Você está na página 1de 19

Cloning Around

Subject: Biology Grade: 9-12 Time: 90 minutes

Objectives: Students will: Understand the role of democratic decision making in accommodating human dignity and freedom of thought in the areas of science, medicine, and public health. earn the issues raised by genetic cloning and the scientific and public policy terms used to discuss this area of science. !"plore the tensions bet#een the protection of human dignity and the alle$iation of human suffering raised in the discussion of therapeutic cloning of human cells. %naly&e the reasons supporting and opposing therapeutic cloning of human cells. 'dentify areas of agreement and disagreement #ith other students. (ecide, indi$idually and as a group, #hether the go$ernment should permit therapeutic cloning of human cells) support decisions based on e$idence and sound reasoning. *eflect on the $alue of deliberation #hen deciding issues in a democracy. 'nternet+computer access ,andout 1 - .ros and /ons of /loning ,andout 2 - ,uman /loning .rocess ,andout 0 - !thical 'ssues of /loning ,andout 1 - .ros+/ons 'nde" 2heet 3to be gi$en to students on inde" cards4 5ocabulary ist 2tudent %rgumentation 2heet %rt 6aterial

Materials Needed:

Deliberation Question: Should our democracy permit therapeutic cloning of human cells?

Procedure: 1. 310 minutes4 2tudents discuss the follo#ing 7uestions 3#ritten on the board prior to class4: 8hat do you think about the idea of cloning 3or creating an e"act copy of4 humans9 8hat positi$e effects could this ha$e9 8hat negati$e effects could this ha$e9 :he teacher makes t#o columns on the board, one labeled ;positi$e< and one labeled ;negati$e,< under #hich he or she #rites student responses during this brainstorm. 2tudents should e"plain their ans#ers thoroughly. :he teacher #ill go o$er $ocabulary #ords to ensure that the students understand the meaning of the terminology that #ill be used in this e"ercise. 2. 3= minutes4 :he teacher #ill sho# the students a po#erpoint on cloning that #ill include a $ideo on ho# cloning takes place. :he po#erpoint #ill include key terms as #ell as information for the assignment. http:++youtube+hepo>g?>t@c - cloning $ideo 0. 300 minutes4 :ell students that each of them should decide for herself or himself #hich side of the issue to support. 2tudents #ill be placed in groups. :he groups should then plan a public ser$ice ad$ertisement campaign for or against cloning. :he teacher #ill pro$ide e"ample of ad for students. a. !ncourage students to use attention-grabbing images and snappy yet informati$e language in their ads. 2uggest that they might find models of such images and language in other public ser$ice ad$ertisements, such as the ones that discourage people from smoking. .oint out that student ad campaigns can take the form of posters, buttons, pamphlets, tele$ision or radio spots, and maga&ine or ne#spaper ad$ertisements. b. ,a$e students choose #hich side they #ill be on, think through their arguments, and list #hat they belie$e to be the strongest points in their arguments. :eacher #ill help place students into groups based on their decision. c. %llo# class time for students to create their ad campaigns, utili&ing their lists. :he teacher #ill pro$ide handouts and inde" cards #ith information pertaining to cloning for students to use in their ad. 1. 31= minutes4 %llo# class time for each group to present or display their campaign ad. Closure: 320 minutes4 'n$ite the class to $ote on #hich three campaigns are the most effecti$e, #hether for or against cloning. (iscuss #hat makes the #inning campaigns effecti$e. 's it the compelling logic of the arguments, the persuasi$e 7uality of the language, the forceful 7uality of the $isual images9

