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Illustration: Dresden Codex Page 22

Clifford C. Richey February 2014

It might be helpful to refer to: http://www.scribd.com/doc/125 !"#15/$ni%ersal&Prehistoric&Depicted&'ign&(anguage when reading this paper as it explains the use of )orm* Imager+* ,esture signs* 'tance* allusion and position as used in composing gl+phs.

Illustration 2: Original Composition

Illustration 1: Color Coded

She who carries the dead on her back, Overall Scene or Setting )emale figure with a s-eleton on her bac-. .his is an allusion to the female&earth. The one who waits, 'tance: 'itting indicates waiting. /lso the left strand of 0air is in the )orm of the 1ight 'lanting gesture sign for waiting. His appearance, the one arising, / )ace indicates* his appearance. .he scalp showing between the 2lac- 0air is in the )orm of the sign for arising. Within the darkness, .he 2lac- 0air indicates* darkness. .he sign is positionally, within it. The great changeling, .he )orm of a .adpole made b+ the right side of the part in the hairline. .he .adpole indicates a changeling as it is a creature that changes its form from a fish&li-e being into one 3a )rog4 that has arms and legs and can leap upwards out of the water.

Moving upwards in the darkness, .he $ndulating sign meaning mo%ement that tapers down to a small point that indicates distance/direction below. .he taper of the .ail penetrates through the 'urface (ine of the 3red4 .riangle the 1epresents the 5arth&female. /lso the 'tance or heading of the .adpole is upwards. 6f course tadpoles breathe air and are constantl+ mo%ing up to the surface and bacdown within the water. .his mo%ement as we shall see* ma-es a neat analog with the mo%ement of 7enus. The male-spirit, .he 3gra+4 section of the hair that is in the )orm of the glans penis* the sign for a male-spirit. his is a compound )orm such shapes are often difficult to detect unless one has a good -nowledge of the a%ailable signs.

Illustration !: Color Coded

Taken downwards, .he top of the 3tan4 5ar which is in the 'piral )orm of the sign for taken down. The great one, his location, .he relati%el+ (arge 3+ellow4 5ar 'pool that indicates* greatness. / Circle also indicates* a location. at

The hole, .he 5ar alludes to the orifice of an ear and as such is positioned* on the side On the side, (of the earth The hill, .he 2reast as a metaphor for a hill on the female earth.

Illustration $: he %adius

Illustration #: Color Coded

The Warrior-bone .he 1adius bone of an /rm. .his is indicates the warrior-bone or the warrior"s boney arm. 8e -now the /rm means a warrior but the association made with the 2one is not entirel+ clear. 8e understand the 2one has to do with death but its specific association is un-nown. Perhaps such 2ones were conceptuali9ed as stars that ma+ ha%e been percei%ed as parts of :'-eletons; 3constellations4 in the night s-+. !eneath, positional The Hole, in, The hill, .he 2reast metaphor* again. .he Cur%ed (ine at the base of the 2reast/0ill sign as shown in red in Illustration 5. Turning" #nseen,

.he 3blue4 :$; shaped turning sign. .he Double (ines indicating* unseen. The one, his location, .he small Circle within the turning sign on positional The Hillside"

Illustration &: Color Coded

The $lace, .he <ipple as a place of moisture or wetness % trail of moisture .he dotted line on the 2reast Imager+. On its side" Positional

Illustration +: Color Coded

2ecause of the non&linear nature of the gl+phs we must return to the meaning of the )emale )igure=s 0ead before we are led too far astra+ from the sense of the message. %scending from the edge, of the water source .he upper (ip 3the edge4 of the >outh is in the )orm of the ascending sign. .he >outh* an+ mouth* is the associati%e sign for a water source. Taken upwards from the holes, .he <ose alludes to its dual ori'ices or holes. .he )orm of the <ose is in the shape of an upside&down :'hepard=s Croo-; indicates* taken in the direction of the staff. (aiting, the 1ightward (eaning slant of the 'hape of the 5+e. .he 5+e of the 'un* )enus* within 3positional4 .he 8ater&drop 3a particle o' water4 Moving, developing, slowl&, .he 0air 3a metaphor for growth or de*elopment4 is in the )orm of a 'nail shell and its association of slow mo*ement.

