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Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine

Components Model Series 457, 500, 900


Advanced Training


Trucks Drive train
Mechanical Engine Components
Model Series 457, 500, 900

Advanced Training



r
As at 09/07










This document is intended solely for use in training and is not subject to regular updating.
Printed in Germany
2007 Copyright DaimlerChrysler AG
Publisher: Global Training
This document with all its sections is protected under the laws of copyright. Its use for any purpose whatsoever
requires the prior written consent of DaimlerChrysler AG. This applies in particular to its reproduction, distribution,
modification, translation, recording on microfilm or storage and/or processing in electronic systems, including
databases and on-line services.
Note:
The term employees does not imply any preference
of gender and incorporated male and refers to maler
and female employees alike.

1511 1284 02 - 3rd Edition 09/07 156 As at 09/07
28.09.2007


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Content
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Content 28.09.2007


Title Page
Training Course Description NMXM - MM247..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Agenda for Training Course NMXM - MM247 ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2
Learning Objectives, Training Course NMXM-MM247 ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4
Exercise of measurement NMXM........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6
Poor Fuel Quality ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8
Maintenance Intervals; Exercise ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Technical Modifications of Model Series 500 EURO 4/5.................................................................................................................................................................. 10
Technical Modifications of Model Series 457 EURO 4/5.................................................................................................................................................................. 16
Technical Modifications to Model Series 900 EURO 4...................................................................................................................................................................... 19
Cylinder Head, Model Series 900 EURO 4 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 21
Coolant pump, Model Series 900 EURO 4 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 22
Engine Oil Change Interval up to 150,000 km (Code MY8) ............................................................................................................................................................... 23
Crankcase Ventilation System, Model Series 457/500 with Cyclone Separator - Installation.......................................................................................................... 26
Crankcase Ventilation System, Model Series 457/500 with Cyclone Separator - Function ............................................................................................................. 27
Crankcase Ventilation System, Model Series 457/500 with Cyclone Separator - Exercise.............................................................................................................. 28
Cylinder Head Fastening, Model Series 457..................................................................................................................................................................................... 29
Cylinder Head Fastening, Model Series 500; Exercise...................................................................................................................................................................... 32
Cylinder Head Gasket, Model Series 457 - Assignment of Ducts; Exercise ...................................................................................................................................... 34

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
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Cylinder Head Gasket, Model Series 500 - Assignment of Ducts; Exercise ...................................................................................................................................... 35
Cylinder Head Gasket, Model Series 900 - Assignment of Ducts; Exercise ...................................................................................................................................... 36
Cylinder Head Gasket, Model Series 457 / 500, Evaluation............................................................................................................................................................. 37
Cylinder Head Gasket, Model Series 500 - New Feature, Bead Seal................................................................................................................................................. 38
Cylinder Head, Model Series 457 / 500, Check ............................................................................................................................................................................... 39
Cylinder Head, Model Series 457 and 500 EURO 4/ 5, Coolant Loss .............................................................................................................................................. 41
Cylinder Head Model Series 900 - Sealing Surface Assessment....................................................................................................................................................... 42
Cylinder Head, Model Series 500, New Feature, Inductively-hardened Sealing Surface................................................................................................................... 43
Cylinder Liners, Model Series 457/500; Exercise ............................................................................................................................................................................ 45
Cylinder Liners, Model Series 900; Exercise..................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
Cylinder Barrel, Model Series 457/ 500/ 900 - Assessment; Exercise ............................................................................................................................................ 54
Plateau Honing ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 59
Constant Throttle - Fault Symptoms; Exercise.................................................................................................................................................................................. 60
Nozzle Protection Sleeve, Model Series 457/500; Exercise............................................................................................................................................................. 61
Heat Protection Sleeve - Locations................................................................................................................................................................................................... 62
Heat Protection Sleeve - Special Tool ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 63
Heat Protection Sleeve, Model Series 457/ 500/ 900 - Modifications ............................................................................................................................................ 64
Nozzle Holder Assembly and Protective Sleeve - Sealing; Exercise................................................................................................................................................... 65
Oil Pan Torque Specifications, Model Series 500 ............................................................................................................................................................................. 66
Oil Pan, Model Series 900 - Tightening Torques ............................................................................................................................................................................... 68
Clean Main Oil Duct; Exercise........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69
Connecting Rod, Model Series 457 .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 70

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
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Connecting Rod, Model Series 500; Exercise ................................................................................................................................................................................... 72
Repair Flywheel, Model Series 457/ 500 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 74
Crankshaft End Play; Exercise........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 75
Crankshaft - Measure Journals and Bearings, Model Series 500 ...................................................................................................................................................... 76
Crankshaft Seal, Model Series 500; Exercise ................................................................................................................................................................................... 78
Front Crankshaft Seal, Model Series 457/500 - Replace Radial Sealing Ring.................................................................................................................................. 79
Piston Projection, Model Series 457/500 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 81
Remove and Install Camshaft, Model Series 500; Exercise .............................................................................................................................................................. 82
Valve Setback, Model Series 457/500; Exercise.............................................................................................................................................................................. 84
Valve Setback, Model Series 900 - Check; Exercise ......................................................................................................................................................................... 85
Notes................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 86
Model Series 457 Fuel Circuit - Symbolic; Exercise.......................................................................................................................................................................... 87
Fuel Circuit, Model Series 457 - Requirements; Exercise.................................................................................................................................................................. 89
Notes................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 90
Model Series 500 Symbolic Fuel Circuit; Exercise............................................................................................................................................................................ 91
Notes................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 93
Model Series 900 Fuel Circuit - Symbolic (from Engine 040488); Exercise ...................................................................................................................................... 94
Fuel Circuit, Model Series 900 - Requirements; Exercise.................................................................................................................................................................. 96
Notes................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 97
Fuel Pressure Test Points, Model Series 500; Exercise..................................................................................................................................................................... 98
Notes.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 101
Fuel Pressure Test Points, Model Series 900; Exercise................................................................................................................................................................... 102

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
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Fuel Circuit, Model Series 500 - Symptoms; Exercise..................................................................................................................................................................... 105
Fuel Filter Housing, Model Series 500/ 457; Exercise ................................................................................................................................................................... 107
Unit Pump Magnet - Sealing; Exercise ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 108
Install Unit Pump, Model Serie 500; Exercise ................................................................................................................................................................................. 110
Install Unit Pump, Model Series 900; Exercise................................................................................................................................................................................ 112
Unit Pump Classification................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 114
Turbocharger, Model Series 457 - Mechanical Check; Exercise...................................................................................................................................................... 116
Turbobrake - Location of Components............................................................................................................................................................................................ 117
Turbobrake - Components and Function......................................................................................................................................................................................... 118
Turbobrake - Comparison with other Brake Systems...................................................................................................................................................................... 121
Turbobrake - Location, Design and Function of the Guide Vane ..................................................................................................................................................... 122
Turbobrake - Location, Design and Function of the Vent Element .................................................................................................................................................. 123
Turbobrake - Turbine Speed Sensor, Location and Function........................................................................................................................................................... 124
Turbobrake - Electric-pneumatic Converter (EPW), Location, Structure and Function .................................................................................................................... 125
Turbobrake - Engine Brake Request................................................................................................................................................................................................ 127
Turbobrake - Troubleshooting, Functions for Operation.................................................................................................................................................................. 128
Turbobrake - Troubleshooting......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 129
Turbobrake - Troubleshooting; Exercise.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 132
Charge Air Manifold, Model Series 457 - Installation; Exercise....................................................................................................................................................... 134
Charge Air Manifold, Model Series 500 - Installation; Exercise....................................................................................................................................................... 136
Oil Circuit, Model Series 457; Exercise........................................................................................................................................................................................... 138
Oil Circuit Model Series 457 - Task and Function; Exercise............................................................................................................................................................ 139

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
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Oil Circuit Model Series 500 - Location of Components; Exercise................................................................................................................................................. 140
Oil Circuit Model Series 500 - Task and Function; Exercise............................................................................................................................................................ 141
Oil Circuit Model Series 900 - Location of the Components; Exercise............................................................................................................................................ 142
Oil Circuit Model Series 900 - Task and Function; Exercise............................................................................................................................................................ 143
Oil Filter Housing, Model Series 900 - Location of Components; Exercise...................................................................................................................................... 145


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
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09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Training Course Description NMXM - MM247

1
Training Course Description NMXM - MM247 28.09.2007



Course designation
Trucks Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Repair Advanced Training
Target group Drive train repair technician
Requirements The participants have completed the preliminary training and successfully passed the initial test. The relevant
knowledge can be acquired in the CBTs "Pump-Line-Nozzle Parts 1 2" and "Engine Model Series 500, 900 and
457, Parts 1 2" together with the shipped preliminary training.
Level Run
Method 20% theory, 80% practical work
Duration 4.5 days DCVD
Objectives The participant can:
Locate malfunctions in mechanical engine components.
Diagnose components and plan and understand necessary repair work using WIS.

Contents
Mechanical structure of the model series 457, 500, 900 engines
Partial disassembly of the engines
Fault diagnosis, repair work on the components - mechanical engine components
(crank assembly, valve assembly,...), oil circuit, fuel circuit, charge air system and compressor system in the
model series 457, 500 and 900 engines.

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Agenda for Training Course NMXM - MM247

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Agenda for Training Course NMXM - MM247 28.09.2007


Temporal Sequence


Day Available time Group A Group B

1st day
0:45 h
Training room:
Welcome, initial test

1:15 h
Training room:
Introduction to the SCR system function, assignment to work groups
4:00 h
Model series 457 engine:
Workshop Display <> Model Series 457
Model series 500 engine:
Workshop Display <> Model Series 500

0:30 h

Comparison / queries
2nd day
0:15 h

Feedback

1:45 h
Presentation of modifications/new features on the engines with EURO 4/5,
knowledge comparison

4:00 h
Model series 457 engine:
Workshop Display <> Model Series 457
Model series 500 engine:
Workshop Display <> Model Series 500

0:30 h

Comparison / queries

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Agenda for Training Course NMXM - MM247

3

Day Available time Group A Group B

3rd day
0:15 h

Feedback

1:45 h
Knowledge comparison

4:00 h
Model series 457 engine:
Workshop Display <> Model Series 457
Model series 500 engine:
Workshop Display <> Model Series 500

0:30 h

Comparison / queries
4th day

4:00 h

Model series 457 engine:
Workshop Display <> Model Series 457


Model series 500 engine:
Workshop Display <> Model Series 500

2:30 h

Parts table:
Workshop Display <> Miscellaneous


Model series 900 engine:
Workshop Display <> Model Series 900 -
Disassembly
5th day
2:30 h
Model series 900 engine:
Workshop Display <> Model Series 900 -
Assembly
Parts table:
Workshop Display <> Miscellaneous

1:30 h
Training room:
Knowledge comparison / queries, final test

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Learning Objectives, Training Course NMXM-MM247

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Learning Objectives, Training Course NMXM-MM247 28.09.2007



After participating in this training course, you will be able to perform the following on model series 457, 500 and 900:
Describe the removal and installation of the following components, plan and understand the repair work required for this using WIS, and interpret the
necessary measurements:
- Unit pump, fuel feed pump, fuel filter
- Cylinder head, connecting rods, pistons, cylinder liners, oil spray nozzles
- Crankcase ventilation, exhaust manifold, turbocharger
- Timing case, flywheel
- Roller tappet, camshaft
- Main bearings on crankshaft
- Oil filter-, oil filter housing oil pan, oil pump with oil intake line
- Turbocharger, Turbobrake


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Learning Objectives, Training Course NMXM-MM247

5


Describe the disassembly and completion of the following components, plan and understand the repair work required for this using WIS, and interpret the
necessary measurements:
- Cylinder head with constant throttle
- Unit pump

Describe the tasks and functions of the following components and systems, and locate malfunctions:
- Crankcase ventilation
- Fuel circuit in general
- Oil circuit in general
- Turbobrake

Use the endoscope for targeted diagnosis


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Exercise of measurement NMXM

6
Exercise of measurement NMXM 28.09.2007





Exercise 1

Is it a gange with a fixed measure or a variable measure? Please tick!


Fixed measure Variable measure

Depth gange

Outside micrometer

Raduis gange

Dial gange

Hardness analyzer for crankshaft

Feeler gange

straightedge

Tape rule

Angle gange

Limit plug gange


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Exercise of measurement NMXM

7




Exercise 2

What does the difference in height measure from step (B) to step (A) to step (C)? Please fill in the
gaps.



Measure step (B): _____________ mm
Measure step (C): _____________ mm




N58.00-2013-11







09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Poor Fuel Quality

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Poor Fuel Quality 28.09.2007





Exercise 1

In the future, a customer intends to use his vehicles primarily in the Balkans and in the CIS.
He expresses his misgivings due to the poor fuel quality.
What do you recommend to your customer? Use the workshop literature (AP47.20-W-0783A,
AN47.20-W-0001A) to help you.










Exercise 2

In the CIS and in the Balkans, the sulfur content in fuel is higher than in the EU.
How can you reduce engine wear, and what do you anticipate as regards maintenance intervals?
Discuss in your group and explain your opinion, giving consideration to the workshop literature.
(AP47.20-W-0783A, AN47.20-W-0001A)








09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Maintenance Intervals; Exercise

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Maintenance Intervals; Exercise 28.09.2007





Exercise 1

In the future, a customer wants to operate his vehicle with FAME (rape methyl ester [RME]).
What is to be observed? What do you point out to your customer?

a
The maintenance intervals are reduced.
b
Approx. 10% higher fuel consumption is to be anticipated.
c
FAME has harmful effects on seals, and gums up the injection nozzles.
Because of this, only EURO 3 engines may be converted.

d
In the maintenance system, FAME (if available) or alternatively the sulfur content must be set
to 0.3 - 0.8%.

e
The fuel and oil filter must be replaced 1,000 km following conversion.

f
Service Information 00.40-N-0008a must be noted.

g
Before standing idle for long periods, the fuel system must be flushed with diesel fuel.





Exercise 2

A customer has discovered that only oil as specified according to sheet 228.3 is available in a new
area of operation instead of the originally used low-friction oil as specified according to sheet 228.5.
What do you point out to your customer?

a
The maintenance intervals are reduced.
b
The maintenance system must be switched.
c
The selected MB oil specification can be entered onboard.
d
The oil specification can only be switched in the workshop using STAR DIAGNOSIS.

e
Operation with this oil specification is not permissible.