Assessment: (10 minutes4:he students #ill #rite a summary based on their campaign ads that are to include the claim, e$idence, reasoning and rebuttal. AThree points: compelling logical arguments, strong persuasi$e language, forceful $isual images ATwo points: logical arguments, sufficiently persuasi$e language, ade7uate $isual images AOne point: some #eak arguments, insufficiently persuasi$e language, inade7uate $isual images !tension: 1. 8rite a short story or brief drama imagining that you are cloned, discussing ho# you #ould relate to your clone or clones and ho# daily life #ould change for you. 2. (iscuss the e"act science of cloning. 8hat e"actly is cloned, and ho# do cells that are cloned then create a duplicate of the parent cell9 8hat aspects of the ne# being are not cloned9 3e.g., personality, thoughts, memories4 0. Cloning in t"e Ne#s :he U.2. go$ernment is currently #orking fast and furiously to pass #hate$er la#s are necessary to pre$ent or delay human cloning e"perimentation in the United 2tates. ,a$e your students research the steps that the president and /ongress are taking to make this happen, as #ell as any current cloning e"periments that are under #ay. 8hen they ha$e gathered their information, ask them to synthesi&e #hat they ha$e learned into a ne#s briefing for a local tele$ision station. 6ake sure they summari&e all of the important de$elopments and present them in a clearly #ritten report. Attributions: http:++###.lessonplanet.com+lesson-plans+cloning http:++###.disco$eryeducation.com+teachers+free-lesson-plans+the-cloneage.cfm http:++###.bu&&le.com+articles+human-cloning-process.html http:++###.bu&&le.com+articles+pros-and-cons-of-cloning.html http:++###.yale.edu+ynhti+curriculum+units+2001+1+01.01.01.".htmlBg

$andout % & Pros and Cons o' Cloning


8hen (olly, the first cloned sheep came in the ne#s, cloning interested the masses. @ot only researchers but e$en common people became interested in kno#ing about ho# cloning is done and #hat pros and cons it has. !$eryone became more curious about ho# cloning could benefit the common man. 6ost of us #ant to kno# the pros and cons of cloning, its ad$antages and its potential risks to mankind. et us understand them. Pros o' Cloning /loning finds applications in genetic fingerprinting, amplification of (@% and alteration of the genetic makeup of organisms. 't can be used to bring about desired changes in the genetic makeup of indi$iduals thereby introducing positi$e traits in them, as also for elimination of negati$e traits. /loning can also be applied to plants to remo$e or alter defecti$e genes, thereby making them resistant to diseases. /loning may find applications in de$elopment of human organs, thus making human life safer. ,ere #e look at some of the potential ad$antages of cloning. Organ Replacement: 'f $ital organs of the human body can be cloned, they can ser$e as backup systems for human beings. /loning body parts can ser$e as a lifesa$er. 8hen a body organ such as a kidney or heart fails to function, it may be possible to replace it #ith the cloned body organ. Substitute for Natural Reproduction: /loning in human beings can pro$e to be a solution to infertility. /loning can ser$e as an option for producing children. 8ith cloning, it #ould be possible to produce certain desired traits in human beings. 8e might be able to produce children #ith certain 7ualities. 8ouldnCt that be close to creating a man-made being9D Help in Genetic Research: /loning technologies can pro$e helpful to researchers in genetics. :hey might be able to understand the composition of genes and the effects of genetic constituents on human traits, in a better manner. :hey #ill be able to alter genetic constituents in cloned human beings, thus simplifying their analysis of genes. /loning may also help us combat a #ide range of genetic diseases. Obtain Specific Traits in Organisms: /loning can make it possible for us to obtain customi&ed organisms and harness them for the benefit of society. 't can ser$e as the best means to replicate animals that can be used for research purposes. 't can enable the genetic alteration of plants and animals. 'f positi$e changes can be brought about in li$ing beings #ith the help of cloning, it #ill indeed be a boon to mankind. Cons o' Cloning ike e$ery coin has t#o sides, cloning has its flip side too. :hough cloning may #ork #onders in genetics, it has potential disad$antages. /loning, as you kno#, is copying or replicating biological traits in organisms. :hus it might reduce the di$ersity in

nature. 'magine multiple li$ing entities like one anotherD %nother con of cloning is that it is not clear #hether #e #ill be able to bring all the potential uses of cloning into reality. .lus, thereCs a big 7uestion of #hether the common man #ill afford harnessing cloning technologies to his benefit. ,ere #e look at the potential disad$antages of cloning. Detrimental to Genetic Di ersity: /loning creates identical genes. 't is a process of replicating a genetic constitution, thus hampering the di$ersity in genes. 8hile lessening the di$ersity in genes, #e #eaken our ability of adaptation. /loning is also detrimental to the beauty that lies in di$ersity. !n itation to "alpractices: 8hile cloning allo#s man to tamper #ith genetics in human beings, it also makes deliberate reproduction of undesirable traits, a probability. /loning of body organs might in$ite malpractices in society. #ill this Technology Reach the $ommon "an?: 'n cloning human organs and using them for transplant, or in cloning human beings themsel$es, technical and economic barriers #ill ha$e to be considered. 8ill cloned organs be cost-effecti$e9 8ill cloning techni7ues really reach the common man9 "an% a "an&made 'eing?: 6oreo$er, cloning #ill put human and animal rights at stake. 8ill cloning fit into our ethical and moral principles9 't #ill make man Eust another man-made being. 8onCt it de$alue mankind9 8onCt it demean the $alue of human life9

