower projects in Nepal. ii.  Data bank of feasibility study and design requirements for upcoming projects. iii.  Provide professional consultancy services for design and test certification of turbine and associated parts. iv.  Provide relevant short term courses and training programs to industrial staffs and professionals. 5. R&D for Jhimruk Hydroelectric Center The power plant: JHC is a run of the river hydro power plant, located at the western part of Nepal and own by Butwal Power Company (BPC). It consists of three similar Francis turbines each operating under a net head of 201.5m and discharge of 2.35m3/s through each unit. The plant is in service since 1994 with a design output of 12.6 MW, and the turbine efficiency is measured as 89.75% for a new refurbished turbine. A river flow distribution shows that JHC can be operated at design output for approximately 60% of the time in a year [14]. Jhimruk Hydroelectric Center (JHC) is special case for turbine R&D activities in the region. JHC uses high head Francis turbine operating at high speed of 1000 rpm and concentration of sediment through runner reaches 2500 PPM with more than 75% of hard particles in it [15]. New design of Francis turbine for such adverse condition is under R&D stage with RenewableNepal support. JHC will be used as the test case to compare empirical design with the model tests results at TTL. Sediment and effect on efficiency: The sediment yield is 5,500 tones/km2, the sediment concentration varies between 0 and 57,000 PPM, the annual sediment load through the turbines is calculated as 35,314 kg/m3 for a 40% plant load factor [14]. 90% of the particles entering the turbines is below 0.1 mm in diameter and consists of 62% quartz, and the sediment particles are relatively rounded in comparison to those in other rivers in Nepal. JHC has not operated satisfactorily for the owners since the start of operation in 1994. The excessive amount of suspended sediments in Jhimruk River causes severe erosive wear on all the components that are in contact with the water. In the 11 weeks of turbine efficiency measurements in 2003, the suspended sediment load 6,900 tons passed through turbine unit number three. At this condition the drop in turbine efficiency was measured by 4% [14].

Fig. 7: Turbine efficiency measurements at JHC [14]

Fig. 8: Erosion of runner at the out let during the operation period of 1 year at JHC (Courtesy, BPC)

Fig. 7 shows that the turbine efficiency loss the period of 11 weeks was 4% at best efficiency load and 8% at 25% load. Maximum efficiency for a new refurbished turbine is 89.75%. It is assumed that 25% of the losses come from the guide vanes, 25% originates from the turbine runner and 50% comes from the labyrinth sealing rings [14]. Fig. 8 shows erosion of runner at the out let during the operation period of 1 year. The heavy loss of turbine material and propagation of crack between the runner vane and crown can be seen. Proposed Modifications in Turbine Francis turbines suffer from sediment erosion in three different parts. These are the stay vanes, guide vanes and runner vanes. There have been several studies conducted to minimize the sediment erosion in these turbine parts at JHC. These studies mainly point out the following finding. A solution to the erosion problem in the stay vanes is to design them at the outside of the spiral casing instead of at the inside. By doing so both the erosion and friction of the stay vanes drop to zero. Two different possibilities exist to reduce the erosion in the guide vane cascade. One is to increase the reaction degree with an

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increase in pole pair number. The other idea is to modify turbine design to without guide vanes. By doing so entire problem of erosion at guide vanes will be eliminated. However, these possibilities are inapplicable due to various hydraulic reasons [14]. In order to reduce the erosion in the runner cascade, different changes in the design have been identified [16]. To reduce erosion at the inlet, the reaction degree should be equal to the half of hydraulic efficiency. To decrease erosion in the runner blade, the runner should be designed with a low relative velocity giving minimum. The erosion at the outlet of runner can be reduced by increasing the number of pole pairs in the generator. Erosion at outlet can also be controlled by cutting off the runner-end, as outlet erosion is proportional to cube of the outlet radius. Numerical analysis followed by CFD evaluation of above modifications in turbine for Jhimruk power plant has been carried out. The simulation of erosion indicated that at outlet erosion has reduced by around 70% and the overall erosion rate by around 50% [16]. However, the study also found that these improvements at JHC are uneconomical due to higher replacement cost of a bigger turbines and generators. New design Philosophy for Francis Turbine Past research to reduce sediment erosion in turbines with conventional design have not yielded positive results. This has laid out a need to design and manufacture of turbine with newer concepts. DynaVec has developed a Francis runner that is coated and then bolted together instead of conventional welding. The idea is patented and tested on several turbines [17]. The recent runner has been installed and evaluated at Cahaua Power plant in Peru. The plant has rated power output of 42 MW, gross head of 220 meter with 2 Francis turbines. Sediment the passing turbine has above 65% of quartz and feldspar content and a maximum sediment load of 36 kg/s [17]. Study [17] conducted at the Cahua Power plant with new runner has measured the following findings. The power plant has generated 13.1 GWh extra energy in the period from 13th March until 9th June 2009. The sediment load in this period was 131.000 tons and the maximum sediment concentration during operation was 20000 ppm. The efficiency has dropped less than 1% at full load and the large surfaces of the runner, guide vanes and covers has no visible erosion. The coated areas have lost maximum 30% of its initial thickness. With the success at Cahua, DynaVec along with, NTNU, KU and NHE has been working for further modifications in runner profile with new design concepts to develop better sediment resistant turbines for South Asia market. JHC would be the test site of the new design as the operating conditions at JHC is a typical bench mark of sediment erosion problems in South Asia region. 6. Conclusion Turbomachinery design remains a complex task, combining multi-disciplinary engineering fields. Recently, the use of modern techniques like CFD for predicting the flow in these machines has brought substantial improvements in their design. However, physical test of turbine is always necessary to validate such design improvements. A standardized test facility for model tests of hydraulic turbines is still lacking in Nepal and the region. KU has been playing a leading role for developments of better turbines for the Nepalese context. With its R&D experiences at miniature laboratories for micro hydro projects, KU is building a modern hi-tech turbine testing laboratory at its campus premises in Dhulikhel. The lab is equipped with the state of the art facilities and the lab services would be open from mid of 2011. A consortium has been formed at the TTL with the Nepalese and Norwegian research and industrial professionals to develop new design philosophy of Francis turbine to resist erosion problems. Jhimruk power plant in Nepal has been chosen as the test case for this R&D works due to its unique operating features. The resources and facilities at TTL are open and will be shared at the regional level for the holistic development of hydropower business. 7. References [1] Lopez L.F., 2005, Surface Parameterization and optimum design methodology for hydraulic turbines, Doctoral thesis at EPFL, France [2] Swiderski J., Martin J., 2000, Practical implementations of computational fluid dynamics in the design of hydraulic turbines - virtual hydraulic laboratory, International techno-scientific conference, Czorsztyn [3] Brekke H., 2001, State of the art in turbine design, XXIX IAHR Congress, Beijing, China [4] IEC 60193, 1999, Hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines-Model acceptance tests. Second Edition 199911, Published by the International Electro technical Commission. [5] Thapa B. , Dahlhaug O. G., 2009, Turbine Testing Laboratory and its Role in Hydropower Development, HydroNepal, Issue 5, 79-83 [6] Toshiba Corporation, 2007, Toshiba Hydraulic Turbines, Company Catalogue, 6316-5, 00-07T1 [7] Thapa B. , Dahlhaug O. G., Shrestha R., 2010,Turbine laboratory at Kathmandu University for development of alternative energy in Nepal, 6th International Hydropower Conference, 1-3 February, Tromso, Norway [8] IIT Roorkee, 2010, Establishment of Hydro Turbine Laboratory, survey document, http://www.iitr.ac.in/departments/ AH/uploads/File/Establishing%20hydro%20turbine%20lab.pdf [9] BHEL, 2010, Expression of Interest for Modernization and up gradation of Hydro Turbine Test Laboratory, International Journal of Hydropower and Dams [10] Cannell J.et al, 2005, Testing and development of Pico Hydro Turbines, International Journal of Hydropower and Dams 12(3) [11] K.C. B., Thapa B., 2009, Pressure distribution at inner surface of selected Pelton bucket for micro hydro, Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 5, No II, 42-50 [12] Thapa B., P. Upadhyay, O.G. Dahlhaug, M. Timsina, R. Basnet, 2008, HVOF coatings for erosion resistance of hydraulic turbines: Experience of Kaligandaki-A Hydropower Plant, Water Resources and Renewable Energy Development in Asia, Danang, Vietnam [13] Chaudhary P., 2008, Study of Combined Effect of Sand Erosion and Cavitation in Hydraulic Turbines, Master Thesis, Kathmandu University, Department of Mechanical Engineering [14] Ruud J., 2004, Sediment handling problems Jhimruk Hydroelectric Center, Masters Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway [15] Thapa B., 2004 Sand Erosion in Hydraulic Machinery, Doctoral thesis at NTNU, Norway [16] Meland H.,2010, A new Design of a Francis Turbine in order to reduce Sediment Erosion, Masters Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway [17] Dahlhaug, O. G., Skre P. E., Mossing V., Gutierrez A., 2010, Sediment resistive Francis runner at Cahua Power Plant, International Journal of Hydropower and Dams

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PORTARIA 463/2009: Novos Desafios e Oportunidades na Otimizao da Viabilidade de Projetos de PCHs
Cristiano Tessaro RESUMO O presente estudo visa discutir e analisar a Portaria no 463/2009 do Ministrio de Minas e Energia (MME) que estabelece a metodologia para o clculo dos montantes de garantia fsica de energia de usinas hidreltricas no despachadas centralizadamente pelo Operador Nacional do Sistema Eltrico (ONS), para fins de participao no Mecanismo de Realocao de Energia, inclusive para fins de participao nos Leiles de Venda de Energia Eltrica. Alm disso, o trabalho apresenta um estudo de caso, por meio da simulao de clculo da energia assegurada de uma PCH com caractersticas pr-estabelecidas, em diferentes regies do pas. Para isso, utilizou-se srie de vazes mdias mensais e srie hidrolgica de vazes mdias dirias para o mesmo local. Observou-se tambm possveis ganhos com a evoluo das vazes afluentes dos rios e ainda ganhos para o sistema com a nova metodologia proposta. Os resultados mostraram a importncia da Portaria do MME, alm de possveis ganhos e prejuzos ao empreendedor. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Pequenas Centrais Hidreltricas, Portaria no 463/2009, garantias fsicas de energia.

ORDINANCE 463/2009: New Challenges and Opportunities in the Viability Optimization of SHP Projects
ABSTRACT This study aims to discuss and review the Ordinance No 463/2009 of the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) which sets out the methodology for calculating amounts to physical energy of hydroelectric not centrally dispatched by the National System Operator (ONS), for participating in the Clean Energy Reallocation, including for the participation in the Auction Sale of Electricity. In addition, this paper presents a case study through the simulation to calculate energy provided from PCH with a pre-established in different country. For this, we used series of monthly average streamflow and hydrologic series of daily average flows to the same location. There was also potential gains from the changes in inflows from rivers and further gains for the system with the proposed new methodology. The results showed the importance of the Ordinance of the MME, and possible gains and losses to the entrepreneur. KEYWORDS: Small Hydropower, Ordinance No 463/2009, guarantees physical energy. 1. INTRODUO Uma grande preocupao assolou o Mercado de Gerao de PCHs em dezembro de 2009 com a publicao pelo Ministrio de Minas e Energia da Portaria no 463. A portaria visa estabelecer a metodologia para o clculo dos montantes de garantia fsica de energia de usinas hidreltricas no despachadas centralizadamente pelo Operador Nacional do Sistema Eltrico ONS, para fins de participao no Mecanismo de Realocao de Energia MRE. As principais alteraes com relao metodologia vigente at aquele momento, conforme resoluo 169 da ANEEL Agncia Nacional de Energia Eltrica a incluso das perdas da rede e consumo interno da usina no clculo da garantia fsica (Energia Assegurada) e ainda o monitoramento da gerao da usina para fins de reviso dos montantes de garantia fsica. Como a maior parte das usinas hidreltricas no despachadas centralizadamente pelo ONS trata-se de PCHs e CGHs, vamos nos ater somente a anlise das mesmas. Primeiramente, conforme a Portaria 463, os casos em que o empreendimento passvel de sofrer reviso de sua garantia fsica por gerao de energia se dar nas seguintes hipteses: I - o empreendimento apresentar uma gerao mdia de energia eltrica nos seus primeiros quarenta e oito meses de operao comercial inferior a oitenta por cento ou superior a cento e vinte por cento da garantia fsica de energia vigente; II - o empreendimento apresentar uma gerao mdia de energia eltrica a partir dos seus sessenta meses de operao comercial inferior a noventa por cento ou superior a cento e dez por cento da garantia fsica de energia. Podemos perceber que o empreendimento pode ter um decrscimo de sua garantia fsica, como um acrscimo, dependendo diretamente de sua gerao de energia real. J a ANEEL, de forma a regulamentar a portaria do MME, aps processo de Audincia Pblica (no 049/2009), definiu os parmetros para excluso das usinas no despachadas centralizadamente pelo ONS do MRE, conforme tabela abaixo:
Nmero de meses em operao comercial (m) 36 m < 48 48 m < 60 60 m < 72 72 m < 84 84 m < 96 m 96 Percentual da Gerao mdia da Energia Assegurada 10% 55% 60% 65% 75% 85%

Podemos perceber que a nova resoluo da ANEEL, de certa forma, tornou mais branda e justa os percentuais de gerao das usinas em relao ao divulgado na portaria do MME. O embasamento da ANEEL para criao dessa resoluo deveu-se, principalmente, aos levantamentos de gerao medida em 60 meses de algumas PCHs com relao energia assegurada das mesmas, conforme tabela da pgina seguinte, publicada na Nota Tcnica No 062/2009-SRG/ANEEL. Com a nova metodologia de acompanhamento da Energia Assegurada de PCHs abre uma nova viso, onde o empreen-dedor pode perder muito, inclusive inviabilizando seu projeto, mas

Eng. Eletricista pela UFSC Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Scio-gerente da Camerge Consultoria, scio-gerente da Lindner Engenharia, Rua So Tomaz de Aquino, 59B, Florianpolis-SC, CEP 88036-560, tel.:(48) 3234-6931/8404-6144, cristiano@camerge.com.br.

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tambm podem maximizar seus ganhos. Vamos avaliar a nova metodologia da ANEEL pela ptica hidrolgica, da operao e manuteno das usinas, dos projetos e dos equipamentos instalados, com vistas a obter subsdios para afirmar quais sero os ganhos e prejuzos para o empreendedor com a aplicao da nova metodologia.
Percentual da Gerao mdia da Energia Assegurada (x) 0% x 10% 10% < x 20% 20% < x 30% 30% < x 40% 40% < x 50% 50% < x 60% 60% < x 70% 70% < x 80% 80% < x 90% 90% < x 100% 100% < x 110% 110% < x 120% 120% < x 130% 130% < x 150% 150% < x 200% Total Nmero de usinas 1 2 1 5 5 10 8 11 18 10 15 3 1 1 3 94

PCH, utilizando a srie de vazes mdias mensais disponvel e posteriormente a srie hidrolgica de vazes mdias dirias disponveis para o mesmo local. Essa simulao foi realizada em diversos locais do Brasil com as hidrologias mais variveis possveis, considerando a instalao de uma PCH com 30 metros de queda lquida, 2 turbinas Francis com engolimento mnimo de 35% da vazo nominal. Na grande maioria dos pontos analisados, quase em sua totalidade, chegou-se no mesmo resultado, que utilizando como base os dados de vazes mdias mensais os valores da energia assegurada ficam superiores ao clculo com as vazes mdias dirias. Nesse aspecto, a nova metodologia proposta pela portaria 463 traria perda no clculo da energia assegurada, porm, por outro lado. No consideramos aqui que em perodos de baixas afluncias a PCH pode entrar e sair do sistema diversas vezes ao dia, o que traria um aumento da energia mdia gerada pela mesma. Outra anlise importante o comportamento das vazes ao longo do tempo, pois para o clculo da energia assegurada utilizase a maior srie hidrolgica disponvel, porm, nem sempre isso reflete a atual hidrologia do local do empreendimento. Abaixo segue o comportamento das vazes em diversos pontos do pas:

2. ANLISES E RESULTADOS Perdas na Linha e Consumo Interno Com relao ao desconto das Perdas nas Linhas de Transmisso de uso particular das PCHs e Consumo Interno referente aos servios auxiliares da usina no clculo da energia assegurada da PCH indiscutvel que justo e traz benefcios ao sistema, pois muitas usinas possuem grandes perdas e consumo interno elevado que acabavam sendo considerados, na contabilizao de energia, como perda do sistema, na qual todos os agentes de mercado, sejam consumidores ou geradores, acabavam pagando por essas perdas. Esse mecanismo muito importante tambm no sentido de se fazer uma anlise mais correta da conexo de uma PCH ao Sistema Interligado Nacional SIN, pois muitas usinas que deveriam estar conectadas em tenses mais elevadas acabam conectando-se em tenses inferiores devido proximidade de redes nessa tenso e/ou pelos custos de conexo nos patamares mais baixos de tenso serem menores. Nesse sentido, temos hoje um grande nmero de PCHs, principalmente com potncia inferior a 6 MW, conectadas na tenso de 23,1 kV ou 13,8 kV. Em muitos casos, essas linhas possuem mais de 3 km de comprimento, gerando perdas considerveis. Com a nova meto-dologia proposta pela portaria, a questo da conexo ser mais amplamente estudada no projeto bsico da PCH e ser um fator importante na anlise de viabilidade da mesma, j que essas perdas afetam diretamente a TIR do investimento. Anlises Hidrolgicas Primeiramente, vamos analisar possveis ganhos e perdas com a nova metodologia pela ptica da hidrologia. Iniciam-se as simulaes com a anlise da srie hidrolgica utilizada nos estudos. A portaria nos diz que a srie hidrolgica deve ser na base mensal, porm, a gerao de energia de acordo com a gua disponvel no momento. Com referncia aos dados disponveis, o que mais se assemelha com o perfil de produo de uma PCH a srie hidrolgica diria no local do empreendimento. Dessa forma, vamos analisar o clculo da energia assegurada de uma

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ARTIGOS TCNICOS

Analisando os grficos acima, podemos perceber que existe uma tendncia de quanto mais ao sul do Brasil, maiores so os crescimentos das vazes afluentes nos rios. Resumidamente, podemos fazer a seguinte avaliao:
REGIO NORTE NORDESTE SUDESTE SUL TENDNCIA DAS VAZES AO LONGO DO TEMPO Estabilidade / Diminuio Estabilidade / Leve Crescimento Leve / Moderado Crescimento Moderado / Alto Crescimento

