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DAIRY HOUSING

DAIRY HOUSING
1. $. &. (. ). Objective: Minimize investment, maximize efficiency and environment Considerations Housing ty e ! construction Mi"#ing ! re "acement anima"s %eeding systems Manure 'and"ing ! o""ution contro" Mi"#ing system *nvironmenta" contro"

An integrated system should be designed to:


Minimize "abor demands +ti"ize mec'anica",automatic e-ui ment .rovide desirab"e environment Minimize stress on anima"s /""o0 for a smoot' f"o0 or anima"s and materia"s .rovide for individua" anima" care and treatment Com "y 0it' sanitary ! o""ution contro" regu"ations

Factors to onsider:
Herd size Mi"#ing barn or ar"or1 2arm or co"d 'ousing1 %eeding system Manure 'and"ing 3ite considerations

Factors cont!
+ti"ization of existing bui"dings 4e "acement anima" 'ousing 5y e of structure *x ansion in t'e future *conomics .roduction %eed conversion 6abor efficiency

Factors cont!
3anitation /bi"ity to contro" anima"s O erator comfort .ersona" desires 3 ace 7resting, feeding, mi"#ing %eed storage,'and"ing *nvironment Management system

H"RD #A$"U%
6actating co0s :ry co0s 5ota" mature co0s && ; (9 8& 1; 199 $98 ($ $)9

Hei&ers:
1<7$( mo =19)9 "b> 1&71) mo =899 "b> ?71$ =<99 "b> )78 =(99 "b> &7( =$)9 "b> Ca"ves 97$ mo =1)9 "b> 5ota" re "acements 1) ) ; ; & & (9 &8 1$ 1; 1; 8 8 199 ?) &9 (& ($ $9 $9 $)

'hat &actors a&&ect herd ma(eu)*


1. $. &. (. ). <. ;. 8. /verage ca"ving interva" is 1& mont's /verage dry eriod is t0o mont's 1<@ of t'e co0s are dry Heifers ca"ve at $( mont's of age )@ of ca"ves are born dead 1,$ of ca"ves are bu""s Cu""ing ! morta"ity is $97&9@ /verage co0 is used 8 years Mi"#ing 'erd :ry co0s 3 ringing 'eifers Anbreed 'eifers Ca"ves =1> Bu""s Maternity 5reatment

S+RU +UR"S ,OR AR"AS- R".UIR"D:

Areas cont!
?. 19. 11. 1$. 1&. 1(. 1). Mi"#ing = ar"or> Mi"# room Hay storage Crain storage 3i"age storage Manure storage,treatment +ti"ities

#I/$ %RODU +ION OS+S:


%eed Hired "abor 6ivestoc#1 Mac'inery, e-ui , Bags. ! 6and O0ner "abor,management Ot'er &8@ &@ &@ ?@ $9@ 1<@

/abor Demands
Co0s,'erd 199 1)9 $99 D 19 min,co07day co0s,manc'ore &) &? (& 'r,co07yr )< )& )9

/abor re0uired ,man1hours-:


Eear er co0 1?&9 1(; 1?(9 1(8 1?)9 1$) 1?<9 199 1?;9 <8 1?;) )) 1?89 &) =(9 x )$>,)) F &;.8 co0s,man7yr =(9 x )$>,&) F )?.( co0s,man7yr er 199 #g mi"# ;.$ ;.9 ).$ &.1 1.) 1.$ 9.;

"&&ect o& tem)erature on dairy co2s:


5em erature :M Anta#eG 2ater Anta#eG Cost o C er co07mont' 777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 7$9 11$ ;) $<.8)GG 71) 119 81 ).(9 719 19? 8) ).19 9 19& ?( .<9 ) 191 ?? 9 19 199 ?? 9 G @ of 187$9oC GG cost inc"udes a "oss of ) "b of mi"# er co07day

+Y%"S OF HOUSING FOR +H" #I/$ING H"RD:


3tanc'ion or tie sta"" 6oose or en 'ousing %ree sta"" 5'ese may be H0armH or Hco"dI

S+A// 3ARNS:
Cood for 1)7<9 co0s Cenera""y rovides greater individua" attention May resu"t in better 'ea"t' ! roduction 3ing"e s ace for mi"#ing, feeding and resting 6o0 tota" s ace Can be 'ig'"y mec'anized 4e-uires stoo ing during mi"#ing 5ota" e-ui ment cost may be 'ig'

#inimum design decisions


5y e of sta"" =stanc'ion or tie sta""> 3ta"" arrangement, sta"" size, sta"" mats 5y e of feeding: 'ay, si"ageJ 'and cart, conveyor, mobi"e sca"e7mixer Manure 'and"ing =gutter or it> Bui"ding construction =materia"s, insu"ation> *nvironmenta" contro" +ti"ities: 'eat rec"amation, su "ementa" 'eat, so"ar, standby o0er unit

FR"" S+A// SYS+"#S:


More decisions on "ayout ! dimensions An genera", decisions invo"ve com romise Hand"e anima"s in grou s Mec'anized mi"#ing 3im "ified materia"s 'and"ing 4educed "abor :eve"o ed in 1?)8 by Major Bram"eyin *ng"and, first system in +.3. 0as by /do" ' Oienin 2as'ington, 1?<9

Free Stall Systems may be classi&ied by ty)es! 'hat are &our ty)es*
1. $. &. (. O en 7cover over sta""s .artia""y o en 7sta""s ! feeding in bui"ding Co"d covered *nc"osed 0arm 7re-uires carefu" environmenta" design ! management

Free Stall 3arn Si4es:


17< ro0s $9 71$9K 0ide (9 to over )99 anima"s

Free stall to co2 ratio


Ho0 many free sta""s are needed for 199 mi"#ing co0s1 Co0 ty ica""y rest 1( 'r,day Af anima",sta"" ratio L1.&, rest time and roduction may dro

HOUSING O#%ON"N+S:

Stalls 1'hat is their )ur)ose*


.rovide udder rotection /""o0 for c"ean, sanitary conditions Minimize otentia" for co0 to injury 'erse"f .rovide rotection from ot'er co0s 3ta"" artition s'ou"d not a""o0 co0 get art of body t'roug'

5 5 5

Stall si4e: Big enoug' for co0 to "ie do0n, but not a""o0 'er to move for0ard, or turn around Stall bed Concrete, rubber mats, ac#ed c"ay, "imestone, .erf"o# 3edding 3a0dust, si"t, c'o ed stra0, ground 'u""s

Alleys
.rovide for catt"e movement and manure accumu"ation. /"so access for distributing bedding, etc. 2idt's determined by re-uirement t'at co0s be a""o0ed to move free"y and for e-ui ment. ;719K bet0een ro0s of sta""s 1171(K bet0een sta"" and feed bun#

urbs
3e arate manure from sta""s Heig't de ends on "engt' of a""ey, fre-uency of manure remova", and is "imited by co0s udder O timum about 8719H

Feed bun(s
3ize de ends on feeding rogram, met'od of fi""ing, fre-uency of fi""ing, and is "imited by co0 reac' 5y ica" $8H 'eig't, 171,$ ft "engt' er co0, &7) ft 0ide

+ra&&ic alleys
&(H 0ide for sing"e co0 ) to < ft 0ide to a""o0 t0o co0s meet or ass /void turns, if ossib"e, articu"ar"y going into ar"or

'aterers
One cu 7ty e or $(H access around tan# er $9 co0s 6ocate for easy access but MO5 in ar"or return "ane or narro0 cross a""ey .osition to minimize feed de osition into 0aterer. +se so"id barrier bet0een 0aterer and feed bun# or 'ay rac# 5o of 0aterer s'ou"d be $9 to $(H above 0'ere anima" stands 2aterer must be rotected from freezing

A/F HOUSING
2arm 7e"evated sta""s =$K x (K> (9 7)9o% Minimum venti"ation 19cfm,199 "b anima" 0eig't 2arm venti"ation )9cfm,199 "b anima" 0eig't Co"d 7individua" en =(K x 8K> Hutc's7(K x 8K s'e"ter 0it' (K x <K en

al& Housing onsiderations:


4egu"ar manure remova" :ry resting "ace Mo ca"f7to7ca"f contact

%OR+A3/"6 R"ADY13UI/+ #ODU/"S FOR A/F HOUSING


Nuic#, easy to obtain Manufacturer can ta#e advantage of mass roduction tec'ni-uesJ use factory e-ui ment Can rovide very good environment Mot easi"y modified or ada ted to c'anges Mot designed for s ecific conditions at site 5rans ortation ex ensive 3ome 'ave been oor"y constructed May be more readi"y dis osed of

H"IF"R HOUSING
3 ace needs: 1) to (9s-ft,'d /nima"s $7( mont's age, "imit grou sizes to OF < anima"s /nima"s <7$( mont's can to"erate "arger grou s 2'en grou ing consider: /ge ! size Mutritiona" re-uirements Medica" treatments Breeding

#I/$ING "N+"R
6ocation 3ize ! 6ayout Construction

Areas in #il(ing enter


Mi"#ing .ar"or Mi"# 4oom Hos ita" Office +ti"ities Ho"ding /rea %eeding ! 2aste Hand"ing Penti"ation ! 6ig'ting Harvest mi"# efficient"y, safe"y, and economica""y )9@ of "abor cost invo"ves mi"#ing o eration C"ean co0s Hea"t'y udders Mi"# coo"ing ! 'and"ing

Ob7ecti8es &or )lanning mil(ing center:

%arlor ost:
*-ui ment cost Q?999,sta"" 5urn#ey Q1)7$9,999,sta"" i.e. Q$)9,999 for a doub"e78 ar"or 4etrofit ar"ors: Q1<99 to Q<)99,sta""