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Technical Modifications of Model Series 500 EURO 4/5

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Technical Modifications of Model Series 500 EURO 4/5 28.09.2007


Main changes to the engine
Compression ratio Increased from a previous 17.75 : 1 to the present 18.50 : 1
Maximum ignition pressure Increased from 170 to 180 bar
Cylinder liners Honed plateau with oil ring at the top end
Cylinder head gasket The bead seal has a considerably greater volume of elastomers at
- the coolant passageways
- the oil passageways (pressure oil and return flow)
- the tappet passageways
Cylinder head The sealing surface of the water and oil passage ways of the cylinder heads are covered with circular
grooves, to take the increased elastomer volumes of the seal.
Cylinder head with internal cast reinforcement for improved distribution of the sealant pressure.
Intake valve and seat rings Intake valve with reinforced plate
Intake valve seats in Triballoy
O-ring seal at valve shank
Outlet valve Seat angle changed to 36 degrees
Contoured valve fiber
O-ring seal at valve shank
Constant throttle valve Generally with guide sleeve
Injection nozzle Filter hole, free from leakage oil
Cylinder crankcase

With new vermicular graphite cast iron (GGV) material on diesel engines with more than 300 kW (408 hp) and
on OM 502 diesels with 405 kW (551 hp) and more.
Timing case Improved timing case sealing
Camshaft Operational reinforcement
Camshaft thrust bearing With thrust collar (as of 05/2006)
Connecting rods Surface of large connecting rod laser profiled for better fixing of connecting rod bearing shells
Connecting rod and main bearings Improved connecting rod bearings and main bearings thanks to
improved strength of steel protective shells (material change from C10 to C22)
bronze layer for greater load bearing (less lead)
further improvement to sputter coating

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Technical Modifications of Model Series 500 EURO 4/5

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Piston Modified combustion chamber recess
Crankshaft Use of a new crankshaft with increased strength manufactured from manganese-vanadium material
(46 MnVS 6BY)
Oil pump Oil pump weight higher delivery rate
Oil spray nozzle

Next to the piston cooling with the oil splasher pipe, 3 oil spray bore holes have been drilled in the base
plate, also for the purpose of cam lubrication.
Vibration damper Larger vibration damper
Exhaust pipe Exhaust gas pipe with improved endurance (double steel pipe on standard engine, cast iron version on
turbobrake model)
Turbocharger

Model series 501: Wastegate, 300-350 kW
Model series 502: Single-turbocharger version, wastegate, 405-440 (480) kW
Exhaust flap fittings Unit flap fittings with SCR nozzle
Engine wiring harness Axial fan
Fan box In-engine fan surround for axial fan (350 kW model)


Main modifications in connection with exhaust gas aftertreatment

Engine control unit Engine electronics MR2 with new engine performance mapping (data records) and SCR control functions
Retarder coolant connection Design modification for securing the "AdBlue" metering unit. On an engine without a retarder, the retarder
connection is still built in but is sealed off.
Throttle housing Throttle housing with AdBlue nozzle
SCR tank heater solenoid valve Additional, engine-mounted valve permitting the "AdBlue" circuit to be heated.
SCR metering unit Compressed air and AdBlue mixed to form aerosol


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Technical Modifications of Model Series 500 EURO 4/5

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Cylinder Head on Model Series 500 - Sealing Surfaces with Countersinks

The EURO 4/5 engines are fitted with a modified
cylinder head and therefore a new cylinder head
gasket with increased elastomer thickness.

The following bores in the base of the cylinder
head have been provided with countersinks with a
depth of 1.0 mm:
Engine oil pressure side (OD)
Engine oil return (OR)
Coolant supply (WZ)
Coolant return (WR)









GT01_30_00023_C11


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Technical Modifications of Model Series 500 EURO 4/5

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Cylinder Head Gasket on Model Series 500 Euro 4/5

On the cylinder head gasket, the elastomer sealing elements at the following bores have been raised by
the dimension (X):
Engine oil pressure side (OD)
Engine oil return (OR)
Coolant supply (WZ)
Coolant return (WR)

The sealing between the cylinder head and the crankcase is improved because the elastomeric sealing
elements are higher.

Moreover, a fire shield (arrow) was vulcanized onto the coolant feed hole (WZ). This fire shield (arrow) is
an added protection for the elastomeric sealing element in the event of a possible minor gas leak in the
cylinder head gasket.



OD Engine oil pressure side
OR Engine oil return
WR Coolant return
WZ Coolant feed
X Dimension




W01.30-1062-82


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Technical Modifications of Model Series 500 EURO 4/5

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Cylinder Liners in Model Series 500 - Oil Scraper Ring

The cylinder liner (2) has been fitted with an oil
scraper ring (3) to prevent carbon buildup. The
chrome-molybdenum (CrMo) oil scraper ring (3)
has a height of 13.5 mm and a projection of 0.15
mm to the inner diameter of the cylinder barrel in
the cylinder liner (2). The oil scraper ring (3)
replaces induction hardening in the upper part of
the cylinder liner (2).

The oil scraper ring's (3) projection reduces
carbon deposits on the top land of the piston
(area from the piston crown to the first piston ring
groove). This reduces wear on the cylinder barrel
of the cylinder liner (2).


2 Cylinder liner
3 Oil scraper ring
4 Sealing ring





The outside diameter on the liner collar has been enlarged to improve the fit of the cylinder liner (2) in the cylinder crankcase.

The sealing ring (4) between the collar of the cylinder liner (2) and the cylinder crankcase is made of stainless steel (X5CrNi 18-10) and has a larger outside
diameter than the tombac ring used previously. This results in higher abrasion resistance, reduced wear and improved installation reliability for the sealing
ring (4).

Due to the oil scraper ring (3) in the cylinder liner (2), an assembly tool is required to install the pistons.

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Technical Modifications of Model Series 500 EURO 4/5

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Pistons, Model Series 457/500 - Installation with Oil Scraper Ring

Removing the piston from the cylinder liner
Turn the crankshaft until the piston (1) is located approx. 1 cm beneath the oil scraper ring (2).
Insert the piston ring (4) into the cylinder liner (3) and insert a corresponding feeler gauge (5) into the
piston ring end gap (arrow).
Use only a new keystone ring or a taper-faced ring with internal angle as the piston ring (4). Observe
installation position; the "TOP" mark must point downwards in the direction of the piston crown.
The feeler gauge (5) prevents compression of the piston ring (4) when pressing out the oil scraper ring
(2).
Turn the crankshaft until the piston (1) with the inserted piston ring (4) presses the oil scraper ring (2)
out of the cylinder liner (3).
Counterhold the cylinder liner (3) if necessary.



W03.10-1045-11
Installing the piston into the cylinder liner
Documentation is currently still in progress.
Lightly lubricate the pistons and piston rings with engine oil.
Turn the end gap of the oil scraper ring such that it points to the short side of the connecting rod big
end.
Lightly lubricate assembly sleeve on inside and at collar with engine oil, place it over the piston rings
and the pistons and screw together at the knurled screw. The collar of the assembly sleeve must point
towards the connecting rod. The handle of the assembly sleeve must point to the short side of the
connecting rod big end.
Insert the connecting rod and the piston into the cylinder liner until the collar on the assembly sleeve
sits in the cutout of the oil scraper ring and the assembly sleeve lies on the cylinder liner. Turn
crankshaft if necessary.
Press the piston into the cylinder liner and take off the assembly sleeve.

New piston ring compressor band required:
Model series 457: Special tool 457 589 01 14 00
Model series 500: Special tool 541 589 02 14 00


GT03.10_0018_C81

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Technical Modifications of Model Series 457 EURO 4/5

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Technical Modifications of Model Series 457 EURO 4/5 28.09.2007


Main changes to the basic engine

Compression ratio

18.5
Maximum ignition pressure

Ignition pressure 180 bar
Turbobrake

Expected as of end 2007
Cylinder liners

With top fitting (as on OM 460 LA)
Fine honing pattern
Ignition ring

Cylinder head gasket

Bead seal with more elastomers at the oil and water passageways
Cylinder head
As per Euro III GG 25
Bead reinforcement as in model series 500

Intake valve and seat rings
Seat angle 30
Contoured fibers

Outlet valve
Seat angle 36
Contoured fibers



09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Technical Modifications of Model Series 457 EURO 4/5

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Cylinder crankcase

As per Euro III GG 25
Firewall-side reinforcement measures

Connecting rods

Connecting rod from OM 460 LA to increase crank pin
Piston

AL pistons (Mahle, Alcan, KS)
First piston ring 15 mm from piston top edge

Crankshaft

OM 457 LA: Piston ring increase from 90 mm to 94 mm (uniform with OM 460LA).
Screwed on counterweights (Atlantis Forge) or, as an alternative, solid forged counterweights.

Oil pump

Bigger oil pump, wheel width 43 mm (new), with reinforced cover
Crankcase ventilation

Cyclone separator for oil mist separation

Oil spray nozzle

Coaxial
Turbocharger
New Borg-Warner wastegate turbocharger



09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Technical Modifications of Model Series 457 EURO 4/5

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Main modifications via exhaust gas aftertreatment scope

Engine control unit

Engine electronics MR2 with new engine performance mapping (data records) and SCR control functions
Throttle housing

Throttle housing with AdBlue nozzle
SCR tank heater solenoid valve

Additional live power valve, allowing heating up of the "AdBlue circuit".
SCR metering unit

Urea metering unit, made by Purem
SCR injection

Urea nozzle, made by Purem


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Technical Modifications to Model Series 900 EURO 4

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Technical Modifications to Model Series 900 EURO 4 28.09.2007


Main changes to the basic engine

Basic engine OM904/ OM906 OM924/ OM926
Compression ratio
17.5 : 1 17.5 : 1
Maximum ignition pressure
Increase from 170 to 180 bar Increase from 170 to 190 bar
Cylinder head gasket
Combustion chamber sealing improved
Oil and water channel sealing more heat-resistant
Cylinder head
Coolant flange for tank heater solenoid valve
Threaded sleeve for metering unit bracket
Cast material GGV
Coolant flange for tank heater solenoid valve
Threaded sleeve for metering unit bracket
Crankcase
Cast material GGV
Internal cast reinforcement
Omission of upper induction hardening on cylinder barrel
Crankshaft
Modified with larger Fillet radii
Piston rings
Optimized Optimized
Piston
Piston pin diameter increased to 44 mm
Connecting rods
Piston pin diameter increased to 44 mm
Improved connecting rod material (70MnVs4)
Crankshaft and connecting rod
bearing

Improved material
Camshaft
Operational reinforcement Operational reinforcement
Injection nozzle
7-hole 9-hole, improved nozzle material
Increase in injection pressure
2000 bar 2200 bar

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Technical Modifications to Model Series 900 EURO 4

20
Basic engine OM904/ OM906 OM924/ OM926
PLD unit pump
Improved roller tappet mounting
Injection line and pressure pipe
connection

Modified from increased-strength material
Coolant pump
Threaded fitting for attaching AdBlue heater return Threaded fitting for attaching AdBlue heater return




Scope of exhaust aftertreatment
Motor electronics MR2, new engine performance maps (data records)
AdBlue metering unit with bracket on cylinder head
AdBlue nozzle with flanged manifold
Valve in the cooling water circuit for controlled heating of the AdBlue lines, the pump module and the AdBlue tank

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Cylinder Head, Model Series 900 EURO 4

21
Cylinder Head, Model Series 900 EURO 4 28.09.2007


Shown on engine 926.9

At the rear part of the cylinder head the cap
(arrow) has been replaced by the coolant flange
for the SCR tank heater solenoid valve. On the
side of the cylinder head the caps have been
partly replaced by threaded sleeves (1). The
bracket for the AdBlue metering device is
mounted on these threaded sleeves (1). The other
holes on the sides of the cylinder head are sealed
by screw plugs (2).

The cylinder heads in the 924.9 and 926.9
engines have been converted to vermicular
graphite cast iron (GGV-40), for greater strength
in order to withstand the higher ignition pressure.


1 Threaded sleeve
2 Screw plugs


W01.30-1080-75

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Coolant pump, Model Series 900 EURO 4

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Coolant pump, Model Series 900 EURO 4 28.09.2007

A threaded fitting for attaching the AdBlue heater
return line is screwed into the coolant pump at
the bottom.


W20.10-1041-82

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Engine Oil Change Interval up to 150,000 km (Code MY8)

23
Engine Oil Change Interval up to 150,000 km (Code MY8) 28.09.2007


In model series 500 engines with code MY8, the oil change interval can be extended up to max. 150,000 km.

Features
Oil centrifuge in the secondary flow oil circuit
Oil filter cover raised
Intermediate cover between oil centrifuge and oil filter element
Oil filter element as in series production
Heat exchanger with 14 plates
Oil filter housing with return duct from the oil centrifuge into the oil
sump
Thermoplastic oil pan
Oil quantity for the OM 501 increased by 8 liters



GT18_20_0002_C11


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Engine Oil Change Interval up to 150,000 km (Code MY8)

24

Operation

The oil centrifuge in the secondary engine oil
circuit oil filter is mounted on top of the oil filter
element (3).

The oil centrifuge consists of the following
components:
Rotor (4)
Intermediate cover (5)
Threaded cap (6)

Part of the engine oil flow is conducted through
the oil centrifuge as of an engine oil pressure > 2
bar. Two tangentially attached nozzles are located
in the lower section of the rotor (4); the cleaned
engine oil from the oil centrifuge flows through
them and thus generates the rotation of the rotor
(4).
The rotor (4) can reach a speed of up to 7,000
rpm. The cleaned engine oil then flows back into
the oil pan. When the rotor (4) is rotating, soot
particles as well as small metal particles that flow
by the oil filter element (3) are separated from the
engine oil and collected at the interior walls of the
rotor (4) as deposits.



GT18_20_0008_C76

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Engine Oil Change Interval up to 150,000 km (Code MY8)

25





GT18_00_0005_C01 GT18_00_0007_C11

Technical data:
The centrifuge's oil feed pipe contains a valve,
which opens at 2.3 0.3 bar.
Via this valve, max. 10 l/min unfiltered oil enter
the centrifuge.