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Ainda analisando a parte hidrolgica do clculo de energia assegurada e suas influncias com a nova metodologia de monitoramento, podemos destacar a questo da Vazo de Usos Consuntivos, que em regra geral descontada da vazo outorgada pelo rgo Ambiental dos estados de modo a preservar os mltiplos usos dos rios e que, em muitos casos, acabam no sendo consumidos na prtica. Ou seja, apesar de esse valor ser descontado da vazo para fins de clculo da energia assegurada, essa vazo ser utilizada para fins de gerao pelas PCHs. Manuteno, Operao, Projetos e Equipamentos das Usinas Com as alteraes com a nova portaria, os ndices de indisponibilidade declarados acabam sendo somente orientativos, pois as PCHs devem reduzir ao mximo os tempos de mquina parada. Outro aspecto a importncia de uma boa curva de operao, de modo a se utilizar o maior perodo possvel as mquinas dentro de seus rendimentos timos, claro, evitando ao mximo os vertimentos no turbinveis e as paradas de mquina. Dentro desta lgica, existe a possibilidade de uma usina entrar e sair de operao inmeras vezes ao longo do dia. Referente aos equipamentos, hoje os rendimentos dos mesmos acabam no tendo que ser comprovados pelo empreendedor e, indiretamente, pelo fornecedor. Com a nova portaria se dar um valor maior ao rendimento comprovado dos equipamentos assim como a qualidade dos mesmos, de modo a evitar manutenes e paradas prolongadas. Da mesma forma que nos equipamentos, os valores de perdas hidrulicas acabam no sendo verificados e fiscalizados aps a construo da usina. Maior investimento em engenharia e maior rigor na anlise de projetos. 3. CONCLUSES Verifica-se, no tocante ao clculo de energia assegurado, que valores superiores so obtidos para essa varivel. A energia assegurada que resultou do clculo da srie hidrolgica foi maior quando do uso de sries hidrolgicas dirias em comparao s mensais. Dessa forma podemos dizer que a PCH tende a gerar um valor acima da garantia fsica pela metodologia apresentada na portaria do MME. Claro que para podermos afirmar isso com segurana devemos nos ater aos ndices de indisponibilidades da PCH. Um fator muito importante nessa anlise a indisponibilidade causada por problemas na rede da distribuidora ou transmissora conectada. Atravs de dados de algumas PCHs do estado de Santa Catarina, observamos os ndices de indisponibilidade da rede de terceiros por nvel de tenso. Pudemos observar que para tenses acima de 23,1 kV as indisponibilidades nos alimentadores so muito baixas, abaixo de 0,5% do tempo. J as PCHs conectadas em at 23,1 kV, as indisponibilidades em alimentadores pertencentes s distribuidoras foram de aproximadamente 2,2% do tempo. Dessa forma conclumos que deve haver uma forma de expurgar esses valores do clculo, tendo em vista que nesse perodo no h gerao e o empreendedor no responsvel por esse perodo com as mquinas indisponveis. Nessa mesma linha devemos tambm encontrar uma forma de abonar todas as indisponibilidades causadas por motivos alheios ao controle do empreendedor, como questo de conexo, problemas ambientais, meteorolgicos, catstrofes, entre outros, e ainda aquelas indis-ponibilidades causadas por melhorias, repotenciaes e outras aes que tragam ganhos ao sistema, tanto no aspecto de confiabilidade ou no aumento de eficincia e gerao na usina, como j preceitua a Resoluo 266 da ANEEL e o artigo 7 da Portaria 463 do MME. Para esses casos j deveria ter uma metodologia aprovada, nos moldes como feito hoje o envio de informaes para fins de cumprimento da Resoluo 266 da ANEEL, pois ficar unicamente ao critrio do MME essa verificao pode ser problemtico e prejudicial aos empreendedores de PCH. Uma anlise interessante referente s indisponibilidades informadas, pois primeiramente, no fica claro o que acontecer se o empreendedor cumprir sua meta de gerao mais no cumprir sua meta de indisponibilidade, ou vice-versa. Ao que parece, o ndice de indisponibilidade declarado servir apenas como balizamento, j que o que prevalecer ser a gerao. Essa questo deveria estar mais bem especificada na portaria. Um fator no abordado na portaria refere-se ocorrncia de perodos de estiagem prolongada, como j houve no passado, o chamado Perodo Crtico. Deveria haver um mecanismo de expurgo desses meses ou anos da srie quando declarado pelo MME (ou ONS) a existncia de um perodo desses. Abaixo, de acordo com o exposto anteriormente, podemos avaliar quem ganha e quem perde com a portaria do MME:
QUEM GANHA? Otimizar a gerao Otimizar a manuteno QUEM PERDE? Hidrologia super dimensionada Rendimento super dimensionado Engolimento mnimo Mquinas mal dimensionadas Tipo de mquina ideal Perdas eltricas Perdas hidrulicas

Finalmente, como resultado final das anlises realizadas, segue abaixo um comparativo das alteraes com a nova metodologia e suas provveis consequncias de modo ao empreendedor otimizar o retorno do seu investimento:
Consequncia e/ou forma de otimizar os resultados

Como era

Como ser

Rendimento do gerador e turbina

D  eclarado pelo empreendedor D  ifcil comprovao dos valores R  isco absorvido pelo sistema

D  eclarado pelo empreendedor e comprovado no perodo de gerao C  obrana por parte do empreendedor junto ao fornecedor R  isco do empreendedor M  aior investimento em engenharia e maior rigor na anlise de projetos

Hidrologia

Vazo de usos consuntivos Operao P  reocupao somente com evitar vertimento V  ale os ndices declarados P  reocupao em produzir de forma otimizada V  ale o ndice realizado I  nvestimento em curva de gerao tima do potencial M  aior preocupao afim de diminuir tempo de mquina parada

Manuteno

Projeto (clculo de perdas hidrulicas, dimensionamento das estruturas, etc) Construo (durabilidade, segurana, manuteno das estruturas, etc) P  erdas hidrulicas

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ARTIGOS TCNICOS
4. CONSIDERAES FINAIS Podemos afirmar que a nova metodologia proposta pelo MME, atravs da portaria 463, um avano, porm, ainda carente de algumas melhorias para torn-la mais justa com aqueles que cumprem suas metas e procuram tornar cada vez mais eficiente suas unidades geradoras. Entre as vantagens, tanto para o empreendedor como para o sistema, que a usina incentivada a gerar mais e parar menos por indisponibilidades, j que independentemente do cumprimento ou no do ndice de indisponibilidade declarado, quanto mais a usina gerar, maiores as chances de haver um acrscimo na energia assegurada da PCH em uma reviso. Com a incluso dos ndices de perdas na linha no clculo da garantia fsica, muito importante a desburocratizao do acesso conexo as linhas e subestaes de terceiros, alm da garantia do livre acesso, de modo a encurtar distncias aos pontos de conexo alm de se poder fazer a conexo em um nvel de tenso mais adequado potncia da PCH. Deve ser estimulado o processo de doao de linhas dos empreendedores s distribuidoras, pois dessa forma, essa passa a operar e manter a linha, alm de que as perdas sobre essa linha passam a ser assumidas pela mesma. Com isso o consumidor tambm ganha, pois a distribuidora deixa de investir na construo da referida linha, contribuindo para modicidade tarifria e para o aumento de gerao de energia atravs de PCH, que traz inmeras vantagens, tanto no aspecto ambiental como no operacional e tambm pelos aspectos de perdas no sistema, j que as PCHs ficam muito prximas aos centros de consumo. Os empreendedores que investirem em equipamentos sobressalentes, engenharia e estudos de otimizao de gerao sero beneficiados com a nova portaria. Os projetos de PCHs a partir desse momento devero ser analisados com muito mais cautela e em todos os aspectos, pois atualmente, um dos grandes problemas encontrados, so os projetos mal-elaborados e com dados completamente maquiados, de forma a otimizar o retorno do investimento. Agora, a viabilidade demonstrada na fase de projeto ter que ser comprovada na prtica. Atualmente as PCHs esto no limiar de viabilidade, dessa forma toda medida tomada para esse segmento deve ser profundamente analisada, pois grande parte dos projetos de PCH tramitando podem facilmente tornar-se invivel. Nesse sentido, deve-se procurar fazer um sistema mais justo, favorecendo aquele empreendedor bem intencionado e que cumpre suas metas, porm, procurando no onerar mais um segmento que est completamente desamparado e burocratizado. 5. REFERNCIAS BIBLIOGRFICAS AGNCIA NACIONAL DE GUAS. Hidroweb. Disponvel em: <http://hidroweb.ana.gov.br/>. Acesso em: 01, 02 e 03 ago. 2010. AGNCIA NACIONAL DE ENERGIA ELTRICA. Audincia Pblica 049/2009. Disponvel em: < http://www.aneel.gov.br/>. Acesso em: 05 ago. 2010. OPERADOR NACIONAL DO SISTEMA. Disponvel em: < http:// www.ons.org.br/>. Acesso em: 06 ago. 2010. BRASIL. AGNCIA NACIONAL DE ENERGIA ELTRICA. Resoluo no 169 de 3 de maio de 2001. Braslia: 2001. ELETROBRS. Diretrizes para estudos e projetos de Pequenas Centrais Hidreltricas. 2000. BRASIL. Ministrio de Minas e Energia. Portaria no 463, de 03 de dezembro de 2009. Estabelece a metodologia para o clculo dos montantes de garantia fsica de energia de usinas hidreltricas no despachadas centralizadamente pelo Operador Nacional do Sistema Eltrico ONS, para fins de participao no Mecanismo de Realocao de Energia MRE, inclusive para fins de participao nos Leiles de Compra de Energia Eltrica. Dirio Oficial da Repblica Federativa do Brasil, Braslia, 03 de dez. 2009.

CERPHC, lder na divulgao de novas tecnologias para gerao de Pequenas Centrais Hidreltricas, atua no setor eltrico h mais de 10 anos. Realiza servios como anlise de potenciais hidrolgicos, estudos de inventrio, repotenciao de PCHs, operao e manuteno, alm de intermediao de negcios, projetos de carbono, cursos, treinamentos e eventos.

www.cerpch.org.br

www.cerpch.org.br

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TECHNICAL ARTICLES
ESTUDO DO POTENCIAL DE RECEITAS DECORRENTES DE CRDITOS DE CARBONO PROVENIENTES DE PROJETOS DE MDL PARA PCHs COM BASE NA EVOLUO DA POTNCIA INSTALADA (2010 2019)
1

Marcela Fernandes Pieroni 2 Regina Mambeli Barros 3 Geraldo Lcio Tiago Filho

RESUMO O presente estudo visa a avaliar a gerao de crditos de carbono provenientes de projetos no mbito do Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo (MDL), de Pequenas Centrais Hidreltricas (PCHs), tomando por base estudos da evoluo da capacidade instalada para esses empreendimentos nos prximos nove anos. Para isso, consideraram-se duas hipteses e dois cenrios de estudo, de forma a melhor representar a realidade da gerao de receita ao longo dos anos. A hiptese 1 considera a evoluo da potncia instalada de PCHs segundo dados do Plano Decenal de Expanso de Energia 2019 (PDE). J a hiptese 2 considera o estudo de Tiago Filho, Barros, e Silva (2009) de crescimento da potncia instalada com base no Produto Interno Bruto (PIB). A simulao das emisses de CO2 evitadas foi realizada por meio da planilha em Microsoft Excell de Michellis Jr (2010). Os resultados mostraram que a previso de crescimento das PCHs realizada com base no PIB (hiptese 1) mais conservadora, consequentemente, levando a um menor potencial de crditos de carbono, cerca de 4.113.957 tCO2 evitadas. J os resultados da hiptese 2 demonstraram um total de 3.247.717 tCO2 evitadas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Pequenas Centrais Hidreltricas, Evoluo da Capacidade Instalada, Crditos de Carbono.

STUDY OF THE POTENTIAL OF CARBON CREDITS TO SHP CDM PROJECTS BASED ON EVOLUTION OF INSTALLED CAPACITY (2010 - 2019)
ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess the generation of carbon credits from projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of Small Hydropower (SHP), based on studies of the evolution of installed capacity for these new developments over the next nine years. For this reason, two hypotheses and two scenarios were considered in order to better represent the reality of revenue generation over the years. The first hypothesis considers the development of small hydro power installed according to the Ten Year Plan for Expansion of Energy 2019 (EDP). The second hypothesis considers the study of Tiago Filho, Barros e Silva (2009) about growth of installed capacity based on the Gross National Product (GNP). The simulation of revenues from carbon credits was done using the spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel for Michellis Jr (2010). The results showed that the forecast of growth of SHP performed based on GNP (hypothesis 1) is more conservative, thus leading to a lower potential of carbon credits, about 4.113.957 tCO2 avoided. Already the results of hypothesis 2 showed a total of 3.247.717 tCO2 avoided. KEYWORDS: Small Hydropower, Evolution of Installed Capacity, Carbon Credits. 1. INTRODUO O Protocolo de Quioto, ao estabelecer o Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo (MDL), possibilitou a participao dos pases em desenvolvimento nas aes que visam ao desenvolvimento sustentvel, no mbito da Conveno-Quadro das Naes Unidas Sobre Mudana do Clima (CQNUMC). Por meio da execuo de projetos de MDL, estes pases podem obter a Reduo Certificada de Emisses (RCEs) e posteriormente, comercializ-las aos pases desenvolvidos, os quais encontram nessa iniciativa um modo suplementar de cumprir seus compromissos estabelecidos no Protocolo de Quioto. Segundo dados disponibilizados pelo Ministrio de Cincia e Tecnologia (MCT) (CQNUMC/MCT, 2010), um total de 6513 projetos encontram-se em alguma fase do ciclo de projetos do MDL, sendo 2311 j registrados pelo Conselho Executivo do MDL e 4202 em outras fases do ciclo. Como verificado na figura 1, o Brasil aparece em terceiro lugar, com 457 projetos (7%), a China aparece em primeiro lugar, com 2470 projetos (38%), e a ndia em segundo lugar, com 1752 projetos (27%). A distribuio das atividades de projeto brasileiras por setor pode ser verificada na figura 2. Observa-se a expressividade de atividades de projeto para energia renovvel (50,3%) e troca de combustvel fssil (9,9%), nas quais se enquadra a implantao de PCHs. J a tabela 1 apresenta os tipos de projetos de MDL realizados no Brasil e seus respectivos potenciais de reduo de emisses. Os projetos com maiores potenciais de reduo de emisses so os de energia renovvel, aterro sanitrio e reduo de N2O, totalizando 70% do total de emisses de CO2 e a serem reduzidas no primeiro perodo de obteno de crditos.

1 Graduanda em Eng. Ambiental, estagiria do Centro Nacional de Referncia em Pequenas Centrais Hidreltricas CERPCH/UNIFEI, Av. BPS, 1303, Itajub-MG, CEP 37500-903, tel.: (35) 3629-1443, marcela_pieroni@hotmail.com 2 Eng. Civil, Doutora e Mestre pelo PPG-SHS/EESC/USP, Profa. Dra. - IRN/ UNIFEI, Av. BPS, 1303, Itajub-MG, CEP 37500-903, tel.: (35) 3629-1224, remambeli@hotmail.com 3 Eng. Mecnico, Doutor na rea de Hidrulica pela USP e Mestre em Engenharia Mecnica na rea de Mquinas de Fluxo pela UNIFEI, Diretor e Prof. Dr. - IRN/ UNIFEI, Av. BPS, 1303, Itajub-MG, CEP 37500-903, tel.: (35) 3629-1454, fax: (35) 3629-1265, tiago_unifei@hotmail.com

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Neste contexto, destacam-se as Pequenas Centrais Hidreltricas (PCHs) como possveis projetos de MDL para reduo de emisses de gases de efeito estufa (GEE). As PCHs so empreendimentos aptos para cursos dgua de pequeno e mdio porte, com quedas dgua significativas para o aproveitamento energtico. Seus impactos ambientais so expressivamente menores quando comparados aos empreendimentos hidreltricos de grande porte, e ainda se prestam gerao descentralizada, promovendo o desenvolvimento de regies remotas do pas. A Resoluo n 652/2003 da Agncia Nacional de Energia Eltrica (ANEEL, 2003) estabelece que os aproveitamentos hidreltricos caractersticos de PCHs so aqueles com potncia entre 1 a 30 MW e rea de reservatrio de no mximo 3 km2. O aproveitamento hidreltrico que no atender a condio para a rea alagada de reservatrio, ser considerado com caractersticas de PCH, caso se verifique pelo menos uma das duas seguintes condies, a saber (ANEEL, 2003): I Atendimento inequao (Eq. 1): A
Fonte: (CQNUMC/MCT, 2010)

14, 3 P Hb

(1)

FIG. 1: Participao no total de atividades de projetos no mbito de MDL no mundo (ltima atualizao: 03 de agosto, 2010). FIG. 1: Participation in all project activities of MDL in the world (Last updated: August 3, 2010).

Fonte: (CQNUMC/MCT, 2010)

FIG. 2: Distribuio das atividades de projeto no Brasil por escopo setorial (ltima atualizao: 03 de agosto, 2010). FIG. 2: Distribution of project activities in Brazil by sector scope (Last updated: August 3, 2010).

TABELA 1: Distribuio das atividades no Brasil por tipo de projeto de MDL. TABLE 1: Distribution of activities in Brazil by type of MDL project.
Projetos em validao/ aprovao Energia renovvel Aterro Sanitrio Reduo de N2O Suinocultura Troca de combustvel fssil Eficincia Energtica Reflorestamento Processos industriais Resduos Emisses fugitivas Nmero de projetos 230 36 5 76 45 28 2 14 17 4 Reduo anual de emisso 19.677.309 11.327.606 6.373.896 4.222.884 3.296.291 2.027.173 434.438 1.002.940 646.833 720.068 Reduo de emisso no 1 perodo de emisso 146.455.707 84.210.095 44.617.272 39.282.569 27.630.240 19.853.258 13.033.140 7.449.083 5.002.110 5.721.011

Fonte: (CQNUMC/MCT, 2010) (ltima atualizao: 03 de agosto, 2010)

Onde: A = rea do reservatrio em km2; P = potncia eltrica instalada em MW; Hb = queda bruta em m, definida pela diferena entre os nveis dgua mximo normal de montante e normal de jusante; O valor da rea na inequao no deve ser superior a 13,0 Km2. II - Reservatrio cujo dimensionamento, comprovadamente, foi baseado em outros objetivos que no o de gerao de energia eltrica. Apesar das vantagens e aspectos positivos relacionados aos empreendimentos hidreltricos em geral, em especial s PCHs, nos ltimos anos, vm sendo questionada a gerao de energia hidreltrica como uma fonte limpa. Em decorrncia do represamento de gua nas usinas, discute-se sobre as emisses de CO2 e CH4 em razo da decomposio da matria orgnica incorporada a esses reservatrios. No Brasil, desde a dcada de 90, algumas instituies tais como Eletrobrs, MCT, COPPE (Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Ps-Graduao e Pesquisa de Engenharia), UFRJ (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro) e PNUD (Programa das Naes Unidas para o Desenvolvimento) vm apoiando e desenvolvendo estudos sobre as emisses de GEE provenientes de reservatrios nacionais. At o momento, estes estudos demonstraram que, na maior parte dos casos, as usinas hidreltricas emitem menos GEE quando comparadas a usinas termeltricas de potncia equivalente (CARDOSO; NOGUEIRA, 2008; ELETROBRS, 2000; MESQUITA; MILAZZO, 2007; MCT, 2006; SANTOS, 2000). Segundo dados disponibilizados por Cardoso e Nogueira (2008), os reservatrios das usinas hidreltricas brasileiras emitem anualmente 0,10 tCe/MWh ao passo que as usinas trmicas emitem 0,52 tCe/ MWh. As pesquisas demonstraram tambm a grande variabilidade de emisses nos reservatrios estudados, fato explicado pela diversidade dos fatores locais que influenciam as emisses de GEE, a saber: temperatura, intensidade dos ventos, composio da biomassa, insolao, variveis fsico-qumicas da gua, rea de alagamento, profundidade do reservatrio, padres de circulao da gua e at mesmo o regime de operao da usina (CARDOSO; NOGUEIRA, 2008; ELETROBRS, 2000; MESQUITA; MILAZZO, 2007; BARROS; TIAGO FILHO; SILVA, 2009). Vale ressaltar que as anlises citadas acima se referem aos grandes reservatrios e usinas hidreltricas. Estudos relacionados s emisses de PCHs so praticamente nulos, em razo de

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TECHNICAL ARTICLES
suas caractersticas de menores dimenses e impactos. Diferentemente das grandes hidreltricas, as PCHs possibilitam uma alta densidade de potncia (capacidade instalada de gerao de energia dividida pela rea da superfcie no nvel mximo do reservatrio), o que leva a uma menor rea de alagamento e consequentemente a menores quantidades de emisses de GEE. Tendo em vista essas caractersticas, as PCHs representam uma opo interessante no contexto de projetos de MDL por serem fontes de energia renovvel. A figura 3 mostra a capacidade instalada, em MW, de atividades de projetos do MDL no setor de energia aprovadas pela Comisso Interministerial de Mudana Global do Clima (CIMGC). Observa-se que as PCHs esto em terceiro lugar, com 831 MW, sendo as hidreltricas em primeiro lugar, com 1625 MW, e a cogerao com biomassa em segundo, com 1334 MW (CQNUMC/MCT, 2010). na Tabela 2, prev-se um crescimento dos atuais 4043 MW para 6996 MW em 2019, o que representa uma taxa de crescimento de 300 MW/ano. Em porcentagem, esses valores representam um aumento de participao de 3,60% para 4,17%. TABELA 2: Evoluo da Capacidade Instalada por fonte de gerao (MW). TABLE 2: Evolution of Installed Capacity by source of generation (MW).