Illustration ,: Color Coded

'n the darkness" .he 2lac- of the 'nail shell. The (&e, )enus, .he 5+e of the 'un* a metaphorical reference to 7enus. 7enus was %iewed as a companion spirit to the 'un* a -ind of ad%ance scout as it arises before the 'un in the east. Waiting .he 1ightward 'lanting (ine of the sign for* waiting. The one, His *ocation, .he small Circle indicating both number one, and a location. Held, unseen, .he Cupped sign for* held as in a bowl. .he Double (ined meaning* between two things or unseen. %s positional 'n a bowl" .he Cur%ed (ine as the sign for* held as in a bowl.

Illustration /: Color Coded

Waiting in the darkness, .he 0and is positioned as connected to the 0air 2raid that is the 1ight 'lanted sign for* waiting. The Steward of the Sun .he 0and* metaphoricall+* a steward or ser*ant o' the -un. %t Hori+ontal-place, / 0ori9ontal&rectangle indicating a hori.ontal-place. .he 'traight (ine of the 0and indicates a surface* in this case the earth=s surface. .he 3white4 .humbnail is a place sign. Held on the surface Stance of the Hand and !ositional. Within, positional The turning-place, )orm: / compound of the 1ectangular hori9ontal&place sign with 1ounded :$; shaped turning sign ends.

Illustration 10: he (asp .he ob?ect held in the 0and connects the association of the 0and 3a steward o' the -un4 with the 1ounded 1ectangle )orm 3a turning-place4. .hus* the steward of the Sun, his turning place" In order to better understand the )orm which is basicall+ a 0ori9ontal&1ectangle with rounded :$; shaped sides indicating* a turning-place and its Imager+* the )ace of a 8asp or 0ornet 3a de'ender o' the hi*e/community4. 8e need to tease out the 2asic ,esture 'igns that compose the compounded )orm and Imager+. The defender of the communit&, 8hat ma-es these signs particularl+ difficult to read is that such superimposed signs tend to brea- up the )orm. .he two ma?or signs are the 3+ellow4 (arge .umi @nife and the (arge 3brown4 :$; shaped sign. .he .umi @nife represents a great 3relati%e si9e4 ray o' the -un. .his was a metaphor made with ra+s of the 'un cutting the face of the earth 3i. e. ma-ing crac-s in the soil as it dries4. .he :$; represents turning positionall+ below" The great ra& of the Sun, .he 3brown4 :$; shaped turning sign is positionall+ below the .umi @nife and also below the 3green4 'traight (ine that represents a sur'ace which in this case* is the earth=s surface. .he turning sign connects the underworld to the 3blue4 arc of the s-+ that is* positionall+* abo*e it. His turning from below the surface, to the sk& above, 8e now turn to the 3red4 Cur%ed (ines that are in the )orm of the sign for arising. In accordance with the rules of gesture signing the (eft hand side represents the direction* east while the 1ight hand side indicates the west. His arising(s in the east and west" )inall+* we see the two 'mall Circles touching each other indicating. together as one or united. .he Circles* of course* represent the dual meaning of* the 3numerical4 the one and his 3positional4 location. The one, His location, The two, together, as one in the arch of the sk&, above, 2eneath the 3green4 surface (ine are two 7ertical&1ectangles indicating* *ertical-places. .hese signs are also ?oined together meaning* they are as one. .he+ are also positioned as below especially in relation to the locational signs in the s-+. !elow, the two vertical places united as one"

Illustration 11: Color Coded

8e will now mo%e on to the <ec-lace and its meaning. %waiting, .he 'tance of the 2eads of the <ec-lace is in the )orm of a 1ight 'lanted (ine that indicates* waiting. The ones who will emerge, .he 5gg )orms that hold the association for a birth or an emergence. .he connection with the 0air ma-e be an analog made with the 5ggs of lice that hatch there.

