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Relion. Thinking beyond the box.

Designed to seamlessly consolidate functions, Relion relays are


smarter, more flexible and more adaptable. Easy to integrate and
with an extensive function library, the Relion family of protection
and control delivers advanced functionality and improved
performance.

This webinar brought to you by the Relion

product family
Advanced protection and control IEDs from ABB
November 5,
2013
l Slide 1
ABB Group

ABB is pleased to provide you with technical information regarding protective
relays. The material included is not intended to be a complete presentation of
all potential problems and solutions related to this topic. The content is
generic and may not be applicable for circumstances or equipment at any
specific facility. By participating in ABB's web-based Protective Relay School,
you agree that ABB is providing this information to you on an informational
basis only and makes no warranties, representations or guarantees as to the
efficacy or commercial utility of the information for any specific application or
purpose, and ABB is not responsible for any action taken in reliance on the
information contained herein. ABB consultants and service representatives
are available to study specific operations and make recommendations on
improving safety, efficiency and profitability. Contact an ABB sales
representative for further information.
ABB Protective Relay School Webinar Series
Disclaimer
November 5,
2013
l Slide 2
ABB Group

Line distance protection fundamentals
Elmo Price
November 5, 2013
ABB Protective Relay School Webinar Series
Presenter
Elmo Price received his BSEE from Lamar State College of Technology in
Beaumont, Texas and his MSEE degree in Power Systems Engineering from
the University of Pittsburgh.
He began his career with Westinghouse in 1970 and worked in many
engineering positions. He also worked as a district engineer located in New
Orleans providing engineering support for Westinghouse power system
products in the South-central U.S.
With the consolidation of Westinghouse into ABB in 1988, Elmo assumed
regional responsibility for product application for the Protective Relay
Division. From 1992 to 2002 he worked in various technical management
positions responsible for product management, product design, application
support and relay schools. From 2002 to 2008 Elmo was a regional
technical manager providing product sales and application support in the
southeastern U.S.
Elmo is currently senior consultant for ABB, a registered professional
engineer and a Life Senior member of the IEEE. He is a member of the IEEE
Power System Relay Committee and the Line Protection Subcommittee,
serving as a contributing member to many working groups. He has two
patents and has authored and presented numerous industry papers.
November 5,
2013
| Slide 4
ABB Group

Elmo Price
Learning objectives
Line distance measurement methods and characteristics
Apparent impedance of fault loops and differences in
phase and ground measurements
The importance of faulted phase selection
Step distance line protection
Zone acceleration schemes (non-pilot)
Basics of communications assisted schemes
(optional time permitting)
November 5,
2013
| Slide 5
ABB Group

Distance and impedance relays
Uses both voltage and current to determine if a fault
is within the relays set zone of protection
Settings based on positive and zero sequence
transmission line impedance
Measures phase and ground fault loops
November 5,
2013
| Slide 6
ABB Group

Z
L I
R
Z
S
~
V
R
Distance and impedance relays
1921 Voltage restrained time overcurrent was first
form of impedance relaying
1929 Balance beam impedance relay improved
operating speed performance, but was non-directional
1950 Induction cup phase comparator providing mho
distance characteristic
1965 Solid-state implementations
1984 Microprocessor implementations
Brief History
November 5,
2013
| Slide 7
ABB Group

Z
L I
R
Z
S
~
V
R
Impedance relay
Simple balance beam
November 5,
2013
| Slide 8
ABB Group

Z
R I
R
Z
S
~
V
R
Restraint
Torque
Operate
Torque
V
R

Reach to balance point = V
R
/I
R
= Z
R

I
R
*Z
R

X
R
Z
R

Distance relays
Need
Fault levels are higher on high voltage transmission lines
Faults need to be cleared rapidly to avoid instability, and
extensive damage
Advantages
The impedance zone has a fixed impedance reach
Greater Instantaneous trip coverage with security
Greater sensitivity
Easier setting calculations and coordination
Fixed zone of protection that are relatively independent of system
changes
Higher independence of load
November 5,
2013
| Slide 9
ABB Group