Fonte: (PDE, 2010).

Apesar do otimismo do PDE quanto participao das PCHs, falta um planejamento de longo prazo. Segundo estudos realizados por Tiago Filho, Mambeli e Silva (2009) acerca da projeo da evoluo da capacidade instalada de energia considerando a influncia do crescimento do Produto Interno Bruto (PIB) possvel demonstrar a diminuio da atratividade econmica dos empreendimentos medida que os bons empreendimentos vo escasseando.

Fonte: (CQNUMC/MCT, 2010)

FIG. 3: Capacidade instalada (MW) das atividades de projeto do MDL aprovadas na CIMGC (ltima atualizao: 03 de agosto, 2010). FIG. 3: Installed capacity (MW) of the MDL project activities approved in CIMGC (Last updated: August 3, 2010).

Segundo Michellis Jr. (2010), as PCHs podem ser utilizadas para a obteno de crditos de carbono de duas maneiras: em sistema isolado ou no sistema interligado nacional (SIN). Em sistemas isolados, a PCH pode substituir uma usina termeltrica, creditando-se das emisses evitadas pela usina desativada. Na linha de base, as emisses de uma usina termeltrica dieseltrica so de 800 a 1200 kg/MWh. A exemplo disso, menciona-se a metodologia de linha de base AMS - IA Gerao de Eletricidade pelo Usurio que uma categoria que emprega tecnologias renovveis, tais como a energia hidreltrica, para ser usada pelo usurio no prprio local, podendo esta ser nova ou substituir unidades geradoras existentes a base de combustveis fsseis (CQNUMC, 2008). Em sistemas interligados, a PCH acrescenta energia eltrica rede pertencente ao SIN. O SIN composto por diversos tipos de usinas, tais como hdricas, trmicas e biomassa, as quais apresentam um fator de emisses de GEE variveis em funo do despacho do parque gerador. Neste caso, as PCHs podem se creditar baseando-se nos valores correspondentes aos fatores de emisso do SIN (MICHELLIS JR., 2010). Cenrio de crescimento previsto para PCHs Segundo dados publicados por Tiago Filho et al (2010), no binio de 2008/2009 o mercado de PCHs cresceu expressivamente, passando de 310 plantas em operao, correspondentes a uma capacidade instalada de 2209 MW, em 2008, para 358 plantas, correspondendo a 3018 MW de capacidade instalada, em 2009. De acordo com o Plano Decenal de Expanso de Energia 2019 (PDE, 2010) essa participao das PCHs na matriz eltrica nacional deve aumentar ainda mais nos prximos anos. Conforme mostrado

FIG. 4: Correlao entre a Capacidade Instalada com base em PIB e a correlao efetuada com base nas curvas com taxa decrescente de crescimento. FIG. 4: Correlation between the Installed Capacity based on GNP and the correlation made based on the curves with decreasing rate of growth.

De acordo com a curva referente ao PDE (laranja) apresentada na figura 4, o PDE prev um crescimento para as PCHs acima da taxa de crescimento do PIB (Previso de Crescimento de PCHs com base no PIB, em roxo), desconsiderando o aumento do grau de dificuldade tcnica e a diminuio da atratividade dos novos empreendimentos que so funo das condies de mercado no curto prazo, tanto do regulado como do livre, e do interesse dos investidores (GALHARDO; TIAGO FILHO; MAMBELI, 2010). 2. METODOLOGIA A metodologia do presente estudo consistiu no clculo das emisses de CO2 evitadas provenientes de atividades de projetos de MDL para PCHs, considerando o cenrio de crescimento at 2019 (figura 4) apresentado anteriormente. Para isso, prope-se a utilizao de duas hipteses e dois cenrios, a saber:

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Hiptese 1: Considera-se a evoluo da capacidade instalada proposta pelo PDE (figura 4 - curva laranja e tabela 2). Neste caso, a capacidade instalada para PCH prevista para 2019 de 6966 MW, o que equivale a um acrscimo de 2923 MW a partir de 2010. Em unidades de PCH esse potencial equivale a 97 novas usinas, considerando os valores mximos estabelecidos pela resoluo da ANEEL (ANEEL, 2003) que define que os aproveitamentos hidreltricos caractersticos de PCHs aqueles com potncia de at 30 MW e rea de reservatrio de at 3 km2; Hiptese 2: Considera-se a previso com base no PIB proposta por Tiago Filho, Barros, e Silva (2009) (figura 4 - curva roxa). Neste caso, a capacidade instalada para PCH prevista para 2019 de, aproximadamente, 6000 MW, o que equivale a um acrscimo de 2600 MW a partir de 2010. Em unidades de PCHs esse valor corresponde a 86 novas usinas. Para cada hiptese acima citada, consideram-se dois cenrios: a)  Primeiro cenrio: as porcentagens de potncia instalada distribudas entre sistema interligado e isolado para as PCHs seriam, respectivamente, de 70% e 30%. b)  Segundo cenrio: as porcentagens de potncia instalada distribudas entre sistema interligado e isolado para as PCHs seriam, respectivamente, de 65% e 35%. ($4.000), taxa de sucesso (5%), fundo ONU (2%), desenvolvimento (R$ 20.548) e monitoramento (R$ 15.796) foram todos extrados da base de dados da planilha em Microsoft Excell de Michellis Jr (2010). Tendo em vista que o valor do crdito de carbono bastante flutuante, a metodologia do presente estudo priorizou estimar as emisses de CO2 evitadas e no as receitas em dinheiro dos correspondentes crditos de carbono. Sendo assim, a cotao da tonelada de CO2 aqui apresentada serviu apenas para ilustrar e discutir os resultados obtidos. Por fim, so necessrios ainda os valores referentes aos fatores de emisso do sistema isolado e do SIN. A tabela 3 apresenta os fatores de emisso mdios do SIN de acordo com os dados disponibilizados pelo MCT (MCT, 2010). TABELA 3: Fatores de emisso mdios anual e mensal - SIN. TABLE 3: Average emission factors annual and monthly - SIN
MARGEM DE CONSTRUO Fator de Emisso Mdio (tCO2/MWh) - ANUAL 0,0794 MARGEM DE OPERAO Fator de Emisso Mdio (tCO2/MWh) - MENSAL Janeiro 0,2813 Julho 0,2407 Fevereiro 0,2531 Agosto 0,1988 Maro 0,2639 Setembro 0,1622 Abril 0,2451 Outubro 0,1792 Maio 0,4051 Novembro 0,1810 Junho 0,3664 Dezembro 0,1940

Michellis Jr. (2010) ressalta a importncia de demonstrar a adicionalidade do projeto para viabilizar os crditos de carbono, alm de destacar que no geram crditos PCHs com relao de potncia por rea inferior a 4 W/m, e ainda, as PCHs que apresentam relao entre 4 W/m2 e 10 W/m2 devem considerar um desgio de 90 kg/MWh. Para a simulao dos clculos de emisses evitadas pelos projetos de MDL de PCHs, para ambos os casos de sistema isolado ou interligado, e as correspondentes receitas de crditos de carbono gerados, utilizou-se a planilha em Microsoft Excell de Michellis Jr (2010). Os clculos propostos na planilha so apresentados a seguir: a) Sistema isolado a. Para valores de densidade de potncia entre 4 e 10 W/m2: Emisses evitadas (tCO2) = (Fe 0,09) * E Sendo Fe o fator de emisso da linha de base para o sistema isolado (tCO2/MWh), E a energia gerada anualmente pela PCH (MWh/ano) e o desgio 0,009 gCO2/MW. b. Para valores de densidade de potncia maiores que 10 W/m2: Emisses evitadas (tCO2) = Fe * E Onde no se considera o desgio de 90 kgCO2/MWh. b) Sistema interligado a. Para valores de densidade de potncia entre 4 e 10 W/m2: Emisses evitadas (tCO2) = (Fsin 0,09) * E Sendo o Fsin o fator de emisso da linha de base para o SIN. b. Para valores de densidade de potncia maiores que 10 W/m2: Emisses evitadas (tCO2) = Fsin * E Alm dos dados j supracitados determinados acima, so necessrios outros dados de entrada para a simulao na planilha em Microsoft Excell de Michellis Jr (2010), os quais so listados a seguir: Fator de carga: 55%; Cotao da tCO2: 14,23 (ECX, 2010); Cotao do Euro: R$ 2,322 (em 09/08/2010); Dados como custos com o projeto de MDL ($17.000), validao ($16.800), registro PDD ($20.000), monitoramento

FATOR DE EMISSO 2009 (tCO2/MWh) 0,1635 Fonte: MCT (2010)

Para o fator de emisso mdio do sistema isolado, utilizou-se o valor sugerido na planilha de Michellis Jr (2010) de 0,855 tCO2/MWh. 3. RESULTADOS Os resultados apresentados a seguir constaram das RCEs brutas, ou seja, as toneladas totais de carbono evitadas, e das RCEs comercializveis, referentes s toneladas totais descontados a taxa de sucesso e o fundo da ONU (tabelas 4, 5, 6 e 7). TABELA 4: Resultados referentes Hiptese 1 e primeiro cenrio. TABLE 4: Results referring to Hypothesis 1 and the first scenario.
FATOR DE EMISSO Fator de emisso da linha de base de CO2 (tCO2/MWh) EMISSES EVITADAS - RCEs (tCO2) RCEs Bruto (tCO2) RCEs Comercializveis (tCO2) 3.217.677 2.992.440 721.164 670.682 Isolado 0,855000 SIN 2009 0,163481

TABELA 5: Resultados referentes Hiptese 1 e segundo cenrio. TABLE 5: Results referring to Hypothesis 1 and the second scenario.
FATOR DE EMISSO Fator de emisso da linha de base de CO2 (tCO2/MWh) EMISSES EVITADAS - RCEs (tCO2) RCEs Bruto (tCO2) RCEs Comercializveis (tCO2) 3.753.957 3.491.180 669.652 622.777 Isolado 0,855000 SIN 2009 0,163481

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TABELA 6: Resultados referentes Hiptese 2 e primeiro cenrio. TABLE 6: Results referring to Hypothesis 2 and the first scenario.
FATOR DE EMISSO Fator de emisso da linha de base de CO2 (tCO2/MWh) EMISSES EVITADAS - RCEs (tCO2) RCEs Bruto (tCO2) RCEs Comercializveis (tCO2) 2.852.786 2.653.091 639.382 594.626 Isolado 0,855000 SIN 2009 0,163481

PIB menos favorvel para gerao de crditos de carbono, para ambos os cenrios considerados. Isto ocorre, pois esta previso leva em considerao a diminuio da atratividade econmica dos empreendimentos medida que os bons empreendimentos vo se escasseando (GALHARDO; TIAGO FILHO; MAMBELI, 2010). 4. CONSIDERAES FINAIS No presente estudo foi possvel estimar as potenciais emisses de CO2 evitadas para projetos de MDL de PCHs, com base na evoluo da potncia instalada prevista nos prximos nove anos. Para tanto, considerou-se duas hipteses e dois cenrios de estudo, de forma a melhor representar a realidade da gerao de receita ao longo dos anos. A hiptese 1 considera a evoluo da potncia instalada de PCHs segundo dados do PDE (PDE, 2010), tal estudo estima um crescimento de 2923 MW de potncia instalada. J a hiptese 2 considera o estudo de Tiago Filho, Barros, e Silva (2009) de crescimento da potncia instalada com base no PIB, tal estudo estima um crescimento de 2600 MW para as PCHs. Os clculos foram realizados por meio da planilha em Microsoft Excell de Michellis Jr (2010) e os resultados mostraram que para o caso mais otimista, hiptese 1 e segundo cenrio, tem-se um total de 4.113.957 tCO2 evitadas equivalendo a R$ 135.933.591,00 em receitas brutas de crditos de carbono. A situao mais desfavorvel, hiptese 2 e primeiro cenrio, apresenta um potencial de 3.247.717 tCO2 evitadas equivalendo a R$ 107.311.247,00 em receitas brutas de crditos de carbono. Verificou-se ainda que a previso de crescimento das PCHs realizada com base no PIB mais conservadora, consequentemente levando a um menor potencial de gerao de crditos de carbono. Em contrapartida, o PDE mostra-se mais otimista e com maior potencial de gerao de crditos, mas desconsidera o grau de dificuldade tcnica e a diminuio da atratividade dos novos empreendimentos que so funo das condies de mercado no curto prazo e do interesse dos investidores (GALHARDO; TIAGO FILHO; MAMBELI, 2010). Para fins de simplificao de clculos, considerou-se que as novas PCHs previstas, segundo as duas hipteses analisadas, possuem caractersticas equivalentes aos valores mximos estabelecidos pela resoluo da ANEEL (ANEEL, 2003) que definiu as PCHs como empreendimentos com potncia de at 30 MW e rea de reservatrio de at 3 km2. Os valores de fatores de emisso de CO2 considerados para simulao compreenderam, para o sistema isolado, o valor sugerido na planilha de simulao de 0,855 tCO2/MWh, e para o SIN, o valor disponibilizado pelo MCT (MCT, 2010) para o ano de 2009 de 0,163 tCO2/MWh. Por fim, ressalta-se ainda que neste estudo todo o potencial de crescimento previsto para PCH foi considerado na estimativa de obteno de crditos de carbono. No entanto, uma atividade de projeto, para ser contemplada no mbito do MDL, entre outros requisitos, deve ser comprovadamente um projeto adicional, ou seja, a PCH, como projeto de MDL, no seria viabilizada sem os recursos provenientes dos crditos de carbono. 5. REFERNCIAS BIBLIOGRFICAS [1] CLCULO dos fatores de emisso de CO2 pela gerao de energia eltrica no Sistema Interligado Nacional do Brasil. Disponvel em: <http://www.reciclecarbono.com.br/biblio/ calculoco2.pdf> Acesso em: 22 abr. 2010. [2] CARDOSO, R. B.; NOGUEIRA, L. A. H. Estudo de Emisses de Gases do Efeito Estufa de Reservatrios Brasileiros. Revista PCH Notcias & SHP News, Itajub, n. 41, p. 21-25, 2009. [3] CENTRO DE GESTO E ESTUDOS ESTRATGICOS CGEE. Manual de Capacitao: Mudana do Clima e Projetos de Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo. Braslia, DF: 2008.

TABELA 7: Resultados referentes Hiptese 2 e segundo cenrio. TABLE 7: Results referring to Hypothesis 2 and the second scenario.
FATOR DE EMISSO Fator de emisso da linha de base de CO2 (tCO2/MWh) EMISSES EVITADAS - RCEs (tCO2) RCEs Bruto (tCO2) RCEs Comercializveis (tCO2) 3.328.250 3.095.273 593.712 552.152 Isolado 0,855000 SIN 2009 0,163481

A tabela 8 apresenta um resumo dos resultados referentes s receitas lquidas provenientes dos crditos de carbono potenciais para projetos de MDL de PCH, considerando os quatro casos de anlise. TABELA 8: Tabela resumo das receitas lquidas provenientes dos crditos de carbono para os quatro casos analisados. TABLE 8: Summary table of net revenue from the carbon credits for the four cases examined.
EMISSES EVITADAS - RCEs (tCO2) Hiptese/cenrio Previso PDE (70% SIN; 30% sist. isol.) Previso PDE (65% SIN; 35% sist. isol.) Previso em PIB (70% SIN; 30% sist. isol.) Previso em PIB (65% SIN; 35% sist. isol.) Isolado 2.992.440 3.491.180 2.653.091 3.095.273 SIN 670.682 622.777 594.626 552.152 Total 3.663.122 4.113.957 3.247.717 3.647.425

Observa-se que as emisses evitadas so maiores para o caso da instalao de PCH em sistema isolado. Isto ocorre, pois a atividade de projeto de MDL para este caso promove a substituio de uma usina termeltrica e credita-se das emisses evitadas pela usina desativada. J para o caso do SIN, os projetos de MDL creditam-se com base no fator de emisso do SIN, e por este ser composto majoritariamente por fontes de energias renovveis, representa um valor significativamente menor quando comparado ao fator de emisso do sistema isolado de fonte fssil (Isolado: 0,855 tCO2/MWh; SIN: 0,163 tCO2/MWh). O caso mais otimista dentre os quatro analisados, conforme tabela 8, o da previso do PDE (PDE, 2010) para o segundo cenrio (potncia instalada distribuda na proporo de 65% para SIN e 35% para sistema isolado). Para este caso, tem-se um potencial de emisses evitadas de 4.113.957 tCO2, o que corresponde a uma receita bruta de R$ 135.933.591,00, considerando a cotao da tonelada de CO2 e a cotao do euro (vide metodologia). J o caso economicamente menos favorvel, ou seja, mais conservador o da previso com base em PIB para o primeiro cenrio (potncia instalada distribuda na proporo de 70% para SIN e 30% para sistema isolado) com um potencial de emisses evitadas de 3.247.717 tCO2, o que corresponde a R$ 107.311.247,00 em receita bruta de crdito de carbono. Observa-se ainda, conforme tabela 8, que os valores referentes s emisses evitadas para a previso realizada com base no

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[4] CQNUMC-MCT. CONVENO-QUADRO DAS NAES UNIDAS SOBRE MUDANA DO CLIMA - MINISTRIO DE CINCIA E TECNOLOGIA. Status atual das atividades de projeto no mbito do Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo (MDL) no Brasil e no mundo (ltima compilao do site da CQNUMC: 03 de agosto de 2010). Disponvel em:< http://www.mct.gov. br/upd_blob/0212/212093.pdf>. Acesso em: 06 ago. 2010. [5] CQNUMC - CONVENO-QUADRO DAS NAES UNIDAS SOBRE MUDANA DO CLIMA. Metodologia de linha de base e monitoramento: AMS I.A Eletricity Generation by the User. Verso 13. [2008]. Disponvel em: <http://cdm.unfccc.int/ methodologies/DB/4YDGOV6I3UOHV6NN5HMDIZPFRBW8IQ/ view.html>Acesso em: 30 abr. 2010. [6] ECX EUROPEAN CLIMATE EXCHANGE. Disponvel em: <http://www.ecx.eu/ CERemindx>. Acesso em: 09 de ago. 2010. [7] ELETROBRS. Emisses de dixido de carbono e de metano pelos reservatrios hidreltricos brasileiros: Relatrio final. Rio de Janeiro: Eletrobrs, 2000. 176p. [8] GALHARDO, C.; TIAGO FILHO, G. L.; MAMBELI, R. O cenrio geral de crescimento previsto para as PCHs no Brasil de acordo com o Plano Decenal 2010-2019. Revista PCH Notcias & SHP News, Itajub, no 45, p. 36-37, 2010. [9] MINISTRIO DE CINCIA E TECNOLOGIA MCT. Primeiro inventrio brasileiro de emisses antrpicas de gases de efeito estufa: emisses de dixido de carbono e de metano pelos reservatrios hidreltricos brasileiros. 2006. Disponvel em: <http://www.mct.gov.br/upd_blob/0008/8855.pdf>. Acesso em: 7 mai. 2010. [10] MINISTRIO DE CINCIA E TECNOLOGIA MCT. Fatores de Emisso de CO2 pela gerao de energia eltrica no Sistema Interligado Nacional Ano base 2010. Disponvel em: <http://www.mct.gov.br/index.php/content/view/321144. html#ancora >. Acesso em: 06 mai. 2010. [11] MESQUITA, E. N.; MILAZZO, M. L. Emisso de Gases de Efeito Estufa de Reservatrios de Usinas Hidreltricas. In: CONGRESO CIER DE LA ENERGA - CONSIER, 3., 2007, Medelln. Anais eletrnicos ... Medelln: CONCIER, 2007. Disponvel em: <http://sg.cier.org.uy/cdi/cier-zeus.nsf/5d482b8 005681b6203256f51000315dc/2AD2D8934AD6BDC8832575 E600631226/$FILE/III%20CONCIER-BR-64-AC.pdf> Acesso em: 07 mai. 2010. [12] MICHELLIS JR., Dcio. Planilha para clculo de receita lquida por crdito de carbono em projetos de PCHs [mensagem pessoal]. Mensagem recebida por <remambeli2001@ yahoo.com.br> em 13 jan. 2010. [13] PDE - Plano Decenal de Expanso de Energia 2019 / Ministrio de Minas e Energia. Empresa de Pesquisa Energtica. Braslia: MME/EPE, 2010. [14] SANTOS, M. A. Inventrio de Emisses de Gases de Efeito Estufa Derivadas de Hidreltricas. 2000. 154p. Tese (Doutorado em Cincias em Planejamento Energtico) COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2000. [15] TIAGO FILHO, G. L.; BARROS, R. M.; SILVA, F. G. B. Tendncias para o crescimento de potncia instalada de pequenas centrais hidreltricas (PCHs) no Brasil, com base em seu Produto Interno Bruto (PIB). Revista Brasileira de Recursos Hdricos, 2010. [16] TIAGO FILHO, G. L.; GALHARDO, C. R.; BARBOSA, A. C.; BASTOS, A. S. Uma Anlise do Cenrio Poltico e Regulatrio Brasileiro das PCHs no Binio. Revista PCH Notcias & SHP News, Itajub, no 44, p. 37-43, 2010.

