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Example: Factor x 2 ! 9 Difference of Perfect squares works when there is a minus sign between two perfect squares. Here we have (x )2 ! (3)2 ANS : ( x + 3)( x ! 3) Example: Factor 25x 2 ! 16 Here we have (5x )2 ! (4)2

Example: ( x + 3)( x ! 2)

( ( First = ( x )( x ) = x 2 ( ( Outer = ( x )(!2) = !2 x ( Inner = (3)( x ) = 3x (( ( ( Last = (3)(!2) = !6 ( Combine "O" & "I" " 1x ( ( ANS : x 2 + x ! 6 ( ( ( =#0%;'/2-(

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ANS : (5 x + 4)(5 x ! 4)

Example : Factor x 2 + 2 x ! 15 What multiplies to 15 and adds to + 2? 1 " 15? No 3 " 5? Yes. To add to + 2 we need + 5 and -3 ANS: ( x + 5)( x ! 3) Check by FOIL

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Example : Simplify 3x + 12 Pulling out is 'reverse distributing.' Find what's in common with each of the term. ANS: 3( x + 4) Example : Simplify 6 x 2 + 36 x Rewriting this as 6 xx + 6(6) x helps us see that there is a 6 x in common. Leave the 6 x on the outside and write what remains on the inside. ( ANS: 6 x( x + 6)

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Example : Factor x 2 ! 7 x + 12 What multiplies to 12 and adds to ! 7? 1 " 12? No. 2 " 6? No. 3 " 4? Yes. To add to ! 7 we need ! 3 and ! 4. ANS: ( x ! 3)( x ! 4)

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Example: FOIL ( x + 3)2 The answer is not x 2 + 9. Rather rewrite as ( x + 3)( x + 3) and FOIL. We get x 2 + 3x + 3x + 9 ! x 2 + 6 x + 9. To save time we can just realize the first and last term are always squared, and the 'O' and 'I' are identical (so it gets doubled). Example: FOIL ( x " 7)2 To save time, we know we have an x in the beginning and a ("7)2 = 49 at the end. In the middle we get " 7 x + "7 x = "14 x (which is double of " 7 x ) Common Quick FOILs ( x + 1)2 = x 2 + 2 x + 1 ( x " 2)2 = x 2 " 4 x + 4 ( x + 3)2 = x 2 + 6 x + 9
2 2 2 2 # $( x ) + 2(1)( x ) + (1) % & 2 2 # $( x ) " 2(2)( x ) + ("2) % & 2 2 # $( x ) + 2(3)( x ) + (3) % & 2 2 2

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F: ( x )( x ) = x 2 O: ( x )(!3) = !3x I: (3)( x ) = 3x L: (3)(!3) = !9 When we have 'conjugates," the 'O' and 'I' cancel out, so we just need to do 'F' and 'L.' This is the reverse of difference of perfect squares. ANS: x 2 ! 9 Example: FOIL (6 x + 2)(6 x ! 2) ANS: 36 x 2 ! 4

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(( ='#0%/;25( ( x+ y+z Example: Simplify z


The answer is not x + y. You can't cancel the z's because there are addition signs between the terms. Rather, divide each term by z: ANS: x y z x y + + ! + +1 z z z z z xyz z

( x " 4) = x " 8 x + 16 # $( x ) " 2(4)( x ) + ("4) % &


2 2 ( x + 5)2 = x 2 + 10 x + 25 # $( x ) + 2(5)( x ) + (5) % & 2 2 ( x + y)2 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 # $( x ) + 2( x )( y) + ( y) % & 2 2 ( x " y)2 = x 2 " 2 xy + y 2 # $( x ) " 2( x )( y) + ( y) % &

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(2 x + 3y)2 = 4 x 2 + 12 xy + 9 y 2
2 2 # $(2 x ) + 2(2 x )(3y) + (3y) % &

Example: Simplify

Here the answer is just xy because the z's do cancel out

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