Distance relay application
November 5,
2013
| Slide 10
ABB Group

Relay

Z
G
G

H

Relay

Z
H
Z
L
Z
R
X

Z
L
Z
G
Z
H
R

G

H

Impedance
Plane
Z
R


Operating
Characteristic
Distance relay characteristics
Impedance
November 5,
2013
| Slide 11
ABB Group

Z
R
X

R

MTA

No operation region
Z
L
Z
H
G

H

32 (Directional unit)

Operate
Distance relay characteristics
Mho distance, self (fault voltage) polarized
November 5,
2013
| Slide 12
ABB Group

Z
R
X

R

MTA

Z
H
G

H

Z
L
No Operation Region
Operate
Distance relay characteristics
Mho distance, (healthy) voltage polarized
November 5,
2013
| Slide 13
ABB Group

Z
R
X

R

Z
H
G

H

Operate
Z
L
Z
G
No Operation Region
Typical polarizing
Quantities
Cross
Positive Sequence
Memory
Distance relay characteristics
Offset mho distance
November 5,
2013
| Slide 14
ABB Group

Z
R
X

R

MTA

32 (Directional unit)

Z
L
Z
H
G

H

Close-in faults

Operate
No operation region
Distance relay characteristics
Reactance
November 5,
2013
| Slide 15
ABB Group

X
R
X

R

MTA

32 (Directional unit)

Operate
Z
L
Z
H
G

H

Z
R
Load
supervision

- X
R
No operation region
R

Distance relay characteristics
Quadrilateral
November 5,
2013
| Slide 16
ABB Group

X
R
X

R

MTA

Z
L
Z
H
G

H

Operate
Z
R
R
R
32 (Directional unit)

MTA

Good
resistance
coverage

No operation region
Distance relay characteristics
Switched zone quadrilateral
November 5,
2013
| Slide 17
ABB Group

X

Operate
R

Zone-3

Zone-2

Zone-1

No operation region
Distance relay characteristics
Mho distance with switched reactance
November 5,
2013
| Slide 18
ABB Group

X

R

Operate
Zone-3

Zone-2

Zone-1

No operation region
Distance relay characteristics
Lenticular
November 5,
2013
| Slide 19
ABB Group

X

R

MTA

Z
H
G

H

Multi-phase
faults
No operation region
Phase comparators

November 5,
2013
| Slide 20
ABB Group


PHASE
COMPARATOR

S1
S2
1 / 0
Compares the phase
angle of two phasor
quantities to determine
operation
S2

S1
OPERATE
Apply
operating
torque
RESTRAIN
Apply
opening
torque
Distance relay characteristics
KD-10 cylinder unit (comparator) and compensator
November 5,
2013
| Slide 21
ABB Group

Phase-to-phase unit
X
Y
Z
XZY
u
XY

u
ZY
V
A
V
B
V
C
I
B
I
C
I
A
COMPENSATOR
CYLINDER
UNIT
S2

S1


Z
R
Z
R
Distance relay characteristics
KD-10 cylinder unit
November 5,
2013
| Slide 22
ABB Group

Trips when
V
XY
leads V
ZY

XZY
sequence
X
Y
Z
V
AG
V
CG
V
BG
I
A
- I
B
I
C
- I
B
Cylinder unit
Compensator
V
XY
= V
AB
- (I
A
- I
B
)Z
R
V
ZY
= V
CB
- (I
C
- I
B
)Z
R

V
XY
V
CB V
ZY
(I
A
- I
B
)Z
R
(I
C
- I
B
)Z
R
u
ZY
u
XY
Distance relay characteristics
Mho distance phase comparator principle
November 5,
2013
| Slide 23
ABB Group

IZ
C
IZ
C
- IZ
IZ
(a) Self (faulted phase) Polarized
V
IR
IX
IZ
C
IZ
(b) Internal and External Fault
V
IR
IX
IZ
C
IZ

> 90
< 90
IZ IZ V IZ S
IZ V S
C f C
f
= =
= =
2
1
Z
C
= impedance reach setting
Z = fault impedance
V
f
= fault voltage at relay
I = fault current
Generic single phase self polarized without zero sequence compensation
Trip | < 90
O

S
2
S
1
Distance relay characteristics
Mho distance phase comparator cross polarized
November 5,
2013
| Slide 24
ABB Group


