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**cardfile for being negative**

links to affirmatives that claim the following

"it's all about language"


The 1ac erects a false distinction between language and materiality that instantiates a willful ignorance of the nonhuman components in agency -- means the 1ac is epistemically bankrupt -vote negative on presumption

Bennett , Prof Pol Theory @ Johns Hopkins University, 2009 (Jane, Agency, at!re an" #$ergent Properties% An &ntervie' 'ith Jane (ennett), &ntervie'e" *y +han, ,onte$porary Political Theory, -, .!se/ 0o! are c!rrently 'orking on a *ook entitle" !ital "ateriality% The Political 1ife of Things (forthco$ing/, an" & fin" $yself "ra'n to yo!r version of post2str!ct!ralis$, 'hich does not reduce life or matter to the play of language# &nstea", yo! o!tline a layere" notion of reality an" in partic!lar yo! "elineate a conception of $atter as a lively force present in all things3 0o! see$ to 'ant to challenge o!r receive" notions of the "istinction *et'een nat!re an" c!lt!re3 4or e5a$ple, in yo!r article 6The force of things6 (2007/ yo! confront Theo"or A"orno6s (8990/ point that 'e cannot $ake any positive clai$s a*o!t the 6non2i"entity6 *et'een the concept an" the thing3 (y 'ay of contrast, yo! offer an affir$ative acco!nt of this non2i"entity !n"erstoo" as the play of lively ani$ate forces3 ,an & press yo! to e5plain yo!r notion of 6things6 or 6vital $ateriality6 an" ho' it "iffers fro$ conten"ing versions9 Jane (ennett% &6$ trying to take 6things6 $ore serio!sly than political theorists ha" *een taking the$3 (y 6things6 & $ean the $aterialities !s!ally fig!re" as inani$ate o*:ects, passive !tilities, occasional interr!ptions or *ackgro!n" conte5t ; fig!re", that is, in 'ays that give all the active, creative po'er to h!$ans3 & foc!s on five e5e$plary 6things6 in the *ook% ste$ cells, fish oils, electricity, $etal an" trash3 $ur habit of parsing the world into passive matter %it& and vibrant life %us& is 'hat Jac<!es =anci>re (in another conte5t/ calle" a 6partition of the sensi*le63 &n other 'or"s, it li$its 'hat 'e are a*le to sense? it places *elo' the threshol" of note the active po'ers of $aterial for$ations, s!ch as the 'ay lan"fills are, as 'e speak, generating lively strea$s of che$icals an" volatile 'in"s of $ethane, or the 'ay o$ega2@ fatty aci"s can transfor$ *rain che$istry an" $oo", or the 'ay the "ifferential rates of cooling organiAe the !npre"icta*le patterns of granite3 .y e5peri$ent is this% 'hat would the world look and feel like were the life(matter binary to fall into disuse) 'ere it to *e translate" into "ifferences in "egree rather than kin"9 *nd how) in particular) would our political analyses of events change were they to acknowledge an elemental) material agency distributed across bodies) human and nonhuman+ 'ho or what would count as a 'stakeholder'+ Ho' 'o!l" a 6p!*lic6 *e constit!te"9 Bo!l" politics *eco$e less centre" aro!n" the p!nitive pro:ect of fin"ing in"ivi"!al h!$an agents responsi*le for the p!*lic pro*le$s of, say, an electricity *lacko!t or an epi"e$ic of o*esity, an" $ore concerne" 'ith i"entifying ho' the co$ple5 h!$an;nonh!$an asse$*lage that6s ch!rning o!t the negative effect hol"s itself together ; ho' it en"!res or fee"s itself9 ,ntil we do that) political attempts to remedy the problem are likely to be ineffective#
$nly by critici-ing the binarism implicit in the 1ac prioriti-ation of discourse can we gain insight into methods of resisting the type of e.ploitation they critici-e

Bennett , Prof Pol Theory @ Johns Hopkins University, 2009 (Jane, Agency, at!re an" #$ergent Properties% An &ntervie' 'ith Jane (ennett), &ntervie'e" *y +han, ,onte$porary Political Theory, -, .!se/ Bhat & contin!e to affir$ is the 'ay co$$ercials, *y technologically ani$ating the $aterialities that 'e nor$ally e5perience as inert, "ea" or *eneath notice, pose a challenge to the life(matter binary) 'hich is also at the base of the system of e.ploitation# & fo!n" in this high2tech ref!sal to "epict $atter as $erely passive a potential ally in $y o'n pro:ect to re2think 'hat $ateriality is an" "oes in the 'orl"3 The infectio!s energy of the CAP a" iss!e" fro$ the $oving h!$an *o"ies on the screen, fro$ the so!n"s an" rhyth$s of the h!$anly co$pose" $!sic, *!t also fro$ the khakis the$selves3