$andout ( ) $uman Cloning Process


/loning is the creation of an e"act genetic copy of any organism. :here e"ist different kinds of cloning processes #hich are important in the decision of legal and ethical issues. Before #e speak of the technical matters, there are a fe# things that need understanding. :he @eed for ,uman /loning Fne of the key issues that science thro#s up through genetic engineering is making a better tomorro#, or in fact, impro$ing the fla#s gifted by @ature so #e are promised better offspring. :he bottom line here remains that there has to be complete human control o$er genetics in order to Eustify the scientific procedure of cloning. :here are a multitude of such Eustifications that are put up and here are some that are the typical e"amples: 1..eople can ha$e clones of themsel$es #ho are carbon copies and can do more of their #ork and achie$e more in the #orld. 2.:he lines of death and life can be blurred as anybody can be easily replaced by a genetically identical clone. 0.2ickness can be cured because the same kind of marro#, blood type, etc., #ill be easily a$ailable #ith a clone. 1./lones can be produced #ith lo#er or higher mental capacities that #ould be similar to human robots for performing speciali&ed tasks or e$en labor. =.?enetic disorders can be curbed and e$en remo$ed #ith this process. G.2cientific curiosity can be satisfied and one #ill be able to learn from scientific disco$eries. :he .rocess of /loning /loning is a method actually HclonedH from a process that occurs in nature commonly seen in bacteria #hich multiply by splitting themsel$es in half and each of the cells are complete organisms by themsel$es #hich share the same (@% 3deo"yribonucleic acid4. :hese bacteria reproduce ase"ually but are genetically similar and thus are clones of each other in all respects. ,o#e$er, during se"ual reproduction, the process is $ery different #hen the nucleus of a sperm cell carrying the male (@% impregnates the nucleus of the egg cell containing the female (@%. :he resulting offspring thus carries genetic traits from both parents e$en if they themsel$es are not identical to the parents.

'n the process of cloning, to create the cloned cells, there e"ists differing methods that depend on the kinds of cells to be cloned and the results desired. /loning an animal is $ery different from cloning a human gene. 8hen cloning an animal, a nucleus of a cell containing chromosomes made up of (@% protein is placed into an egg cell or oocyte from #hich the nucleus has been remo$ed. :his egg cell di$ides to produce the embryo that in turn de$elops into the animal. :hus cloning an animal in$ol$es creating an e"act genetic copy of the parent cells. :his techni7ue is called nuclear transfer or nuclear transplantation. ,o#e$er, the process of cloning humans the gene is needed to be first isolated from the genome and this (@% se7uence is copied into a smaller piece of (@%, for e"ample a plasmid. :his separation makes comple" beings simpler to reciprocate through cloning.

T*+es o' Cloning Tec"nologies 1.(@% cloning or *ecombinant (@% technology 2.*eproducti$e /loning 0.:herapeutic /loning

t"ical ,ssues :he third process of cloning raises some 7uestions about the abstract, about the interference #ith @ature and #ith ?od. :his #as the theological argument by *ichard 2eed that #e as humans are Eustified in controlling our destiny and our reproducti$e process. ,o#e$er, .resident /linton countered this argument #ith another theological debate #hile banning the process of cloning, saying that #e are trying to Hplay ?odH. 'n fact, this is the $ery argument that bans human cloning in many countries. Bioethics remains a hot topic of debate bet#een the scientific community and $arious organi&ations and indi$iduals #orld#ide. :he #ay that the proponents of cloning humans go, #e are indeed trying to play ?od. >ust as most in$entions used for destruction #ere ne$er meant to be for that purpose, the process of human cloning that seems to ha$e a clean agenda can easily turn tables to become a reason for destruction and 7uick riches. !ugenic e"periments of this sort, though, #ould underline the autonomous choice but they are also demeaning to humans besides being plain selfish and odious, they may pro$e o$ertly dangerous in the #rong hands. ,uman cloning remains a scientific miracle and #hile #e ha$e successfully cloned animals, #e must at the same time, focus on the fact that on the other hand #e are constantly abusing @ature. @othing can sa$e us from e"tinction if #e destroy #hat #e

ha$e, e$en if #e think of regeneration through the miracle of science. 't is thus more important to channeli&e our energies and resources into benefiting the human society.