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CFD APPROACH FOR PREDICTION OF EFFICIENCY OF FRANCIS TURBINE
Sanjay Jain R. P. Saini 3 Arun Kumar
1 2

ABSTRACT Turbine is the most critical component in hydropower plants because it affects the cost as well as overall performance of the plant. Hence, for the cost effective design of any hydropower project, it is very important to predict the hydraulic behavior and efficiency of hydro turbines before they are put in actual use. Experimental approach of predicting the performance of hydro turbine is costly and time consuming compared to CFD approach. The aim of the paper is to predict the performance and efficiency of Francis turbine using CFD approach and to validate the same with model testing results. The overall efficiency of the turbine is determined based on the fundamental equation i.e. ratio of output to input power. The various parameters used in the equation depend on the type of boundary conditions used for the numerical simulation. Two sets of boundary conditions viz. (i) pressure inlet and pressure outlet and (ii) mass flow inlet and pressure outlet were used. The overall efficiency predicted with CFD approach was compared with the model testing results obtained from the manufacturer and very good agreement was found. CFD approach may be helpful in improvement of the existing efficiency measuring techniques and evaluation of the performance of hydro turbines. KEYWORDS: CFD, Francis Turbine, Hydropower Projects 1. INTRODUCTION There are many components in hydropower plant but turbine is the heart of any hydropower plant because it affects the cost as well as overall performance of the whole plant. Typical cost distribution for low, medium and high head hydropower projects is shown in Fig. 1[1]. In case of high head plants the turbine cost is less compared to the cost of civil components as it is very difficult to carry out construction work in hilly areas. But for medium and low head hydropower plants, the typical turbine cost may vary from 15 to 35 percentage of the whole power project cost. Thus, for the cost-effective design of hydropower project it is very crucial to understand the flow characteristics in different parts of the turbine i.e. how energy transfer and transformation take place in the different parts, which help in predicting their performance in advance before manufacturing them. The normal practice to predict the efficiency of a hydro turbine is based on theoretical approach or experimental model testing. Theoretical approach for prediction of efficiency just gives a value; but it is unable to identify the main cause for the poor performance. Conversely, model testing is considered to be costly and time consuming process. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the present day stateof-art technique in fluid flow analysis. It has wide range of applications-like aerodynamics of aircraft and vehicles, flow analysis of turbo-machinery, hydrodynamics of ships, power plants, automobiles, process industries, marine engineering, biomedical engineering etc. Also, CFD analysis is considered as a powerful alternative design tool to provide insight into flow characteristic in hydropower components. Many investigators have applied CFD as a numerical simulation tool for the analysis of Francis turbine such as for prediction of part load performance, cavitation behavior, rotor-stator interaction etc. A team from Sulzer Hydro and Sulzer Innotec. [2] modeled a complete Francis turbine from the inlet of the spiral casing to the draft tube outlet using a 3D Navier Stokes code which can be used to design new runners that match existing components more accurately, at a lower cost than by using model tests. Ciocan et al. [3] presented a CFD methodology to study the unsteady rotating vortex in the draft tube of a Francis turbine at part load conditions and associated experimental study of the flow phenomena. They performed unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulation for the flow and validated the same with experimental results.
1 2

FIG. 1: Typical plant cost for high, medium and low head hydropower projects

Bajic [4] introduced a novel technique for diagnostics of turbine cavitation in a Francis turbine which enables identification of different cavitation mechanisms functioning in a turbine and delivers detailed turbine cavitation characteristics, for each of the mechanisms or for the total cavitation. He conducted the experiments and reported that how a turbine cavitation behavior can be improved and how a turbine operation can be optimized with respect to cavitation erosion. This paper presents the CFD approach for prediction of efficiency of a 3 MW capacity Francis turbine. The numerical simulations were carried out using commercial CFD package Fluent for the prediction of overall efficiency. The overall efficiency of hydro turbine was determined based on the fundamental equations. The various parameters used in the equations depend on

Assistant Professor Mechanical Engg Dept, Institute of Technology, Nirma University, Ahmedabad-382481(Gujarat) Associate Professor Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667(Uttarakhand) 3 Head Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667(Uttarakhand)

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the type of boundary conditions used for the numerical simulation. Two sets of boundary conditions were used. The comparison of CFD results with the model testing results obtained from the manufacturer is also presented. 2. DIFFERENT EFFICIENCIES OF HYDRO TURBINES [5] For hydropower plants, a gross head is defined as the difference between the head race level and the tail race level when no water is flowing through different components. When water flow through the system the hydraulic losses are occurring which can be categorized as major losses and minor losses. The head loss occurring due to friction in different components is known as major losses whereas the head losses occurring due to either change in direction or cross sectional area of flow i.e. due to bends & pipe fittings, at entrance & exit of penstock etc. are known as minor losses. The minor losses are very small compared to major losses hence can be neglected. Accordingly, the net or effective head acting on the turbine can be found by subtracting hydraulic losses from the gross head. The total quantity of the water issuing from the jet may not strike the turbine blades. A part of the total discharge may leak through the gap between the runner blades and guide vanes and some flow may escape through the stuffing box around the shaft. The leakage loss is taken into account by considering mechanical efficiency (v) which is defined as:
v = volume of water actually striking the run nner blades available at the turbinee shaft t total water supplieed by the jet

o =

power available at the turbinee shaft powe er supplied by the water jet at entrance of f the turbine 2NT 60 = u m v gQaHr

Qa Q

When water flow through the turbine hydraulic losses may occur due to blade friction, eddy formation in different components, change in flow direction as well as due to loss in kinetic energy at the exit of the turbine. In power generation, the hydraulic losses are taken into account by considering the hydraulic efficiency (h) which is defined as: h = = power developed by the turbine runner powe er supplied by the water jet at entrance of f the turbine Qa(Vw1 Vw2)u gQah = (Vw1 Vw2)u gH = Hr H

There are various approaches of finding efficiency of the turbine like based on input and output power from the system, based on percentage head drop in different components, based on the losses occurring in different components etc. Drtina and Sallaberger [6] discussed the basic principles of hydraulic turbines, with special emphasis on the use of CFD as a tool which is being increasingly applied to gain insight into the complex threedimensional phenomena occurring in these machines. They calculated efficiency of Francis turbine based on the pressure losses occurring in the different components. Patel and Satanee [7] carried out CFD analysis of Francis turbine for the improvement of efficiency, cavitation performance and dynamic behavior. They calculated efficiency based on the percentage head drop in different components. They put thin vane in the bend portion of the draft tube and found that secondary flow in the draft tube can be minimized by providing vane in the draft tube. Jain et al. [8] carried out the flow analysis of Francis turbine at design and off-design conditions. They calculated the overall efficiency of turbine based on output and input power. They used three different turbulence models namely; standard k-, Renormalization group (RNG) k- and k- shear stress transport (SST) models. They found that k- SST model is better suited for simulation in hydro turbines compared to other two models. They observed low pressure zone near the inlet potion of the draft tube at part load operating conditions. 3. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS CFD is the analysis of systems involving fluid flow, heat transfer and associated phenomena such as chemical reactions by means of computer-based simulation. The physical aspect of fluid flow in hydro turbines is governed by two fundamental conservation laws: (i) Conservation of Mass: In all real life conditions mass is always conserved on macro as well as micro levels. The generalized mass conservation equation in differential form is given below: t + V = 0

represents the energy transfer per g unit weight of water and is known as Euler head or Runner head. The power developed by a turbine runner is decreased by mechanical losses caused by friction between the rotating parts (shaft and the runner), friction between the stationary part (bearing and sealing) and by friction in the elements that transmit power. Due to these losses, the power available at the turbine shaft is less than the power developed by the turbine runner. The mechanical losses are taken into account by considering mechanical efficiency (m) which is defined as: m = power available at the turbinee shaft powe er developed by the turbine runner 2NT = 60 gQaHr

where, Hr =

(Vw1 Vw2)u

( )

(ii) Conservation of Momentum: The external forces acting on a volume element in a flow field are considered to be consisting of surface forces and body forces. The surface forces results from the stresses acting on the surface of the volume element such as shear stresses, pressure forces and surface tension. And the body forces may result from the effects such as the gravitational, electric and magnetic fields acting on a body of fluid. The generalized momentum conservation equation in differential form is given below: V + V V = Fb p + 2 V + V 3 t

Overall efficiency (o) of the turbine is the product of hydraulic, mechanical and volumetric efficiency. It may be defined as:

CFD is the art of replacing these partial differential equations in these fundamental governing equations with discretized algebraic forms, which in turn are solved to obtain numbers using computer for the flow field values at discrete points in time and/ or space. The end product of CFD is indeed a collection of numbers, in contrast to a closed-form analytical solution.

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TECHNICAL ARTICLES
4. CFD PREDICTION OF EFFICIENCY OF HYDRO TURBINE A CASE STUDY The CFD approach for prediction of efficiency of a 3 MW capacity horizontal axis Francis turbine is presented. The rated head and discharge for the turbine were 48 m and 7.2 m3/s respectively. The computational model consists of spiral casing, 18 numbers of stay vanes and guide vanes, runner having 13 numbers of blades and a draft tube. The geometry of the turbine was created in GAMBIT, which is a preprocessor of FLUENT. The computational domain was meshed using unstructured grid consists of triangular and tetrahedral element. The total number of mesh elements was around 2.5 million for the entire assembly. The assembly drawing and grid for the Francis turbine are shown in Figs. 2 & 3 respectively. The flow in the runner was computed in the moving reference frame, while the flow in the stationary components was calculated in the stationary reference frame. The steady state simulations were carried out at design and off-design conditions using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with different turbulence models. To consider turbulence effect in the flow shear stress transport k- model was used. The simulations were carried out between 50% and 85% guide vane openings at 4 different operating points to cover wide range of discharge. The overall efficiency of hydro turbine was determined based on the fundamental equations. The various parameters used in the equations depend on the type of boundary conditions used for the numerical simulation. Literature suggest different sets of boundary conditions for the CFD analysis of hydro turbines e.g. total pressure inlet & static pressure outlet, mass flow inlet & static pressure outlet [9]. Patel and Satanee [7] used mass flow inlet and pressure outlet boundary conditions for the numerical simulation of Francis turbine. Ruprecht et al. [10] used mass flow inlet and outflow boundary conditions. For the present analysis two sets of boundary conditions viz. (i) pressure inlet and pressure outlet and (ii) mass flow inlet and pressure outlet were attempted and presented in this section. 4.1 Simulations with first set of boundary conditions For the first set of boundary conditions, i.e. pressure inlet and pressure outlet, following input and output parameters were used: Input parameters: total pressure inlet (Pt1) was defined at the turbine casing inlet, total pressure considering draft tube submergence was defined at draft tube outlet (Pt2) and turbine runner was defined in moving reference frame with rotational speed (N). Gird interface was defined between stationary & rotating part i.e. between casing & runner as well as between runner & draft tube. Output parameters (generated by Fluent): the volume flow rate (Q) was calculated based on the mass fluxes entering and leaving the turbine and torque (T) acting on the turbine was calculated based on the total moment acting on the rotating runner which was a resultant of pressure and viscous moments. However, after few sets of numerical simulations the results were found diverging and hence simulations were stopped. And for the rest of the analysis second set of boundary conditions were used and presented in the next section. 4.2 Simulations with second set of boundary conditions For the second set of boundary conditions mass flow inlet was specified at casing inlet and pressure outlet was specified at draft outlet. Grid interface was defined between casing & runner as well as between runner & draft tube. The various boundary conditions are shown in Fig. 4.

FIG. 2: Assembly drawing of Francis turbine

FIG. 3: Grid for Francis turbine

FIG. 4: Boundary conditions

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ARTIGOS TCNICOS
The overall efficiency of the Francis turbine is calculated based on the fundamental equation, i.e. ratio of output power from the turbine to input power supplied to the turbine. o = T Q (pt1 pt2) data. It can be seen that as discharge passing through turbine increases the turbine power output also increases. The overall efficiency of turbine increases with increasing discharge, reaches maximum at design discharge and then starts decreasing. The power output predicted by CFD shows very good agreement with the model testing results obtained from the manufacturer. But some deviation in the overall efficiency was observed; however the trend of both the curves was exactly the same. The deviation in the efficiency may be due to various assumptions, discretization errors, modeling errors and round off errors. 100.00 Efficiency(%) 90.00 80.00 70.00 60.00 0 2 4 6
3

In above equation, T is the net torque acting on the runner (N-m), is the angular speed (radian), Q is discharge through turbine (m3/s), pt1 is total pressure at the inlet to the casing (Pa) and pt2 is the total pressure at the exit of draft tube (Pa). The net torque acting on the runner is a resultant of pressure and viscous moments and is calculated by taking surface integral of cross product of stress tensor and radius vector. T = (r ( n)dS) a Input parameters: Mass flow rate (Q) was defined at the turbine casing inlet and total pressure (Pt2) considering draft tube submergence was defined at draft tube outlet. Turbine runner was defined in moving reference frame with rotational speed (N = 600 rpm) and casing & draft tube were considered in stationary reference frame. The range of input parameters is given in Table I. TABLE I: Input parameters
Discharge , Q (m3/s) 8.00 7.20 5.93 4.71 Angular speed, (rad/sec) 62.8 62.8 62.8 62.8 Pressure outlet, Pt2 (Pa) 32127 32127 32127 32127

model testing k- SST

10

Discharge (m /s)
FIG. 5: Power versus discharge curve

4000 Power(kW) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 2 4 6 8


3

model testing k- SST

10

Output parameters: Based on the boundary conditions applied in the input parameters, the mass and momentum conservation equations were solved iteratively and various output parameters were generated. The head acting on the turbine (H) is calculated based on the total pressure acting on the turbine and torque (T) acting on the turbine is calculated based on the total moment acting on the rotating runner which is a resultant of pressure and viscous moments. The range of output parameters obtained from FLUENT is given in Table II. TABLE II: Output parameters generated by FLUENT
Pressure at casing inlet, Pt1 (Pa) Tx (N-m) 532456.66 553658.83 575276.75 600116.75 - 889.86 - 650.80 - 445.10 - 1903.68

Discharge (m /s)
FIG. 6: Efficiency versus discharge curve

5. CONCLUSIONS The experimental approach of evaluating the performance of hydro turbine is costly as well as time consuming. Conversely, CFD approach is faster and very large amount of results can be produced at virtually no added cost. The CFD approach for prediction of efficiency of Francis turbine was presented in this paper. The numerical simulations were carried out using two sets of boundary conditions viz. (i) pressure inlet and pressure outlet and (ii) mass flow inlet and pressure outlet. However, it was felt that second set of boundary conditions, i.e. mass flow at casing inlet and total pressure at draft tube outlet, were better suited for the CFD analysis of Francis turbine. The overall efficiency of turbine was predicted using CFD approach and compared with the model testing results obtained from the manufacturer and very good agreement was found. It can be concluded that CFD approach complements the other approaches, as CFD approach helps in reduction in cost of model testing and saving in time which leads to cost-effective design of the system. CFD approach may be helpful in improvement of the existing efficiency measuring techniques and evaluation of the performance of hydro turbines to enhance the viability of hydropower development. 6. REFERENCES Saini, R. P., ppt on Selection of Hydro Turbines, 2006. A Team from Suzler Hydro and Suzler Innotec, Design by

Torque components

Torque, T (N-m) Tz (N-m)

Ty (N-m) 49.11 25.25 227.10 1465.25

- 51888.93 - 47738.43 - 40069.43 - 31624.23

51896.59 47742.88 40072.55 31715.35

Based on the above parameters obtained from FLUENT software, the turbine power output and overall efficiency of turbine were worked out and compared with the model testing results obtained from the manufacturer as shown in Figs. 5 & 6 respectively. If volumetric and mechanical efficiency of the turbine are known, hydraulic efficiency can also be worked out using above

44

TECHNICAL ARTICLES
numbers [hydraulic turbines], International Water Power & Dam Construction, v 50, n 3, 1998. Ciocan, G. D., Iliescu, M. S., Vu, T. C., Nennemann, B., and Avellan, F., Experimental study and numerical simulation of the FLINDT draft tube rotating vortex, ASME J. Fluids Eng., 129, pp. 146-158, 2007. Bajic, B., 2002, Multidimensional Diagnostics of Turbine Cavitation,, ASME J. Fluids Eng., 124, pp. 943-950. Kumar, D. S., Book on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power Engineering. Drtina, P., and Sallaberger, M., Hydraulic Turbines Basic Principles and State-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamics Applications, Proceedings of Instn Mech engrs, Vol 213, Part C, 1999. Patel K., and Satanee, M., New Development of High Head Francis Turbine at Jyoti Ltd. for Small Hydro Power Plant, Himalayan Small Hydropower Summit, Dehradun, 2006. Jain, S. V., Saini, R. P. and Kumar, A., CFD Based Flow Analysis of Francis Turbine, International Conference on Energy Engineering, Pondicherry, 2009. Best practice guidelines for turbomachinery CFD, 2007. Ruprecht, A., Heitele, M., Helmrich, T., Moser, W., and Aschenbrenner, T., Numerical Simulation of a Complete Francis Turbine including Unsteady Rotor/Stator Interactions. 7. BIODATA OF THE AUTHORS Prof. Sanjay Jain graduated in Mechanical Engineering from the Gujarat University in 2000. He obtained M. Tech. in Alternate Hydro Energy Systems from Alternate Hydro Energy Centre at Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. From 2000 to 2001 he worked at Saurashtra Chemicals Ltd., Porbandar, Gujarat as a maintenance engineer. In 2001 he joined Mechanical Engineering Department at Institute of Technology, Nirma University where he dealt with various subjects and projects related to Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines.