Maintenance note:
In the event of maintenance operations, the rotor
(4) and the oil filter element (3) have to be
replaced.

Repair information:
The engine must not be operated without
centrifuge (oil pressure).
In the WS control unit, code MY8 is
preselected via parameter setting.
In the MR control unit, the oil pan version is
preselected via parameter setting.







GT18_00_0008_C01 GT18_00_0009_C01
Valve: 2.3 0.3 bar

12/06 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Crankcase Ventilation System, Model Series 457/500 with Cyclone Separator - Installation

26
Crankcase Ventilation System, Model Series 457/500 with Cyclone Separator - Installation 28.09.2007


Due to technical advances, the new cyclone
separator will be installed as standard in the
crankcase ventilation system of model series 457
engines without Turbobrake as of engine end
no. 036 947, on these engines without turbobrake
as of engine end no. 011 688, and on model
series 500 engines as of engine end no. 265 304.
The cyclone separator is maintenance free and
need not be replaced again.

The cyclone separator should be installed in older
engines when maintenance becomes due.
You can see if a cyclone separator is already
installed by the form of the cover on the
crankcase ventilation system.






Note: W01.40-1062-02 W01.40-1070-03
Installation must be charged to the customers and
should be done during regular maintenance. Only
the costs for the repair kit will need be paid, as no
further maintenance on the crankcase ventilation
system will be necessary.
1 Cyclone separator, model series 500
2 Seal
3 Crankcase ventilation system cover, with
cyclone separator, model series 500
4 Crankcase ventilation system cover, previous
version, model series 500
5 Cyclone separator, model series 457
6 Seal
7 Crankcase ventilation system cover, with
cyclone separator, model series 457


12/06 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Crankcase Ventilation System, Model Series 457/500 with Cyclone Separator - Function

27
Crankcase Ventilation System, Model Series 457/500 with Cyclone Separator - Function 28.09.2007


Cyclone separator functional principle

The blow-by gases from the crankcase are sent as pre-cleaned crude gases to
the cyclone separator insert.
The cyclone separator insert is made up of two cyclones.

The crude gas enters the cyclone from the side (tangentially). The gas stream
is forced into a downwards spiral movement in the entry chamber. This
causes the floating oil particles to be pitched towards the wall of the cyclone
by the centrifugal forces and then slide down the tapered surfaces of the swirl
chamber due to gravity and the downwards movement of the gas. The oil
comes out through a hole at the lowest point of the cyclone.

As the cyclone tapers towards the bottom, the circumferential speed and
centrifugal effect becomes greater so that finer particles can be separated in
the lower section.

At the lowest point of the cyclone the whirling gas reverses direction and goes
back up and the clean gas is guided out through an outlet pipe (take-off tube)
at the top.

The diameter and tapered form of the take-off tube determine the pressure
loss and separation quality of the cyclone.

The bypass valve opens up with a high gas flow.



GT01_20_004_C12

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Crankcase Ventilation System, Model Series 457/500 with Cyclone Separator - Exercise

28
Crankcase Ventilation System, Model Series 457/500 with Cyclone Separator - Exercise 28.09.2007




Exercise

Identify the gas stream in the cyclone insert.
Use the description from the "Crankcase Ventilation System, Model Series 457/500 with Cyclone
Separator - Function" chapter and the following guiding questions.


Where does pure gas enter the cyclone?

What path does the gas stream take in the
cyclone chamber?

Where is the oil separated out from the
cyclone chamber?

Where does the clean gas emerge from the
cyclone chamber?

How is the pure gas side sealed from the clean
gas side.





GT20_40_0016_C02 GT20_40_0015_C02

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Head Fastening, Model Series 457

29
Cylinder Head Fastening, Model Series 457 28.09.2007





Exercise 1

Complete the following table, paying particular attention to the modified diameter. Use WIS document
AR01.30-W-5800C to help you.


Model series Bolt dimension Max. shank length
Model series 500 M18x2 212 mm
Model series 457 mm




Exercise 2

Complete the following table.
Use WIS document AR01.30-W-5800C to help you.


Designation Tightening
stages
Model series
500 engine
Model series
457 engine

Cylinder head bolt to
crankcase
1st stage 10 Nm
2nd stage 50 Nm
3rd stage 100 Nm
4th stage 200 Nm
5th stage 90 Angular degree
6th stage 90 Angular degree
7th stage - Angular degree

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Head Fastening, Model Series 457

30



Exercise 3

Install cylinder head gasket, tighten cylinder head bolts -
Identify the correct statements.


a The tightening pattern must be observed precisely.

b The first tightening stage can be skipped, because the torque is very low.

c The cylinder head gasket can only be used once.

d If the tightening torque is not applied in stages, strain may occur
(uneven clamping force).

e The bolts' tightening pattern does not necessarily have to be observed.

f The cylinder heads must be retightened following the first service.




Note:

In model series 457, the cylinder head bolts are identified with the imprint 457.


N01.30-2069-01


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Head Fastening, Model Series 457

31




Exercise 4

Handling the stretch-shank bolts.
Before the bolt is used, points other than the bolt tolerance
must be noted.


L
The bolts must be cleaned with a wire brush, as they should be free of rust, carbon and dirt.

1
The bolt length must be compared with the data in the workshop literature. (From the lower side of
the bolt head to the end of the bolt).

L
The bolt holes must be free of dirt, coolant and oil.

U
The bolts should be oiled lightly on the threads and beneath the head with engine oil, but not with
85/90 oil or grease.

E
The bolts are tightened according to the tightening pattern and in stages.

u
Identify the cylinder heads which have already been tightened.

L
If a bolt has unintentionally been tightened excessively, loosen all bolts and measure for elongation.

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Cylinder Head Fastening, Model Series 500; Exercise

32
Cylinder Head Fastening, Model Series 500; Exercise 28.09.2007




Exercise 1


The cylinder head is tightened in 6 stages. Use
the workshop literature
(AR01.30-W-*****) and enter the values.


1. stage Nm
2. stage Nm
3. stage Nm
4. stage Nm
5. stage
6. stage



W01.30-0010-06

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Cylinder Head Fastening, Model Series 500; Exercise

33



Exercise 2

Install cylinder head gasket and tighten cylinder head bolts -
Identify the correct statements.


a The tightening pattern must be observed precisely.

b The first tightening stage can be skipped, because the torque is very low.

c The cylinder head gasket can only be used once.

d If the tightening torque is not applied in stages, strain may occur
(uneven clamping force).

e The bolts tightening pattern does not necessarily have to be observed.

f The cylinder heads must be retightened following the first service.




Exercise 3

Handling the stretch-shank bolts.
Besides the bolt tolerance, other points must be observed before using stretch-shank bolts.


L
The bolts must be cleaned with a rotating brush, as they must be free of rust, carbon and dirt.

1
The bolt length must be compared with the data in the workshop literature.
(From the lower side of the bolt head to the end of the bolt).

L
Following removal, stretch-shank bolts may only be reused 3 times.

U
The bolt holes must be free of dirt, coolant and oil.

E
Engine oil is applied to the bolts at the threads and underneath the bolt head, however W85/90 must
not be used to oil or grease the bolts.

u
The bolts are tightened according to the tightening pattern and in stages.

L
Identify the cylinder heads which have already been tightened.

L
If a bolt has unintentionally been tightened excessively, loosen all bolts and measure for elongation.

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Head Gasket, Model Series 457 - Assignment of Ducts; Exercise

34
Cylinder Head Gasket, Model Series 457 - Assignment of Ducts; Exercise 28.09.2007




Exercise


In your group, discuss which bores through the cylinder head gasket are
used for the purposes listed below, and transfer the corresponding letters
to the relevant bore.
















A Coolant
B Bolts
C Pressure oil
D Oil return
E Tappet, oil return


N01.30-2068-12








09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Head Gasket, Model Series 500 - Assignment of Ducts; Exercise

35
Cylinder Head Gasket, Model Series 500 - Assignment of Ducts; Exercise 28.09.2007




Exercise


In your group, discuss which bores through the cylinder head gasket are
used for the purposes listed below, and transfer the corresponding letters
to the matching bore.
















A Coolant
B Bolts
C Pressure oil
D Oil return
E Tappet, oil return


N01.30-2024-12










09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Head Gasket, Model Series 900 - Assignment of Ducts; Exercise

36
Cylinder Head Gasket, Model Series 900 - Assignment of Ducts; Exercise 28.09.2007





Exercise

Which bores through the cylinder head gasket are used for the purposes listed below?
Transfer the corresponding letters to the corresponding bore. Discuss in your group.




















A = Coolant
B = Pressure oil
C = Push rods
D = Cylinder head bolts
E = Return oil



N01.30-2039-05











09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Head Gasket, Model Series 457 / 500, Evaluation

37
Cylinder Head Gasket, Model Series 457 / 500, Evaluation 28.09.2007







W01.30-1039-71 W01.30-1040-71
Check cylinder head gasket (1) at combustion
chamber.

Sealing surface (BA) at combustion chamber bore:
The cylinder head gasket (1) was gas-tight.

Sealing surface (BB) at combustion chamber bore:
The cylinder head gasket (1) was not gas-tight.

Check cylinder head gasket (1) at the sealing
rings.

A damaged sealing ring (elastomer) (C) in the
engine oil bore or coolant bore is the result of a
cylinder head gasket (1) which is not gas-tight.

In the case of a leaky cylinder head gasket, the
cylinder head and crankcase sealing surface must
also be examined.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Head Gasket, Model Series 500 - New Feature, Bead Seal

38
Cylinder Head Gasket, Model Series 500 - New Feature, Bead Seal 28.09.2007


Excerpt from WIS: BT01.30-W-0005-01A "Modified cylinder head gasket"

ENGINE 541.9, 542.9

As of engine end no. 265.000, the cylinder head gasket has been modified to
provide a better seal for the combustion chamber and coolant circuit at the
cylinder head/crankcase contact surface.
The cylinder head gasket has been improved with a bead (D) to seal the
combustion chamber and the sealing element on the coolant feed (E) has
been reinforced.

Only the modified cylinder head gasket may be installed during repairs.



W01.30-1052-11

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Cylinder Head, Model Series 457 / 500, Check

39
Cylinder Head, Model Series 457 / 500, Check 28.09.2007


Excerpt from WIS: AR01.30-W-5800-15A

Check cylinder head for cracks (arrows) in area of cylinder head bolt bores and contact surfaces.

Visible cracks always occur in combination with pitting around the cylinder head bolt bores, most often
on the exhaust side only.
The cylinder head must be replaced if there are cracks in it.



W01.30-1041-81
Check contact surfaces around the cylinder head bolt bores for pitting (arrow).

If pitting has occurred, the height (H) of the cylinder head must be measured following stock removal.
If too much stock is removed and the measurement falls below minimum, the cylinder head must be
replaced.
The cylinder head bolts must always be replaced. Lubricate cylinder head bolt at the collar surface, the
thread and the stem using engine oil.



W01.30-1042-81

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Cylinder Head, Model Series 457 / 500, Check

40


Visually inspect cylinder head sealing surface for flatness.

Note:
In the case of an induction hardened cylinder heads, do not check over the hardened parts (material
projection).

Place a straightedge over both coolant bores (WR, WZ) on the cylinder head sealing surface. Check
flatness within the sealing area (X) of the cylinder head gasket only.

If a gap forms under the straightedge due to pitting (arrow) of the cylinder head gasket (beaded or
crimped) on the cylinder head sealing surface, the cylinder head sealing surface must be face-ground or
the cylinder head exchanged.

When face-grinding, the following notes have to be observed:
- Material removal on the cylinder head must not fall below the permissible overall cylinder head height,
"minimum height".
- Only face-grind the cylinder head sealing surface through face grinding.
- The surface quality of the cylinder head sealing surface must be maintained.
(see WIS, AR01.30-W-7162B / AR01.30-W-7162C)




W01.30-1053-81

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training



41

Cylinder Head, Model Series 457 and 500 EURO 4/ 5, Coolant Loss


Damage profile
Cracks between the lower apex of the core hole bore and the sealing surface to the cylinder
crankcase
Occurs on exhaust side only
Occurs on EURO 4/5 engines only

Cause
Alternating cold/hot temperature stress produces tension in the cylinder head that leads to cracks
forming at the shortest point between the core hole bore and the sealing surface

Remedy
As of October 2007, the sheet metal core hole cover on the exhaust side will be replaced by a solid
core hole cover.



Important information for service
If a customer with a EURO 4/5 vehicle complains of coolant loss, always check the area between the
core hole bore and the sealing surface for cracks.
The cracks may sometimes be very fine.
If cracks are found, replace the affected cylinder head.

GT01_30_0030_C81

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Head Model Series 900 - Sealing Surface Assessment

42
Cylinder Head Model Series 900 - Sealing Surface Assessment 28.09.2007


Excerpt from WIS: AR01.30-W-5800-15B

Check flatness of the cylinder head sealing surface via visual
inspection.

In the area of the lines, place a straightedge over the coolant bores (W) on the
cylinder head sealing surface. Check flatness within the sealing area (X) of the
cylinder head gasket only.

If a gap forms under the straightedge on the cylinder head sealing surface, the
cylinder head sealing surface must be face-ground or the cylinder head
exchanged.

When face-grinding, the following notes have to be observed:

- Only carry out face-grinding if an impermissible deviation in
- flatness is measured in the longitudinal direction.

- Material removal on the cylinder head must not fall below the permissible
- overall cylinder head height, "minimum height".

- Only face-grind the cylinder head sealing surface via face grinding.

- The surface quality of the cylinder head sealing surface must be maintained.



W01.30-1043-81

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Head, Model Series 500, New Feature, Inductively-hardened Sealing Surface

43
Cylinder Head, Model Series 500, New Feature, Inductively-hardened Sealing Surface 28.09.2007


Excerpt from WIS: BT01.30-W-0004-01A, AR01.30-W-5800-15A

ENGINE 541.9, 542.9

As of engine end no. 263.000, the cylinder heads have been modified.
The cylinder head sealing surface has been inductively hardened at four points
(arrows).
This inductive hardening is visible by a slight increase in height at the four
points (arrows). This increases the contact pressure on the cylinder head
gasket.