This ani$is$ 'as 'hat the a" $en so!ght% vie'ers 'o!l" associate vitality (or yo!th or life/ 'ith CAP khakis an", *eca!se vitality is attractive, "esire the pants3 This 'o!l" not 'ork 'ere the "ancing pants to *e :oine", in the f!ll pict!re, *y the e5ploite", fatig!e" an" stresse" *o"ies of the asse$*ly2 'orkers3 (!t in calling its vie'ers to a pagan sensi*ility ; to the chil"hoo" i"ea that $atter is alive, that or"inary, nonh!$an things have po'ers over !s ; the a"vert nevertheless pro"!ce" affective effects in e5cess of its intentions or of the $oral co$pass of its a!thors3 1et $e en" *y saying that 'hat & try to "o 'hen & 'rite is to call $yself an" others to a "ifferent "irection, to point to those !neven spaces 'here nonh!$ans are actants, 'here agency is al'ays an asse$*lage, 'here $atter is not inert, 'here $an is not lor", 'here everything is $a"e of the sa$e <!irky st!ff3 Be reg!larly traverse these spaces *!t ten" to pass thro!gh the$ 'itho!t paying attention3 To inha*it the$ $ore f!lly is to fin" o!rselves speaking ne' 'or"s, having ne' feelings, taking on ne' post!res an" practices, $aking a":!st$ents to the pace an" scope an" ranking of o!r enco!nters 'ith the 6o!tsi"e63 & can6t pre"ict 'hat kin" of politics 'o!l" res!lt fro$ this3 .y h!nch is that the grass 'o!l" *e greener in a 'orl" of vital $aterialities3
/adical materialist understandings of the world are a prere0uisite to both ethics and effective and political action

Bennett , Prof Pol Theory @ Johns Hopkins University, 2009 (Jane, Agency, at!re an" #$ergent Properties% An &ntervie' 'ith Jane (ennett), &ntervie'e" *y +han, ,onte$porary Political Theory, -, .!se/ C!lshan +han% 4or $any $o"ern thinkers, the "istinction *et'een the h!$an an" the nonh!$an re$ains highly significant3 4or e5a$ple, Hei"egger (899-/ insists on the !ni<!eness of .an as a 6*eing that <!estions its o'n (eing6, Hannah Aren"t (89D-/ "e$arcates h!$ans fro$ other creat!res in ter$s of the a*ility to act together politically, an" Ha*er$as (89-7/ singles o!t the fact of co$$!nication ; !n"erstoo" as action orientate" to'ar"s reaching !n"erstan"ing ; as the specific fac!lty that raises h!$ans o!t of nat!re3 (y 'ay of contrast, yo! have so!ght to "eli*erately challenge the "istinction *et'een h!$an an" nonh!$an $atter an" instea" e$phasiAe points of co$$onality *et'een the$3 4!rther$ore, $any thinkers attri*!te a capacity for agency ; an" partic!larly the fac!lty for responsi*le ($oral or ethical/ action ; solely to h!$an *eings3 Again, *y 'ay of contrast, yo! "ra' attention to the fact that ("espite their *est intentions/ the actions of h!$an in"ivi"!als often have effects *eyon" their inten"e" conse<!ences, an" yo! s!ggest that for$s of nonh!$an $atter possess agency to a certain "egree3 &n"ee", one innovative (an" highly provocative/ ele$ent of yo!r approach is that yo! "o not restrict the notion of agency to h!$ans alone3 Eo yo! think there is any "istinction to *e "ra'n *et'een the h!$an an" the nonh!$an in ter$s of a capacity for agency9 (y attri*!ting agency to nonh!$an $atter is there not a "anger that the criterion for responsi*le h!$an action is "issolve"9 Jane (ennett% & think that h!$an agency is *est conceive" as itself the o!tco$e or effect of a certain config!ration of h!$an an" nonh!$an forces3 Bhen h!$ans act they "o not e5ercise e5cl!sively h!$an po'ers, *!t e5press an" engage a variety of other actants, incl!"ing foo", $icro2organis$s, $inerals, artefacts, so!n"s, *io2 an" other technologies, an" so on3 There is a "ifference *et'een a h!$an in"ivi"!al an" a stone, *!t neither consi"ere" alone has real agency3 The loc!s of agency is al'ays a h!$an;nonh!$an collective3 Fne e5a$ple & 'ork 'ith in the Gital .aterialis$ *ook is the agency *ehin" the electricity *lacko!t in 200@ in orth A$erica (an" later in the year, in #!rope/3 The govern$ent an" in"!stry response in the UH 'as to i"entify so$e h!$an ; so$e #nron e5ec!tive or energy tra"er ; 'ho 'as responsi*le an" then to p!nish hi$3 .ean'hile, the relations *et'een the infrastr!ct!re of the gri", the legislation "ereg!lating energy tra"ing, the str!ct!re of cons!$ptive "esire an" the nat!ral ten"encies of electricity re$aine" !nchange"3 The "anger of *lacko!ts re$ains the sa$e3 The fetish of the e5cl!sively h!$an agent an" the ten"ency to "efine social pro*le$s as $oral fail!res ; an" their i$plicit ass!$ption that 'e are in charge ; prevente" !s fro$ "iscerning the real loc!s of agency an" atte$pting to alter its config!ration3 & "on6t say, then, that single, nonh!$an actants are agents3 & "o say that agency itself is locate" in the co$ple5 interinvolve$ent of h!$ans an" $!ltiple nonh!$an actants, 'hich together for$ an effective