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ARTIGOS TCNICOS
THE COMBINED OF SMALL HYDROELETRIC POWER AND WIND POWER PLANTS
Occia, G. C. Santos, L. H Essi, J. Occia, N. C. ABSTRACT The combined use of small hydropower plants (SHP) and Wind Energy (WE) presents, as central point of convenience in relation to individual use of each form of generation is the fact that the SHPs lake serves for the regulation and storage of energy for the hybrid system, according to its original function for the dam, but paradoxically, it allows the use of a lower reserved volume. This is because in the event of a prolonged drought, the floodgates may be regulated, maintaining for some periods, only the needed flow to order additional generation produced by Wind Generation. KEYWORDS: Small Hydropower, Wind Energy, Hybrid Systems. 1. INDRODUCTION According to EPE (2007), in the next twenty years, Brazil needs to more than double its domestic supply of electric energy in order to sustain the projected growth for the country. Investments, having kept the load factor patterns, correspond to an installation of over 150 GW of electrical generation. Considering the lack of investment capacity of the country, the increasing difficulties in licensing large power plants (see the cases of the plants of the Madeira River and Belo Monte), the lack of prospects for the use of coal, the option for the use of natural gas remains with its uncertainties, or nuclear energy with all the controversy of its use, and the contribution of small hydroelectric decentralized exploitations for the production of electricity. In this sense, currently, thermoelectric biomass plants the use of sugarcane bagasse may be thought of. There is also wind energy, especially given the extent of the where there is good and steady permanency and intensity of winds, and SHPs with large plants in the national system as an example, is also the most appealing to the country because of its peculiarities of power quality and national ownership of the necessary technology. The installation of wind power for the production of electricity is booming worldwide and has a present growth of 36.8 GW from 2008 to 2009, representing 31.7% of the installed capacity (WWEA, 2010). The predictions are that this index will remain for the year 2009 to 2010, with the driving force of the environmental issues and the financial strength of some equipment-producing countries whose domestic markets are saturated. There are barriers with wind energy, since it cannot be stored in its origin, which gives it the characteristic of an unpredictable availability, or rather, the lack of control in the supply, making it an inflexible generation. How much is generated in a year can be estimated but, not at the time of its generation. It also presents a low energy density, which means that machines with higher powerweight ratio and its use present another relevant issue: just four large companies dominate 70% of the world (ONS, 2010). Moreover, difficulties in obtaining environmental permits are smaller in compared to other types of generation; the occupation of farmland is not significant and eventually may have favorable seasonality characteristics, for example, in Rio Grande do Sul, where there is a good coincidence of stronger wind periods, along with the demand for irrigating rice fields, and also with the growing demand in the states coast. In some areas, prominently northeastern Brazil, there is a complementarity in relation to the hydrological regime. Another important aspect lies in the fact that it can be installed in a modular way. It is worth noting that in Europe off-shore plants and the reconditioning of old plants represent the expectations of industry growth, since the conventional market, as previously mentioned, is saturated, especially in Germany and Spain. Consequently, these countries need to open new markets for their products, otherwise, a decrease in jobs in the local job market would occur. Wind systems alone do not have capacity factors since their availability depends on an uncontrollable factor: the existence of wind. Moreover, when used with other forms of electricity generation, especially those of a storable origin, such as thermo, represent a fuel economy that enables them, both economically and environmentally. When applied to the Brazilian model, more specifically hydropower, wind energy can be used as a factor of water conservation, i.e., an integration of wind energy to the system that can provide closure to the floodgates, holding more water in the reservoirs for later use or even, enabling the re-powering of hydroelectric plants. 2. METHODOLOGY Considering the conventional systems, in a system of competitive energy supply, consideration to the steady supply factor of 0.75 can be considered. Since this cannot be met with wind energy systems, a composition of 75% of the hydraulic installed power and 25% of installed wind power is proposed. Thus, for each power unit installed, this ratio should be kept in a way that in calmer periods, hydroelectric plants could guarantee 75% of the energy supply. Since the load factors of wind systems, even in the best locations for exploiting this type of energy in Brazil, is around 30% (can exceptionally reach 0.35), it can be stated that the average effective capacity is 0.3 MW. Considering that each MW of the hybrid system, only 0.25 MW is of wind power, according to Equation 1, having an average per MW installed in the hybrid system of 0.075 MW. Pe = 0, 3 0, 25 MW (1)

Because of the interconnected power plant operating with a load factor of 0.5, and using this value also as a reference for the hybrid system, the SHP must respond by an addition of 0.425 since the sum of the two factors corresponds to 0.50. However, as the participation of the SHP in the hybrid system proposed is of 0.75, according to Equation 2, the load factor of the hydroelectric unit would have to reach 0.57, since its 70% of participation in the combined system must respond by 0.425 MW. FC = 0, 425 0, 7 = 0, 57 (2)

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TECHNICAL ARTICLES
Therefore, the load factor of the hybrid system results in 0.5025 FC = 0, 57 * 0, 75 + 0, 3 * 0, 25 = 0, 5025 (3) The values of installed kW of the hybrid system are shown in Figure 2, with consideration to the different values of the installed kW for SHPs and wind power plants. It is clear that the combined system presents higher kW values than that of a simple hydropower system. However, since it is not possible for the supply to be accomplished only by this type of unit, the combination becomes interesting.

For analysis of the proposed model, an SHP of the Salto system was considered, in the northeastern region of Rio Grande do Sul, of the State Company of Electric Energy Generation and Transmission (CEEE GT - Companhia Estadual de Energia Eltrica Gerao e Transmisso), with an output of 16.15 MW, located in the Santa Cruz River, fueled by the Salto dam, which presents an accumulated capacity of 14.106 m3, and occupies an area of 2.8 km2. The Bugres hydroelectric plant, working with FC = 0.5, has a production capacity of 70.7 GWh per year. Acting under a load factor of 0.57, there could be an increase of 14% in its annual production, which would be 80.6 GWh. This additional generation would be perfectly supported by the systems, even though the average flow is close to the operational limit for a conventional system, according to the relevancy curve (Fig. 1). The risk would be minimized by the wind contribution showing random characteristics of an unpredictable instantaneous value, and showing good consistency when considering longer periods, such as monthly, by trimester or annually. Considering the capacity of 16.15 MW, 0.75 as a hybrid system, the participation of a wind system would be 5.4 MW, according to Equation 4. PE = 16,15 0, 25 0, 75 = 5, 4 MW (4)

FIG. 2: Composition of KW Cost

3. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS The use of supply intercopping between SHP and wind power plants, can be quite interesting for Brazil since the country has difficulties in carrying out the necessary investments in infrastructure and without energy, of course, the desired rate of economic growth will not materialize. 4. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] OCCIA, G. C.; SANTOS, J. C. V., 2002, Sistemas Fotovoltaicos e Sistemas Hbridos para Eletrificao Residencial Rural, Anais do 4o Encontro de Energia no Meio Rural AGRENER. [2] OCCIA, G. C.; BRISTOT, A; JORGE, R. R.; BALBINOT, A; 2003, O Efeito do Fator de Carga no Custo do kWh Gerado por PCHs, Revista PCHNews. Available at: <www.cerpch.unifei.edu.br/Adm/artigos/8b7c755eadc07f7239b602007945601 e.pdf>. Accessed on 20/JUL/10. [3] HANEMANN, L. C., 2004, Aproveitamentos Hidreltricos em Barragens para Irrigao de Arroz, Dissertao de Mestrado, PPGEAM/ULBRA. [4] AGNCIA NACIONAL DE ENERGIA ELTRICA ANEEL, 2009. Available at: <http://www.aneell.gov.br/> Accessed on 20/DEC/09. [5] OPERADOR NACIONAL DO SISTEMA ELTRICO ONS, 2010. Available at: <http://www.ons.org.br/institucional/modelo_setorial.aspx> Accessed on 10/MAR/10. [6] WORLD WIND ENERGY ASSOCIATION WWEA, Available at: <http://www.wwindea.org/home/index.php?option=com_cont ent&task=view&id=266&Itemid=43>. Accessed on 02/JUN/10.

Relevancy Curve
65 60 55 50 45 Flow (m3/s) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 % of the time

Relevancy Curve FIG. 1: Relevancy Curve

Current

Proposed

Thus, the annual production would be 94.7 GWh per year (Equation 5), corresponding to an average power of 10.8 MW and an increase in income generating 23.7 GWh per year, representing an increase of 33.5%. Eanual = (16,15*0,57 + 5,4*0,3).8760 = 94,704 GWh

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47

ARTIGOS TCNICOS
CONTRIBUIES PARA O ESTUDO DE DESCOMISSIONAMENTO DE BARRAGENS
Amarlio Costa Carvalho Pinto Rodolfo Scarati Martins RESUMO Barragens, como toda obra, tm seu tempo de vida til, incio, meio e fim. Cedo ou tarde a confiana na estrutura, assim como ela, fica deteriorada, o que faz com que abandonos aconteam. Outras vezes, antes mesmo do trmino de sua vida til, o reservatrio encontra-se com sua capacidade de armazenamento comprometida por assoreamento ou deteriorao da qualidade da gua. Ou ainda, ao longo do tempo, os impactos negativos causados pela formao de um reservatrio superam os impactos positivos, tornando a existncia dessa estrutura um incmodo fado para seu proprietrio e sociedade. Ao se procurar recuperar as condies naturais do curso dgua antes da construo da barragem, realizam-se estudos sobre os impactos positivos e negativos da obra a fim de convergir para uma situao tima em cada caso. Muitas vezes a remoo da estrutura e/ou esvaziamento do reservatrio pode ser a soluo para combater os efeitos negativos trazidos pela presena da estrutura. O que deve ser observado nesses casos so as implicaes dessa remoo no que diz respeito aos aspectos hidrulico, hidrolgico, sedimentolgico, social, ambiental e econmico. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Barragem, Reservatrio.

Contribution to Dam DecommissioninG Study


ABSTRACT Dams, like any structure, have their lifetime, beginning, middle and end. Sooner or later the structure liability becomes injured, which causes dropouts occur. Other times, even before the end of its lifetime, the reservoir meets their storage capacity impaired by siltation and deterioration of water quality. Or, over time, the negative impacts caused by the formation of a reservoir outweigh the positive impacts, making the existence of such a structure a nuisance to its owner and society. In order to recover the natural conditions of the stream before construction of the dam, is possible to carry out studies about the positive and negative impacts of the construction looking to converge to an optimal situation in each case. Often the removal of the structure and / or emptying of the reservoir may be the solution to combat the negative effects brought by the presence of the structure. It should be observed in this case the consequences regarding hydraulic, hydrologic, sedimentology, social, environmental and economic aspects. KEYWORDS: Dams, reservoir.

1. INTRODUO Nos dias atuais, os reservatrios tm mltiplos usos e no so somente destinados ao suprimento humano ou irrigao, isoladamente. Abastecimento, gerao de energia eltrica, conteno de cheias, lazer, pesca, navegao e turismo so algumas das utilizaes dos reservatrios. Entretanto, em alguns lugares pelo mundo, pequenas barragens foram e so removidas seja por motivos de envelhecimento da estrutura, por no atendimento s necessidades para as quais foram criadas, por custos elevados de manuteno, por impossibilidade de renovao da licena de operao nos rgos competentes, dentre outros motivos. Descomissionamento vem a ser o processo que ocorre no final da vida til das instalaes, edificaes e obras, encerrando o comissionamento. Descomissionamento de barragem definido como remoo completa ou parcial da barragem, ou uma mudana significativa na operao da mesma (DeHeer, 2001). No caso do descomissionamento de barragens, tal medida pode ser tomada de diferentes formas, dependendo da causa que o resultou. O descomissionamento pode se tomar de maneira total, parcial, abandono da estrutura ou sua completa remoo. 2. IMPACTOS Toda e qualquer obra realizada altera as condies de um habitat natural para acomodar os interesses humanos sejam eles de explorao de recursos naturais, proteo de comunidades ou quaisquer outros. Impactos sempre existiro quando se alteram as condies naturais antes predominantes de um local. O importante saber quantificar e qualificar os impactos confrontando os benefcios e malefcios trazidos pela obra, dimensionar os riscos tolerveis de acordo com as condies e as necessidades existentes da regio influenciada pela obra. Dentre os impactos malficos que uma barragem acarreta, so citados alguns a seguir: Ecolgico Obstculo/bloqueio da migrao de peixes pelo curso dgua; Limnolgico Alterao das caractersticas fsico-qumicas da seo do rio em questo. Em casos piores, desenvolvimento excessivo de algas eutrofizando o reservatrio; Sade pblica Potencial proliferao de vetores transmissores de doenas; Sedimentolgico Aprisionamento de sedimentos no reservatrio com alterao nos padres erosivos do rio; Hidrolgico Alterao da flutuao natural no regime de vazes do rio ao longo do ano; Segurana A estrutura carrega consigo o potencial de devastar populaes a jusante na ocorrncia de uma falha na barragem. Tambm podem ser citados os impactos benficos trazidos por uma barragem. Navegao Manuteno de um nvel dgua constante possibilita o trfego de embarcaes ao longo do ano com segurana;

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TECHNICAL ARTICLES
Esporte/Lazer/Turismo Atividade turstica e o lazer podem coexistir perfeitamente com outras finalidades do reservatrio; Gerao e Energia Eltrica Aproveitar a queda dgua no gera apenas energia eltrica, mas tambm benefcios financeiros para o municpio; Abastecimento de gua Tanto para abastecimento humano, animal, industrial ou irrigao a construo de barragens para armazenamento de gua uma obra feita h sculos; Piscicultura Com a presena de um volume imenso de gua represada possvel aproveitar esta rea para criao de peixes como se fosse gado em um pasto, e fazer disso uma atividade econmica; Conteno de Cheias Dependendo se o reservatrio criado ter ou no volume de espera, possvel dar proteo a populao de jusante, ou no mnimo amenizar os efeitos, no caso de ocorrncia de uma onda de cheia potencialmente destrutiva. Como a vida til mdia esperada para essas estruturas de cerca de 50 anos e muitas delas foram construdas h algumas dcadas, possvel concluir que estas esto se aproximando do final de suas vidas. Alm da deteriorao devido ao envelhecimento, ao acmulo de sedimentos em seus reservatrios, os interesses sociais que sofreram alteraes ao longo de sua existncia fazem com que a existncia dessas estruturas j no seja to interessante. Mesmo que no apresentem problemas crticos aps certo tempo, o investimento financeiro necessrio para dar manuteno ou reformar suas barragens supera os custos associados sua remoo, mesmo se for levado em considerao o lucro financeiro em longo prazo da operao da barragem. Por um motivo ou por outro, uma hora surgir a dvida se vivel manter aquela estrutura e/ou reservatrio operante. Uma maneira de se avaliar as vantagens e desvantagens que uma barragem oferece comparar seus benefcios, estado de conservao da estrutura e os riscos que ela oferece. 3. METODOLOGIA Baseando-se numa metodologia proposta por Menescal et al. (2001) e fazendo pequenos ajustes, possvel caracterizar uma barragem quanto sua periculosidade, importncia estratgica e vulnerabilidade. De acordo com as caractersticas da barragem e seu reservatrio so atribudos pontos previamente determinados em tabelas e, ao final atribuda barragem uma determinaTABELA 1: Periculosidade
Dimenso da Barragem1 Altura 10m Comprimento 200m (1) Altura 10 a 20 m Comprimento 2000 m (3) Altura 20 a 50 m Comprimento 200 a 3000 m (6) Vol Total do Reservatrio2 Pequeno <20hm (3) Mdio at 200 hm (5) Tipo de Barragem3 Concreto (4) Alvenaria de pedra / Concreto Rolado (6) Tipo de Fundao4 Rocha (1) Vazo de Projeto5 Decamilenar (1) Alteraes Ecolgicas6 Alteraes desprezveis (2,0) Alteraes pequenas no habitat (4,0) Alteraes considerveis na populao/ habitat (6,0) Alteraes profundas e diretas na populao (8,0) Alteraes Limnolgicas7 Alteraes meramente estticas (2,0) Insero de risco fauna/flora (4,0) Pequena alterao da qualidade da gua para consumo (6,0) Grande alterao da qualidade da gua para consumo (8,0) Alteraes Sedimentolgicas8 Pequeno assoreamento no reservatrio (2,0) Assoreamento considervel do reservatrio (4,0) Problemas com a profundidade do reservatrio devido a assoreamento (6,0) Deposio de sedimentos contaminados no reservatrio (8,0)

da classificao quanto sua segurana. Essa uma ferramenta importante quando se considerar aplicar o descomissionamento em um barramento. A metodologia a ser apresentada foi utilizada na avaliao da necessidade de se descomissionar algumas estruturas do cadastro de barragens das bacias PCJ no estado de So Paulo, elaborado pela Engecorps, em parceria com o Fundo Estadual de Recursos Hdricos FEHIDRO e a Fundao Centro Tecnolgico de Hidrulica FCTH. O cadastro das bacias PCJ surgiu para caracterizar os problemas das barragens aps alguns acidentes envolvendo rompimento de algumas estruturas, causando inundaes. A caracterizao dos problemas estruturais e hidrulicos foi feita atravs de levantamento de campo e inspees nos barramentos. A seguir, so exibidas as categorias de dados que constam no cadastro de barragens das bacias PCJ. Todas as categorias elencadas contm subdivises, que permitem localizar outras informaes, quando existentes, necessrias para aplicao da metodologia de avaliao de potencial de risco. Proprietrio Informaes gerais Documentao Informaes hidrolgicas Barragem principal Sangradouro/Vertedouro Tomada dgua Drenagens Revestimento e instrumentao Usos atuais reas Aspectos de gesto Responsvel pela barragem Responsvel pelo cadastro Inspeo de segurana Responsvel pela reviso tcnica Fotos Croquis As informaes de algumas barragens desse cadastro so confrontadas com trs tabelas propostas para avaliar a periculosidade, vulnerabilidade e importncia estratgica dessas barragens. Periculosidade e vulnerabilidade so determinadas somando pontos de acordo com suas respectivas classificaes nas categorias das tabelas a seguir. E a importncia estratgica calculada fazendo-se a mdia dos pontos de sua tabela referente.

Rocha alterada / Saprolito (4)

Milenar (2)

Regular 200 a 800 hm (7)

Terra / Enrocamento (8)

Solo residual / Aluvio at 4m (5)

500 anos (4)

Altura > 50 m Comprimento > 500 m (10)

Muito grande > 800 hm (10)

Terra (10)

Aluvio arenoso espesso / Solo orgnico (10)

Inferior a 500 anos ou Desconhecida (10)

P=

1 i

49

ARTIGOS TCNICOS
TABELA 2: Vulnerabilidade
Tempo de Operao9 Existncia de Projeto (As Built)10 Existem projetos "as built" e avaliao do desempenho (1) Existem projetos "as built" (3) Confiabilidade das Estruturas Vertedouras11 Tomada dgua12 Satisfatria / Controle a montante (1) Satisfatria / Controle a jusante (2) Deformaes/ Afundamentos/ Assentamentos14 Deterioraes dos Taludes/ Paramentos15

Percolao13

>30 anos (0)

Muito Satisfatrias (2)

Totalmente controlada pelo sistema de drenagem (1) Sinais de umedecimento nas reas de jusante, taludes ou ombreiras (4) Zonas midas em taludes de jusante, ombreiras, rea alagada a jusante devido ao fluxo (6) Surgncia de gua em taludes, ombreiras e rea de jusante (10)

Inexistente (0)

Inexistente (1)

10 a 30 anos (1)

Satisfatria (3)

Pequenos abatimentos da crista (2)

Falhas no rip-rap e na proteo de jusante (3) Falha nas protees drenagens insuficientes e sulcos nos taludes (7) Depresso no rip-rap escorregamentos sulcos profundos de eroso, vegetao (10)

5 a 10 anos (2)

S projeto bsico (5)

Suficiente (6)

Aceitvel (3)

Ondulaes pronunciadas, Fissuras (6) Depresso na crista - afundamentos nos taludes, ou na fundao/Trincas (10)

<5 anos (3)

No existe projeto (7)

No Satisfatria (10)

Deficiente (5)

12

V= TABELA 3: Importncia Estratgica


Vol til hm
(A)

6 i Depois de definidos os valores de periculosidade, vulnerabilidade e importncia estratgica, calcula-se o potencial de risco para a barragem corresponde equao abaixo e classificado conforme a tabela 4, a seguir: PR = P+V 2 I

Grande >800 (2) Grande (2,5) Elevado (1,5)

Mdio 200 a 800 (1,5) Mdia (2,0) Mdio (1,2) Alguma atividade econmica (1,5) Alguma atividade econmica (1,5) Parte feito reservatrio (1,5) Pequenas culturas familiares (1,5) Criaes de subsistncia (1,5) Pouca interferncia (1,5) Pouca interferncia (1,5) Consumo de pequenas instalaes (1,5) Pequena interferncia (1,5)

Baixo <200 (1,0) Pequena (1,0) Pequeno (1,0)

Populao a Jusante (B) Custo da Barragem (C) Contribui com Navegao (D)

TABELA 4: Potencial de Risco


No (1,0) CLASSE A No (1,0) B C D E No (1,0) POTENCIAL DE RISCO - PR > 85 (ou Vi=10) - alto 55 a 85 - mdio 33 a 55 - normal 22 a 33 - baixo < 22 - muito baixo