Repair information:
Cylinder head sealing surfaces with the four inductively hardened points
(arrows) may only be visually checked for flatness in the sections where there
are no raised areas due to inductive hardening.

The cylinder head generally has to be exchanged if there is any distortion to
the cylinder head or wear to the cylinder head sealing surface caused by the
beaded cylinder head gasket, otherwise a seal between the cylinder head and
crankcase cannot be ensured.
The cylinder head sealing surface may not be reworked (ground).


W01.30-1044-81

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Head, Model Series 500, New Feature, Inductively-hardened Sealing Surface

44

The modified cylinder heads can be recognized by a production ID (C).
The ID is located near the outlet duct and can also be read with an installed cylinder head and exhaust
manifold.

Production ID (C) example:
Meaning of ID
541 - 54 part no. A 541 010 54 20
10.03.03 manufacture date 10.03.2003
ID number "5" (arrow)
The new, inductively-hardened cylinder heads are identified with the ID number "5" (arrow) or higher.



W01.30-1051-81

NOTES:









09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Liners, Model Series 457/500; Exercise

45
Cylinder Liners, Model Series 457/500; Exercise 28.09.2007


Assignment of cylinder liner and piston



Exercise 1

The piston and the cylinder liners are identified with letters. These provide information on the
installation tolerance.
Complete the table. Use WIS document AR03.10-G-7021-02CH.



W03.10-0029-02

Bushing

Pistons A B C
BA
BC


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Liners, Model Series 457/500; Exercise

46

Remove/install cylinder liner

Complete the following tasks with the aid of the overview WIS AR01.00-Z-9457OB.



Exercise 2

Operations for removing cylinder liners.
Complete the table. Use the workshop literature.



a Identify cylinder liner to the crankcase.

b Identify cylinder liner with cylinder number.

c Use a steel hammer to knock the cylinder liner out of the crankcase from below.

d It is not necessary to identify the position of the cylinder liner, as it has been manufactured to maximum
tolerance.

e Use the extraction device to remove the cylinder liner.

f When using the extraction device, it must be ensured that the installed oil spray nozzles are not
damaged.

g On installation, offset cylinder liners 90 clockwise.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Liners, Model Series 457/500; Exercise

47



Exercise 3

On installation of the cylinder liner, certain points must be observed.
Discuss this in your group. Complete the table.
Use the workshop literature.

Important actions:
Exchange Cleaning Install
dry
Coat with
engine oil
Coat with ATE
grease
Measure
for....
Tombac ring contact surface on liner collar and crankcase
Grooves in the crankcase for Viton oval ring grooves
Viton oval rings
Tombac ring
Sealing surface of the Viton oval rings on the cylinder liner
Cylinder bore following installation of cylinder liner
Cylinder liner collar following installation of cylinder liner





Exercise 4

How can you check whether the Viton oval rings are correctly seated in their groove after pressing in
the cylinder liner?






09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Liners, Model Series 457/500; Exercise

48

Cylinder liner projection


The principle of measuring the cylinder liner projection has not changed in comparison with model series 400.
Measuring the cylinder liner projection on the engine is very important and also very simple.



Exercise 5

Look up the values in the workshop literature and enter them in the table below.
When you have installed the liners, choose one cylinder liner and carry out the measurement.
Document the result in the table.

Specified value Actual value
Tightening torque for fastening plate
--
Cylinder liner projection
Maximum difference between the 4
measurements






Exercise 6

Incorrect liner projection may cause various symptoms.
Assign possible symptoms to the liner projection status.

Symptoms:

Status
Compression gases
in the coolant
Coolant in the
engine oil
External coolant
loss
Engine oil in the
coolant
Fuel in the engine
oil
Liner projection > normal
Liner projection < normal
Difference between the 4 measurements > normal

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Liners, Model Series 457/500; Exercise

49



Exercise 7

Assume the liner projection is incorrect. Which repair options are available?
Discuss this in your group and use the workshop literature.


a Staged Tombac rings are available.

b Tombac rings are only available with one dimension. If necessary, use a second Tombac ring to
correct the projection.

c Only 1 Tombac ring may be installed.

d A repair stage of 0.5 mm exists.

e The cylinder liner shoulder must be adapted.

f The cylinder liner collar must not be reworked.





Exercise 8

How can the lower cylinder liner O-rings be checked for leaks?
Which symptoms exist if leaks are present?


Check:


Symptoms:


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Liners, Model Series 900; Exercise

50
Cylinder Liners, Model Series 900; Exercise 28.09.2007


Cylinder barrels and cylinder liners

Cylinder liners can be used in the event of repair. To do this, the crankcase is drilled open.



N01.40-2032-11 W01.40-1016-12

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Liners, Model Series 900; Exercise

51



Exercise 1


On an engine, the cylinder barrels have been
measured for wear. Assuming the basic
dimension, the following measurement results
were determined and transferred to the table.

Use the workshop literature
(AR01.40-W-9202A).
Evaluate the results.



Meas
uring
point
Measurement
results
Out-of-
roundness
Cylinder
wear

A B

I 0.09 0.11
II 0.04 0.04




W01.40-0034-06




Exercise 2

Can the engine still be used?







09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Liners, Model Series 900; Exercise

52

Crankcase marking following machining




Exercise 3



On a reconditioned engine, cylinder liners have
been inserted. The crankcase sealing surface
was also reworked by 0.6 mm.
Indicate the identification used to document
machining on the signing surface in field 6
(AR01.40-W-9273-01A).





W01.40-0036-12

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Liners, Model Series 900; Exercise

53




Exercise 4

What must be noted with regard to the pistons after machining the crankcase sealing surface?


L
The piston crown must be reworked.

1
A thicker cylinder head gasket is required.

L
Install a repair piston with a lower compression level.

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Barrel, Model Series 457/ 500/ 900 - Assessment; Exercise

54
Cylinder Barrel, Model Series 457/ 500/ 900 - Assessment; Exercise 28.09.2007


Excerpt from WIS: AH01.40-N-0001-03A





W01.40-1044-81 W01.40-1042-74

Matt gray surface, honing pattern visible, dry cylinder barrel, without oil
residues, without shining areas or reflecting areas of smoothness. There
should not be any burn marks or streaks on the cylinder barrels or liners.
Individual, slight drawing scores are non-critical.
The honing pattern is more or less clearly recognizable over the cylinder
barrel. At the reversal point of the piston ring, the honing pattern may be
partially eroded.

The cylinder liner or the crankcase can be reused.
With engines 904.9, 906.9 only

The stripe profile (arrows) in the upper area of the cylinder barrel arises due to
induction hardening on production of the crankcase, and is to be regarded as
the normal condition.
The longer the engine's operating time, the less visible the stripe pattern
becomes.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Barrel, Model Series 457/ 500/ 900 - Assessment; Exercise

55



Exercise 1


Different types of damage to the cylinder
barrel.
How would you decide?





W01.40-1051-81 W01.40-1052-81

The following applies if carbon is present in
the top land area:
The following applies if individual, continuous
scratches or score marks are present:


L
Clean the top land area and reuse the
cylinder liner or the crankcase.
L
The cylinder liner or the cylinder liner must be
exchanged even if minor scratches or score
marks are present.

1
Replace the cylinder liner or the crankcase.
1
The cylinder liner or the crankcase can be
reused if slight scratches or score marks are
present.

L
Additionally remove the piston and assess the
piston rings.

L
It is sufficient to remove scratches using
abrasive paper.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Barrel, Model Series 457/ 500/ 900 - Assessment; Exercise

56



Exercise 2


Different types of damage to the cylinder
barrel.
How would you decide?






W01.40-1053-81 W01.40-1055-81

The following applies if ring shaped
depressions are present at the upper and
lower piston ring reversal point with visible
color shadings (arrow), but the honing pattern
can still be recognized:
The following applies in the case of pressure
sheen marks and smoothness, e.g. individual,
bare areas (arrow) in the cylinder barrel or all-
round indentations at the upper and lower
piston ring reversal point:


L
The cylinder liner or the crankcase can be
reused.
L
The crankcase can be reused if the engine
reveals no in-engine complaints, e.g. noises or
increased engine oil consumption.

1
The cylinder liner or the crankcase must be
exchanged.

1
The cylinder liner must be replaced.


L
The cause may be poor engine oil quality
(oil viscosity).

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Barrel, Model Series 457/ 500/ 900 - Assessment; Exercise

57



Exercise 3


Different types of damage to the cylinder
barrel.
How would you decide?





W01.40-1035-81 W01.40-1041-81

The following applies in the case of
imperceptible dry friction marks or deposits
(arrow) on the cylinder barrel running
downwards from the 2nd or 3rd piston ring:
The following applies if the honing pattern is
only barely or not visible or there is a
perceptible wear step at the upper reversal
point of the first piston ring (arrow):


L
Caused by soot particles and fuel washings of
the engine oil film.
L
The cylinder liner is unusable and must be
replaced.

1
Caused by damaged piston rings

1
If the model series 900 engine reveals no in-
engine complaints, e.g. noises or

L
The cylinder liner is unusable and must be
replaced. The piston should also be replaced.
increased engine oil consumption, the
crankcase can be reused.

L
If the model series 900 engine reveals in-
engine complaints, e.g. noises or increased
engine oil consumption, the crankcase can be
reworked.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Cylinder Barrel, Model Series 457/ 500/ 900 - Assessment; Exercise

58




Exercise 4


Different types of damage to the cylinder
barrel.
How would you decide?




W01.40-1036-81

If the cylinder barrel is perceptibly roughened
along its entire length or material deposits
and perceptible traces of scoring are found on
the cylinder barrel and on the piston skirt,
the following applies:



L
The cylinder liner is unusable and must be
replaced.


1
The crankcase is unusable and must be
replaced or machined.
Additionally check the pistons and piston
rings, replace if necessary.


L
The cylinder liner is unusable and must be
machined.
Additionally check the pistons and piston
rings, replace if necessary.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Plateau Honing

59
Plateau Honing 28.09.2007



Advantages:
Reduction in oil consumption
Better limp-home capabilities
Improvement in running-in characteristics
Reduction in friction power loss

Process:
The plateau structure is generated in three work phases: pre-honing,
intermediate honing (basic structure honing), and the overlaid plateau honing.

In the first work phase, or pre-honing, fluctuations in quality from fine boring
are leveled out. A consistent quality must be stipulated for basic structure
honing.
In the second work phase, an additional macro form from improvement of the
cylinder barrel is achieved, generating the basic structure C.
In the third work phase, also known as plateau honing, the surface peaks of
basic structure C are worn away in a few seconds and the small plateaus,
bearing structure A
0
with a low peak-to-valley height and high percentage
contact area, are formed.
The material wear depends on pre-machining and generally amounts to 0.04
to 0.1 mm.



GT01_10_0013_C11

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Constant Throttle - Fault Symptoms; Exercise

60
Constant Throttle - Fault Symptoms; Exercise 28.09.2007





Exercise 1

We would also like to deal in greater detail with faults and symptoms related to the constant throttle.
In a customer's vehicle, a constant throttle valve seat is worn.
What symptoms may this fault cause? Discuss this problem case in your group.


a Engine runs rough

b The engine shakes and tends to vibrate

c Power loss

d Output increase

e No symptoms noticeable

f Engine noise / knocking combustion





Exercise 2

Which test can be used to locate this fault?


a Cylinder pressure loss test

b Mechanical compression test

c Impact times

d Compression test with STAR DIAGNOSIS

e Smooth idle speed control

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Nozzle Protection Sleeve, Model Series 457/500; Exercise

61
Nozzle Protection Sleeve, Model Series 457/500; Exercise 28.09.2007



The injection nozzle holder assembly (1) is inserted into a nozzle protection sleeve (2). This principle is used in model series 300, 457, 500 and 900.
The special tool for removal is identical for model series 500 and 900.




Exercise


Which operation step must be observed when the protective sleeve of an
engine is to be removed and subsequently reinstalled? For help, refer to
WIS documents AR01.30-W-5461* and AR07.03-W-6831*.


W01.30-0012-06
a The constant throttle must be removed.
b The fuel circuit must be drained.
c The cylinder head must be removed.
d The coolant must be drained.
e Following installation of the nozzle protection sleeve
a pressure test must be conducted to check for leaks.
f The O-ring must always be replaced and coated with acid-free ATE
grease.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Heat Protection Sleeve - Locations

62
Heat Protection Sleeve - Locations 28.09.2007



The nozzle holder assemblies for OM 906LA engines and engine model series
457 have been equipped with a heat protection sleeve since the start of
production. In the meantime, it is also used in engine model series 500.

The collar of the heat protection sleeve also acts as a sealing surface.
In order to ensure perfect sealing, the heat protection sleeve must be
replaced every time the nozzle holder assembly is removed, just as with the
sealing rings that were used previously.

A nozzle protection sleeve with a larger inside diameter
and an M14x1 (previously M12x1) external thread are necessary if
heat protection sleeves are used. This is the reason why a modified
cylinder head is needed.








Example view: Model series 457



N01.10-2078-12

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Heat Protection Sleeve - Special Tool

63
Heat Protection Sleeve - Special Tool 28.09.2007







906 589 02 63 00 906 589 02 63 01 906 589 00 63 00


To enable extraction of the heat protection sleeve even when the rocker arms are installed, special tool 906 589 02 63 00 has been extended.
Extension 906 589 02 63 01 was temporarily available for retrofitting old extraction tools which had already been delivered.
This extension is no longer available today.