Illustration 12: Color Coded

The Warrior, .he /rm in the sense of arms and armor+. The one, his location .he Circle On the surface, positional The house, .he 3light green4 'Auare shape represents a house. .he house ma+ relate to the domain of the 5arth&female. 2ut in this context it is more li-el+ that the house referenced the (ineage of the 'tewards of the 'un The one, his location, .he Circle at The center" Positional* in the middle The "any levels .he 3green4 0ori9ontal&place signs in a %ertical series Ble*els. .he count of three is shorthand for the many.

Illustration 1!: Color Coded

Taken down the sides .he 3+ellow4 :'hepherdCs Croo-s; .he 0oo- indicating* taken and the direction is indicated b+ the 'taff. #nseen, .he Double (ines of the signs. in The east and the west .he (eft and 1ight hand sides in gesture signing. The steward of the Sun, .he 0and of the 'un* a steward of the sun* a 'un&priest Held down, 'tance of the 0and

Illustration 1#: Color Coded

at The vertical-places, .he two 3green4 7ertical 1ectangles or %ertical&places signs. .he )ingernails of the hand are also place signs but seem somewhat somewhat redundant. The vertical-place, .he 3light green4 *ertical-place sign with holes 3as %iewed from the side4 positionall+* That has, Holes, .he 3tan47ertical 0alf Circle or side sign positioned at the 1nee as a kind o' 2inge That Open and close" On its side" Here, below, .he part of the sole of the )oot that is %isible. It is in the )orm of a 'e%ered )inger pointing a direction* downward and on the side" on the underside,

The underworld, His location" the great one, .he (arge .oe as a* relati%el+* (arge Circle that indicates the great one, his location, followed b+ the 7ertical 'eries* as levels* of smaller circles. .he count of the )our small Circles indicates the )our Directions or ever&where" The ones, their locations, (ver&where,

Illustration 1$: he -kirt o' the 3arth'emale

.he '-irt or covering of the earth&female. .he 3red4 .riangular )orm indicates the earth-female" .his followed b+ the 3+ellow4 Double (ines that indicates* unseen or hidden. .he (ines are $ndulated indicating* motion or movement" .he 3green4 6uter 2and is the same as the :,arter; on the (eg except it had more signs go holes* positionall+* on the side" .he Count of the holes is 'ix but unfortunatel+ we are not aware of the association that was connected with that number. The ,overing, Of the earth-female, The unseen, movement, The holes, The si-, (. On the side (of the earth "

Illustration 1&: he -keleton, he 4ead One

8e now mo%e on to the Imager+ of the '-eleton* the dead, one. on the bac- of the earth. .he 'tance of the '-eleton is one of 'itting meaning* waiting" /t the 0ead we see a 3dar- green4 Image of a )rog=s 0ead.* the associati%e for* the one who leaps upwards" .he 3dar- green4 Cur%ed sign is the sign for a cave, a metaphor for the womb of the earth-female. .he )rog=s 5+es* in the (eft and 1ight side of the 0ead are the gesture sign directions for the east and the west. .he 'tance of the 5+es are* positioned* on the roof of the cave or* in other words* the surface of the earth* looking upwards 3to the s-+4. The dead one, The one who waits, On the back-side, of The earth-female, The one who leaps upwards,

Illustration 1+: he -keleton, he 4ead One

*ooking upwards, from The womb of the earth, The (&e of the Sun, )enus, The one, his location, %t a vertical-place, 'n The east and the west" .he 3tan4* compounded* profile )aces refer to the two faces of )enus and the association is* the one #as the t$o Face !rofiles are co"bine into one%, his two appearances. .he 'tance of the )aces are loo-ing to the (eft 3the east4 and 1ight 3the west4. <ote that the westward loo-ing profile )ace has no 5+e 3)enus is not seen in the west4. 0owe%er* there is a (arge 5+e on the eastern side. .he* relati%el+* (arge 5+e* the great )enus in the east" .he Circle* The one, his location* .he 5+e has a Pupil* a 7ertical 1ectangle positioned within it* that indicates* a vertical-place" %bove, !ositionally the &ye is a sign that alludes to the &yebro$. 's Hair it re!resents growth or development" His two appearances, 'n the east and west,

