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API 510 CERT

API RP 571:CONTENTS

Now we will look at the second group of damage mechanisms covered by API 571
4.2.3 Temper Embrittlement 4.2.7 Brittle Fracture 4.2.9 Thermal Fatigue 4.2.14 Erosion/Erosion-Corrosion These are mainly low 4.2.16 Mechanical Fatigue temperature ,fairly 4.3.2 Atmospheric Corrosion 4.3.3 Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) straightforward corrosion 4.3.4 Cooling Water Corrosion mechanisms 4.3.5 Boiler Water Condensate Corrosion 4.4.2 Sulfidation 4.5.1 Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking (Cl-SCC) 4.5.2 Corrosion Fatigue 4.5.3 Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking (Caustic Embrittlement) 5.1.2.3 Wet H2S Damage (Blistering/HIC/SOHIC/SCC) 5.1.3.1 High Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA

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API 510 CERT

REMEMBER THE WAY THAT API 571 COVERS EACH OF THE MECHANISMS

Description/appearance of the damage mechanism

Critical factors

Affected equipment Prevention/ mitigation

Related mechanisms

Inspection/ monitoring
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API 510 CERT

EROSION-CORROSION
Erosion and corrosion act together to significantly increase the rate of corrosion Oxide film cannot form on the surface as it is continually swept away by high velocity fluid flow impingement Surface shows extended pits,holes and valleys

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API 510 CERT

EROSION/CORROSION
High fluid velocities cause scouring Notice the serious wallthinning Tube-bends are particularly susceptible
TO REDUCE EROSIONCORROSION Reduce fluid velocity Use a more resistant material (harder alloys may be better)
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API 510 CERT

ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION(RUST) Caused by atmospheric moisture


Marine environments are the worst

Corrosion increases with temperature up about 250 degF (121 degC)

Pollution(e.g. acidic) makes it worse


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API 510 CERT

CORROSION UNDER INSULATION (CUI)

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API 510 CERT

CUI

4 COMMON LOCATIONS
All LCS pipework operating continually at 4<t<120 degC LCS pipework operating> 120 degC BUT INTERMITTENTLY Austenitic Stainless steel at 65-205 DegC (for SCC) Piping systems that vibrate a lot (insulation becomes damaged)
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API 510 CERT

CUI LOCATIONS

Areas around leaks

Areas of vibration

Corrosion under Insulation Chloride contamination Getwater something done about places CUI (from or lagging) makes where you have to step on insulation much worse to access equipment Matthews Engineering Training Ltd

Where lagging is damaged


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API 510 CERT

CUI CAN BECOME SEVERE


UT thickness checks are used to measure the wall-thinning

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API 510 CERT

COOLING WATER CORROSION


Look at section 4.3.4 of API 571

Think of it as a general and widespread corrosion mechanisms spread across most industries

Pipework

Heat exchangers

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API 510 CERT

COOLING WATER CORROSION

4 KEY POINTS(highlight these in your code) It affects almost all materials Corrosion can be general or localised It is made worse by high fluid velocities (giving erosion/corrosion) It is made worse by:
Increased Oxygen content Temperatures > 57 degC
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API 510 CERT

COOLING WATER CORROSION

Preventative measures are fairly obvious

Keep the temperature below 50 degC Avoid too-low velocity stagnant' conditions Chemical water treatment (e.g in condensers) Use linings or more corrosion-resistant materials

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API 510 CERT

BOILER WATER CONDENSATE CORROSION

A very common mechanism in boiler condensate systems

Deaerators Condensate return pipework Feed heaters and pipework

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API 510 CERT

BOILER CONDENSATE CORROSION

This is a specific corrosion mechanism of boiler systems and condensate piping

Dissolved Oxygen results in pitting-type damage

Pits can sometimes be hidden under tubercles (oxide caps)


Internal surface of boiler tube
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API 510 CERT

OXYGEN PITTING

pH and temperature will make it worse

Extreme cases lead to leakage


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API 510 CERT

2 MAIN CAUSES OF O PITTING


2

Too much O2 (poor deaerator in the system and/or not enough hydrazinetype O2 scavenger chemical)

Too much CO2 (typically in the condensate part of the system)


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API 510 CERT

OXYGEN PITTING:

Advanced pitting of a condensate line

CO2 is normally the cause in condensate return lines

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API 510 CERT

API RP 571:CONTENTS

This PowerPoint presentation has looked at these mechanisms covered by API 571
4.2.3 Temper Embrittlement 4.2.7 Brittle Fracture 4.2.9 Thermal Fatigue 4.2.14 Erosion/Erosion-Corrosion 4.2.16 Mechanical Fatigue 4.3.2 Atmospheric Corrosion 4.3.3 Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) 4.3.4 Cooling Water Corrosion 4.3.5 Boiler Water Condensate Corrosion 4.4.2 Sulfidation 4.5.1 Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking (Cl-SCC) 4.5.2 Corrosion Fatigue 4.5.3 Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking (Caustic Embrittlement) 5.1.2.3 Wet H2S Damage (Blistering/HIC/SOHIC/SCC) 5.1.3.1 High Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA

5 damage

NEXT STEP

In the last presentation we will look at the remaining ones.First,return to the module text

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