The injection nozzle heat protection sleeve has since been modified. The modified heat protection sleeve is shorter than the previous one. Only the modified
(shorter) heat protection sleeve may be installed during repairs. To avoid damage, a new assembly tool, part no. 906 589 03 63 00, must be used for
installation.
The new assembly tool consists of the previous mounting bushing and a new assembly sleeve (black plastic); it replaces the previous assembly tool,
part No. 906 589 00 63 00.
The previous press-on sleeve (white plastic) must be destroyed. The new assembly sleeve can also be used on all engines.
The new press-on sleeve, part no. 906 589 03 63 01 (black plastic), can also be ordered as a separate part and used in conjunction with the female bushing of
the current assembly tool.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Heat Protection Sleeve, Model Series 457/ 500/ 900 - Modifications

64
Heat Protection Sleeve, Model Series 457/ 500/ 900 - Modifications 28.09.2007


Model:

ENGINE 457 in model 375.4, 944
ENGINE 541 in model 930, 932, 933, 934, 950.0/1/2/3, 952. 0/1/2/3, 953.1/3, 954. 0/1/2
ENGINE 542 in model 930, 932, 934, 950.0/1/2/3, 952. 0/1/2/3, 954. 0/1/2
ENGINE 906 in model 970, 972, 974, 975, 976
ENGINE 906 in model 375.3, 940, 950.5/6, 952.5/6, 953.6, 954.5, 957
ENGINE 926 in model 950.5/6, 952.5/6, 953.6, 954.5, 957

Information SI07.03-W-0001B

The sealing sleeve on the injection nozzle in the
above engines has been modified.
The modified sealing sleeve has been decreased
from 19.4 mm to 17.4 mm.


Only the modified (shorter) sealing sleeve may be
installed in engines 906 and 926.
For engines 457, 541 and 542, the modified
(shorter) or previous (longer) sealing sleeves may
be installed in the event of repairs.
To avoid damage, a new assembly tool,
part no. 906 589 03 63 00, must be used for
installation.


Note:
In future, only the modified (shorter) sealing
sleeve will be used in series production.




GT07_03_0021_C72 GT07_03_0022_C72

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Nozzle Holder Assembly and Protective Sleeve - Sealing; Exercise

65
Nozzle Holder Assembly and Protective Sleeve - Sealing; Exercise 28.09.2007




Exercise

Use the illustration to identify the "upper" and "lower" seals of the nozzle holder assembly (DHK) and
the protective sleeve. Use the table provided to note the possible effects of defective seals.

Defective seal:

Effect / symptom
DHK O-ring to cylinder
head
Protective sleeve O-ring
to cylinder head
DHK to protective
sleeve
Protective sleeve to
cylinder head
Coolant in the combustion chamber

Coolant in the fuel tank

Fuel in the oil

Coolant loss, increased pressure in the system

Fuel return is under increased pressure




W07.03-1006-01

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Oil Pan Torque Specifications, Model Series 500

66
Oil Pan Torque Specifications, Model Series 500 28.09.2007



W01.45-0003-09

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Oil Pan Torque Specifications, Model Series 500

67



Exercise

Use the workshop literature to determine the tightening torques for the parts listed
in the table. AR01.45-W-7500b



Components: Nm
Oil pan to crankcase (6) Light alloy
Plastic Stage 1
Stage 2
Oil drain screw to oil pan (10) Light alloy M20x1.5
M26x1.5
Plastic without metal
bus
h

with metal bush
Oil dipstick guide tube fitting (2) to oil pan (4) Light alloy
Plastic
Oil dipstick guide tube bolt (2) to oil pan
Cable duct bolt (12) to oil pan (4)
Oil level sensor (B14) to oil pan (4) Light alloy
Plastic without metal
bus
h

with metal bush

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Oil Pan, Model Series 900 - Tightening Torques

68
Oil Pan, Model Series 900 - Tightening Torques 28.09.2007





Exercise


Use the workshop literature (AR01.45-W-7500...) to determine the
tightening torques for the parts listed in the table.



W01.45-0005-06
Components: Nm
Oil pan to crankcase (3)
Oil drain screw to oil pan (6) M20x1.5
M26x1.5
Engine oil level sensor B14 to oil pan (4)


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Clean Main Oil Duct; Exercise

69
Clean Main Oil Duct; Exercise 28.09.2007





W01.40-1021-06 W01.40-1018-06



Exercise

Name cases of damage in which it is necessary to clean the oil ducts.




Note: The operations are described in WIS documents AR01.40-W-8501A and AR01.40-W-8501B.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Connecting Rod, Model Series 457

70
Connecting Rod, Model Series 457 28.09.2007




Exercise 1

The large connecting rod eye is identified with a number.
Discuss its meaning in your group.


L

1

L



U



E





u
Assignment of connecting rod to cylinder.

Assignment of connecting rod to
crankshaft.

Connecting rods are manufactured only as
complete sets and must only be used as
such in the engine.

The connecting rod is precisely balanced;
the numbers indicate the weight of the
connecting rod.

The side with the number must be installed
in the direction of the camshaft. Particular
care must be taken not to damage the oil
spray nozzle when installing the connecting
rod.

The connecting rod and its bearing shell
are assembled in pairs and must not be
exchanged with others.


W03.10-1005-06

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Connecting Rod, Model Series 457

71



Exercise 2

Discuss the possible option for repairing the connecting rod in your group. Use the workshop
literature to help you.
Indicate your answers in the table.

Status: Rework connecting rod Exchange connecting rod
Connecting rod with blue color due to bearing damage
The connecting rod bush is damaged
Large connecting rod eye is worn
The cracked surface is damaged (model series 500)
The toothed surface is damaged (model series 457)
The connecting rod is bent




Exercise 3

The removal/installation of a piston is familiar to all.
Important criteria have to be observed in this case. Indicate your answers in the table.

Criteria: True False
Install the connecting rod in the piston so that the direction arrow on the piston crown points forwards and the longer side of
the obliquely split connecting rod is on the left side.


The cutout on the piston for the oil spray nozzle must point inwards to the center of the engine. Prior to installation, oil the
piston and offset the piston ring end gaps in sequence by 120.

A tensioning strap must always be used when compressing the piston rings.
Turn the piston slightly when inserting so that the oil spray nozzle is not damaged on installation of the connecting rod.
The lug on the connecting rod bearing shell must sit in the groove of the connecting rod bearing cap or the connecting rod.
The connecting rod and connecting rod bearing cap must lie precisely on the crankshaft crank pin and are pressed on by
hand while screwing in the connecting rod bolts.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Connecting Rod, Model Series 500; Exercise

72
Connecting Rod, Model Series 500; Exercise 28.09.2007





Exercise 1

The large connecting rod eye is identified with a 4-digit number.
Discuss its meaning in your group.




L Assignment of connecting rod to cylinder.
1 Assignment of connecting rod to crankshaft.
L Connecting rods are manufactured only as complete sets and must only be used completely
in the engine.
U The connecting rod is precisely balanced; the numbers indicate the weight of the connecting rod.
E The side with the number must be installed in the direction of the oil spray nozzle. Particular
attention must
be paid to the fact that the oil spray nozzle is not damaged on installation of the connecting rod.
u The connecting rod and its bearing shell are assembled in pairs and must not
be exchanged with others.
N03.10-2026-01


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Connecting Rod, Model Series 500; Exercise

73



Exercise 2

Discuss the possible option for repairing the connecting rod in your group, with the support of the
workshop literature.
Indicate your answers in the table.

Status: Rework connecting rod Exchange connecting rod
Connecting rod with blue color due to bearing damage
The connecting rod bush is damaged
Large connecting rod eye is worn
The cracked surface is damaged
The connecting rod is bent




Exercise 3

The removal/installation of a piston is familiar to all.
Important criteria have to be observed in this case. Indicate your answers in the table.

Criteria: True False
Install the connecting rod in the piston so that the longer side of the obliquely split connecting rod corresponds to the cutout
for the oil spray nozzle on the piston.


The cutout on the piston for the oil spray nozzle must point inwards to the center of the engine. Prior to installation, oil the
piston and offset the piston ring end gaps in sequence by 120.

A tensioning strap must always be used when compressing the piston rings.
Turn the piston slightly when inserting so that the oil spray nozzle is not damaged on installation of the connecting rod.
The lug on the connecting rod bearing shell must sit in the groove of the connecting rod bearing cap or the connecting rod.
The connecting rod and connecting rod bearing cap must lie precisely on the crankshaft crank pin and are pressed on by
hand while screwing in the connecting rod bolts.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Repair Flywheel, Model Series 457/ 500

74
Repair Flywheel, Model Series 457/ 500 28.09.2007





Exercise

When the clutch is exchanged, the flywheel must be checked.
Discuss your procedure in your group and enter your results in the table.



Status
Rework
flywheel
Exchange
flywheel
Starter ring
gear - 0.5
Exchange ring
gear
Wear on the ring gear



Scorch marks, scoring and cracks on the
surface of the flywheel


Scoring/cracks are deeper than the max.
permissible amount of stock removal


Outer flywheel diameter smaller than
standard





Attention: Important: On removal and installation of the flywheel and the pressure plate, it must be ensured that the signal grooves for the inductive sensor
are not damaged, as the engine will otherwise no longer starts.
The location of the signal grooves on the flywheels for model series 457 and model series 500 are different. If interchanged, the engine does not
start.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Crankshaft End Play; Exercise

75
Crankshaft End Play; Exercise 28.09.2007





Exercise

The crankshaft end play can only be checked when the crankshaft is fully installed.
Determine the permissible, maximum end play values and then carry out a
measurement on the engine. Assess the result.





W03.20-0037-01

Permissible, maximum value Actual value
Crankshaft end play, mm








09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Crankshaft - Measure Journals and Bearings, Model Series 500

76
Crankshaft - Measure Journals and Bearings, Model Series 500 28.09.2007




Exercise 1


Measure one crankshaft journal and the
relevant main bearing. Enter the values in the
table below and evaluate the results. Use the
workshop literature (AR03.20-W-4355....)





W03.20-0030-09


Main bearing journal A Main bearing inner H in installed condition
Bearing No. Specified value Measurement 1 Measurement 2
(90)
Specified value Measurement 1 Measurement 2 Measurement 3
1
2
3
4

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Crankshaft - Measure Journals and Bearings, Model Series 500

77



Exercise 2

Measure one connecting rod journal and the relevant connecting rod bearing. Enter the values in the
table below and evaluate the results. Use the workshop literature AR03.10-W-6111-06B.






W03.10-0020-01 W03.10-0017-01



Connecting rod journal
Connecting rod bearing inner diameter in installed condition
Bearing No. Specified value Measurement 1
A
Measurement 2
B
Specified value Measurement 1
A
Measurement 2
B
Measurement 3
C
1
2
3
4
5
6

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Crankshaft Seal, Model Series 500; Exercise

78
Crankshaft Seal, Model Series 500; Exercise 28.09.2007





Exercise

Various seal variants are available for the crankshaft seal.
Use the table below and select the correct repair combination for the given conditions.


Installation and replacement Exchange

Status
Radial sealing ring
with small inside
diameter
Radial sealing ring
with large inside
diameter
Steel race Crankshaft Flywheel
Front seal leaky.
Radial sealing ring without race is installed, no
galling on the crankshaft.


Front seal leaky.
Radial sealing ring without race is installed,
sealing surface on the crankshaft is run in.

Front seal leaky.
Radial sealing ring and race are installed, no wear
on the race.


Rear seal leaky.
Radial sealing ring without race is installed,
sealing surface on the flywheel is damaged


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Front Crankshaft Seal, Model Series 457/500 - Replace Radial Sealing Ring

79
Front Crankshaft Seal, Model Series 457/500 - Replace Radial Sealing Ring 28.09.2007



The "Replace front crankshaft radial sealing ring" repair procedure has changed.
Due to use of the extraction device and installer, the crankshaft radial sealing ring can be replaced
without removing the housing cover.

Information:
AR03.20-W-3000B: Model series 500 in MODEL 950, 952, 953, 954
AR03.20-W-3000G: Model series 500 in MODEL 930, 932, 933, 934
AR03.20-W-3000D: Model series 457.9 in MODEL 375.4, 944



541 589 02 33 00

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Front Crankshaft Seal, Model Series 457/500 - Replace Radial Sealing Ring

80

Removing the front crankshaft radial sealing ring





W03.20-1048-11 W03.20-1050-11 W03.20-1051-11


Installing the front crankshaft radial sealing ring





W03.20-1047-11 W03.20-1048-11 W03.20-1049-11

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Piston Projection, Model Series 457/500

81
Piston Projection, Model Series 457/500 28.09.2007




Exercise 1

The correct piston projection is very important.
In which of the situations listed below would you measure the piston projection?
Discuss the answers in your group.

L
Engine does not run smoothly
1
Replace and seal cylinder liner O-rings
L
After planing the crankcase
U
After planing the cylinder head
E
Engine overrevving damage
u
Compression loss
L
Water loss in the area of the cylinder head gasket
L
Mechanical problem in the valve assembly, e.g. valve breakage
L
Performance problems
u
Mechanical foreign objects in the combustion chamber

L
Suspected water ingestion damage
N03.10-2018-01



Exercise 2

From the workshop literature (AR03.10-W-7041-xxx), determine the specified piston projection values
and also measure these on one cylinder in the engine.

Specified value Measurement

Piston projection, model series 500 (in
mm)
____________

Piston projection, model series 457 (in
mm)
____________

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Remove and Install Camshaft, Model Series 500; Exercise

82
Remove and Install Camshaft, Model Series 500; Exercise 28.09.2007





W05.20-0011-01 W05.20-0009-01




Exercise 1

Check the correct statements.


a Before removing, mark the installation location of the adjustable valve bridges.

b Turn the push rods when pulling out, so that they work loose in the roller tappet (AR05.20-W-6292B).

c If the engine is turned on the assembly stand following removal of the cylinder head and push rods,
the roller tappets must be removed beforehand.

d To remove and install the roller tappets (with special tool, see AR05.20-W-6292B), the push rods and
the cylinder head must be removed.

e The roller tappets must be oiled on installation. The guide wedge on the roller tappet must be inserted
into the guide groove in the crankcase.

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Remove and Install Camshaft, Model Series 500; Exercise

83




Exercise 2

Special tools are required to remove and install the roller tappets and the camshaft. in your group and
with the aid of the workshop literature (AR05.20-W-6292B), clarify which special tool is used for this.


Roller tappet:


Camshaft:





Exercise 3

On installation of the camshaft, attention must be paid to the correct installation position with regard
to the timing. Describe this with the aid of the workshop literature (AR05.20-W-6292B).






09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Valve Setback, Model Series 457/500; Exercise

84
Valve Setback, Model Series 457/500; Exercise 28.09.2007





Exercise

Use the workshop information (AR05.30-W- ) to complete the table.
Measure a cylinder head.