$andout - ) t"ical ,ssues o' Cloning


'n the mo$ie >urassic .ark, based on the best-selling book of the same name by 6ichael /richton, scientists clone dinosaurs by using the (@% that #as preser$ed for millions of years. ,o#e$er, there is trouble #hen the cloned dinosaurs turn out fiercer and smarter than e"pected. /an dinosaurs really be cloned9 :heoretically, they can) all that #ould be re7uired is (@% from an e"tinct dinosaur and a currently li$ing closely related species #hich #ould act as a surrogate mother. 'n fact, there is ongoing research to clone the 8oolly 6ammoth by e"tracting the (@% from fro&en animals. %ctually, cloning is a phenomenon that occurs naturally in a #ide $ariety of species from aphids to armadillos, to poplar trees, to bacteria. 8hene$er you see a pair of identical t#ins, they are e"amples of natureCs clones. %lthough scientists ha$e been cloning certain organisms like the carrot 7uite successfully for decades, attempts to clone animals ha$e not been as successful. ,o#e$er, they began long before the birth of (olly, the sheep - the first mammal to be successfully cloned. :here #ere sporadic successes at cloning other animals, like // 3abbre$iation for CcopycatC4, the first cat to be cloned, an %sian gaur, an endangered species, #hich Bessie, a co#, ga$e birth to, and #ay back in the 19G0sC, frogs being cloned, albeit #ith limited success. 'n fact, in the 19I0s, some companies tried commerciali&ing the cloning of li$estock by the process of taking the nuclei from fetuses and embryos. :hese efforts generally resulted in failure because the ne#borns usually did not sur$i$e for long due to being unhealthy. i$estock cloning, currently, is still in the process of research. ,o#e$er, it is generally accepted that in time the scientific $iability of producing healthy clones #ill become a reality. %lthough cloning other species does gi$e rise to some misgi$ings, #hether re$i$ing e"tinct or endangered species, or to reproduce a dead pet, the prospect of cloning humans artificially is one of the most contro$ersial debates that the human species has been pondering about, raising a number of ethical issues in$ol$ed. 'n fact, the social impact of producing humans artificially #as brilliantly e"plored in the famous no$el Bra$e @e# 8orld by %ldous ,u"ley, and also in the mo$ie :he 'sland. ,uman cloning is basically about creating a genetically identical replica of a pre$iously e"isting or e"isting person. 8hy #ould anybody opt to clone human beings9 8ell, generally, it #ill be one more option by #hich infertile couples can ha$e children. *eplacing a deceased child is also another reason #hy some people ha$e e"pressed interest in the procedure. :here are $arious methods of human cloning: embryo cloning, reproducti$e cloning and therapeutic cloning. :here is another method kno#n as replacement cloning, #hich at present e"ists only in theory. 't is a combination of both reproducti$e and therapeutic cloning. *eplacement cloning in$ol$es replacing a body that has been e"tensi$ely damaged, or has failed, or is in the process of failing, follo#ed by transplanting the brain either partially or entirely. :his procedure has been proEected as a #ay of greatly e"tending human lifespan.