The (&e of the Sun, )enus / metaphor made with 7enus as the 5+e of the 'un as it arises before the 'un as a -ind of 'cout. 'n the east, .he 5+e positioned on the Profile )ace that loo-s eastward. % vertical-place, .he 7ertical 1ectangle that ser%es as the Pupil of the 5+e. His growth, .he sign abo%e the 5+e alludes to the 5+ebrow. .he 5+ebrow* as 0air* indicates growth and de*elopment. Within the womb, Positional* the Cur%ed Ca%e sign was a metaphor related to the womb of the earth& female. The one, his location" .he Circle within the ca%e sign.

Illustration 1,: he -keleton, he 4ead One

/rom The Water source, .he >outh representing a source of water. The one, his location, .he small Circle that ser%es as one of the .eeth. !roken up, .he .eeth that chew things up or brea- them into smaller particles.

'n the underworld, .he hori9ontal 0alf&Circle that ser%es as the underside or underworld sign. /lso ser%es as one of the two .eeth. %rising, .he Cur%ed arising sign that begins at the upper (ip of the >outh and terminates on the side of the 5+e. /rom The dual holes, .he allusion to the <ose or <ostrils as an area ha%ing dual holes.

Illustration 1/: -keleton 5idsection

The (a$)bone The One that opens and ,loses, .he Dawbone %iewed as a 0inge that opens and closes. Taken down .he 3+ellow4 :'hepherd=s Croo- sign the cur%ed section indicating* taken and the 'taff indicating the direction* here. Here, Waiting, The eastern side, .he 3tan4 )inger points to the (eft* the east. .he 1ightward /ngle of the )inger&tip indicates* waiting. !elow, Positional* 'n The underworld" .he small 0alf&Circle that is the sign for the underside or underworld.

Illustration 20: -keleton 5idsection

.he >idsection of the '-eleton is Auite complicated. It contains an allusion to the 5ar 3the hole on the side4 that has an o%erla+ of a st+li9ed (ittle 'erpent 3a ri*ulet4 that was commonl+ depicted in area of the ear. .his section contains the )orm of the <umber 5ight 3that is also a sign language /ssociation for spirit4 albeit in the )orm of a 1ightward 'lanted angle that indicates* waiting. /nother* compound* 3blue4 sign cuts across the <umber 5ight to )orm the 3E4 shaped sign for* trans'ormation. .he .hree Circular )orms of the <umber 6ne indicates the sign for many while the Imager+ is that of 5+es. 2ut that is not all* part of the <umber 5ight creates the 3green4 Imager+ of the )ace of a )rog that is in contact with the 3+ellow4 compound sign below it that represents the* place o' the star. 8e will attempt to unra%el this complicated message. It seems to be a focal point for a ma?or part of the message related to the '-eleton. 8e will begin with the 2ar 354 and the F Circles that indicate the <umber hree for a total of 3ight. .he association for the <umber 5ight is* spirit. .his was based on the asteris- li-e sign for spirit that has eight lines 3as opposed to the " lines of an asteris-4 intersecting at a center point. .he 5ight* the spirit, waiting place. .he (ong 2ar of the <umber is also a sign for a stretched out place* a 3green4 0ori9ontal&1ectangle* a hori.ontal-place or the land"s sur'ace.