Specified value Actual value
Valve setback to
cylinder head contact surface:





1 Cylinder head
2 Intake valve
3 Exhaust valve
4 Dial indicator holder
5 Dial indicator
B Valve setback to cylinder head contact surface


W05.30-1085-06

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Valve Setback, Model Series 900 - Check; Exercise

85
Valve Setback, Model Series 900 - Check; Exercise 28.09.2007





Exercise

Use the workshop information (AR05.30-W-4511A, AR05.30-W-4100-01A and AR01.30-W-7162A) to
complete the table. Measure the cylinder head.


Specified value Actual value
Valve setback to cylinder head contact surface:
Maximum difference between both valves:







W05.30-0022-01 W05.30-0058-05

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Notes

86
Notes 28.09.2007



















09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Model Series 457 Fuel Circuit - Symbolic; Exercise

87
Model Series 457 Fuel Circuit - Symbolic; Exercise 28.09.2007




Exercise

Follow the fuel flow and mark it with arrows.




N07.00-2082-09

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Model Series 457 Fuel Circuit - Symbolic; Exercise

88

Legend

1 Fuel tank
1.1 Fuel strainer (800 m)
1.2 Air admission valve
2 Manual fuel feed pump
2.1 Fuel prefilter "Racor" (special equipment)
3.1 Plug-on valve on the fuel filler neck (locked in open position)
3.2 Plug-on valve in the fuel return line (locked in open position)
4 Fuel heat exchanger
5 Fuel pump
5.1 Pressure relief valve (7.0...8.0 bar)
6 Fuel filter (KF 1.5 m)
6.1 Fuel filter emptying valve
6.2 Permanent relief bore
7 Nozzle holder combination
8 PLN unit pumps (Y6 to Y11)
10 Overflow valve (2.0 bar)
10.1 Throttle in the overflow valve
12 Throttle in the flame starting system fuel line
R3 Flame glow plug
Y5 Flame starting system solenoid valve
A Fuel feed line/intake vacuum-side
B Fuel feed line/pressure side
C Fuel flushing volume (fuel bypass)
D Fuel return line after unit pump/leak fuel
E Fuel high pressure side (injection line) after PLN unit pumps


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Fuel Circuit, Model Series 457 - Requirements; Exercise

89
Fuel Circuit, Model Series 457 - Requirements; Exercise 28.09.2007





Exercise

Let us examine the following requirements on the fuel circuit.
Assign the individual requirements to the corresponding components.
Use the fuel circuit diagram to help you.



Components required Set requirements
No fuel must escape from the engine circuit during engine removal or installation.
The unit pump head must be cooled by fuel.
A high quantity of fuel must therefore be circulated.
A defined system pressure must therefore establish itself in the system.
The circuit must constantly ventilate itself independently during normal operation.
The circuit must be limited to a maximum pressure in the event of a fault.
The fuel feed must not run dry when the engine is stopped.
When replacing the fuel filter, the fuel must flow out of the fuel filter housing after screwing on the
cover (which requires lifting the filter insert).

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Notes

90
Notes 28.09.2007



















09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Model Series 500 Symbolic Fuel Circuit; Exercise

91
Model Series 500 Symbolic Fuel Circuit; Exercise 28.09.2007



GT05_15_0005_C81

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Model Series 500 Symbolic Fuel Circuit; Exercise

92




Exercise

Follow the fuel flow and mark it with arrows.



1 Fuel tank
1.1 Fuel strainer (800 m)
2 Fuel prefilter (KVF 300 m) with manual fuel feed pump
3.1 Plug-on valve on the fuel filler neck (locked in open position)
3.2 Plug-on valve in the fuel return line (locked in open position)
4. Fuel heat exchanger
5. Fuel pump (KFP)
5.1 Pressure relief valve (9.0 to 12.0 bar)
6. Fuel filter (KF 1.5 m)
6.1 Fuel filter emptying valve
6.2 Permanent ventilation in KF (0.7 mm)
7. Nozzle holder combination
8. PLN unit pumps (Y6 to Y13)
9. Banjo union with permanent ventilation (0.7 mm)
10. Overflow valve (up to engine no. 092407 2.0 bar, as of engine no. 092408
2.65 bar)
10.1 Throttle (3.1 mm) in overflow valve
11.1 Fuel filler neck connector (in frame)
11.2 Fuel return line connector (in frame)
12 Throttle (0.5 mm) in the fuel line flame starting system

B10 Fuel temperature sensor
R3 Flame glow plug
Y5 Flame starting system solenoid valve
G Pressure gauge test
H Fuel return volume test
Fuel circuit
A Fuel feed line/suction side
B Fuel feed line/pressure side
C Fuel high pressure side (injection line) after PLN unit pumps
D Fuel return line after unit pump
E Fuel flushing volume (fuel bypass)
F Fuel return line/leak fuel
- - - Fuel ducts in crankcase
----- Fuel lines



09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Notes

93
Notes 28.09.2007



















09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Model Series 900 Fuel Circuit - Symbolic (from Engine 040488); Exercise

94
Model Series 900 Fuel Circuit - Symbolic (from Engine 040488); Exercise 28.09.2007



W07.15-1063-09

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Model Series 900 Fuel Circuit - Symbolic (from Engine 040488); Exercise

95



Exercise

Follow the fuel flow and mark it with arrows.



1
1.1
1.2
2
2.1
2.2
3.1
5
8
8.1
10
12
12.1
14.1
15.1
17
17.1
18.1
18.2

B10
R3
Y5

Fuel delivery pump (KFP)
Pressure limiting valve in fuel delivery pump (9.2 bar)
Check valve in fuel delivery pump (0.2 bar)
Fuel filter (KF)
Fuel discharge valve
Constant vent in fuel filter
Bypass from fuel feed passage to fuel return passage
Nozzle holder combination
Overflow valve (4.5 bar)
Constant vent (0.5 mm)
PLD unit pump (Y6 to Y11)
Fuel prefilter (KVF)
Check valve in fuel prefilter
Assembly valve in fuel feed (opened by pressure)
Assembly valve in fuel return flow (opened by pressure)
Fuel tank
Air admission valve
Restrictor (0.5 mm) in flame starting fuel line
Throttle (threaded throttle) in the flame starting fuel line

Fuel temperature sensor
Flame starter glow plugs
Solenoid valve


A
B
CC
D
E

- - - - -
---------


Fuel circuit
Fuel feed (suction/vacuum side)
Fuel return (leak fuel)
Fuel feed (pressure side)
Fuel high pressure side (downstream of PLD unit pumps)
Fuel return (fuel filter drain)

Fuel passages in crankcase
Fuel lines



09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Fuel Circuit, Model Series 900 - Requirements; Exercise

96
Fuel Circuit, Model Series 900 - Requirements; Exercise 28.09.2007




Exercise

Let us examine the following requirements on the fuel circuit.
Assign the individual requirements to the corresponding components.
Use the fuel circuit diagram to help you.


Components required Set requirements

No fuel must escape from the engine circuit during engine removal or installation.

The unit pump head must be cooled by fuel.
A high quantity of fuel must therefore be circulated.

A defined system pressure must therefore establish itself in the system.

The circuit must constantly ventilate itself independently during normal operation.

The circuit must be limited to a maximum pressure in the event of a fault.

The fuel feed must not run dry when the engine is stopped.

When replacing the fuel filter, the fuel must flow out of the fuel filter housing after screwing on the
cover (which requires lifting the filter insert).

The fuel may only reach the fuel feed pump after being prefiltered.

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Notes

97
Notes 28.09.2007



















09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Fuel Pressure Test Points, Model Series 500; Exercise

98
Fuel Pressure Test Points, Model Series 500; Exercise 28.09.2007



W07.15-1080-09

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Fuel Pressure Test Points, Model Series 500; Exercise

99


Components
1 Fuel tank
1.1 Fuel strainer (800my)
2 Fuel prefilter (KVF 300my) with manual fuel feed pump
3.1 Plug-on valve on the fuel filler neck (locked in open position)
3.2 Plug-on valve in the fuel return line (locked in open position)
4 Fuel heat exchanger
5 Fuel pump (KFP)
5.1 Pressure relief valve (9.0 -12.0 bar)
6 Fuel filter (KF 1.5 my)
6.1 Fuel filter emptying valve
6.2 Permanent ventilation in KF (0.7 mm)
7 Nozzle holder combination
8 PLN unit pumps (Y6 to Y13)
9 Banjo union with permanent ventilation (0.7 mm)
(located on fuel filter in EURO 4/5 vehicles)
10 Overflow valve
(up to engine no. 092407 2.0 bar,
as of engine no. 092408 2.65 bar)
10.1 Throttle (3.1 mm) in overflow valve
11.1 Fuel filler neck connector (in frame)
11.2 Fuel return line connector (in frame)
12 Throttle (0.5 mm) in the fuel line flame starting system
B10 Fuel temperature sensor
R3 Flame glow plug
Y5 Flame starting system solenoid valve

Fuel circuit
A Fuel feed line/suction side
B Fuel feed line/pressure side
C Fuel high pressure side (injection line) after PLN unit pumps
D Fuel return line after unit pump
E Fuel flushing volume (fuel bypass)
F Fuel return line/leak fuel

Test points, test data
G Pressure gauge test
H Fuel return volume test


- - - Fuel channels in ZKG
----- Fuel lines



09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Fuel Pressure Test Points, Model Series 500; Exercise

100




Exercise

At which test points are the following tests made? Match the items.

Test point Fuel test
System pressure in low pressure circulation after filter
Fuel return volume to fuel tank
Low pressure fuel circuit leaktightness
Fuel suction pressure of the fuel pump
Air bubble formation in the intake line
Fuel return volume (leak oil quantity) nozzle holder assembly with pressure pipe connection

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Notes

101
Notes 28.09.2007



















09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Fuel Pressure Test Points, Model Series 900; Exercise

102
Fuel Pressure Test Points, Model Series 900; Exercise 28.09.2007



W07.15-1015-09

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Fuel Pressure Test Points, Model Series 900; Exercise

103

Fuel circuit diagram
1 Fuel feed pump (KFP)
1. Pressure limiting valve in fuel delivery pump (9.2 bar)
1.2 Check valve in the fuel feed pump (0.2 bar)
2 Fuel filter (KF)
2.1 Fuel filter emptying valve
2.2 Permanent ventilation in KF
3.1 Bypass from fuel feed duct to return duct
5 Nozzle holder combination
8 Overflow valve (4.5 bar)
8.1 Permanent purging (0.5 mm)
10 PLN unit pumps (Y6 to Y11)
12 Fuel prefilter (KVF)
12.1 Check valve in KVF
14.1 Plug-on valve on the fuel filler neck (locked in open position)
15.1 Plug-on valve in the fuel return line (locked in open position)
17 Fuel tank
17.1 Air admission valve
18.1 Throttle (18.1 mm) in the flame starting fuel line
18.2 Throttle (threaded throttle) in the flame starting fuel line
B10 Fuel temperature sensor
R3 Flame start glow plug
Y5 Solenoid valve


Fuel circuit
A Fuel feed line (intake vacuum-side)
B Fuel return (leak fuel)
C Fuel feed line (pressure side)
D Fuel high pressure side (after PLN unit pumps)
E Fuel return (fuel filter emptying)


Test points, test data
G Pressure gauge test
H Fuel return volume test




09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Fuel Pressure Test Points, Model Series 900; Exercise

104




Exercise

At which test points are the following tests made? Match the items.


Test point Fuel test

System pressure in the low pressure circuit

Unit pump flushing volume

Fuel suction pressure before the fuel pump

Fuel return volume to fuel tank

Fuel return volume (leak oil quantity) nozzle holder assembly with pressure pipe connection
Low pressure fuel circuit leaktightness
Fuel filter return amount and nozzle holder assembly with pressure pipe connection
Air bubble formation in the intake line

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Fuel Circuit, Model Series 500 - Symptoms; Exercise

105
Fuel Circuit, Model Series 500 - Symptoms; Exercise 28.09.2007





Exercise 1

Let us deal with the symptoms and effects in the event of complaints in the fuel circuit.
You have the following situation: A pressure pipe connection is broken on an engine.
Which symptoms may occur in such a case of damage.
Discuss this problem case in your group and note your solutions.














Exercise 2

Which fuel test would you use to locate this problem? If you would carry out several tests, please
specify the sequence and explain this.










09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Fuel Circuit, Model Series 500 - Symptoms; Exercise

106




Exercise 3

Here is another problem case you might encounter every day:
A lot of turns of the crankshaft are needed in the morning before the engine starts up. You think that
the problem is located in the fuel circuit.
Which tests would you carry out and in what sequence?
Discuss this problem case in your group and note your suggestions.














Exercise 4

Which possible causes for this complaint can you check with the test options you listed above?












09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Fuel Filter Housing, Model Series 500/ 457; Exercise

107
Fuel Filter Housing, Model Series 500/ 457; Exercise 28.09.2007





Exercise 1


Several components are shown in the fuel filter housing in the graphic representation of the "symbolic fuel
circuit".
In the illustration, mark the following components with
1 for fuel filter drain valve and
2 for permanent ventilation.



N07.15-2044-01

12/06 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Unit Pump Magnet - Sealing; Exercise


108
Unit Pump Magnet - Sealing; Exercise 28.09.2007

In the event of an external leak at the unit pumps' magnet (4), the sealing elements (2) may be replaced.
Use the video sequence "Seal the unit pump magnet" and the workshop information document
AR07.15-W-8960 to complete the exercises.





Example: Unit pump, model series
500/model series 457
N07.02-2031-03

12/06 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Unit Pump Magnet - Sealing; Exercise


109




Exercise 1

Which components must be replaced?








Exercise 2

Indicate the torque specifications for the bolts (6).


Model series 500, model series 457: Model series 900:








Exercise 3

What requires particular attention when sealing an external leakage at the unit pump magnet?
Mark the correct answer with an "X".


L
The valve plate (1.1) must not be twisted.

1
Ensure scrupulous cleanliness.

L
The original, mutual installation position of certain components
must be marked.