Principal base econmica (2,0)

Esporte, Lazer e Turismo (E)

Principal base econmica (2,0) Principal base de abastecimento (2,5) Grandes reas cultivadas (2,0) Grandes criaes (2,0) Interferncia considervel (2,5) Interferncia considervel (2,5) Conectada distribuidora/ transmissora (2,0)

Abastecimento

(F)

No (1,0)

Irrigao

(G)

Piscicultura

(H)

No (1,0)

A classificao da tabela anterior mostra que uma barragem classe A encontra-se em pssimo estado e deve sofrer manuteno imediata buscando retir-la de sua situao de risco. J uma barragem classe E aquela que se encontra em boas condies e, por isso, necessita de menos manutenes e vistorias. 4. APLICAO DA METODOLOGIA A escolha das barragens foi feita de maneira cautelosa, buscando aquelas que possussem maior quantidade de dados passveis de serem utilizados. E, ainda assim, aquelas que foram selecionadas, carecem de dados, o que revela uma deficincia do cadastro de barragens das bacias PCJ. Devido escassez de dados, foram adotados dois cenrios para aplicao da metodologia. Para o pior cenrio, na ausncia de dados, adotou-se as respostas que mais penalizassem a barragem, fazendo sua pontuao tender para maior periculosidade e vulnerabilidade, favorecendo o descomissionamento. Para o melhor cenrio, na ausncia de dados, adotou-se as respostas que menos penalizassem a barragem, resultando em

Controle de Cheias (I) Rejeitos Slidos /Industriais (J)

No (1,0)

No (1,0)

Gerao de Energia (K)

No (1,0)

Regularizao

(L)

Grande interferncia (2,0)

No (1,0)

I=

A +B +C +D+E+F +G+H+I + J+K +L 12

50

TECHNICAL ARTICLES
uma pontuao baixa e uma situao que no favorea, ou que favorea menos, o descomissionamento. Aplicou-se a metodologia para avaliar a periculosidade, vulnerabilidade, importncia estratgica e potencial de risco das barragens em ambos cenrios citados anteriormente. 1. CD-119 Bairro do Cascalho 2. AM-788 Pontello 3. CO-766 Represa Pirapitingui 4. MM-856 Georgetti 5. PA-814 Sem nome Na apresentao dos resultados, o smbolo ? presente nas tabelas indica a ausncia de dado sobre uma determinada informao. A ele ser atribuda pontuao mxima no pior cenrio possvel e pontuao mnima no melhor cenrio possvel. O processo apresentado a seguir, com pior e melhor cenrios para a barragem Bairro do Cascalho, foi repetido para as demais barragens. Represa Bairro do Cascalho CD-119 Pior Cenrio A seguir, so apresentadas as tabelas com as pontuaes para periculosidade, vulnerabilidade e importncia estratgica para a barragem em questo, no seu respectivo cenrio de simulao. Tabela 5: Barragem CD-119 Periculosidade
ndice Avaliado CD-119 1 Extenso 112 m e altura 4 m. 1 2 3 Terra e entulho 8 4 5 6 7 8 CD-119 Pontos

Com os valores de periculosidade, vulnerabilidade e importncia estratgica, possvel calcular o potencial de risco e se obter 44 pontos para a barragem CD-119. O potencial de risco calculado para esta barragem a colocaria na categoria C de acordo com a tabela 4, mas como houve um valor de vulnerabilidade igual a 10, ela automaticamente passa a se enquadrar na categoria A, isto , risco alto. Represa Bairro do Cascalho CD-119 Melhor Cenrio A seguir, so apresentadas as tabelas com as pontuaes para periculosidade, vulnerabilidade e importncia estratgica para a barragem em questo, no seu respectivo cenrio de simulao. TABELA 8: Barragem CD-119 Periculosidade
ndice Avaliado 1 Extenso 112 m e altura 4 m. 1 2 3 Terra e entulho 8 4 5 6 7 8

0,3 hm 3

? 1

? 1

? 2

? 2

? 2

Aplicando a equao para clculo da periculosidade encontra-se o valor de 20 para periculosidade no caso da barragem CD-119. TABELA 9: Barragem CD-119 Vulnerabilidade
ndice Avaliado 9 10 11 12 13 Surgncia de gua em taludes, ombreiras e reas a jusante 10 14 15

0,3 hm

Pontos

10

10

8 CD-119 Mais de 30 No existe projeto Suficiente ?

Aplicando a equao para clculo da periculosidade encontra-se o valor de 56 para periculosidade no caso da barragem CD-119. TABELA 6: Barragem CD-119 Vulnerabilidade
ndice Avaliado

Inexistentes

Inexistentes

Pontos 9 10 11 12 13 Surgncia Mais de 30 No existe projeto Suficiente de gua em taludes, ombreiras e reas a jusante 10 Inexistentes Inexistentes 14 15

Aplicando a equao da vulnerabilidade obteve-se o valor de 25 pontos. TABELA 10: Barragem CD-119 Importncia Estratgica
ndice Avaliado CD-119 Pontos ndice Avaliado CD-119 A Baixo 1 B Pequeno 1 C Pequeno 1 D No 1 E No 1 F Parcial 1,5

CD-119

Pontos

Aplicando a equao da vulnerabilidade obteve-se o valor de 29 pontos. TABELA 7: Barragem CD-119 Importncia Estratgica
ndice Avaliado CD-119 Pontos ndice Avaliado CD-119 Pontos A Baixo 1 G No 1 B Pequeno 1 H No 1 C Pequeno 1 I No 1 D No 1 J No 1 E No 1 K No 1 F

G No 1

H No 1

I No 1

J No 1

K No 1

L No 1

Pontos Parcial 1,5 L No 1

Utilizou-se a equao para o clculo da importncia estratgica da barragem e foi obtido o valor 1,04.

Utilizou-se a equao para o clculo da importncia estratgica da barragem e foi obtido o valor 1,04. Com os valores de periculosidade, vulnerabilidade e importncia estratgica, possvel calcular o potencial de risco e se obter 23 pontos para a barragem CD-119. O potencial de risco calculado para esta barragem a colocaria na categoria D de acordo com a tabela 4, mas como houve um valor de vulnerabilidade igual a 10, ela automaticamente passa a se enquadrar na categoria A, isto , risco alto.

51

ARTIGOS TCNICOS
TABELA 11: Resumo dos Piores e Melhores Cenrios
Vulnerabilidade (ptos) Periculosidade (ptos) Volume (hm) Importncia Estratgica Potencial de Risco Altura (m) Barragem

as barragens sob uma profunda inspeo em busca de dados que permitam que a avaliao seja feita com a menor quantidade de dados faltantes possvel.
Classe

5. CONCLUSES A ideia de se fazer descomissionamento de um barramento surge a partir do momento em que so levantadas dvidas sobre a real necessidade da barragem, isto , sobre os benefcios versus os malefcios que ela traz. Independentemente de qual for o motivo que estimule a necessidade de descomissionamento, recomendase ter em mos os dados histricos antes e aps a construo da barragem para que, assim, seja possvel compar-los e averiguar quais as alteraes sofridas pelo ambiente ao longo dos anos em razo da presena do barramento. Embora o cadastro de barragens das bacias PCJ contenha uma quantidade razovel de elementos sobre a hidrulica dos barramentos, a metodologia aplicada para se avaliar a periculosidade de barragens no pde atingir seu mximo potencial devido falta de informaes desses barramentos. Antes de uma nova campanha de vistorias mais detalhadas para obteno de dados completos sobre os barramentos, recomenda-se que ao cadastro de barragens sejam incorporadas novas informaes sobre possveis alteraes ecolgicas, limnolgicas e sedimentolgicas do entorno dos barramentos, conforme a proposta de trabalho. Pela metodologia, fica claro que a confiabilidade das estruturas vertedouras, a percolao, as deformaes/afundamentos/assentamentos e a deteriorao dos taludes/paramentos so elementos de maior sensibilidade no que se refere vulnerabilidade da barragem. Afinal, basta que qualquer um desses elementos tenha a maior pontuao possvel para que a barragem seja considerada como de alto risco. De fato, esse julgamento conservador tem seus motivos, j que qualquer ndice de vulnerabilidade que esteja em estado crtico, com mxima pontuao, suficiente para colocar em risco a estrutura mesmo que os demais ndices de vulnerabilidade apresentem baixa pontuao, revelando uma melhor conservao da barragem em outros aspectos.

CD-119

4,00

0,3

56 20

29 25 31 27 28 24 34 30 36 24

1,04

44 23

C D C D C D C D C D

AM-788

1,50

<200

58 22

1,16

52 28

CO-766

5,25

<200

52 16

1,31

52 26

MM-856

3,00

<200

58 22

1,04

48 27

PA-814

1,50

<200

58 22

1,08

51 25

De acordo com a metodologia, se qualquer valor de vulnerabilidade for igual a 10, a barragem automaticamente taxada como classe A, isto , alto risco. Assim, todas as barragens avaliadas, em ambos cenrios, enquadraram-se na categoria de alto risco unicamente por possurem qualquer valor de vulnerabilidade igual a 10. Se tal princpio fosse desconsiderado, as barragens avaliadas seriam enquadradas na categoria C, normais, no pior cenrio possvel e como categoria D, no melhor cenrio possvel, conforme apresentado na tabela 11. Isso leva a alguns pensamentos: mudar o princpio de avaliao da periculosidade, de modo que barragens inicialmente classificadas como normais no sejam realocadas para uma categoria de risco muito elevado devido falta de dados, ou ento colocar

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TECHNICAL ARTICLES

53

INSTRUES AOS AUTORES


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INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS


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ARTIGOS TCNICOS

TECHNICAL ARTICLES

54

legislation

55

LEGISLAO
O CUSTO DAS MUDANAS CLIMTICAS
O decreto 7.390, que regulamentou a Poltica Nacional sobre Mudana do Clima (PNMC), coloca um srio desafio para empresas e investidores. At 2020, o setor eltrico precisar investir R$ 25,2 bilhes em medidas de mitigao, alm de R$ 1,3 bilho, por ano, no item adaptao. Por Jlio Santos O Plano Decenal de Energia (PDE), antes visto apenas como uma pea indicativa para o mercado da expanso da matriz energtica do pas, incorporou um novo papel. Com a publicao do Decreto 7.390, de dezembro de 2010, que regulamentou a Lei 12.187, de dezembro de 2009, responsvel pela Poltica Nacional sobre Mudana do Clima (PNMC), o plano servir de base, no setor energtico, para o pas atingir a meta de reduzir suas emisses de gases de efeito estufa (GEE) entre 36,1% e 38,9% at 2020. O decreto projeta para o setor de energia, at l, um volume de emisses de 868 milhes de toneladas de carbono equivalente (ton C02 eq), do patamar global de 3.236 milhes de ton C02 eq. Segundo o estabelecido pelo decreto, o Brasil tem o compromisso voluntrio de implementar um conjunto de medidas para reduzir as emisses entre 1.168 milhes de tonCO2eq e 1.259 milhes de tonCO2eq, no perodo. Para cumprir tal meta, o setor de energia tem pela frente o desafio de expandir a oferta de energia hidreltrica; de fontes alternativas renovveis, como centrais elicas, pequenas centrais hidreltricas (PCHs) e bioeletricidade; de biocombustveis; alm de apostar na eficincia energtica. O PDE um dos quatro planos setoriais apontados no decreto. "O nvel de emisses de GEE pelo setor energtico brasileiro no ano de 2020 dever ficar abaixo da meta de 730 milhes de toneladas de CO2, estipulada nos estudos desenvolvidos pela EPE para a Conferncia do Clima de 2009 em Copenhague", aponta Mauricio Tolmasquim, presidente da Empresa de Pesquisa Energtica (EPE). De acordo com ele, o pas dever atingir emisses da ordem de 687 milhes de toneladas de C02, graas a aposta que vem fazendo em energias renovveis. Ou seja, um volume at mesmo abaixo da Maurcio Tolmasquim meta setorial para energia estipupresidente da Empresa de lada pelo PNMC. Pesquisa Energtica (EPE). Nos prximos 10 anos, a EPE projeta a entrada de 54 mil MW, provenientes da instalao de grandes hidreltricas, PCHs, elicas e termeltricas biomassa, alm da produo de 54 bilhes de litros de etanol e de 3,9 bilhes de litros de biodiesel. Para Tolmasquim, as aes do plano brasileiro de reduo de emisses de GEE para o setor energtico abatero 234 milhes de toneladas de CO2 at 2020, contra 362 milhes de toneladas CO2 do inventrio de 2005. "Na rea de energia, a posio do Brasil, em comparao com outros pases, muito vantajosa. O ndice brasileiro de emisses de apenas 16,5%, contra 65% no mundo e 89% nos EUA", compara Tolmasquim. A coordenadora do Grupo de Trabalho sobre Mudanas Climticas do Frum de Meio Ambiente do Setor Eltrico (FMASE), Arilde Gabriel Sutil, considerou positivo o referenciamento que o decreto 7.390/2010 deu ao PDE, que o Plano Setorial de Energia. "At agora o PDE era um plano indicativo. Com a emisso do decreto e a definio deste como Plano Nacional de Mitigao e Adaptao s Mudanas Climticas para o setor de energia parece que deixa de s-lo", observa ela, lembrando que com a regulamentao da Poltica Nacional sobre Mudanas do Clima, o Brasil se tornou o primeiro pas em desenvolvimento a estabelecer um limite para os seus nveis de emisso. Segundo Arilde Sutil, o grande desafio da PNMC a reduo das emisses devido ao uso do solo, envolvendo desmatamento da Amaznia e Cerrado. "A maior fonte de emisso do pas, cerca de 60% do total, se deve mudana do uso do solo, devido ao desmatamento e queimadas", destaca. Da meta de redues de emisses estabelecidas pelo decreto 7.390, lembra a coordenadora do FMASE, ao setor de energia cabe apenas 7%, contra 25% correspondente ao uso da terra e 5% da agropecuria. "O Brasil deve ser reconhecido pelo seu esforo em ter desenvolvido e mantido uma matriz eltrica baseada em 89% de fontes renovveis, enquanto a mdia mundial 18%. Ao manter esta poltica, o setor contribui para que o pas alcance as metas", diz. Financiamento dos custos: "O maior efeito para o setor de energia eltrica se dar na regulamentao da avaliao de impactos ambientais sobre o microclima e o macroclima", aponta Decio Michellis Jr., diretor de Energia do Departamento de Infraestrutura da Federao das Indstrias do Estado de So Paulo (Fiesp) e assessor especial de Meio Ambiente da Vice-presidncia Corporativa de Distribuio da Rede Energia. O especialista observa que hoje existem apenas ferramentas para inventrio das emisses nas fases de projeto, construo e operao. "No existem no Brasil, nem no mundo, ferramentas em escala adequada para que o empreendimento venha cumprir a exigncia legal de avaliao de impactos ambientais sobre o microclima e o macroclima", ressalta. Decio Michellis Jr. considera exagerada a meta de reduo das emisses estabelecidas pelo governo. "Nossas emisses per capita so metade da mdia mundial; nossa matriz energtica trs vezes mais limpa que a mundial; e nossa matriz eltrica 7,5 vezes mais limpa que a mundial", compara. "Possivelmente, ns investiremos em aes de mitigao e adaptao climtica que no precisamos, com dinheiro que no temos para impressionar pases e grupos de interesse que so os principais responsveis pelo problema", analisa. Alm da regulamentao dos impactos ambientais, o principal desafio nacional ser o financiamento dos custos envolvidos, na opinio do especialista. Segundo ele, para mitigao o setor eltrico precisar investir, at 2020, R$ 25,2 bilhes e o Brasil, at R$ 367 bilhes. No quesito adaptao, o volume de recursos para o setor est estimado em R$ 1,3 bilho, por ano, e para o pas, at R$ 33,8 bilhes. "Para o setor eltrico, o maior desafio de hoje unificar os agentes de gerao, comercializao, transmisso e distribuio em torno de uma viso compartilhada de futuro", indica. De acordo com Decio Michellis Jr., para se adaptar ao estabelecido pelo decreto, o setor eltrico precisa articular uma "Agenda Positiva" junto ao governo federal (ministrios de Cincia e Tecnologia, Meio Ambiente, Minas e Energia, Fazenda e Casa Civil para criar um pacto que inclua grandes empresas e agentes do setor produtivo, inspirada no movimento do Grupo de Lderes Empresariais (LIDE).

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Arquivo Pessoal

legislation
THE COST Of CLIMATIC CHANGES
Decree 7,390, which regulates the National Policy for Climatic Changes (PNMC), launches a serious challenge to enterprises and investors. By 2020, the electric sector will have to invest R$ 25.2 billion in mitigating measures, in addition to R$ 1.3 billion a year in adjustments. Translation: Adriana Candal The Plano Decenal de Energia (PDE a ten-year plan for energy), which in the past was just seen as an indicative part for the market in relation to the expansion of the energy matrix in the country, has incorporated a new role. With the publication of Decree 7,390, December 2010, which regulated Bill 12,187, December 2009, which is responsible for the National Policy on Climatic Change (PNMC), the Plan will be the basis in the energy sector for the country to achieve its goal towards the reduction of the emissions of greenhouse gases (GG) between 36.1% and 38.9% by 2020. The decree forecasts a volume of emissions of 868 million tons of carbon equivalent carbon (ton C02 eq) for the energy sector, out of the global 3,236 million tons of C02 eq. The decree established that Brazil committed itself voluntarily to implement a set of measures aiming at reducing the emissions of ton CO2 eq between 1,168 million and 1,259 million within this period. In order to fulfill such goal, the energy sector will face the challenge to expand hydropower energy offer, renewable alternative sources such as wind farms, Small Hydropower Plants (SHPs) and bioelectricity and biofuels, as well as bet on energy efficiency. The PDE is one of the four sectorial plants mentioned by the decree. "The level of GG emissions generated by the energy Brazilian sector in the year 2020 must be below the goal of 730 million tons of CO2, established by studies developed by the Energy Research Company (EPE) for the Copenhagen Climate Conference 2009", says Mr. Maurcio Tolmasquim, president of the Energy Research Company (EPE). According to him the country must reach emissions of approximately 687 million tons of C02, thanks to the bet on renewable energy, which is lower than the sectorial goal established by the PNMC. Within the next 10 years, the EPE forecast new 54 thousand MW coming from the installation of large hydropower plants, SHPs, wind farms and biomass-based thermal power plants, as well as the production of 54 billion liters of ethanol and 3.9 billion liters of biodiesel. According to Mr. Tolmasquim the actions of the Brazilian plan to reduce GG emissions for the energy sector will terminate 234 million tons of CO2 by 2020, against 362 million tons of CO2 of the 2005 inventory. "In the energy area, Brazils position, in comparison with other countries, is very favorable. The Brazilian index of emissions is only 16.5%, against 65% worldwide and 89% in the USA", he compares. The coordinator of the Work Group on Climatic Changes of the Electric Sector of the Environment Forum (FMASE), Ms. Arilde Gabriel Sutil, considered positive the reference decree 7,390/2010 gives to the PDE, which is the Energy Sectorial Plan. "So far, the PDE has just been an indicative plan. As the decree was issued and defined as the National Plan on Mitigation and Adjustment to Climatic Changes for the energy sectors, it seems to me that the PDE is not just an indicative plan anymore", she observes, reminding that with the regulation of the National Policy on Climatic Change, Brazil has become the first developing country to establish a limit regarding its levels of emissions. According to Ms. Sutil, PNMCs greatest challenge is the reduction in the emissions caused by the use of land, including the deforestation of the Amazon and Cerrado. "The largest source of emission in the country, about 60%, comes from the change in the use of land, due to deforestation and fires", she highlights. Out of the reductions in emissions established by Decree 7,390, reminds FMASEs coordinator, the energy sector is responsible for only 7%, against 25% from the use of land and 5% from agricultural and livestock activities. "Brazil must be recognized by its effort to have developed and maintained a electric matrix whose 89% are based on renewable sources of energy, whereas the worlds average is 18%. By maintaining this policy, the sector contributes towards the goals and the country will be able to accomplish them", she says. Cost Funding: "The greatest effect on the electric energy sector will be the regulation of the environmental impact assessment on the micro and macroclimate", says Decio Michellis Jr., Director of Energy of the Department of Infrastructure of the Industry Federation of the State of So Paulo. (Fiesp) and Special Consultant on Environment of the Distribution Corporative VicePresidency of Rede Energia. He observes that today there are only tools to carry out emission inventory in the project, construction and operation stages. "There are no tools at an appropriate scale for the level of each enterprise to fulfill the legal demand of environmental impact assessment on the micro and macroclimate", he highlights. Mr. Michellis considers the emission reduction goal established by the government as exaggerated. "Our per capta emissions are half of the worldwide average. Our energy matrix is three times as clean as the worlds and our energy matrix is also 7.5 times cleaner", he compares. "Possibly we will invest in mitigation and climate adjustment actions that we do not need, using money that we do not have to impress countries and groups that are the real ones to blame for the problems", he analyzes. In addition to the regulation of the environment impacts, the primary challenge will be the funding of the involved costs, according to Mr. Michellis. She also thinks that the electric sector will have to invest R$ 25.2 billion and Brazil up to R$ 367 billion in mitigation actions by 2020. As far as adjustments go, the volume of resources for the sector is R$ 1.3 billion/year and for the country up to R$ 33.8/year. "For the electric sector, the greatest challenge today is to unify the generation trading, generating and distributing agents around one shared vision of the future", he says. Mr. Michellis states that for the electric sector to get adjusted to what was established by the sector, it needs to articulate a Positive Agenda with the federal government (Ministries of Science and Technology, Environment and Mines and Energy, Finance and the Chief of Staff) in order to create a pact that includes large companies and agents of the productive sector, inspired in the movement of the Entrepreneurs Leadership Group (LIDE). Among the necessary actions to encourage investments and reduce emissions, Mr. Michellis mentions a reduction in the tributary burden for the whole low carbon technology productive chain, the establishment of clear long-term rules to encourage clean energy and climatic change businesses, respect to energy macroeconomic trends, transparence to elaborate the inventories and the adoption of actions for mitigating and adjusting climatic practices and actions that converge with national interests.