asse$*lage3 Ho, an actant is any single force 'ith the capacity to $ake a "ifference, an" an agent is a $ore co$ple5 for$ation $a"e !p of a variety of actants3 H!$ans too are e$ergent an" co$ple5 pheno$ena, 'hich $eans that the intervener "oes not f!lly pre2e5ist the intervention3 .y point is really a prag$atic one% ethics an" politics have $ore traction on $aterial asse$*lages an" the 'ay they repro"!ce patterns of effects than they can have on that el!sive spirit!al entity calle" the 6$oral s!*:ect63

"we need to prioriti-e discourse or representations"


1ocus on representations(discourse annihilates human agency and removes fissures of potentiality from edifices rendered as monolithic by the 1ac description Bleiker 2 =olan", Professor of &nternational =elations, University of I!eenslan" Eisco!rse an" H!$an Agency) ,onte$porary Political Theory3 Avenel% .ar 200@3Gol3 2, &ss3 8? pg3 2D Bhile provi"ing co$pelling evi"ence of s!*tle for$s of "o$ination, a preoccupation with discourses may run the risk of leaving us with an image of the world in which the capacity for human agency is all but erased) annihilated by forces that are not only impenetrable) but also elude human comprehension# &n his rea"ing of ietAsche, for instance, 4o!ca!lt portrays the e$ergence of things (as the concept of goo"ness/ as taking place in a voi" *et'een the energy of the strong an" the reaction of the 'eak3 Hince a"versaries "o not $eet "irectly in this interstice, so 'e rea", no one is responsi*le for its o!tco$e3 6Fnly a single "ra$a is ever stage" in this Jnon2place,J the en"lessly repeate" play of "o$inations6 (4o!ca!lt, 89-7, -D/3 3f power and domination are so omnipresent) so invincible) how could anything every change+ &f, as 4o!ca!lt i$plicitly s!ggests, there is no conversation, no co$$on lang!age, not even a visi*le "isc!rsive $eeting *et'een the insi"e an" the o!tsi"e, the centre an" the $argin, ho' co!l" one e5plain all those challenges fro$ *elo', the $o$ents 'hen people take to the street an" shake, s!ccessf!lly or not, the fo!n"ations of the esta*lishe" or"er9 These 0uestions prompted many critics to dismiss approaches that revolve around discursive e.planations of social dynamics# 4ountless authors have critici-ed 1oucault for putting us in a situation in which we can do nothing but e.press bewilderment at an overwhelming world around us -- a world in which the potential for human agency seems to have vanished altogether# Hartsock, for e5a$ple, con"e$ns this 'orl" as one in 'hich syste$s $ove, not people, in 'hich the s!*:ect *eco$es o*literate" or re"!ce" to an i$potent passive o*:ect3 Hhe clai$s that in "efining po'er as o$nipresent, as ever e5pan"ing an" penetrating all aspects of society, 4o!ca!lt has $a"e it very "iffic!lt to locate "o$ination (Hartsock, 8990, esp 8K-28L0/3 =esistance, then, *eco$es virt!ally i$possi*le3 (enha*i* (899D, 20/, referring to post$o"ern approaches in general, "ra's attention to their ina*ility to speak of agents an" agency3 A post$o"ern position, she clai$s, $istakenly "issolves the s!*:ect into chains of signification that lie *eyon" h!