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Install Unit Pump, Model Serie 500; Exercise

110
Install Unit Pump, Model Serie 500; Exercise 28.09.2007





Exercise 1

Before reinstalling a unit pump, please clarify the precise process and the required conditions in
advance. Which precautionary measures must be implemented? Refer to the corresponding workshop
literature (AR07.15-W...) and mark the correct information.



a Turn the crankshaft with rotary device until pump cam point towards the unit pump.

b Only replace the O-ring when it is damaged.

c The pump can only be installed when the cam is located in the base circle.

d Before installing the unit pump, replace O-rings using special tool.

e The O-rings must be coated with assembly grease before installing the unit pump.

f To insert the unit pump into the crankcase, use of assembly pins for guidance is vital.

g Press unit pump into the crankcase by hand counter to spring force, insert mounting bolts and draw
unit pump into the seat with these.

h Tighten the mounting bolts to the prescribed torque.

i The lines at the solenoid valve must be connected according to the defined specifications.

j After replacing a unit pump, unit pump classification must be carried out.

k After moving a used unit pump (for diagnostic purposes), unit pump classification must be carried out.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Install Unit Pump, Model Serie 500; Exercise

111




Exercise 2

Which color do sealing ring (2) and sealing ring (3) have when located properly?
What must additionally be noted when installing the sealing rings?



Upper seal ring:

Lower seal ring:

Assembly notes:





W07.15-1107-01

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Install Unit Pump, Model Series 900; Exercise

112
Install Unit Pump, Model Series 900; Exercise 28.09.2007





Exercise 1

Before reinstalling a unit pump, please clarify the precise process and the required conditions in
advance. Which precautionary measures must be implemented? Refer to the corresponding workshop
literature (AR07.15-W...) and mark the correct information.



l Turn the crankshaft with rotary device until pump cam point towards the unit pump.

m Only replace the O-ring when it is damaged.

n The pump can only be installed when the cam is located in the base circle.

o Before installing the unit pump, replace O-rings using the protective sleeve (special tool).

p The O-rings must be coated with assembly grease before installing the unit pump.

q To insert the unit pump into the crankcase, use assembly pins to guide the unit pump.

r Pull the unit pump into its seat with the mounting bolts and tighten them.

s Press the unit pump by hand against the spring load into the crankcase.
The gap should be approx. 4 mm.

t Press in the unit pump by hand as far as possible. Close up the remaining distance using the bolts by
turning slowly. Then tighten to the prescribed torque.

u The lines at the solenoid valve must be connected according to the defined specifications.

v After replacing a unit pump, unit pump classification must be carried out.

w After moving a used unit pump (for diagnostic purposes), unit pump classification must be carried out.

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Install Unit Pump, Model Series 900; Exercise

113




Exercise 2

Which color do sealing ring (2) and sealing ring (3) have when located properly?
What must additionally be noted when installing the sealing rings?



Upper seal ring:

Lower seal ring:

Assembly notes:





W07.15-1107-01

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Unit Pump Classification

114
Unit Pump Classification 28.09.2007




The unit pumps in model series 900 and 457 are coded at the time of
manufacture.
The coding is used to compensate for manufacturing tolerances in the unit
pump.
The code of each individual pump is recorded when it is installed in the
engine on the assembly line and stored in the MR control unit.

To ensure smooth running of the engine, the engine control system uses
the codes to assign proportioned fuel to the individual unit pumps
(i.e. to set injection times). If unit pumps are replaced or relocated for
diagnostic purposes, the unit pumps for each cylinder need to be
reassigned (classed).



Entering the wrong code may cause the engine to run rough and can
damage the engine.


Note:
The smooth idle control must be reset after coding the unit pumps.

AXOR

MR
Unit pump replacement

Cylinders Code

1 Cylinder 1 X-XXX-XXX-XX-XXXXX
2 Cylinder 2 X-XXX-XXX-XX-XXXXX
3 Cylinder 3 X-XXX-XXX-XX-XXXXX
4 Cylinder 4 X-XXX-XXX-XX-XXXXX
5 Cylinder 5 X-XXX-XXX-XX-XXXXX
6 Cylinder 6 X-XXX-XXX-XX-XXXXX

Note:
The user must read off the unit pump number
on the unit pump and enter it for the corresponding
cylinder. Only enter the number of
unit pumps that are
replaced.
To enter, press F3.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Unit Pump Classification

115


The code is given as a 14-digit number (C) on the unit pump's model plate. The code is entered into the
engine control system using the "Replace unit pump" menu in DAS.




A MB number
B Certification number
C Unit pump number
D Barcode
E, G, H Manufacturer information
F Manufacturer barcode


N07.02-2028-01

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbocharger, Model Series 457 - Mechanical Check; Exercise

116
Turbocharger, Model Series 457 - Mechanical Check; Exercise 28.09.2007




Exercise


Complete the table using the workshop
information (AR09.40-W-.......).
Measure a turbocharger.






W09.40-1042-02 W09.40-1043-02

Specified value Actual value

Rotor shaft axial play:



Radial play on rotor shaft



09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Location of Components

117
Turbobrake - Location of Components 28.09.2007




























1 Turbocharger
2 Vacuum cell
3 Turbobrake
A6 MR/PLD control unit
B104 Turbine speed sensor
Y87 Electric-pneumatic converter (EPW)


OM 457 LA view W09.40-1061-06

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Components and Function

118
Turbobrake - Components and Function 28.09.2007




N14.15-2067-50

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Components and Function

119



OM 457 LA view W09.40-1066-09
The Turbobrake has replaced the engine brake
flap; it is designed as an axially sliding guide vane
(4) within the turbocharger. As soon as a stronger
engine braking effect is required, the guide vane
(4) is pushed into the annular duct of the turbine
entrance, thus reducing the flow cross-section of
the annular duct, as well as the flow angle of the
exhaust gas on the turbine. This accelerates the
exhaust gas and thus leads to an increase in the
turbine's rpm, which increases the boost
pressure.

The built-up boost pressure also increases the
engine braking effect, i.e. the increased
compression corresponds to an increase in the
braking work.

The guide vane is slid by the working cylinder (1).
It is actuated by the FR, similar to the engine
brake flap.
Driver requests are transmitted via the engine
control/permanent brake control operating lever.
The constant throttle is also actuated at a coolant
temperature > 60C.


1 Working cylinder
2 Positioning cam
3 Housing
4 Guide vane
5 Positioner
6 Array
7 Turbine scroll
8 Vacuum cell
9 Vent element
10 Rotary valve



09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Components and Function

120


The turbine rpm is forwarded by the turbine speed sensor (B 104) in the
turbocharger to the engine control (MR) control unit (A6) and limited to
90,000 rpm to prevent the turbocharger from being damaged by overspeeds.

The engine control (MR) control unit actuates the electropneumatic pressure
converter (Y87) that operates the rotary valve's (4) vacuum cell (2) to limit
and control the braking torque.
Just as with a wastegate valve, the exhaust gas is sent past the turbine wheel
via a bypass.
This limits the boost pressure and turbine rpm.

The Turbobrake responds within a period of 1 to 10 s, depending on the
engine's initial speed and initial load condition.
Thanks to the constant throttle, a high braking power is present almost
spontaneously after activation. The driver feels this as a smooth start to
braking up to the maximum braking power by the Turbobrake.




OM 457 LA view W09.40-1062-06

2 Vacuum cell
4 Rotary valve
5 Bypass tube
6 Turbine wheel
7 Rotary valve housing
A6 MR control unit
B104 Turbine speed sensor
Y87 EPW valve

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Comparison with other Brake Systems

121
Turbobrake - Comparison with other Brake Systems 28.09.2007


Turbobrake, comparison with engine brake
flap

















A Engine brake flap, constant throttle and retarder
B Turbobrake and constant throttle
C Engine brake flap and constant throttle



W09.40-1067-75

Advantages of the Turbobrake:
50% more braking power in comparison with the standard engine brake (brake valve and constant throttle) at an engine speed of 2500 rpm
Lower weight (weight saving of approx. 85 kg in comparison with a hydraulic retarder)
Cooling system relief in comparison with a hydraulic retarder
Constant braking power, as independent of the coolant temperature
Maintenance-free system


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Location, Design and Function of the Guide Vane

122
Turbobrake - Location, Design and Function of the Guide Vane 28.09.2007


Location:
The guide vane (1) is located in the array (2) and
can be moved axially.


Operation:
The extended guide vane (1) reduces the flow
cross section of the annular port and changes the
flow angle of the exhaust gases onto the turbine
in order to increase turbine performance.



Configuration OM 457 LA W09.40-1065-09

1 Guide vane
2 Array
3 Turbocharger A Guide vane retracted
B Guide vane extended

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Location, Design and Function of the Vent Element

123
Turbobrake - Location, Design and Function of the Vent Element 28.09.2007


Design:
The vent element (1) consists of the rotary valve
(4), which is supported by rotatable bearings in
the turbocharger housing and is connected to the
pressure capsule (2).


Location:
The vent element (1) is located at the
turbocharger (3) in the entry area of the turbine
scroll.


Operation:
The vent element (1) regulates the exhaust gas
mass flow in the turbine and if required, guides
this flow through the cross-sections in the rotary
valve (4) in the exhaust air pipe.








1 Vent element
2 Pressure capsule
3 Turbocharger
4 Rotary valve


OM 457 LA view W09.40-1063-06

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Turbine Speed Sensor, Location and Function

124
Turbobrake - Turbine Speed Sensor, Location and Function 28.09.2007


Location:
The turbine speed sensor (B104) is bolted into the turbocharger (1) housing.

Operation:
The turbine shaft rotates past the turbine speed sensor (B104) and induces a voltage signal. This is
recorded by the turbine speed sensor (B104) and forwarded to the MR/PLD control unit.




















1 Turbocharger
B104 Turbine speed sensor


OM 457 LA view W07.04-1024-03

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Electric-pneumatic Converter (EPW), Location, Structure and Function

125
Turbobrake - Electric-pneumatic Converter (EPW), Location, Structure and Function 28.09.2007


Location:
In the OM 457 LA, the electric-pneumatic converter (EPW) (Y87) is bolted onto the crankcase beneath the
turbocharger on the right-hand side of the engine.


Exercise:
The electrical-pneumatic converter (EPW) (Y87) is actuated by the MR/PLD control unit and regulates the
opening ratio of the blow-off element.

















Y87 Electric-pneumatic
converter (EPW)



OM 457 LA view W07.17-1002-03

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Electric-pneumatic Converter (EPW), Location, Structure and Function

126



Design and function:











1 Blow-off element control line
2 Compressed air supply line
3 Aluminum housing
4 Exhaust air line
5 Electrical connector
6 Valve
7 Pressure sensor
8 Control electronics
9 Proportional solenoid


W07.17-1003-12


According to the modulated input signal (value specified by the MR/PLD control unit), the electric-pneumatic converter (EPW) (Y87) outputs a pressure in the
blow-off element's control line (1).
The regulating electronics (8) compares the specified value with the pressure in the blow-off element control line (1). The pressure in the blow-off element's
control line (1) is measured by the pressure sensor (7).
One of the regulated quantities generated by the regulating electronics (8) actuates the valve (6) for admitting and removing air with the proportional magnets
(9) till the required pressure in the blow-off element control line (1) is set.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Engine Brake Request

127
Turbobrake - Engine Brake Request 28.09.2007



3-stage selector lever in the AXOR

Switch position 1: The constant throttle is engaged and 50% of the maximum Turbobrake braking power are set.
The blow-off facility is used to regulate the Turbobrake's brake force.
Switch position 2: Constant throttle and 100% Turbobrake braking power. The rotary valve closes.
In both cases, the guide vane is always extended fully.


6-stage selector lever in the AXOR

The individual brake stages equate to 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of the maximum braking power. The sliding sleeve is always extended fully. The individual
output stages are achieved via the rotary valve.


Cruise control

Even in cruise control braking mode, the guide vane is always extended fully. The required braking power is set continuously via the rotary valve.


Brake stages for Freightliner, USA

Switch position 1 Constant throttle only, the Turbobrake is not actuated
Switch position 2 Constant throttle and 50% Turbobrake braking power
Switch position 3 Constant throttle and 100 % Turbobrake

Remark:
If certain transmissions (e.g. Allison) are used, the braking power or the braking torque may have to be reduced.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Troubleshooting, Functions for Operation

128
Turbobrake - Troubleshooting, Functions for Operation 28.09.2007



Guide vane actuation:
Discernible from the outside via movement of the clamp, which is actuated via the pneumatic working cylinder. Control takes place via an electropneumatic
3/2-way valve. In MB vehicles, this is actuated by the drive control (FR) system. Actuation may also be done manually using STAR DIAGNOSIS.
In the OM 460 (Freightliner), the clamp is actuated by the engine control (MR) system via proportioning valve 6.

Rotary valve actuation:
Discernible from the outside via rotation of the rotary valve, which is actuated via linkage by the vacuum cell. The vacuum cell is actuated pneumatically by the
EPW valve. The EPW valve is controlled by the MR via proportioning valve 1. Manual actuation may also take place via STAR DIAGNOSIS. On starting the engine,
the rotary valve must move and assume its closed position.

Constant throttle valve actuation:
Not discernible from the outside, the constant throttle valve is actuated hydraulically via an electrohydraulic 3/2-way valve seated on the oil filter housing.
The 3/2-way valve is controlled by the MR via proportioning valve 2. Manual actuation may also take place via STAR DIAGNOSIS.
To check the function of the valve, the engine can first be briefly revved up in neutral. On engagement of the constant throttle, the rpm drop must be
significantly greater than on non-actuation. The constant throttle valve causes slight hissing. If in doubt, pressure buildup in the control line can be checked
using a pressure gauge or an oil line banjo bolt can be opened slightly (Attention: Danger of major oil escape).
The constant throttle only functions if the coolant temperature exceeds 60C.

Turbocharger speed sensing:
Turbocharger speed sensing protects the turbine from excessive speeds in braking mode. Rpm control is carried out by the MR via the blow-off facility's control
system.


Note:
If proportioning valves are manually engaged using STAR Diagnosis, it is vital to switch the ignition off completely following the test, as the engine otherwise
remains in test mode.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Troubleshooting

129
Turbobrake - Troubleshooting 28.09.2007



General visual inspections for proper operation with the vehicle stationary


Function of the constant throttle valves
Prerequisite: Vehicle engine is at operating temperature.
Constant throttle valve actuation: Switch on brake stage 1, run up engine speed and allow to decrease rapidly. The rpm drop must be significantly
faster than without a constant throttle. A conspicuous noise can also be heard in the exhaust system.

