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Non associated natural gas Not in contact with oil in the subsurface Associated natural gas in contact with

th crude oil and gas in the subsurface, both in the free gas cap and solution gas What is Kerogen? - Mixture of organic material, formed after initial rotting of organic material - Only occur when there is no oxygen gas Hydrostatic Pressure Pore spaces in sandstone filled with water, easily connected to surface - Lithostatic Pressure Shale, little pore spaces, pores not connected. Secondary Porosity - Caused by clay minerals and organic reactions - Chemical weathering of feldspar forms various clays Irreducible % of effective porosity occupied by wetting phase fluid. Water that cannot be drawn out, no matter how high the pressure.

Malay Basin
- Malay Basin can be categorized as a traditional petroleum system that has all the essential elements to produce recoverable hydrocarbon. - The petroleum system in this province encompasses active source rocks and includes all the geologic elements and processes that are necessary for oil and gas accumulation to exist. Source - It has a very good quality source rock that contain total organic carbon (TOC) about 1% to 4% and hydrogen index (HI) as high as 750. Maturation - The depth of the sediments provides a suitable temperature condition for hydrocarbon to be generated. - The collision between India and Asia during Eocene has reactivated the normal fault in this area and create a migration path of the hydrocarbon. Accumulation - The presence of high quality sandstone reservoirs on the top of the source rock strata has able to accumulate the hydrocarbon. Reservoirs - The depth where most reservoirs are located (around 1.5-2.0 km) also give a high value porosity reading that will entrap more hydrocarbon that have been generated.

Seal - On top of that, the regional marine shale that is associated with maximum flooding surface that occur between the boundaries of the strata react as the seal rock for this petroleum system. Traps - Compressional anticline and fault-dip closure structure traps have able to accumulate and concentrated the hydrocarbon that was produced. Preservation - Finally, all these elements are well preserved and are correctly placed in time and space so that organic substance contained in the source rock can be converted into a hydrocarbon accumulation. Future - Future potential for undiscovered petroleum to be found in Malay Basin is optimistic. - With the advancement of new technology for drilling, overpressure zone at the deeper strata in the middle of the basin can be explored and executed. - Also, stratigraphic traps in the Miocene-Coaly Strata (Group D and E) could be attractive exploration target since most of the discrete sandstones bodies have not been mapped yet. - Most of the seismic survey that was done in this area was conducted during early 70s when 3D seismic data acquisition has not been widely used yet. - Using 3D seismic survey will give a better resolution about the structure of the basin and help to better understand the geologic history of the province.

Cuu Long
Tectonics - The consolidated basement of the Cuu Long Basin was formed by the continental collision that lead to the disappearance of the Tethys Ocean. - The Cuu Long sedimentary basin is characterized by graben-depression structures caused by sagging. Basin Analysis - Basin analysis has lead to the recognition of many different petroleum plays, and this has lead to new exploration objectives. Source Rock - The petroleum system of the Cuu Long Basin, offshore Vietnam, has become well known, not only in Vietnam but throughout SE Asia, because of its rich lacustrine source rock and unusual fractured and hydrothermally altered granite basement reservoir. Maturation - There is a thick Late Miocene and Pliocene-Recent sequence that provides the overburden necessary for source maturation and seal development.

Resevoir - The Mesozoic plutonic-volcanic basement complex was affected by several phases of normal faulting during the Early Cenozoic, causing it to become a fractured, oil bearing reservoir. - Oligocene sediments in the central grabens are composed of lacustrine and tidallagoonal fine grained clastics; some of these are good reservoir targets. Seal - The Middle Miocene marinelagoonal shale sequences are regionally extensive and form effective top seals. Traps - Large differential movements of fault blocks during the rift stage in the basin lead to the formation of basement high traps. - The Cuu Long Basin is considered one of the most prospective in SE Asia.

Sumatra Java
Tectonics - Indonesia contains many Tertiary basins, several of which have proven to be very prolific producers of oil and gas. - We have linked the recognized petroleum systems to common stages in the geological evolution of these synrift to postrift basins North Sumatra Basin - The North Sumatra Basin comprises a series of north south trending ridges and grabens formed in Early Oligocene time. - Almost the entire basin fill is marine, much of it, especially in the north, comprising basinal deeper marine claystones, shales. - The main reservoir/traps are carbonate build-ups of the Peutu Formation, - This system comprises a late synrift source of early postrift affinity and early postrift reservoir and traps. Central Sumatra Basin - The Central Sumatra Basin comprises a number of separate synrift grabens below a postrift sequence. - Most of the many hydrocarbon accumulations present lie directly above or adjacent to the synrift grabens. South Sumatra Basin - The South Sumatra Basin also comprises a series of semi-connected trending synrift basins with a common postrift sequence. - Two main rift provinces are recognized, both of which contain hydrocarbon fields. - Most of the oil and gas fields are concentrated along thrust and fold trends above or close to the areas of active mature source rocks.