IZ
S
IZ
C
IZ
I(Z+Z
S
)
V
V
S
IR
IX
IZ
C
- IZ
IZ IZ S
V V V Z Z I S
C
Mem BC S
=
+ =
2
1 1
, , ); (
Z+Z
S
= fault impedance from source
V
S
= source voltage
Generic single phase (healthy) voltage
polarized without zero sequence
compensation
Distance relay characteristics
Mho distance phase comparators
November 5,
2013
| Slide 25
ABB Group

V
OP
V
POL
Comments

Z
c
*I
XY
- V
XY
jV
XY

XY = AB, BC, CA
Z
c
= setting
- Three units required for phase-to-phase
and three-phase
- Self Polarizing
- No expansion
- Requires directional unit supervision
- Requires memory for zero voltage faults
- V
OP
leads V
POL

Z
c
*I
XY
- V
XY
V
Z

XY = AB, BC, CA
Z = C, A, B
Z
c
= setting
- Three units required for phase-to-phase
and three-phase
- Cross Polarizing
- Source Impedance expansion
- Requires directional unit supervision
- Requires memory for zero voltage faults
- V
OP
leads V
POL

V
AB

(I
A
I
B
)Z
c

V
CB

(I
C
I
B
)Z
c

Z
c
= setting
- Single unit required for phase-to-phase
(AB, BC, CA)
- Separate unit required for three-phase
faults
- Source Impedance expansion
- V
OP
leads V
POL



Positive Sequence Polarizing, V
POL
== sub jV
ZY
with V
X1


Distance relay characteristics
Mho distance phase comparators
November 5,
2013
| Slide 26
ABB Group

V
OP
V
POL
Comments

V
XG

Z
c
*(I
X
+ K
0
I
0
)

V
ZY

X = A, B, C
YZ = BC, CA, AB
I
0
= 1/3(I
A
+I
B
+I
C
)
K
0
=(Z
0
- Z
1
)/Z
1


- Three units required for phase-to-
ground (A, B, C)
- zero sequence (I
0
)compensation
- Cross Polarizing
- Source Impedance expansion
- Requires directional unit
supervision
- V
OP
leads V
POL

V
XG

Z
c
*(I
X
+ K
N
I
R
)
jV
ZY

X = A, B, C
YZ = BC, CA, AB
I
R
= I
A
+I
B
+I
C

K
N
= (Z
0
- Z
1
)/3Z
1


- Three units required for phase-to-
ground (A, B, C)
- Residual ground (I
r
=3I
0
)
compensation
- Cross Polarizing
- Source Impedance expansion
- Requires directional unit
supervision
- V
OP
leads V
POL


Positive sequence polarizing, V
POL
== sub jV
ZY
with V
X1


Quadrilateral characteristics
Reactance Lines (current polarization)
November 5,
2013
| Slide 27
ABB Group

X

R

Z
C
S1 = IZ
C
- V = (X
C
- Z)I
S2 = V
POL
= X
C
I
Z

X
C
- Z
u
S2

S1
u
X
C
-X
C
Z

u
R
C
Operate u < 90
O

R
F
Only the forward reach line can be defined,
therefore, it must be directionally supervised
I
2
used for load compensation
Quadrilateral characteristics
Resistance (current polarized)
November 5,
2013
| Slide 28
ABB Group

X

R

S1 = IR
CF
- V = (R
CF
- Z)I
S2 = V
POL
= R
CF
I Z

R
CF
- Z
Operate u < 90
O

u
S2

S1
u
R
CF
Z

R
CF
Distance relay characteristics
E. Price, T. Einarsson, Complementary Approach for
Reliable High Speed Transmission Line Protection, 62
nd

Annual Georgia Tech Protective Relaying Conference,
Atlanta, Georgia, 2008.
Reference
November 5,
2013
| Slide 29
ABB Group

Apparent impedance of fault loops
November 5,
2013
| Slide 30
ABB Group

6 fault loops measured for
each zone
Fault Types
Phase-to-ground
Phase-to-phase
Two phase-to-ground
Three phase

AG
CG
BG
CA
BC
AB
Apparent impedance of fault loops
Three phase
November 5,
2013
| Slide 31
ABB Group

Z
R1

MTA
R
X
Relay Phase Impedance
Characteristic
Apparent impedance (per
phase)