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LEGISLAO
Entre as aes necessrias para estimular os investimentos para reduzir as emisses, o especialista cita a desonerao tributria para toda a cadeia produtiva de tecnologias de baixo carbono; o estabelecimento de regras claras de longo prazo para incentivar os negcios ligados a energias limpas e mudanas climticas; o respeito s tendncias macroeconmicas energticas; a transparncia na elaborao dos inventrios; e a adoo de prticas e aes de mitigao e adaptao climtica convergentes com o interesse nacional. MULTIPLICAO DAS POLTICAS Estados tambm criam suas polticas prprias para reduzir as emisses. A lista inclui, por exemplo, So Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia e Amazonas. Assim como o governo federal, uma srie de estados tambm estabeleceram polticas especficas para mudanas climticas, com o objetivo de reduzir as emisses de gases de efeito estufa (GEE). So Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Amazonas e Bahia j contam com leis que tratam da questo. O investimento em fontes renovveis de energia, eficincia energtica e construes sustentveis entram no rol de solues do setor de energia para atingir as metas estabelecidas. No caso de So Paulo, a Poltica Estadual de Mudanas Climticas (PEMC), instituda pela Lei n 13.798, de 9 de novembro de 2009, estabelece uma meta de reduo global de 20% das emisses de dixido de carbono (CO) em 2020. A lei levou em conta o ano de 2005, cuja emisso estimada foi de 100 milhes de toneladas de CO. O Anurio Estatstico de Energticos por Municpio, divulgado em fevereiro pela Secretaria de Saneamento e Energia, mostra que em 2009 o estado registrou 64.799 emisses em 10 toneladas/ano. Os 15 maiores municpios de So Paulo, com 32.246,39 emisses em 10 toneladas/ano, responderam por 49,8% do total. O Rio de Janeiro conta com a Lei no 5.690, de 14 de abril de 2010, que estabelece a Poltica Estadual Sobre Mudana Global do Clima e Desenvolvimento Sustentvel, tendo como um dos principais objetivos fomentar a participao do uso de fontes renovveis de energia no estado. A lei aguarda ainda a regulamentao, prevista para ser divulgada no ms de abril ou maio deste ano, de acordo Marcia Valle Real, da Superintendncia de Clima e Mercado de Carbono da Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Rio de Janeiro. Ela definir as metas de reduo das emisses no estado. O inventrio estadual de 2007, que teve 2005 como ano base, considerou as emisses de trs gases CO, metano e xido nitroso (N20). O levantamento apontou um volume de emisso de 70 milhes de toneladas por ano, ficando os setores industrial e de energia com 38% das emisses, seguido da rea de transporte, com 15%. No Rio de Janeiro, a indstria de energia representa 8% das emisses. Marcia Valle Real conta que a ideia, na regulamentao da poltica estadual de mudanas do clima, seguir o modelo adotado pela China. "Este um caminho analisado hoje, no qual vai se buscar trabalhar para reduzir a taxa de crescimento da intensidade energtica em relao ao Produto Interno Bruto (PIB)", observa, explicando que isso leva em conta a retomada do crescimento industrial do estado. As empresas do setor eltrico tambm entraram nesta corrida, passando a tratar o aquecimento global como assunto estratgico e adotando excelentes prticas de gesto estratgica do clima, segundo Dcio Michellis Jr. "Elas no se contentam em adotar medidas paliativas de sustentabilidade ambiental. Tambm adotam polticas permanentes, baseadas em indicadores confiveis para medir e neutralizar a quantidade de carbono que liberam na atmosfera", comenta o especialista. Segundo ele, fazer inventrios das emisses, identificar as principais fontes de poluio na cadeia produtiva e planejar caminhos para neutraliz-los, so prticas cada vez mais comuns. "As oportunidades, as ameaas e os impactos regulatrios e fsicos das mudanas climticas esto constantemente sendo atualizados", diz, acrescentando que difcil mensurar o retorno gerado por investimentos nas iniciativas adotadas.

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Internet

LEGISLATION
POLICY MULTIPLICATION States also creates their own policies aiming at reducing their emissions. The list includes, for example, So Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia and Amazonas. As the federal government, a number of states have also established specific policies for climatic changes, aiming at reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GG). So Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Amazonas and Bahia already rely on laws that deal with the issue. The investment of renewable sources of energy, energy efficiency and sustainable constructions are part of the list of solutions that the energy sector has found to achieve the established goals. In the case of So Paulo, the Climatic Change State Policy (PEMC), which became in force by Bill No 13,798, November 2009, establishes a global reduction goal of 20% in the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) by 2020. The Bill was based on the year of 2005, when the estimate emission was 100 million tons of CO2. The Energy Statistics Annual Report of each City, released in February by the Energy and Sanitary Secretary, showed that the state registered 64,799 emissions about 103 tons/year in 2009. The largest cities n the state of So Paulo registered 49.8% of the total amount with 32,246.39 emissions, about 10 tons/year. Rio de Janeiro relies on Bill No 5,690, April 2010, which establishes the State Policy on Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development, whose one of the main goals is encourage the use of renewable energy sources of energy in the state. The Bill has not been regulated yet and this is expected to happen in April or May, according to Ms. Mrcia Valle Real from the Superintendence of Climate and Carbon Masrket of the Environment Secretary of the state of Rio de Janeiro. The superintendence will define the reduction goal in the state. The 2007 state inventory, which was based the year of 2005, considered the emission of 3 gases CO2, methane and nitrous oxide (N20). The research showed a volume of emissions of 70 million tons/year, where the industrial and energy sector were held responsible for 38% of the emission, followed by the transport area with 15%. In Rio de Janeiro the energy industry represents 8% of the emissions. Ms. Marcia Valle Real says that the idea of regulating the state policy of climate change is to follow the model adopted in China. "Today, this is a path to be analyzed, and we will work aiming at reducing the energy intensity growth index in relation to the National Gross Product (NGP)", she observes, explaining that this will take the industrial growth of the state into consideration. Companies of the electric sector also entered this race, starting to treat global warming as a strategic issue and adopting excellent climate strategies management practices, according to Mr. Decio Michellis Jr. "It is not enough to adopt environmental sustainability palliative measures. They also adopt permanent policies based on reliable indicators to measure and neutralize the amount of carbon they release into the atmosphere", he comments. He also says that carrying out emission inventories, identifying the main sources of pollution in the productive chain and planning ways to neutralize them are increasingly common practices. "The opportunities, the regulating and physical threats and impacts of the climatic changes are constantly being updated", he says. It is hard to measure the revenue generated by investments in the adopted, he concludes.

59

CURTAS
Empreendedores traam cenrio para as PCHs
Por: Camila Galhardo Durante evento realizado na ltima semana do ms de janeiro na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, o Secretrio Executivo da Abragel, Fbio Dias, apresentou um cenrio de descontentamento para os produtores de energia de PCH. Segundo estudo desenvolvido pela associao, as PCHs foram responsveis pela injeo de 2.425 MW entre os anos de 2000 2010, tendo um salto no nmero de empreendimento de 189 para 382 em 2010. Do total de 3.628 MW em operao estima-se que 80% das 717 usinas se enquadrem no conceito de gerao distribuda. O mesmo estudo prev um potencial de expanso na ordem de 23.705 MW divididos em vrias etapas de implantao desde potencial terico at projetos em anlise na ANEEL. Para Dias se considerado um custo mdio de instalao de R$ 6.500/kW instalado pode-se determinar um mercado potencial de R$ 155 milhes que podero ser investidos nos prximos 15 anos. Apesar do potencial significativo, Dias elencou uma srie de entraves para o desenvolvimento deste potencial. Dentre eles, a elevada carga tributria que recai sobre toda a cadeia produtiva das PCHs, chegando a representar aproximadamente 33,5% do total do investimento. Atualmente, existe um pleito da Associao para que os impostos sejam pagos ao longo do perodo de operao das centrais que segundo Dias trariam um novo folego aos investidores. Segundo a anlise apresentada com base no ndice de Cobertura do Servio da Dvida, possvel avaliar qual seria o valor de venda da energia para viabilizar essa PCH Mdia. Se considerado um valor de R$ 155,00/MWh atrelados s condicionantes padro do principal financiador do setor, BNDES, o ICSD no atenderia s premissas do Banco para viabilizao do projeto. Mas se analisadas alternativas de flexibilizao de prazos de financiamento e ou alongamento do prazo de pagamento da dvida, as PCHs podem atingir os mesmos, preos alcanados pelas irms renovveis no ltimo leilo. Tambm foram apontados os diferenciais competitivos das pequenas centrais quando o foco est no mercado livre, como descontos nas tarifas de uso do sistema, possibilidade de venda para consumidores tipicamente cativos. Os valores de venda de energia no Ambiente de Contratao Livre giram em torno de R$ 152 at R$ 176 o MWh, dependendo do tipo de consumidor. Outro ponto de insatisfao dos investidores est no tempo de anlise dos projetos junto ao rgo competente, segundo Dias, dos 958 processos seriam extrados 538 empreendimentos com estimativa de gerao de 5.3 MW, mas o histrico de aprovao destes projetos pode chegar a 5 anos enquanto outras fontes chegam a concluir o processo em at 8 meses. Em contrapartida, o Professor Geraldo L. Tiago Filho, argumenta que apesar do alto ndice de gerao de empregos das PCHs ao longo de toda a cadeia produtiva, elas no tm recebido a mesma ateno dos rgos responsveis pelos incentivos s Energias Renovveis, como caso das elicas e biomassa que tm recebido incentivos fiscais, permitindo sua viabilizao com tarifas mais competitivas para participarem nos leiles de energia, deixando as PCHs em desvantagem frente s essas fontes. Tiago argumenta que, diferentemente da elica e da biomassa, o Brasil detm know-how em PCHs, existem sries de dados hidrolgicos consistidos de longo prazo, com mais de 50 anos, o que faz com que a garantia de fornecimento da energia oriunda das PCHs seja bastante confivel frente elica, cujos parques atualmente so dimensionados com srie de dados que dificilmente ultrapassam 2 a 3 anos. Fator que tem limitado a venda de energia oriunda das Elicas no mercado livre. Como o foco desta fonte est apenas nos leiles do governo, possvel afirmar que o governo no seu papel de incentivador de novas fontes de energia, tem assumido o risco do fornecimento de energia oriunda dessa fonte, caso venha faltar. Tiago finaliza afirmando que no Brasil a qualidade e/ou a garantia de fornecimento da energia gerada pelas PCHs muito superior da elica. E que o mercado de energia tem que ficar atento a este aspecto.

Adriana Barbosa

Secretrio Executivo da Abragel, Fbio Dias, durante apresentao no LatAm 2011 realizado no Rio de Janeiro. Executive secretary of Abragel, Fbio Dias, during LatAm 2011 held in Rio de Janeiro.

60

NEWS
Entrepreneurs trace scenario for SHPs
Translation: Adriana Candal

During an event held in January in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the executive secretary of Abragel presented a unsatisfying scenario for power producers out of SHPs. According to a study carried out by the association the SHPs injected 2,425 MW between the years of 2000 and 2010, having a considerable rise in the number of enterprises from 189 to 382 in 2010. Out of the operating 3,628 MW it is estimated that 80% of the 717 plants are categorized within the concept of distributed generation. The same study forecasts an expansion potential ranging about 23,705 MW divided into several implementation stages, from the theoretical potential to the projects being analyzed by ANEEL. According to Mr. Dias if an average installation cost of R$ 6,500 installed kW is considered, it is possible to determine a potential market of R$ 155 million that can be invested in the next 15 years. Despite the significant potential, Mr. Dias listed a series of obstacles against the development of this potential. Among them is the high tributary charge that falls upon all the SHP productive chain, which sometimes represents 33.5% of the total investment. Today, there is a claim from the Association, asking to pay for the taxes along the period when the plants are operating, which, according to Mr. Dias, would bring new air to the investor. According to the presented analysis, based on the Debt Service Coverage Ratio (ICSD), it is possible to assess what the sales value of the energy to make this Medium SHP feasible would be. If we consider a value of R$ 155.00/MWh linked to the standard conditionings of the main funding institution of the sector, BNDES, the ICSD would not meet the premises of the bank for the feasibility of the project. But if the analyzed alternatives of flexibilization of the funding deadlines and/or the extension in the deadlines of the payment of the debt the SHPs may reach the same prices reached by their renewable sisters in the last auction. Also, competitive differentials of the SHPs were also pointed out when the focus is on the free market such as discounts in the tariffs regarding the use of the system, possibility of sales to typically loyal consumers. The value of energy sales in the Free Purchase Market range from R$ 152 to R$ 176 the MWh, depending on the consumer.

Another aspect that is causing dissatisfaction lies on the long time the competent organs take to analyze the projects. According to Dias out of the 958 processes 538 enterprises with a generation estimated in 5.3 MW would be extracted, but the approval history of these projects may take 5 years, whereas others sources may have their processes concluded in 8 months. On the other hand, Professor Geraldo L. Tiago Filho says that in spite of the high index of job generation of the SHP along its productive chain, the SHPs have not been receiving the same attention from the organs that are responsible for the incentives to Renewable Energies, which is the case of wind and biomass that have been receiving fiscal incentives. This way, they become more feasible because their tariffs are more competitive to participate in the energy auctions, leaving the SHPs behind these sources. Professor Tiago also says that differently from wind and biomass, Brazil has SHP expertise, there are series of hydrological data that has been collected over long periods of time, over 50 years, making the energy that comes from SHPs considerably reliable when it is compared to wind energy, whose farms are dimensioned based on data that hardly goes over 2 to 3 years. A factor that has limited the sales of energy that comes from wind-based enterprises in the free market: as the focus is only on the government auctions, it is possible to say that the government, playing its role to encourage new sources of energy, has assumed a certain risk with energy supplies coming from this source in case it fails. Professor Tiago concludes by saying that in Brazil the quality and/or the guarantee of supply using the energy generated from SHPs is much superior than the wind energy supply, and the market must pay attention to this aspect.

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Camila Galhardo

CURTAS
Centro de pesquisa da UNIFEI recebe consultor da Guatemala Research Center of UNIFEI receives consultant from Guatemala
Por: Adriana Barbosa
Adriana Barbosa

Translation: Adriana Candal

O Centro Nacional de Referncia Last January, CERPCH (National em Pequenas Centrais Hidreltricas Reference Center for Small Hydropow(CERPCH) alocado na Universidade er Plants) located at the Federal UniFederal de Itajub (UNIFEI) recebeu versity of Itajub (UNIFEI) received no ms de janeiro a visita do consulthe visit of a consultant from the tor da multinacional B. Fouress Group multinational B. Fouress Group ComCompany, o engenheiro eletricista pany, Electric Engineer, Mr. Cristhian Cristhian Escobar. Ele foi recepcionado Escobar. Mr. Escobar first greeted by pelo secretrio executivo do CERPCH CERPCHs executive secretary and e professor do Instituto de Recursos professor of the Institute if Natural Naturais (IRN) da UNIFEI, Geraldo LResources of UNIFEI, Professor GerEngenheiro eletricista Cristhian Escobar e o cio Tiago Filho, que apresentou ao conaldo Lcio Tiago Filho, who showed prof. Tiago Filho durante visita Universidade. sultor as instalaes do Instituto e do him the facilities of the institute and Laboratrio Hidromecnico de Pequethe Hydro-mechanical Laboratory for Electric Engineer Cristhian Escobar and prof. nas Centrais Hidreltricas (LHPCH). Small Hydropower Plants (LHPCH). Tiago Filho during the visit to the university. O consultor Escobar disse ter ficaMr. Escobar said that he was do impressionado com a infraestrutura do laboratrio instalado impressed by the infrastructure of the laboratory installed at the na Universidade e afirmou que as pesquisas desenvolvidas no university and stated that the researchers developed in Brazil are Brasil e principalmente em Itajub so muito respeitadas por insgreatly respected by international institutions. That is the reason tituies internacionais. Por isso, veio pessoalmente conhecer o why he came personally to get familiarized with the work that trabalho desenvolvido aqui. Escobar e Tiago Filho discutiram a has been developed here. Mr. Escobar and Professor Tiago Filho possibilidade do desenvolvimento conjunto de futuras pesquisas discussed the possibility of developing joint researchers including entre UNIFEI e entidades da Amrica Latina, para realizarem tesUNIFEI and other institutions of Latin America in order to test tes em mquinas fabricadas na ndia e assim certificarem que as machines manufactured in India in order to certify that they meet mesmas atendem s exigncias do mercado brasileiro e latino. the demands of the Brazilian and Latin America markets. Another Outra parceria poder se dar por meio de treinamento de pessoal partnership might happen through the training of personnel that que ser realizado atravs do curso de especializao em Pequewill be carried out through the specialization course on Small nas Centrais Hidreltricas que j realizado pela UNIFEI/Fupai. Hydropower Plants, which is already given by UNIFEI/Fupai.

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NEWS

63

CURTAS
Workshop discute regulamentao do cadastro socioeconmico
Por: Camila Galhardo

Workshop realizado em Braslia pelo Frum de Meio Ambiente do Setor Eltrico. Workshop held in Braslia

Em 09 de fevereiro, cerca de 70 agentes do setor eltrico, meio ambiente e reas afins se reuniram para discutir a regulamentao do decreto 7342 de outubro de 2010. A iniciativa foi fruto de uma parceria do Frum de Meio Ambiente do Setor Eltrico (FMASE) com o Ministrio de Minas e Energia (MME) e a Confederao Nacional das Indstrias (CNI). Estiveram reunidos no evento representantes do MME, Ministrio de Meio Ambiente, Desenvolvimento Agrrio e Pesca e Agricultura, bem como Agncia Nacional de Energia Eltrica (ANEEL), empresas do Grupo Eletrobrs, associaes e empreendedores. Durante o evento, a coordenadora do ncleo estratgico de gesto socioambiental do MME, Marcia Camargo, apresentou a minuta de portaria interministerial que regulamentar o decreto. Camargo salientou que iniciativas de interlocuo como estas so importante para convergir os interesses dos principais atores do setor. A motivao do decreto surgiu no perodo entre 2003 a 2007 quando foram deflagrados vrios conflitos entre populao do entorno de reservatrios, movimentos sociais e empreendedores, que motivaram estudos que pautaram a elaborao das diretrizes do decreto. Para Camargo, existem questes problemticas no que refere internalizao de aes mitigadoras por parte de agentes locais e muitas vezes potencializados pela falta de publicidade e registro das atividades desenvolvidas junto comunidade pelo empreendedor. E afirma que A falta de registro das aes junto sociedade civil deixa o empreendedor vulnervel a novas exigncias.