Ref: David Kammel. 2001. Low-Cost Milking Parlors, Minnesota !is"onsin #ngineering $otes %!inter& 'tt(: www.)ae.*mn.ed* e+tens

%arlor Selection:
Mumber of o erators *x ansion otentia",ex ectations /vai"ab"e mi"#ing time

%arlor design
."atform 0idt' 3ta"" "engt' .it 0idt' ."atform 'eig't %"oor s"o e 5raffic "anes ((7<9H &<7(8H )7<K &<7(9H 1,(H,ft &$R$H

4obotic Mi"#ing 3ystem

/+5OM/5*: M/M/C*M*M5 Co0 identification Monitoring of mi"# roduction :etection of estrus Mi"# tem erature Body tem erature /ctivity %eed contro" 4ecording,0arning medication Penti"ation contro"

9entilation:
2inter 7199cfm,sta"" 3ummer 7(99cfm,sta"" 3creen in"et 71 ft$,<99cfm

Holding %en:
3e arate from free sta"" a""ey Ho"d number of co0s to be mi"#ed in 171,$ 'r .rovide 1( 71<s-ft,co0

Holding %en

Holding %en Sur&ace:


3"o e 1 to <@ from ar"or Hig' -ua"ity =(999 si> concrete Ancor orate 1.9 "b ferric oxide aggregate er s-ft /fter ; 719 yrs retreat 0it' e oxy resin and antis"i aggregate

Holding %en Design Factors


/void visua" distractions Mo door,0a"" bet0een 'o"ding en and ar"or desired /nima" turns at exit instead of entrance Best to 'ave t0o a""eys 0it' so"id artition *6AMAM/5* ste s, ram s, doors 0'enever ossib"e *xtend it 19 71$ ft into 'o"ding area

ro2d Gate:
Maximum "engt' &9 ft :onSt extrude co0s into ar"or *"ectrified111 5raining signa"s 7"ig't, be"", and buzzer

+reatment Facilities 3e aration 5reatment about e-ua" to ar"or ca acity Maternity =one er $97$) co0s>, a rox. 1$K x 1$K 6oading Cates, 'ead gates, ti"ting tab"e

onsiderations regarding +reatment Facilities:


/""o0 'and"ing 1)99 "b co0 0it' one man *asy to c"ean /ccess to anima" /bi"ity to 'and"e Hdo0nH or dead anima" *nvironmenta" contro" 3/%*5E

%ro8ide restraint &acilities &or: e.g.. Head gates, "oc#7in stanc'ions or s-ueeze c'ute Breeding .regnancy c'ec#ing Paccinations, etc.

.UI: +I#";;;
1. $. ."ease ta#e out a c"ean iece of a er. .ut your name on t'e a er / roximate"y 'o0 many ca"ves and 'eifers 0ou"d be ex ected on a dairy farm mi"#ing 19( co0sJ t'ere are a"so $1 dry co0s. / dairy farm 0it' a mi"#ing 'erd of <99 co0s mig't need TTTTT em "oyees in addition to t'e o0ner. a. 1 b. $7& c. 1971$ d. L $9 &. a. b. c. d. (. 2'en t'e tem erature fa""s be"o0 7$9 %, you 0ou"d not ex ect: %eed inta#e to increase 2ater inta#e to increase .rofit to increase Mone of t'e above An a sta"" dairy barn, t'e co0 is rovided a sing"e s ace for resting, feeding and mi"#ingJ 'o0 does t'is com are 0it' t'e ty ica" free sta"" system1

ANS'"RS FO//O':
1. $. ."ease exc'ange your a er 0it' your neig'bor for grading. 5'e -uiz is to be scored on t'e basis of 19 tota" oints. / roximate"y 'o0 many ca"ves and 'eifers 0ou"d be ex ected on a dairy farm mi"#ing 19( co0sJ t'ere are a"so $1 dry co0s. , t-(i"al dair- 'erd 'as an e.*al n*m)er of re(la"ement animals to t'e n*m)er of mat*re "ows, or in t'is "ase 12/. / dairy farm 0it' a mi"#ing 'erd of <99 co0s mig't need TTTTT em "oyees in addition to t'e o0ner. a. 1 b. $7& c. 1971$ d. L $9 !'en all t'e f*n"tions are "onsidered, one (erson is re.*ired for ever- 00 to 10 "ows. 2'en t'e tem erature fa""s be"o0 7$9 %, you 0ou"d not ex ect t'at for dairy co0s: a. feed inta#e to increase b. 0ater inta#e to increase c. rofit to increase d. none of t'e above ,s tem(erat*re fall )elow free2ing, "attle will "ons*me less water. An a sta"" dairy barn, t'e co0 is rovided a sing"e s ace for resting, feeding and mi"#ingJ 'o0 does t'is com are 0it' t'e ty ica" free sta"" system1 3n a free stall dair- s-stems, normall- t'ere are se(arate areas for feeding, milking and resting.

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