V
A
=

I
A
Z
L1

Z
3P
= Z
L1
=V
A
/I
A
I
N
= 0
Fault applied on line at Z
L1
Z
L1

Z
L1

Z
L1

Z
LN

Phase reach is set in terms of
positive sequence impedance, Z
L1


Apparent impedance of fault loops
Phase-to-phase
November 5,
2013
| Slide 32
ABB Group

Z
L1

MTA
P
R
X
Relay Phase-to-phase
impedance characteristic
Apparent impedance, Z
PP
V
AB
= (I
A
- I
B
) Z
L1
= 2I
A
Z
L1
Z
PP
=Z
L1
= V
AB
/(I
A
- I
B
) = (V
A
- V
B
)/(I
A
- I
B
)
Z
L1

Z
L1

Z
L1

Z
LN

Phase reach is set in terms of positive sequence impedance, Z
L1


Apparent impedance of fault loops
Phase-to-ground
November 5,
2013
| Slide 33
ABB Group

MTA
P
Apparent impedance (no load I
A
=

3I
0
)
V
A
=

I
A
Z
L1
+ 3I
0
Z
LN
=

I
A
(Z
L1
+ Z
LN
)
Z
G
=

V
A
/I
A
= (Z
L1
+ Z
LN
)

MTA
G
= Argument ( Z
L1
+ Z
LN
)
Z
G
= Z
L1
+ Z
LN
R
X
Relay Phase-to-ground
impedance characteristic
MTA
G

Z
L1
Z
L1

Z
L1
Z
L1
Z
LN

Apparent impedance of fault loops
Phase-to-ground
November 5,
2013
| Slide 34
ABB Group

Apparent impedance
Z
G
=

(Z
L1
+ Z
LN
)
Z
LN
=

(Z
L0
- Z
L1
) / 3
Z
G
=

(2Z
L1
+ Z
L0
) / 3 (ground loop)

Z
L1
with residual 3I
0
compensation
Z
G
=

Z
L1
(

2 + Z
L0
/

Z
L1
)

/ 3
Z
G
=

Z
L1
(

2 + 1 + Z
L0
/

Z
L1
- 1 )

/ 3
Z
G
=

Z
L1
(1 + K
N
); KN = (Z
L0
- Z
L1
)/3Z
L1
MTA
G
= Arg( Z
G
)
Relay Phase-to-ground
impedance characteristic
MTA
P
R
X
MTA
G

Z
L1
Arg(1+K
N
)
Apparent impedance of fault loops
Phase-to-ground

November 5,
2013
| Slide 35
ABB Group

Residual [neutral] current

compensation

K
N
compensates for 3I
0





Zero sequence current compensation

K
0
compensates for I
0
1 -
Z
Z
K
1 -
Z
Z
I I Z V
3Z
Z - Z
K
3Z
Z - Z
3I I Z V
L1
L0
0
L1
L0
0 A L1 A
L1
L1 L0
N
L1
L1 L0
0 A L1 A
=
+ =
=
+ =
(
(
(

|
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
(
(

|
|
|
.
|

\
|
Ground reach is set in terms of Z
L1
and K
N
: Z
G
= Z
L1
(1 + K
N
)

Two Factors used by different relays and manufacturers
Faulted phase selection
November 5,
2013
| Slide 36
ABB Group

Release or identify correct
impedance loop
Single pole trip
Event recording
Fault location
A-B B-C C-A
A-G B-G C-G
6 fault loops measured in each
zone
Faulted phase selection
Issues
November 5,
2013
| Slide 37
ABB Group

Multiple impedance loop operations
for a fault event
Common phases of a fault loop
Magnitude of fault quantities
Load
Fault resistance
A-B B-C C-A
A-G B-G C-G
Faulted phase selection
The uu unit may operate for close-in reverse uu, uuG, or
uG faults
The uu unit may operate for close-in forward uG faults
The uG units may operate for close-in reverse uG faults
The uu unit of a non-faulted loop may operate for uuG
faults with high fault resistance
e.g. CA unit for a BCG fault
The CA operation will occur with the expected BC operation
giving the appearance of a three phase fault.