Illustration 21: 6waiting -piritrans'ormation

The (ight, The spirit, waiting place, .he <umber G plus its 1ightward (eaning 'tance that means* waiting. of Transformation, .he (eaning :E; )orm represent and exchange or transformation

Illustration 22: -keleton 5idsection

Positionall+* below the surface is the Imager+ of .hree 5+es* the 3yes o' the -un, the many. .he Pupils of the 5+es ha%e the 'tance of looking downward. he 3yes are connected by a 4otted 7ine that indicates a trail o' moisture. .he 5+es are composed of the upside down Double (ined 3unseen4 :$; shaped turning sign and the Circular, the one, his location The (spirit (&es of the Sun, the man&, Turning, unseen, On the trail of moisture, !elow, The land0s surface" .he .wo leftmost 5+es )orm part of the )ace of a )rog* the one who leaps upward. .he area between the )rog=s 5+es is a compound* hori.ontal-arising-place sign. .he ends of the 1ectangular place sign was composed of the cur%ed and %ertical* arising sign. .he base of the sign has the dotted (ines for a trail o' moisture. .he 5+es of the )rog 3his )ace* his appearance4 are part of the arising signs and are* positionall+* on the trail of moisture.. .hus the meaning is the place o' the arising o' the 3ye o' the -un, )enus positionall+ on the (eft and the 1ight* the east and west. His appearance, The One who leaps upward, on The trail of moisture, Of %rising, 'n the east and west"

Illustration 2!: -keleton 5idsection

.he (ower portion of the )rog=s )ace is an 6%al sign that indicates* all or e*erything. Positionall+, within this sign is a small Circle* the one, his location. .his sign alludes to the )rog=s <ose 3its <ostrils or dual holes4. .he Dotted trail o' moisture sign has a count of )i%e Dots. .his indicates the )our Directions plus one in the middle* in other words* the center. .he Circle is also positioned at the center. (ver&thing, Within, The dual holes, The one, his location, %t The center, Of The trail of moisture"

Illustration 2#: -keleton 5idsection

.he next sign is the 3blue4 compound sign that has the unseen turning sign at its base and positionall+* abo*e it a 1ightward 'lanting 1ectangular&place sign representing a waiting-place. .he sign terminates in a 1ectangular or hori.ontal-place sign. The unseen, turning, !elow, The waiting-place, The hori+ontal-place, %bove"

Illustration 2$: -keleton 5idsection

.he hori9ontal&place or surface&place sign is within the lower part of the 3blue4 (ittle 'erpent )orm. .he 'erpent represents a stream of water. In this case the 'mall 'erpent indicates* a ri*ulet. .he placement of the 'erpent )orm alludes to the area of the 5ar which is an orifice or hole* positionall+* on the side. .he )orm of the 'erpent appears to ha%e been composed of two :$; shaped* turning signs. .he lower turning sign has a small* 3+ellow4 side* sign attached to it. .he upper turning sign has a subtle bump in it that ser%es to locate the area of an 5+e in the 'erpent=s head. 2oth :$; shaped signs connect with the area of the >outh 3a water-source4 of the 1ight 3west4 facing profile head or )ace. The rivulet, Turning, #nseen, On the side, %t The water-source" Within, The hole, On the side, Turning, unseen, %t The water-source,

Illustration 2&: -keleton 5idsection

.he )rog represents one that has completed its transformation. he one trans'ormed. .he 3blue4 place sign also crosses through the 3green4 place sign and indicates crossing through the sur'ace o' the land. The one transformed, ,rossing through, The surface" Connected to the base of the )rog=s mouth* the water-source* we see the 3+ellow4 compound sign for place and star. he place o' the star. .he Cur%ature of the @nee and upper (eg create the )orm of the arising sign. .he star&place sign also touches the 3blac-4 'trand of 0air positioning the star&place in the darkness and on the side. The place of the star, %rising 'n The darkness, On the side"

Illustration 2+: -keleton 5idsection

Directl+ below this and mimic-ing the arising )orm is a series of Dots indicating a trail o' moisture stemming from the (ong (ine that represents the sur'ace. .his ends with a small Circle that represents. the one, his location. %rising, from, The surface, On % trail of moisture, The one, his location"