(mbryo $loning: 'n this procedure, identical t#ins are produced, basically by reproducing ho# t#ins are created naturally. % fe# cells are e"tracted from a fertili&ed embryo, #hich are induced to de$elop into duplicate embryos. :he t#ins that are thus formed ha$e identical (@%. %lthough this procedure has been used on $arious animal species, there has been only limited e"perimentation done on humans. Reproducti e $loning: 'n this procedure, the (@% is remo$ed from an o$um and replaced #ith the (@% e"tracted from a cell taken from an adult animal. @e"t, the fertili&ed o$um, #hich is called a pre-embryo no#, is implanted in a #omb, #hich then de$elops into a ne# animal. :hus, this procedure basically produces a duplicate of an e"isting person. Based on studies done on animals, it results in animals being born #ith se$ere genetic defects. :his is the main reason #hy many in the medical field think it to be a profoundly unethical procedure to be carried out on humans. 't is specifically banned in many countries. ,o#e$er, there are rumors that this procedure has been used successfully to initiate a pregnancy by the contro$ersial 'talian embryologist, (r 2e$erino %ntinori. Therapeutic $loning: :he initial stages of this procedure are practically the same as *eproducti$e /loning. ,o#e$er, in this, the stem cells are e"tracted from the preembryo, #ith the intention of generating a #hole organ or tissue, so that it can be transplanted back into the person #ho ga$e the (@%. :he pre-embryo, ho#e$er, dies during the process. :he aim is to create a healthy organ or tissue of a sick person, in order to transplant it into them, instead of relying on organs from other people. :his eliminates the need of #aiting lists for organs, and since the organ has the same (@% as the donor, there is no need to take immunosuppressi$e drugs, as is re7uired no# after transplantation. %t this nascent stage of cloning, there is no consensus yet about the ethical issues that are thro#n up by the process of the destruction of human embryos, so that stem cells can be collected. 6any conser$ati$e /hristians and others concerned about the ethical issues, think that the embryo is e7ui$alent to a human being right at conception, and should be gi$en the same rights. 2ince the process in$ol$ed in the remo$al of (@% is similar to the process of con$entional conception, because both create a pre-embryo, it is thought that the pre-embryo is a human person. 'n therapeutic cloning, the process of e"tracting stem cells, therefore, is e7ui$alent to murdering the human being. *eligious and ethically conser$ati$e people think it is ethically #rong to kill one person so that another personCs life can be e"tended or sa$ed. Fthers, ho#e$er, are of the opinion that the embryo does not re7uire any particular moral consideration, because at the stage #hen it is cloned, it is Eust a bunch of cells that contain (@%, and are not $ery different from the millions of skin cells that #e shed e$ery day. :he embryonic cells at that stage cannot be considered e7ui$alent to a human being because it does not ha$e a brain, thoughts, self-a#areness, memory, a#areness of its en$ironment, sensory organs, internal organs, legs, arms, and so on. :hey think that the embryo attains human personhood much later during gestation, perhaps at the point #hen the brain de$elops so that it becomes a#are of itself.

.ocabular* /ist
/lone (efinition: %n e"act genetic replica of a li$ing being. /onte"t: :#o human clones #ould ha$e the same genetic structure, but they #ould probably ha$e different personalities. !mbryology - (efinition: :he study of the de$elopment of the indi$idual from egg to birth or hatching. /onte"t: !mbryologists are crucial to the de$elopment of cloning technology. !thical (efinition: *elating to or in$ol$ing 7uestions of right and #rong. /onte"t: :he idea of cloning human beings raises ethical and moral concerns. ?enes (efinition: :he building blocks of (@%, #hich ser$e as transmitters of hereditary characteristics. /onte"t: ?enes control the transmission of hereditary traits in li$ing beings. ?enetic !ngineering - (efinition: :he process of altering a li$ing beingCs genes to create a desired effect. /onte"t: ?enetic engineering can produce a redder tomato, a taller giraffe, or a co# that gi$es more milk. @ucleus (efinition: :he control center of a cell. /onte"t: :he nucleus is #here the cellCs genetic information is contained. :ransgenic - (efinition: :he process of replacing the nucleus of one animalCs cell #ith the nucleus of a different animalCs cell. /onte"t: :ransgenic scientists ha$e inserted a human nucleus into a sheep cell

$andout 0 & Pros1Cons Cards 'or Students


:he teacher #ill put the follo#ing information on inde" so that the students may use the information for their argumentation lesson.

Pros &
1. 'mprecise use of the term cloning confuses the public at the cost of good science. :herapeutic and reproducti$e cloning are clearly different. *eproducti$e cloning places an altered human cell in a #omanJs uterus. 'n contrast, non-reproducti$e cloning takes place in a laboratory and cannot lead to a human being. :hese differences mean there is little danger of a ;slippery slope< leading from cloning that can cure disease to cloning that is uni$ersally condemned. 2. :herapeutic cloning co$ers an array of scientific possibilities. %mong these are stem-cell research and other forms of non-reproducti$e cloning. :herapeutic cloning holds great promise to alle$iate human suffering and ad$ance human kno#ledge. 0. :he technology of cloning is too tempting to lea$e unregulated. Because of its e"traordinary potential, unscrupulous people #ill attempt cloning. By legislating procedures and safeguards, society can regulate #hat kind of cloning is permitted. 't can also set proper limits and define #hat kind of cloning is illegal. *eproducti$e cloning can be identified, isolated, criminali&ed, and, #hen necessary, punished #ithout limiting the scientific kno#ledge or medical ad$ances that might be gained through therapeutic cloning. 1. 2cientists ha$e the necessary technical training and background to make informed decisions about cloning. (emocratic societies must learn about, discuss, and debate the moral and ethical issues surrounding therapeutic cloning. :he e"pertise of scientists is critical to helping democracies make informed decisions about policy. =. :he ;embryos< used in research are not babies #ith limbs or brains. :hey are tiny balls of stem cells. 6oreo$er, the embryos currently used are from fertility clinics, #here they are routinely discarded. Using them for research assures that they are not #asted. Using them $alues their potential to e"pand human kno#ledge.