Function of the Turbobrake
Prerequisite: Vehicle engine is at operating temperature. Switch on the ignition and switch on brake stage 2. Tilt cab.
Actuation of blow-off facility: Start engine using start button. On starting the engine, the piston rod of the vacuum cell must discernibly extend.
On switching off the engine, the piston rod of the vacuum cell must retract completely.
Actuation of guide vane: Switch on brake stage 1 or 2 and run up engine speed using start button. The engine begins to surge. The yoke of
the guide vane must turn over completely.


General function checks during vehicle operation

Charger speed check
At full load (fueled) n > 1,500 rpm: Charger speed > 90000 rpm, max. 110000 rpm
In max. Turbobrake braking mode n > 2.000 rpm: Charger speed > 85000 rpm to max. 90000 rpm

Control pressure check
Line pressure at actuating cylinder: Specified: > 8 bar
Line pressure at EPW valve: Specified: > 5 bar in idle and at full load
(Note: Future engines will also be influenced by the rotary valve in fueled mode.)

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Troubleshooting

130

Troubleshooting table

Complaints / malfunctions Possible causes Remedy / measures
Turbobrake inoperative Current fault code in FR, MR or other systems. Read out and rectify fault
Clutch status "closed" not recognized. Teach-in clutch.
Parameter incorrectly set in FR or MR. Check and correct parameter.
Clamp for guide vane does not operate. Solenoid valve has no electrical actuation. Check parameterization in the FR.
Clamp, actuation cam or guide vane sluggish or
mechanically blocked.
Unhook actuating cylinder and check clamp for mechanical
freedom of movement.
Actuating cylinder sluggish or mechanically blocked. Check actuating cylinder function.
No or insufficient compressed air at the actuating
cylinder.
Check compressed air supply from the solenoid valve to the
actuating cylinder.
No or insufficient compressed air to the solenoid
valve.
Check/measure compressed air supply to the solenoid valve.
Check circuit 4 reservoir pressure.
Blow-off facility linkage does not
function.
EPW valve has no electrical actuation. Control line for PWM signal has discontinuity
(PWM signal 0 is permissible).
Check parameterization in the MR.
Rotary valve sluggish or mechanically blocked. Unhook actuating cylinder and rotary valve for mechanical
freedom of movement.
Note: Vacuum cell linkage under tension.
No or insufficient compressed air at the vacuum cell. Check hose line from the EPW valve to the vacuum cell for
constriction and leaks.
Check vacuum cell for leaks
Pressure measurements in the hose line: Specified pressures:
5 bar in idle, min. 2 bar in engine braking mode.
No or insufficient compressed air to the EPW valve. Check/measure compressed air supply to the EPW valve.
Check circuit 4 reservoir pressure.
EPW valve without function Exchange EPW valve.

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Troubleshooting

131


Complaints / malfunctions Possible causes Remedy / measures
Braking power inadequate Engine is operated at excessively low speeds. Driver note, engine speeds > 2000 rpm if possible
Insufficient compressed air at the vacuum cell. Check hose line from the EPW valve to the vacuum cell for
constriction and leaks.
Check vacuum cell for leaks
Pressure measurements in the hose line: Specified pressures:
5 bar in idle, min. 2 bar in engine braking mode.
No or insufficient compressed air to the EPW valve. Check/measure compressed air supply to the EPW valve.
Check circuit 4 reservoir pressure.
EPW valve malfunction Exchange EPW valve.
Constant throttle valves do not open, 3/2-way valve
has no electrical actuation
Check parameterization in the MR.
Coolant temperature must be > 60C.
Constant throttle valves do not open, insufficient oil
pressure.
Check/measure oil pressure to the constant throttle valves

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Troubleshooting; Exercise

132
Turbobrake - Troubleshooting; Exercise 28.09.2007










A3 Drive control (FR) control unit
A4 Flame starting system (FLA) control unit
A6 Engine control (MR) control unit
A11 Brake control (BS) control unit
A22 Parameterizable special module (PSM) control unit

B1 Foot throttle actuator
B11 Engine oil temperature sensor
B17 Vehicle speed sensor
B104 Turbine speed sensor

P3 Modular tachograph (MTCO)
P4 Instrument

S1 Drive switch
S2 Engine control/permanent brake operating lever

Y1 Engine brake 1 solenoid valve
Y49 Constant throttle solenoid valve
Y87 Electrical-pneumatic converter (EPW)




View of the AXOR GT05_00_0025_C82

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Turbobrake - Troubleshooting; Exercise

133




Exercise

Place the right control unit code in the boxes below.




Which control unit controls the guide vane?




Which component detects the turbine speed?




Which component adjusts the pneumatic pressure in the pressure capsule for the purpose of rotary valve
control?




Which control unit controls the rotary valve?

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Charge Air Manifold, Model Series 457 - Installation; Exercise

134
Charge Air Manifold, Model Series 457 - Installation; Exercise 28.09.2007




Exercise 1


Which parts must be replaced prior to
installation of the charge air manifold?
Name the components and use WIS document
AR09.41-W-8681D to help you.






W09.41-1013-06

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Charge Air Manifold, Model Series 457 - Installation; Exercise

135




Exercise 2

Indicate the tightening torques for the following bolts.


Bolt, charge air pipe to charge air manifold:

Bolt (2), charge air manifold to cylinder head:





Exercise 3

Different hoses are used between the charge air housing and the charge air cooler.
Which of the following statements are correct?


a The side on which the red and black hoses are fitted is irrelevant.

b The red charge air hose must be installed between the turbocharger charge air pipe and the charge air
cooler.

c Correct installation is very important, because only the red hose is heat-resistant.

d The black hose is resistant to vacuum.

e The black hose is flame-resistant.

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Charge Air Manifold, Model Series 500 - Installation; Exercise

136
Charge Air Manifold, Model Series 500 - Installation; Exercise 28.09.2007





Exercise 1


Which parts must be replaced prior to
installation of the charge air manifold?
Name the components.
Use the workshop literature
AR09.41-W-8681B.













W09.41-1006-09


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Charge Air Manifold, Model Series 500 - Installation; Exercise

137




Exercise 2

Indicate the tightening torques for the following threaded studs.


Threaded stud (9) to crankcase:

Threaded stud (10) to oil filter housing bracket:





Exercise 3

Different hoses are used between the charge air housing and the charge air cooler.
Which of the following statements are correct?


a The side on which the red and black hoses are fitted is irrelevant.

b The red charge air hose must be installed between the charge air pipe and the charge air cooler.

c Correct installation is very important, because only the red hose is heat-resistant.

d The black hose is resistant to vacuum.

e The black hose is flame-resistant.

12/06 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Oil Circuit, Model Series 457; Exercise


138
Oil Circuit, Model Series 457; Exercise 28.09.2007




Exercise

Get to understand the oil circuit using the graphic below and assign the components listed in the
legend to the oil circuit.















1 Oil sump
2 Intake tube with fine-mesh filter
3 Oil pump
4 Main lubricating oil duct (unfiltered)
5 Oil cooler (oil/water heat exchanger)
6 Oil filter
7 Oil spray nozzle for piston cooling
8 Oil spray nozzle for camshaft
9 Oil spray nozzle for valve gear
10 Turbocharger return line
11 Turbocharger feed line
12 Main lubricating oil duct (filtered)


N18.00-2071-50
8



11





12/06 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Oil Circuit Model Series 457 - Task and Function; Exercise


139
Oil Circuit Model Series 457 - Task and Function; Exercise 28.09.2007





Exercise

Various valves with very different tasks and functions are included in the oil circuit.
Enter the appropriate valve in the table below.
Use WIS function description GF18.00-W....



The.................... Tasks and functions

The ...... is located underneath the oil pump and serves to limit the maximum oil pressure.
If the maximum oil pressure is exceeded, the ........ opens up and lets the engine oil flow directly from the oil pump back into the oil
pan.


The ....... is located in the oil filter housing underneath the oil filter insert and opens when the oil filter cover is removed. This
ensures a clean oil filter change with little environmental pollution since the amount of oil remaining in the filter element at the
time of disposal is reduced.


The ........ is installed in the filter dome housing unit (riser) and seals an opening in the filter element disk in the oil filter element.
The ........ is normally closed.
If the oil filter element is clogged, the pressure increase in the oil filter housing causes the ......... to open. This ensures that the
engine remains lubricated, although the engine oil that flows through the filter ........ is not filtered.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Oil Circuit Model Series 500 - Location of Components; Exercise

140
Oil Circuit Model Series 500 - Location of Components; Exercise 28.09.2007




Exercise


Match the numbers to the components in the
graphic. Discuss their function in your group.
Use the available workshop literature.









1 Oil intake tube
2 Oil check valve
3 Oil pressure relief valve
4 Oil cooler
5 Oil pump
6 Main oil duct
7 Oil spray nozzle
8 Oil check valve for oil
circuit filling





N18.00-2011-50







12/06 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Oil Circuit Model Series 500 - Task and Function; Exercise


141
Oil Circuit Model Series 500 - Task and Function; Exercise 28.09.2007




Exercise

Various valves with very different tasks and functions are included in the oil circuit.
Enter the appropriate valve in the table below.
Use WIS function description GF18.00-W-0001B.


The.................... Tasks and functions
The ..... is located in the right rear of the crankcase and ensures that the engine oil does not return to the oil pan when the engine
is stopped . As a result, the oil ducts are always filled with engine oil. This ensures optimal lubrication of the components from the
moment the engine is started again.


The ...... is located underneath the oil pump and serves to limit the maximum oil pressure.
If the maximum oil pressure is exceeded, the ........ opens up and lets the engine oil flow directly from the oil pump back into the oil
pan.


The ....... is located in the oil filter housing underneath the oil filter insert and opens when the oil filter cover is removed. This
ensures a clean oil filter change with little environmental pollution since the amount of oil remaining in the filter element at the
time of disposal is reduced.


The ....... is located at the bottom of the oil filter housing and is closed with a screw plug (M33x2). When the engine is being
assembled or during repair operations, the ........ allows the engine oil circuit to be filled with engine oil before the engine is started.


The ........ (opening pressure 2.3...3.0 bar ) is installed in the housing unit underneath the oil/water heat exchanger and is
connected to the oil filter via an oil duct. The ........ is normally closed.
If the oil filter element is clogged, the pressure increase in the oil filter housing causes the ......... to open. This ensures that the
engine remains lubricated, although the engine oil that flows through the filter ........ is not filtered.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Oil Circuit Model Series 900 - Location of the Components; Exercise

142
Oil Circuit Model Series 900 - Location of the Components; Exercise 28.09.2007




Exercise


Assign the corresponding numbers to the
components in the list.
Use the available workshop literature
GF18.00-W-0001A.





1 Oil pan
Oil pump
Oil filter housing
Main oil duct
Camshaft bearing
Rocker arm with oil hole
Rocker arm spindle
Pressure limiting valve
Oil pump strainer with oil intake tube
Oil/water heat exchanger
Oil duct to the cylinder head
Oil pressure line to the turbocharger
Oil spray nozzle
Main bearings/connecting rod bearings of
crankshaft
Rear cross duct for oil
Oil duct to the unit pumps



W18.00-1005-06

09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training

Oil Circuit Model Series 900 - Task and Function; Exercise

143
Oil Circuit Model Series 900 - Task and Function; Exercise 28.09.2007




Exercise

Various valves with very different tasks and functions are included in the oil circuit.
Enter the appropriate valve in the table below.
Use WIS function description GF18.00-W-0001A.


The.................... Tasks and functions

The ..... (opening pressure 0.03...0.07 bar) is located in the oil filter housing and is intended to prevent engine oil flowing back into
the oil ducts or the oil pan when the engine is stationary. As a result, the oil ducts are always filled with engine oil. This ensures
optimal lubrication of the components from the moment the engine is started again.

The ...... is located underneath the oil pump and serves to limit the maximum oil pressure.
If the maximum oil pressure is exceeded, the ........ opens up and lets the engine oil flow directly from the oil pump back into the oil
pan.


The ....... is located in the oil filter housing underneath the oil filter insert and opens when the oil filter cover is removed. This
ensures a clean oil filter change with little environmental pollution since the amount of oil remaining in the filter element at the
time of disposal is reduced.


The ........ (opening pressure 1.8...2.6 bar) is installed at the top in the oil filter element's support dome (oil filter housing). The
........ is normally closed.
If the oil filter element is clogged, the pressure increase in the oil filter housing causes the ......... to open. This ensures that the
engine remains lubricated, although the engine oil that flows through the filter ........ is not filtered.


09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Oil Circuit Model Series 900 - Task and Function; Exercise

144
Oil Cooler- Oil Filter Housing, Model Series 500 - Location of Components; Exercise 28.09.2007




Exercise


Match the numbers to the components in the
graphic.
Use the available workshop literature.


The following components are integrated in the
aluminum die casting housing of this add-on unit:




1 Full-flow oil filter
2 Filter drain valve
3 Filter bypass valve
4 Oil temperature sensor
5 Oil pressure sensor
6 Oil/water heat exchanger (flat-tube)
7 Coolant temperature sensor
8 Connection for bypass filter (outlet)
9 Connection for bypass filter (inlet)
10 Riser
11 Connection for oil circuit filling








N01.20-2020-05






09/07 Trucks Drive train Mechanical Engine Components Model Series 457, 500, 900 Advanced Training
Oil Filter Housing, Model Series 900 - Location of Components; Exercise

145
Oil Filter Housing, Model Series 900 - Location of Components; Exercise 28.09.2007




Exercise


An oil drain valve is installed in the filter housing to
make clean oil changes possible. The task can be
equated to that of the fuel drain valve. But it is
different in terms of location and function.
Identify the components in the graphic.

1 Oil combination sensor
2 Oil drain valve
3 Filter bypass valve
4 Riser
5 Return flow check valve





N18.20-2013-01 N18.20-2021-03

5
4
3
2
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DaimlerChrysler AG
Global Training
HPC Z480
D-70546 Stuttgart

Intranet: http://gt.intra.daimlerchrysler.com








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