Issues
November 5,
2013
| Slide 38
ABB Group

These issues are resolved with directional and/or sequence current supervision.
Faulted phase selection
The uG unit of the leading phase will overreach for
forward external uuG faults with any measurable fault
resistance
e.g. BG unit for a BCG fault
The uG unit of the lagging phase will underreach for
forward internal uuG faults near the reach setting with any
measurable fault resistance
e.g. CG unit for a BCG fault
This is generally of no consequence

Issues
November 5,
2013
| Slide 39
ABB Group

These issues are the result of uuG faults and must be resolved by accurate phase
selection.
Faulted phase selection
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
F
a
u
l
t

L
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

i
n

P
U

o
f

Z
o
n
e

R
e
a
c
h

S
e
t
t
i
n
g
,

Z
c
Per Unit Fault Resistance, Rg
3
5
1
0.5
0.5
1
3
5
SIRz
Overreaching BG Units
Underreaching CG Units
CG is operated
BG is operated
A
B
BC Unit
Operates f or all
parameters at 1.0
Error Zone of uG
units for uuG faults
Response of BG, CG and BC units to BCG fault
November 5,
2013
| Slide 40
ABB Group

Faulted phase selection
E. Price, T. Einarsson, The Performance of Faulted phase
Selectors used in Transmission Line Applications, 62
nd

Annual Georgia Tech Protective Relaying Conference,
Atlanta, Georgia, 2008.
Reference
November 5,
2013
| Slide 41
ABB Group

Application
Reach of a distance relay is measured from the
location of the voltage transformer
Directional sensing occurs from the location of the
current transformer
In most applications vts and cts are usually at same
location (no measurable impedance between them)
Their location should always be considered
especially for applications with transmission lines
terminated with transformers

Location of cts and vts
November 5,
2013
| Slide 42
ABB Group

Application
Zone 1 set for 80 - 90 % of line impedance
Zone 2 set for 100% of line plus 25 - 50% of shortest adjacent
line from remote bus
Zone 3 set for 100% of both lines plus 25% of adjacent line
off remote bus

Step distance protection
November 5,
2013
| Slide 43
ABB Group

G

H

Z3
Z2
Z1
T3
T2
T1
Z3
Z2
Z1
T1
T2
T3
Step distance protection
Do not want Zone 1 to reach beyond remote bus
10 to 20% is safety factor
Inaccuracies
Relays
Current and potential transformers
Line impedances

Zone 1
November 5,
2013
| Slide 44
ABB Group

G

H

Z3
Z2
Z1
T3
T2
T1
Z3
Z2
Z1
T1
T2
T3
Step distance protection
Operates through a timer (T2)
Timer set for Coordination Time Interval (CTI) that allows
remote relay zone 1 [Z1] and breaker [at H] to operate with
margin before zone 2 [Z2] relay
Z2 at G must overreach the remote bus H, but should not
overreach the closest far bus at R
Z2 at G is remote backup to Z1 at H

Zone 2
November 5,
2013
| Slide 45
ABB Group

G

H

Z3
Z2
Z1
T3
T2
T1
Z3
Z2
Z1
T1
T2
T3
H
Z1
R
Step distance protection
Operates through a timer (T3)
Timer set for Coordination Time Interval (CTI) that allows
remote relay zone 2 [Z2] and breakers [at H and R] to
operate with margin before the zone 3 [Z3] relay
Z3 at G is also remote backup to Z1 and Z2 at H

Zone 3
November 5,
2013
| Slide 46
ABB Group

G

H

Z3
Z2
Z1
T3
T2
T1
Z3
Z2
Z1
T1
T2
T3
H Z1
Z2
R
Step distance protection
Zone 3 relay [Z3] may be applied looking reverse for pilot
system logic with no timer
Zone 3 relay [Z3] may be applied looking reverse for reverse
[backup] bus protection
Timer set to allows reverse zone 1 [Z1] relay and breaker [at G]
to operate with margin before zone 3 [Z3] relay


Zone 3
November 5,
2013
| Slide 47
ABB Group

G

H

Z3
Z2
Z1
T2

T1
T3
Z2
Z1
T1
T2
R Z1
T3
Step distance protection
Operating time profile
November 5,
2013
| Slide 48
ABB Group

