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Experiment # 4

Objective:
To study the colour coding of resistors.

Apparatus:

DMM

Wires Resistors

Theory:
Resistance: Resistance is the property of a component which restricts the flow of electric current. Energy is used up as the voltage across the component drives the current through it and this energy appears as heat in the component. Resistance is measured in ohms, the symbol for ohm is an omega . is !uite small for electronics so resistances are often given in " and M. " # $$$ % M # $$$$$$. Resistors: & resistor is a physical component used in electrical circuits to provide resistance.& resistor is a passive two'terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor(s terminals.

Thus, the ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor(s terminals to the intensity of current through the circuit is called resistance. This relation is represented by )hm(s law* +# ,-R

where + is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, , is the potential difference measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. Resistor values: . /ometimes the resistance of a resistor is written numerically on the component. . More commonly, it is mar"ed using the resistor colour code which you should commit to memory to help you in lab wor" . The 0 band resistor colour code uses two colour bands for the value 1E 23 and one band for the multiplier 1power of $3. . &nother band, which is spaced apart from the value bands, indicates the component tolerance. . 4or e5ample, a 67 tolerance 1gold band3 resistor is guaranteed to be within 67 of the nominal value. Resistor Markings: Resistance value is mar"ed on the resistor body. Most resistors have 8 bands. The first two bands provide the numbers for the resistance and the third band provides the number of 9eros. The fourth band indicates the tolerance. Tolerance values of 67, 27, and 7 are most commonly available. The following table shows the colors used to identify resistor values* :);)R /ilver <old Alac" Arown Red )range Eellow <reen Alue ,iolet <rey White M=;T+>;+ER 5 $.$ W 5 $. W 5 W 5 $W 5 $$ W 5 "W 5 $ "W 5 $$ "W 5 MW 5 $ MW 5 $$ MW 5 <W T);ER&?:E @ $7 @67 @ 7 @27 @ $$B $'C-D @6$B $'C-D @ 6B $'C-D @26B $'C-D @ $B $'C-D @6B $'C-D @ B $'C-D T:

D+<+T

$ 2 0 8 6 C F G H

@$.67 @$.267 @$. 7

Fixed Resistors: & fi5ed resistor is one in which the value of its resistance cannot change. :arbon film resistors This is the most general purpose, cheap resistor. =sually the tolerance of the resistance value is @67. >ower ratings of -GW, -8W and -2W are fre!uently used. :arbon film resistors have a disadvantageI they tend to be electrically noisy. Metal film resistors are recommended for use in analog circuits. Jowever, + have never e5perienced any problems with this noise. The physical si9e of the different resistors are as follows.

4rom the top of the photograph -GW -8W -2W Metal film Resistors:

Rough si9e Rating power Thic"ness ;ength 1W3 1mm3 1mm3 -G 2 0 -8 2 C -2 0 H

Metal film resistors are used when a higher tolerance 1more accurate value3 is needed. They are much more accurate in value than carbon film resistors. They have about @$.$67 tolerance. They have about @$.$67 tolerance. + don(t use any high tolerance resistors in my circuits. Resistors that are about @ 7 are more than sufficient. ?i':r 1?ichrome3 seems to be used for the material of resistor. The metal film resistor is used for bridge circuits, filter circuits, and low' noise analog signal circuits.

4rom the top of the photograph -GW 1tolerance @ 73 -8W 1tolerance @ 73 W 1tolerance @673 2W 1tolerance @673 ,ariable

Rough si9e Rating power Thic"ness ;ength 1W3 1mm3 1mm3 -G 2 0 -8 2 C 0.6 2 2 6 6 Resistors

There are two general ways in which variable resistors are used. )ne is the variable resistor which value is easily changed, li"e the volume adKustment of Radio. The other is semi'fi5ed resistor that is not meant to be adKusted by anyone but a technician. +t is used to adKust the operating condition of the circuit by the technician. /emi'fi5ed resistors are used to compensate for the inaccuracies of the resistors, and to fine'tune a circuit. The rotation angle of the variable resistor is usually about 0$$ degrees. /ome variable resistors must be turned many times to use the whole range of resistance they offer. This allows for very precise adKustments of their value. These are called L>otentiometersL or LTrimmer >otentiometers.L

+n the photograph to the the variable resistor typically used for volume controls can be seen on the far right. +ts value is very easy to adKust. The four resistors at the center of the photograph are the semi'fi5ed type. These ones are

mounted The two

on resistors

on

the the

left

printed are the

circuit trimmer

board. potentiometers.

This symbol is used to indicate a variable resistor in a circuit diagram. &pplication of Resistors Resistors have their vast applications in the field of Electronics according to their use. They are used to control the flow of electric current as in Rheostat. They are used to control the electric voltage as in >otentiometers. There is a type of resistors named thermistor. The resistance value of the thermistor changes according to temperature.This part is used as a temperature sensor. Resistors are also used in our domestic life,such as a variable resistor is used to regulate the speed of our fans. To get easy and !uic" information, we use colour coding.

Procedure:

&t the very first + determined the colors of bands. Then according to the bands + wrote the readings in table. &ccording to the band color + determined the value of resistor. Then + connected the same resistor to DMM and it showed the value of resistor. Then the difference b-w both the readings were calculated. The difference should be within the range of tolerance. /o tabulate all the readings in the table.

Observations and Calculations:

/r M 2 0 8 6

4irst band Arown Arown )range Arown Eellow

/econd band Alac" Alac" Alac" Alac" Alue

Third band Arown <old Arown Alac" orange

:alculated $$ $N$.2#2 0$$ $ 8C$$$

Measured $2 .2 2HF $. 8C$$$

Tolerance <old <old <old <old <old

Conclusion:
4rom this e5periment we concluded that color coding is an easier and !uic" way to find

resistance of a resistor. There is a very minute difference in measured and calculated value of resistance. ?ormally we come across only four bands. Aut if there is fifth band then it shows the e5pected reliability.