Cons &
1. :he processes for therapeutic cloning and reproducti$e cloning both share a fundamental act: the destruction of human embryos. :herapeutic cloning is therefore no different from reproducti$e cloningKthe $ery policy that the #orld uni$ersally condemns as an affront to human dignity. 2. :herapeutic cloning is #rong because it re7uires the creation of human beings only so that they may be ;har$ested< for the betterment of other human beings. 2uch acti$ity gi$es the impression that some human li$es are much more important than others. 'nternational la#s #ere created in large part to protect all human beings from such a Eudgment. Lurthermore, cloned embryos are not necessary to stem cell researchKcells from umbilical cord blood could be used instead.

0. /loning is $ery costly and any ad$ances #ill happen decades from no# and benefit only the #ealthy and influential. :he money and effort de$oted to cloning should be spent on current problemsKlike %'(2, malaria, and tuberculosisKthat affect millions of mostly poor people #orld#ide. 1. ,umanity cannot lea$e decisions about human cloning to ;e"perts.< 2cientists do not ask #hether something should or should not be done) instead, they ask #hether something can be done and #hat can be learned from doing it. 2ocieties, through national and international agreements, ha$e the right and the responsibility to dra# the line in scientific research. =. ,uman cloning represents the $ery #orst characteristics of capitalism. Both therapeutic and reproducti$e cloning turn human embryos into little more than spare parts or ne# clothes for those #ho can afford them. 8hen human beings are $ie#ed as market commodities, they are denied their fundamental rights as persons.

/loning %rgumentation 2heet

/ongratulations 2tudentsDDD Mour school has been asked to help #rite a campaign ad on Should our democracy permit therapeutic cloning of human cells? Mour class may ha$e the #inning campaign adD 'f selected, your class #ill be able to present your slogan and ad in %tlanta, ?% at the /(/ 3/enter of (isease /ontrol4 meeting. :his #ould be a great honor besto#ed upon your class. Before you can choose a pro+con, you must first collect e$idence to support your argument on if our democracy should permit cloning of human cells. isted belo# are some 7uestions to help guide you in deciding #hat your argument #ill be. Mou can use the handouts gi$en as #ell as any internet resources. :he follo#ing is a link that may be used in helping to create your ad: http:++###.bad$ertising.org+. ,ere are some 7uestions concerning the ethical issues of cloning humans for you to ponder about: 's cloning humans Hplaying ?od9H 'f it is, then ho# about other reproducti$e procedures like hormone treatments and in $itro fertili&ation9 (oes an embryo, at #hate$er stage of its e"istence, ha$e the same rights as human beings9 (o #e ha$e the right to ha$e children, regardless of ho# they are created9 's it Eustified to create stem cells by killing a human embryo9 's it ethically right to har$est organs from clones9 'f a clone is created from an e"isting person, #ho is the parent9 8ill cloned children face any social repercussions9 'f so, #hat9 /an cloned children be manipulated to become monsters, like ,itler, or sla$es, as is e"plored in Bra$e @e# 8orld9

2hould the research in cloning by regulated9 'f so, #ho should regulate it, and ho# can it be regulated9

8hat side is our group on9NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN ist of strongest points of our argument: 1. 2. 0. 1. 'n order for you to create a campaign ad, the follo#ing information #ill be needed in order to create a successful argument for your group. Mou #ill need to construct an argument using three facts. Mou #ill need to predict #hich information the other groups might use against you in their arguments and construct a rebuttal using your information. Use the follo#ing information to construct the #inning campaign adDD ist claim:

.ossible !$idence: 1. 2. 0. 1. =. G.