Z1
Z2 T3
Z3
Z1
Z2
Z1
Z2
T2
21/67 (Impedance controlled directional TOC)
Step distance protection
Reduces the apparent reach measured by distance relays
Depends on the ratio between current going through relay
(I
G
) and current from infeed (I
IN
)
Usually not a factor on Zone 1 [Z1] relay unless tapped line
[or appreciable fault resistance for ground faults]
Zone 2 may underreach remote bus
Infeed [from remote bus]
November 5,
2013
| Slide 49
ABB Group

G

Z2
Z1
I
G

I
IN

Step distance protection
With Zero voltage fault and Z2 = Z
G
+ Z
H

V
G
= I
G
Z
G
+ ( I
G
+ I
IN
) Z
H

Z
A
(Apparent)

= V
G
/ I
G

Z
A
= Z
G
+ (1 + I
IN
/I
G
) Z
H
Z
A
= Z
G
+ Z
H
+ (I
IN
/I
G
)Z
H
(Increase in Apparent Impedance)
Z2 must be set to overreach bus H for infeed at bus H
and not overreach bus K for no infeed at bus H
Infeed [from remote bus]
November 5,
2013
| Slide 50
ABB Group

G

Z2
Z
G

I
G

I
IN

Z
H

I
G
+ I
IN
V
G
G

H

K

Step distance protection
Usually associated with three terminal line applications and paralleling of line segment
Example: V
G
= 2(1) + 2(1 ) = 4
Z
G
(Apparent)

= V
G
/ I
G

Z
G
= 4/2 = 2 O

Z1 will overreach and see the fault

Outfeed
November 5,
2013
| Slide 51
ABB Group

G

1 O 2 O
2 a
1 O
1 O
1 a 1 a
1 a
Z1 = 2.5 O
Step distance protection
V
G
= I
G
mZ
L
+ ( I
G
+ I
H
) Z
T

Z
G
(Apparent)

= V
G
/ I
G

Z
G
= mZ
L
+ (1 + I
H
/I
G
) Z
T
Z
G
= mZ
L
+ Z
T
+ I
H
/I
G
Z
T
(Increase in apparent impedance)
Apparent impedance will always be larger than impedance to fault

Tapped transformers and loads
November 5,
2013
| Slide 52
ABB Group

G

mZ
L

m
(1-m)Z
L

I
H
I
G

I
G
+ I
H
Z
T
Step distance protection
I
H
and V
H
preferred to provide line protection
Use of VL and/or IL affects measured impedance and requires
ct and/or vt ratio adjustment
Transformer should always be protected separately

Lines terminated into transformers
November 5,
2013
| Slide 53
ABB Group

I
L
I
H

V
L
V
H
Z
T
Z
L
Reference
E. Price, R. Hedding, Protecting Transmission Lines Terminated into
Transformers, 63
nd
Annual Georgia Tech Protective Relaying
Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, 2009.
Source impedance ratio
Ratio of source impedance to the line impedance
SIR to the relay is the ratio of source impedance to
the zone impedance setting
The higher the SIR the more complex the line
protection with zone 1
Measurement errors are more pronounced
Current and or voltage transformer error
CVT transients
Zone-1 may not be recommended in many
applications
Current differential protection preferred



November 5,
2013
| Slide 54
ABB Group

Source impedance ratio
Short Line SIR > 4.0
Current Differential
Phase Comparison
Pilot (POTT, DCB)
Medium Line 4.0 > SIR > 0.5
Above
Step Distance
Long Line 0.5 > SIR
Above
Step Distance

Recommended applications
November 5,
2013
| Slide 55
ABB Group

IEEE Guide for Protective Relay Applications to
Transmission Lines - IEEE Std C37.113-1999
Non-pilot applications
Z1 reach is initially set to overreach remote bus
Circuit breakers controlled by relays A, C, & D trip for a fault
at F
Z1 reach is reduced to not overreach remote bus
High-speed reclose

Zone 1 extension
November 5,
2013
| Slide 56
ABB Group

B

F
Z
1
C

D

A

Z
1
Z
1
Z
1
Non-pilot applications
After high-speed reclose
Circuit breaker controlled by relay C trips instantaneously
Circuit breaker controlled by relay D trips time-delayed
Circuit breaker controlled by relay A does not trip