O interesse da normatizao de regras para identificao e registro dos atingidos que as populaes possam caracterizar esses empreendimentos como processos econmicos produtivos de interesse do pas, mas que tambm tenham uma sinergia junto s populaes locais, ponderou Camargo. Ainda nesse sentido, o MME no v o cadastro como uma ao isolada, outros estudos esto em desenvolvimento como a criao de polticas para evitar a internalizao local das medidas de compensao financeira, que no ponto de vista da Coordenadora do NESA, outro ponto vulnervel da poltica atual. O conceito "de atingido" foi alvo de discusso durante o evento. um conceito que primordialmente considera o impacto negativo do empreendimento, desconsiderando os benefcios oriundos do mesmo. Dentro dessa articulao, na viso do MME, preciso definir normas e regras para dimensionar os reais impactos, garantindo os direitos da populao e do empreendedor. Num segundo momento, a Assessora Jurdica do Fmase fez uma exposio das contribuies dos membros do frum que buscaram mitigar dvidas sobre o contedo da minuta e sugestes de alterao para a reduo do grau de judicializao dos processos. Os principais aspectos levantados pelo Fmase foram: o critrio de cadastro ratificando que se trata de um levantamento socioeconmico e no imobilirio, prazo de validade, critrios de reviso e custos para realizao do cadastro, bem como a capacitao da equipe cadastradora, nvel de envolvimento da ANEEL na definio dos responsveis por indenizao, incluso de prazos e procedimentos para a interao do desenvolvedor com o comit interministerial. Alm de uma melhor definio quanto aos danos culturais, fator que historicamente tem gerado um grau elevado de judicializao. Ao fim do evento, foram coletados os resultados dos grupos de trabalho que sero formalizados em documento oficial do setor a ser entregue ao comit interministerial que ainda ir fazer uma oitiva com outros segmentos interessados na construo do contedo da minuta da portaria.

64

NEWS
Workshop deals with regulation of socio-economic registration
Translation: Adriana Candal On February 9 , about 70 agents of the electric sector, environment and other areas got together o talk about the regulation of Decree 7342 of October 2010. The initiative came from a partnership of the Electric Sector Environment Forum (FMASE) with the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) and the National Confederation of Industries.(CNI). Representatives of the MME, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Agrarian Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply, representatives from ANEEL (National Agency for Electric Energy, companies of Grupo Eletrobrs, Associations and entrepreneurs were present at the meeting. During the event the coordinator of the socio-environmental management strategic department of the MME, Ms. Marcia Camargo, presented the draft of an inter-ministerial ordinance that will regulate the decree. Ms. Camargo highlighted that initiatives of debates like that one are important to focus on the main parties interested in the theme. The motivation for the decree appeared between 2003 and 2007 when several conflicts between the population that lived around the reservoirs, social movements and entrepreneurs started to happen, which encouraged studies that guided the elaboration of the decree guidelines. According to Ms. Camargo there are problematic issues in relation to the internalization of mitigating actions by the local agents and many times they are potentiated by the lack of communication from the entrepreneur to the community and registration of the activities that are being carried out. She says: The lack of registration of the actions leaves the entrepreneur vulnerable to new demands.
th

The interest in the normatization of the rules for the identification and registration of the affected is that the populations can characterize these enterprises as productive economic processes that interest the country, but that also have a synergy with the local population, she continued. Still in this sense, the MME does not see the registration as an isolated action, other studies are being developed such as the creation of policies to avoid the local internalization of the financial compensating measures, which, according to the NESA coordinator, is another vulnerable spot of todays policy. The concept of affected was also a target of discussion during the event. It is a concept that primarily considers the negative impact of the enterprise and disregards the benefits it can generate. Within this articulation, according to the MME, it is necessary to define norms and rules to dimension the real impacts, ensuring the rights of the population and of the entrepreneur. Also during the event, the Legal Advisor of FMASE talked about the contribution of the members of the forum, aiming at mitigating doubts about the content of the draft, and the suggestions regarding changes to reduce the legal level of the processes. The main aspects mentioned by FMASE were: the registration criterion, ratifying that it is a socio-economic data collection, not a real estate one, expiration date, the criteria for the review and the costs to carry out the registration, as well as the qualification of the registration team, the level of involvement of ANEEL in the definition of those who will be responsible for the compensations, the inclusion of deadlines and procedures aiming at the interaction of the developer with the inter-ministerial committee. A better definition in relation to cultural damages, a factor that has created great amount of legal actions, was also mentioned. At the end of the event the results of the working groups were collected and they will become a formal and official document of the sector. This document will be forwarded to the inter-ministerial committee, which will carry out a hearing with other segments that are interested in constructing the content of the draft of the ordinance.

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Fotos: Camila Galhardo

OPINIO
Tendncias tecnolgicas para PCHs verdes
Por: Decio Michellis Jr.* As PCHs certamente desempenharo um papel importante na nova economia verde e na segurana energtica. Isto significa buscar solues para os desafios dirios de adequao legislao ambiental e de inovao e ainda garantir a competitividade (em preo, disponibilidade de volume e prazo nos contratos) e a rentabilidade dos empreendimentos existentes e futuros. Uma PCH sustentvel no se restringe aos novos aproveitamentos, mas engloba tambm reformas, adaptaes e mudanas nas j existentes, que garantam maior qualidade de vida para as geraes atual e futura. Trata-se de reunir, rever e ampliar conceitos e fatores to diversos como: especificaes de qualidade arquitetnica funcional e tcnica (integrao com a paisagem e com a fauna aqutica, segurana, salubridade, conforto trmico, acstico, visual, etc.). Inclui harmonizar e integrar o desenvolvimento humano no que concerne relao entre fornecedores, executores, funcionrios, sociedade e usurios com o meio em que nos encontramos. Considerando preo e qualidade, uma fuga da obsolescncia atravs da mudana para padres mais sustentveis de gerao e consumo de energia eltrica. Como ento transformar estes conceitos em aes prticas? De forma reducionista significa ter suas instalaes, processos construtivos, operaes, comprar equipamentos, produtos e servios verdes (que reduzem o impacto no meio ambiente e na sade das pessoas quando comparados com os produtos e servios similares utilizados para a mesma finalidade) de fornecedores verdes. Fonte potencial de vantagem competitiva pode minimizar riscos, maximizar o apelo junto a todas as partes envolvidas com a gerao e consumo de energia eltrica e seu consequente aumento de demanda por tecnologias limpas e com melhor aproveitamento dos recursos naturais (renovveis ou no). Veja alguns passos e tendncias tecnolgicas para iniciar paulatinamente o esverdeamento de PCHs: Identifique continuidades, sobreposies e diferenas entre os conceitos de projeto tradicional e as inovaes tecnolgicas; Desenvolva uma auditoria geral em termos de equipamentos, procedimentos operativos, eficincia energtica, frota, armazenagem, reciclagem, treinamento e etc.; Intensifique os 4R's: reduza, re-use, recicle e repare; Avalie a coleta, transporte, destinao e tratamento dos resduos da construo civil e demais consumveis durante a operao; Considere a reciclagem de lixo tecnolgico (lixo eletrnico ou, ainda, e-lixo): baterias, computadores, componentes de comando e controle, etc.; Avalie sua pegada ecolgica (emisso de gases de efeito estufa, pegada hdrica, impactos sociais, impactos sobre a economia dos ecossistemas e da biodiversidade); Adicione equipamentos, produtos e servios verdes (ecoeficientes, de alta eficincia energtica, biodegradabilidade, reciclagem, etc.) desde que tcnica e economicamente viveis; Considere o acesso a novas, competitivas e sustentveis tecnologias, equipamentos (turbinas amigveis aos peixes, larvas e a deriva de ovos), materiais construtivos (biomateriais, biopolmeros, leo vegetal isolante, tintas ecolgicas, etc.), bens de consumo e embalagens; Idem para materiais e componentes da construo civil que possuam critrios de sustentabilidade incorporados ao ciclo de vida do produto; Priorize madeiras certificadas de reflorestamento ou nativas de origem comprovadamente legal; Divida a responsabilidade com os fornecedores em toda a cadeia de suprimento verde; e, Pondere sistemicamente os riscos e oportunidades, desenvolva um projeto verde e oferea aos segmentos do mercado livre de energia que do valor a ele. A existncia de tecnologias verdes disponveis no mercado no significa necessariamente a possibilidade de aplicao e ampla utilizao das mesmas: preciso realizar estudo de viabilidade tcnica e econmica para verificao da realidade e adequao ao leque de tecnologias disponvel. Ambientes e mercados em que concorrentes operam em nvel abaixo do padro de sustentabilidade mnima requerida ou mercados contaminados pela concorrncia desleal, no permanecero para sempre. Para autoprodutores de energia atravs de PCHs verdes, o benefcio maior inserir um componente sustentvel aos produtos, necessrio para uma maior competitividade nas exportaes (UE e EUA consideram restringir a importao de produtos que so fabricados sem levar em conta a reduo das emisses dos gases de efeito estufa). Alm de garantir receitas no operacionais com a venda de crditos de carbono no mercado internacional. Ser verde se tornou valor esperado em vez de valor agregado. PCH que no se tornar verde (perda de sustentabilidade) pode ficar no vermelho (perda de competitividade).

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(*) Diretor de energia do Departamento de Infraestrutura da FIESP - Federao das Indstrias do Estado de So Paulo e assessor especial de meio ambiente da Vice-presidncia Corporativa de Distribuio da Rede Energia.

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OPINION
SHP Technological Trends Greens
Translation: Adriana Candal Small Hydropower Plants (SHPs) will certainly perform an important role within the new green economy and in energy safety. This means to look for solution for the daily challenges regarding the adjustment to the environmental legislation and the innovation to assure their competitiveness (in terms of price, volume availability and contracts) and the profitability of the existing and future enterprises. A sustainable SHP is not restrained to new potentials, but it also encompasses refurbishments, adjustments and changes in the ones that already exist in order to assure a greater quality of life for our generation and the generations to come. It is about meeting, review and widen concepts and factors that are totally diverse such as functional and technical architecture quality specifications (integration with landscape and with water fauna, safety, salubrity, thermal, acoustic and visual comfort, etc.). It includes harmonizing and integrating human development regarding the relation between suppliers, executors, employees, society and users with the environment we are in. Considering price and quality, this is a escape from obsolescence through a change to more sustainable electric power generation and consumption standards. How to transform these concepts into practical actions? In a simplistic way it means to have your own installations, constructive processes, operations, purchase green equipment products and services (which reduce impacts on the environment and on peoples health when compared with similar products and services used for the same purpose) from green suppliers. As a potential source of competitive advantage they can minimize the risks, maximize the appeal with all the parts involved in electric power generation and consumption and their consequent increase in demand for cleaner technologies with a better use of natural resources (renewable or not). Here are some technological steps and trends to start the process of making SHPs greener: Identify continuations, overlaps and differences among the concepts of traditional projects and technological innovations; Develop a general audit in terms of equipment, operating procedures, energy efficiency, fleet, storage, recycling, training, etc.; Intensify the 4Rs: Reduce, Re-use, Recycle and Repair; Assess the collection, transport, destination and treatment of the civil work residues and other consuming assets during the operation; Consider recycling technological waste (electronic waste or ewaste): batteries, controlling and regulating computer components, etc.; Assess your ecological steps (greenhouse gas emissions, water steps social impacts, impacts on the economy of the ecosystems and biodiversity); Add green equipment, products and services (eco-efficient, with a high energy efficiency, bio-degradability, recycling, etc.) since they are technically and economically feasible; Consider the access to new, competitive and sustainable technologies equipment (fish friendly turbines), building material (bio-materials, bio-polymeters, isulating vegetal oil, ecological paints, etc.) assets and packings; The same can be done to civil construction materials and components that have sustainability criteria incorporated to the life cycle of the product; P rioritize certified wood from legal reforested or native areas; Share the responsibility with suppliers along the green supplying chain; and Assess the risks and opportunities continuously, develop green projects and offer them to the segments of the free energy market that values them. The existence of green technologies in the market does not mean a possibility of application and their wide use. It is necessary to carry out technical and economic feasibility studies in order to verify the reality and the adjustments to the range of available technologies. Environment and markets where competitors operate at lower levels of sustainability standards or markets contaminated by disloyal competition will not remain forever. For green SHP energy self-producers, the greatest benefit is to insert a sustainable component to the products, necessary for a high competitiveness in exportation activities (the European Union and the United States are considering limiting the importation of products that are manufactured without taking the reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases into account), as well as assuring non-operational income with the sales of carbon credits in the international market. Being green has become expected value instead of aggregated value. The SHP that does not become green (loss of sustainability) may end up received a red (loss of competitiveness).

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(*) Energy director of the Department of Infrastructure of Association of Industries of the state of So Paulo and technical assessor of the vice-presidency of engineering and environment of Rede Energia.

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AGENDA

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AGENDA/SCHEDULE
EVENTOS ABRIL 2011 Assessing and Improving Power System Security, Reliability and Performance in Light of Changing Ener Data: 03 a 06 de abril de 2011 Local: Cigr - Brasil Site: http://www.cigre.org.br/zpublisher/secoes/eventos.asp A PROTEO E A SELETIVIDADE EM SISTEMAS ELTRICOS INDUSTRIAIS Data: 04 a 07 de abril de 2011 Local: Hotel Best Western Osasco Osasco Site: http://www.engepower.com/index.html Bloomberg New Energy Finance Summit 2011 Data: 04 a 06 de abril de 2011 Local: Nova York Site: http://www.newenergyfinancesummit.com 10 Frum Direito de Energia Eltrica Data: 05 a 06 abril de 2011 Local: Al. Lorena, 360, Golden Tulip Park Plaza - SP Site: http://www.ibcbrasil.com.br/pt/event/show/id/1407/ COMPATIBILIDADE ELETROMAGNTICA EM SUBESTAES ELTRICAS Data: 05 a 07 de abril de 2011 Local: LACTEC - Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento - Curitiba Site: http://www.qemc.com.br/calendario.htm IV Encontro de Esri para Energia Data: 12 a 13 de abril de 2011 Local: Bourbon Convention Ibirapuera - So Paulo-SP Site: www.img.com.br/utilities/energia2011 Renewable Energy Forum 2011 Data: 12 a 13 de abril de 2011 Local: Hotel Blue Tree Premium, Fortaleza, CE Site: www.informagroup.com.br Capacitarh - Frum de Capacitao, Gesto de Pessoas e Estratgias Empresariais Data: 12 a 14 de abril de 2011 Local: Amcham Business Center - SP Site: www.capacitarh-ibc.com.br 1 Congresso Brasileiro de CO2 na Indstria de Petrleo, Gs e Biocombustveis Data: 18 a 20 de abril de 2011 Local: Hotel Sofitel - Rio de Janeiro Site: http://www.ibp.org.br/divulga_evento/ibp_CO2/progprel_CO2.html 3 ELAEE - Encontro Latino Americano de Enonomia da Energia Data: 18 e 19 de abril de 2011 Local: Centro de Convenes da Universidade Catlica Argentina Site: http://www.elaee2011.org Legislao Ambiental Aplicada ao setor de Energia Data: 26 a 27 de abril de 2011 Local: Rua Bela Cintra, 967 - 11 Andar - So Paulo-SP Site: http://www.ibcbrasil.com.br/pt/event/show/id/1403/ Energy Trends Brazil 2011 Data: 26 a 28 de abril de 2011 Local: So Paulo - SP Site: http://www.iqpc.com/redhome.aspx?region=home World Congress of Bioenergy Data: 26 a 29 de abril de 2011 Local: World Expo Center - Dailan - China Site: www.bitlifesciences.com/wcbe2011/ Curso de ps-graduao Lato Sensu - MBA em Gesto de Energia e Eficincia Energtica Data: Abril de 2011 Local: Centro Universitrio Fundao Santo Andr - Santo Andr Site: http://www.fsa.br/pos/MBA_gestaodeenergia.asp EVENTOS MAIO 2011 International Biomass Conference e Expo Data: 02 a 05 de maio de 2011 Local: America's Center - St. Louis - Missouri Site: http://se.biomassconference.com FEI - Fire Engineering India Data: 05 a 07 de maio de 2011 Local: New Delhi - ndia Site: http://www.fireengineering-india.com ERACS Data: 11 a 13 de maio de 2011 Local: Centro de Eventos da PUCRS, em Porto Alegre-RS Site: http://www.eracs.org.br/ VI Congresso Rio Automao 2011 Data: 16 a 17 de maio de 2011 Local: Rio de Janeiro - RJ Site: http://rotaenergia.wordpress.com/2011/01/21/vi-congresso-rioautomacao/ Metering Central America & Mexico 2011 Data: 17 a 19 de maio de 2011 Local: Hotel Camino Real Santa F - Mxico Site: http://www.meteringcentralamerica.com/ ASES National Solar Conference - American Solar Energy Society Data: 17 a 21 de maio de 2011 Local: Raleigh Convention Center - Carolina do Norte Site: http://www.nationalsolarconference.org SEPEF - XVI Seminrio de Planejamento Econmico Financeiro do Setor Eltrico Data: 23 a 25 de maio de 2011 Local: Bourbon Convention Ibirapuera - So Paulo Site: http://www.funcoge.com.br/ Brigth Green Cities Data: 31 de maio a 03 de junho de 2011 Local: Sede do BNDES (abertura) e sede da Firjan - Rio de Janeiro Site: http://www.brightgreencities.com/ III Mostra de Solues Sustentveis Data: 31 de maio a 2 de junho de 2011 Local: Golden Class Campo Grande, MS Site: www.capital.ms.gov.br/meioambiente EVENTOS JUNHO 2011 Renewable Energy World Europe - Conference & Exhibition Data: 07 a 09 de junho de 2011 Local: Milan Italy Site: http://www.renewableenergyworld-europe.com 34 Conferncia Internacional IAEE Data: 19 a 23 de junho de 2011 Local: Stockholm Site: www.iaee.org 7 Edio Redes Subterrneas de Energia Eltrica Data: 20 a 22 de junho de 2011 Local: Rua Frei Caneca, 569 - Bela Vista - So Paulo-SP Site: http://www.rpmbrasil.com.br/eventos.aspx Mini Hidro Chile - EXPO APEMEC 2011 Data: 20 a 21 de junho Local: Centro de eventos y convenciones Riesco - Santiago Site: www.apemec.cl 34th IAHR World Congress Data: 26 de junho a 01 de julho de 2011 Local: Brisbane, Australia Site: www.iahr2011.org 27 Annual International FEW - Fuel Ethanol Workshop & Expo Data: 27 a 30 de junho de 2011 Local: Indianapolis - IN Site: http://www.fuelethanolworkshop.com/ema/DisplayPage EVENTOS JULHO 2011 HydroVision International Data: 19 a 22 de Julho de 2011 Local: Sacramento Convention Center - Sacramento, CA - USA Site: www.hydroevent.com IX Conferncia Brasileira sobre Qualidade da Energia Eltrica Data: 31 de julho a 03 de agosto de 2011 Local: Centro de Eventos do Pantanal - Cuiab-MT Site: www.ufmt.br/cbqee2011 EVENTOS AGOSTO 2011 VII Conferncia de Pequenas e Grandes Centrais Hidreltricas Data: 03 e 04 de agosto de 2011 Local: Centro de Convenes do Novotel Center Norte Av. Zaki Narchi - 500 So Paulo-SP Site: http://www.conferenciadepch.com.br/inscricoes.php

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