*eason or *ationale:

*ebuttal:

/losing %rgument:

*eflection on %rgumentation esson

6y argumentation lesson #as titled ;/loning %round< #ith my deliberation 7uestion being ;2hould Fur (emocracy .ermit :herapeutic /loning of ,uman /ells9<. Before presenting this lesson, ' #as not sure e"actly ho# ' should present the material. .rior to this lesson, all of my presentations had been $ia po#erpoint and ' did not use a po#erpoint in this lesson. ' felt a little a#k#ard due to this fact because using the po#erpoint #ould ha$e allo#ed me to bring in terminology and e"tra information that ' felt #ould ha$e made my lesson more po#erful and clearer. ' did not feel that ' did an ade7uate Eob of teaching the lesson and #as grateful that #e #ere not being graded on the teaching part. %fter presenting, ' #as grateful for the feedback #hich ' implemented into my lesson plan and into my reflection. !$en though ' #as not comfortable #ith my lesson from a teaching standpoint, ' do feel that ' had some strengths in my lesson. Lirst, ' feel that the subEect matter #as interesting and #as current #ith #hat is going on in science today. %lso, ' #as able to incorporate a classroom discussion into my lesson by getting the class to gi$e pros+cons of human cloning #hich ' put into : chart on the board. ' also dre# a $isual diagram of ho# the human cloning process #orked. Linally, ' feel that ha$ing the class to pick sides and create a campaign ad #as different. !$en though they #ere doing an argumentation lesson, the ad allo#ed for creati$ity #hich made it fun for the students. :he @F2 tenet that science is creati$e #as definitely used in my argumentation lesson. :he #eakness of my argumentation lesson #as that ' #as not prepared to actually teach the lesson. ' feel that the handouts that ' ga$e out had difficult $ocabulary that #ould ha$e made it hard for the students to understand. %lso, ' did not include any terminology that #ould ha$e defined #ords that the students had trouble #ith. ' did not gi$e specific directions on ho# to do the campaign ad #hich made it difficult for the students to follo#. 'f ' taught the argumentation lesson again ' #ould make the follo#ing changes:

pro$ide a po#erpoint on cloning that #ould include a $ideo of human cloning

pro$ide $ocabulary list of terminology used in handouts pro$ide inde" cards of pros+cons for students to use on campaign ad pro$ide instructions on ho# to use the readings 'n the closure on the lesson plan, ' #ould ha$e added ;final argument< so that the students could summari&e their campaign

%dd more $isuals to the lesson - students tend to remember more of #hat they see than #hat they hear

Student B

..................................................................... .....................................................................

Bioethics
Paul Dummett
!mbryonic stem cells: :hese are the first cells of life, found in a ne#ly fertilised human egg. !ach embryonic stem cell has the capacity, #ith the aid of chemical stimuli, to transform itself into any type of cell in the body: a skin cell, a blood cell, heart tissue, etc. Fnce the embryo is fully formed there are no more stem cells as all the organs and bodily functions ha$e been determined. 2cientists are $ery interested to learn ho# to programme these cells to regenerate old or #orn out organs and tissue so that they can cure such illnesses as heart disease and kidney failure. :herapeutic cloning: :his is a procedure in #hich cells, usually skin cells, are taken from a patient. :he nucleus is e"tracted and inserted into a fertilised egg #hose nucleus has been remo$ed. :he cell that is created is permitted to di$ide repeatedly. 2cientists then e"tract stem cells from the ball of di$ided cells, and use those cells to gro# tissue #hich is a perfect genetic match for the patient. :he cells created by therapeutic cloning can potentially be transplanted into the patient to treat a disease from #hich the patient suffers.
Student A 1

2cientists take stem cells from an aborted foetus for their research. 's this acceptable9

Fetal stem cell research may ethically resemble either adult or embryonic stem cell research and must be evaluated accordingly. If fetal stem cells are obtained from miscarried or stillborn fetuses, or if it is possible to remove them from fetuses still

alive in the womb without harming the fetuses, then no harm is done to the donor and such fetal stem cell research is ethical. However, if the abortion of fetuses is the means by which fetal stem cells are obtained, then an unethical means (the killing of human beings) is involved. ince umbilical cords are detached from infants at birth, umbilical cord blood is an ethical source of stem cells.