Zone 1 extension
November 5,
2013
| Slide 57
ABB Group

B

F
Z
1
C

D

A

Z
1
Z
1
Z
1
Z
2
Non-pilot applications
Unbalanced fault occurs at F
Breaker controlled by relay B trips instantaneously by Z1
Balanced load current, IL, is interrupted
LLT Logic at A
Detects loss of balanced (load) current and bypasses Z2
timer to trip
Does not operate for three-phase fault

Load loss trip
November 5,
2013
| Slide 58
ABB Group

F
Z
1
B

A

Z
1
Z
2
Z
2
I
L
Switch onto fault logic
Logic determines breaker has been open awhile and sets
SOTF logic (aka: CIFT, SOFT)
Breaker position
Dead line logic
When breaker controlled by relay A closes SOTF asserts
when:
I and Not V, and/or
ZSOTF operates
Set ZSOTF offset, overreaching line and below minimum load impedance

November 5,
2013
| Slide 59
ABB Group

B

A

I

V

OPEN CLOSING
Z
SOTF
Stub bus protection logic
November 5,
2013
| Slide 60
ABB Group

Pilot relaying schemes
Communication assisted schemes
November 5,
2013
| Slide 61
ABB Group





Goal - High speed simultaneous tripping of all line
terminals for internal line faults
A B
STATION C STATION D
X
STATION E
C
P & C
P & C
P & C
Pilot relaying schemes
Communication assisted schemes
November 5,
2013
| Slide 62
ABB Group





Goal - High speed simultaneous tripping of all line
terminals for internal line faults
COMMUNICATIONS
A B
STATION C STATION D
X
STATION E
C
P & C
P & C
P & C
Requires reliable high-speed communications
between line terminals.
Pilot Communications
Power Line Carrier (PLC)
The communication signal is coupled to the transmission line being protected
requiring additional substation equipment
Line traps
Line tuners
Coupling capacitors
On/Off Keying, Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
Generally more available and economical than other forms of pilot
communications
Communication issues tend to occur when reliable communications is need
most during the fault
DCB (On/Off) and DCUB (FSK) developed specifically for PLC





63
Pilot Communications
Non Power Line Carrier
The communication signal is routed separately from
the transmission line conductor
Audio tone FSK over voice (telephone, microwave)
Digital most reliable, particularly with fiber optics,
direct connected or multiplexed




64
Directional Comparison
Directional Comparison relaying determines the fault direction at each line
terminal and compares the results to determine the fault to be internal or
external to the protected line.
65
A B
FWD Element (FP-A)
FWD Element (FP-B)
F
INT
STATION C
STATION D
A B
FWD Element (FP-A)
F
EXT
STATION C
STATION D
INTERNAL
FAULT
EXTERNAL
FAULT
REV Element (RP-B)
Distance Protection
Directional Comparison Schemes
Non PLC Channels
DUTT* Direct-underreaching transfer trip
POTT permissive-overreaching transfer trip
PUTT permissive-underreaching transfer trip
PLC
DCB directional comparison blocking
DCUB directional comparison unblocking

* Although there is no directional comparison between terminals this scheme is
usually considered with directional comparison schemes.
66
DUTT Direct-underreaching Transfer Trip
Also known as an Intertrip scheme
67
A B
F
INT
STATION C STATION D
21-1
21-1
Rx [f
1 from B]
21-1 (A)
Tx [f
1
to TRIP B]
TRIP A
Must
Overlap
Underreaching
Distance Relay
Comm
Tx
Rx
Comm
Tx
Rx
f
1
Rx [f
1 from A]
21-1 (B)
Tx [f
1
to TRIP A]
TRIP B
OR OR
DUTT Direct-underreaching Transfer Trip
Advantages
Fast method for clearing end zone faults
Single communications channel
Disadvantages
Cannot protect full line if one terminal is open or has
weak infeed
Requires ground distance relays for accurate reach on
ground faults (no overcurrent)
Subject to 21-1 overreaching issues (e.g. ccvt
transients)
Spurious communication channel noise may cause
undesired trip (secure channel desired FSK, digital)