Illustration 2,: he (arrior 8one

0ere we see another radius of the /rm but much (arger 3great4 than the earlier depiction in this paper. 3blue4 he great warrior-bone is is shown with its (eftward 'loping end 3stopped4 that touches upon the 3blac-* in the blac-ness or darkness4 'trand of 0air. 6n the other side of the 'trand of 0air is the )orm of a 8ater&drop indicating a particle o' water. .he two mar-s on the 2one are two small to see clearl+ and thus are not translated

Illustration 2/: he (arrior 8one

2elow it is a 3green4 place sign across the 3blac-* darkness4 'trand is a 3gra+4 male&spirit sign that is based on the )orm of the glans penis. 2elow this the 'trand of 0air crosses through the sur'ace (ine of the 3red4 3arth-'emale sign. .his 'trand of 0air is positioned as in the center o' the earth"s sur'ace (ine. The place, On the side, The dark center, The male-spirit, On the side" The crossing through, The surface, The center, Of The earth-female" .he center of the earth was a cosmological site held in re%erence b+ the >a+a and other ancient people as the portal where the subterranean water crossed through the earth=s surface allowing the spirits within the water to arise to the male s-+Hthe abode of the ancestor spirits. /long side the 3red4 .riangular 5arth&female sign is the )orm of an elongated 8ater& drop or water-particle. .his represents a stretching or sliding o' the water-particle downward where it is stopped 3the* pin-* (eftward (eaning (ine4 on the side o' the 3pin-4 .riangle whose )orm indicates* the 3arth-'emale. .o the 1ight 3west4 of the abo%e signs is the '-eleton=s (eg and )oot meaning* a long wal- or 9ourney. .he (eg and )oot are positionall+ below the 3blue4 /rm&bone.

Illustration !0: he (arrior 8one

The sliding water-particle, Stopped, The 1ourne&" !elow, On the side, (ithin the (eg/)oot are .wo Circles* the one, his location, on the trail o' moisture, abo*e and below. .he trail is positioned as in the center. .he 2ig .oe of the )oot is a (eftward (eaning 7ertical 1ectangle indicating, stopped, at a *ertical-place. .he )oot meaning* a 9ourney has .oes depicted as a* compound* )orm for turning and the 'aw& toothed sign for, water. .he (eg&)oot is also leftward leaning indicating* stopped. The one, his location, %t the center, %bove and below" The 1ourne&, Stopped, %t % )ertical-place, 'n The turning, Water"

Illustration !1: he (arrior 8one

)inall+* we return to the 3blue4 8arrior&bone where a 'ha-+ (ine stems from its sur'ace and alludes to the 'pinal column. .his (ine arises to the Imager+ of an 5+e abo%e. .he 'ha-+ (ine represents a mysterious power.1 /rom the surface, The m&sterious power, of The (&e of the Sun, )enus, %rising" 8e found some problems around determining the meaning for some )orm and imager+. .he /ssociation that was made with the radius or arm bone is not -nown as well as what meaning was connected with the spinal column. 8e do not -now what the <umber 5ight referred to aside from its /ssociational meaning of spirit. .here was also a problem of finding the correct order for the section around the chest of the s-eleton. .he are so man+ o%erla+ing signs in this area that -nowing which le%el to read first is difficult. Despite these problems we were able to glean the general meaning of the composition as a cosmological statement related to the spirit of a deceased warrior. .his in%ol%ed his ?ourne+ down the side of the earth* his spirit&transformation 3possibl+ referring to his transformation from female&spirit to male&spirit4. 0e returns to the surface of the earth and then arises though the m+sterious power in%ol%ed in his ascent as .he 5+e of the 'un* 7enus.
1 .om-ins* 8illiam Indian 'ign (anguage* Do%er Publications* <ew Ior-*1J"J. p. # K !G. .here are two signs described b+ .om-ins for medicine. 6ne is a two line spiral abo%e the head of the signer and the other is composed of sha-+ lines. >edicine is described as a m+sterious or un-nown power.