68
PUTT Permissive-underreaching Transfer Trip
69
A B
F
INT
STATION C STATION D
21-1
21-1
Rx [f
1 from B]
Tx [to B]
TRIP A
Must
Overlap
Underreaching
Distance Relay
21-2
21-2
Overreaching
Distance Relay
21-2 (A)
Comm
Tx
Rx
Comm
Tx
Rx
f
1
Rx [f
1
from A]
Tx [f
1
to A]
TRIP B
21-2 (B)
AND
AND
21-1 (A)
21-1 (B)
Rx signal should have a minimum receive time to allow operation of 21-2.
PUTT Permissive-underreaching Transfer Trip
Advantages
More secure than DUTT requiring a 21-2 operation for
permission to trip
Single communications channel
Disadvantages
Cannot protect full line if one terminal is open or has
weak infeed
Requires ground distance relays for accurate reach on
ground faults (no overcurrent)

70
POTT Permissive-overreaching Transfer Trip
71
A B
F
INT
STATION C STATION D
FP-A
Rx [f
2 from B]
Tx [f
1
to B]
TRIP A
Overreaching Distance
and OC Relays:
21-2, 21N-2, 67N
FP-A
FP-B
Comm
Tx
Rx
Comm
Tx
Rx
f
1
f
2
Rx [f
1 from A]
Tx [f
2
to A]
TRIP B
FP-B AND
AND
Rx signal should have a minimum receive time to allow operation of 21-2.
POTT Permissive-overreaching Transfer Trip
Advantages
More dependable than PUTT because it sees all line
faults.
Open terminal and weak-end infeed logic can be applied.
Forward and reverse ground directional overcurrent
relays may be applied for greater sensitivity to high
resistance ground faults
Disadvantages
Requires a duplex communications channel (separate
frequency/signal for each direction)
Will not trip for internal fault with loss of channel (but
usually applied with a zone-1/2 step-distance
relay)


72
Directional Comparison
Blocking (DCB) and Unblocking (DCUB)
DCB and DCUB schemes are specifically intended to be used with systems where
communications is less secure (likely to be lost) during line fault conditions

Power-line carrier signal communications is on same
conductor that you are protecting
73
A B
Power Line
Carrier
Channel
STATION C
STATION D
Transmission Line
Relay Relay
Signal Path
The PLC Channel
H
Coupling Capacitor
Voltage
Transformer (ccvt)
Drain
Coil
Line
Tuner
Coaxial Cable
Line Trap
Station A Bus
Fault
2 1
Protective
Relay
System
T
R
Control
House
Switchyard
Relay PT
inputs
Signal:
30 to 500 kHz
1 to 100 Watts
(7 to 70 V rms)
DCUB Directional Comparison Unblocking

75
f
B1
and f
B2
are continuous block signals until a fault is detected and
the frequency is shifted to the unblock (trip) f
1
and/or f
2
.
DCUB Directional Comparison Unblocking
Advantages
Very secure at it requires receipt of Unblock signal for
tripping.
Has logic to handle loss of channel during faults.
Open terminal and weak-end infeed logic can be applied.
Forward and reverse ground directional overcurrent
relays may be applied for greater sensitivity to high
resistance ground faults
Security logic for loss of channel (carrier holes) only
delays trip during loss of channel
Disadvantages
Requires a duplex communications channel (separate trip
and guard frequencies for each direction)

76
DCB Directional Comparison Blocking
77
DCB Directional Comparison Blocking
Advantages
Very dependable does not depend on channel for tripping for internal
faults
Open terminal and weak-end infeed are handled by scheme
Forward and reverse ground directional overcurrent relays may be applied
for greater sensitivity to high resistance ground faults
Low cost communications channel single frequency channel On/Off PLC
Disadvantages
Not as secure tends to overtrip for slow channel or loss of channel
Security logic for carrier holes may be required slows tripping.
Channel is normally off so periodic checking is required
78
References
1. IEEE Guide for protective Relay Applications to
Transmission Lines, IEEE Std. C37-113, 1999.
2. W. A. Elmore, Protective Relaying: Theory and
Application, Marcel Decker, Inc., New York,1994.
November 5,
2013
| Slide 79
ABB Group






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Thank you for your participation

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To view a schedule of remaining webinars in this series, or for more
information on ABBs protection and control solutions, visit:
www.abb.com/relion


November 5,
2013
| Slide 81
ABB Group

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all potential problems and solutions related to this topic. The content is
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