$an infl!ence3 Be then fin" o!rselves in a concept!al or"er "o$inate" *y overarching "isc!rsive syste$s3 People are re"!ce" to $ere *ystan"ers, passive an" irrelevant3 ,r!she" into o*livion3 (!t is this el!sive analytical spectre calle" "isco!rse really so $enacing that it $!st *e 'ar"e" off at any cost9 &s it lea"ing !s into an apocalyptic 'orl" in 'hich 6$an 'o!l" *e erase",6 as a fa$o!s 4o!ca!ltean passage hol"s, 6like a face "ra'n in the san" at the e"ge of the sea69 (4o!ca!lt, 89KK, @9-/3 5espite their power to frame the world) discourses are not invincible# They are not monolithic forces that subsume everything in sight) crush everything in reach# 5iscourses are often thin) unstable) and fragmented# There are fiss!res, there are cracks, there are 'eak spots% 'in"o's of opport!nity that lea" to transfor$ative path'ays3 An" 4o!ca!lt, "espite the nihilistic traits attri*!te" to hi$, offers !s possi*ilities of e5ploring these transfor$ative potentials, for his 'ork can *e rea" in $ore than :!st one 'ay3 4o!ca!lt6s earlier so2calle" archaeological phase (see 89K9/ privileges syste$ic an" "isc!rsive restraints over the in"ivi"!al6s capacity to e$ploy po'er for e$ancipatory o*:ectives3 His later 'ork, ho'ever, revolves aro!n" a $ore affir$ative core, one that sees po'er not :!st as a negative an" repressive force, *!t at least as $!ch as so$ething ena*ling, an opport!nity, an instr!$ent of resistance (4o!ca!lt, 89LK, 8@@/3 &n"ee", 1oucault %1 67) 178) 772& e.plicitly points out that acknowledging the omnipresence of power is not to say that it is a fatality that cannot be overcome# ''here there is power)' he says) 'there is resistance#' Patton (8997, K8/, e5ten"ing this line of tho!ght, convincingly arg!es that 4o!ca!lt can *e rea" in 'ays that 6offer a s!rrogate for hope36 (y "isting!ishing *et'een po'er, po'er over an" "o$ination, Patton sho's that 4o!ca!lt espo!ses a conception of h!$an *eing3 #ven tho!gh this conception is 6thin,6 it can 6*e fille" o!t in a $anner 'hich e5plains *oth resistance to "o$ination an" the possi*ility of transfor$ing e5isting econo$ies of po'er6 (Patton, 8997, KK/3

"there's a root cause of oppression"


There are no root causes -- the very notion of a root cause is totally stupid 9rnicek :1; ick, , PhE Ht!"ent at 1on"on Hchool of #cono$ics an" Political Hcience ,onflict ,ollapsing the Clo*al into the 1ocal) Jo!rnal of ,ritical Clo*alisation Ht!"ies, &ss!e 2 (2080/ http%MMlse3aca"e$ia3e"!M ickHrnicekMPapers et'orks%

Fne final note on agency< if the empirical world is composed of human and nonhuman actors interacting with each other and inducing actions in each other) any particular human individual will be the manifestation of a %variably-si-ed& 71 local network# 22 &n this 'ay, actor2 net'ork theory gives an e$pirical an" scientific *asis to the oft2cite" clai$ that actors are socially an" c!lt!rally e$*e""e"3 =ather than citing an e$pty notion of Nconte5tO (e3g3 it "epen"s on the conte5t)/, actor2 net'ork theory forces the researcher to "iscern, "escri*e an" reveal the po'er of the s!rro!n"ing net'ork3 ote, tho!gh, that *y saying that everything e$erges fro$ a concatenation of local net'orks, 'e are not e5cl!"ing the glo*al ; o!r refor$!lation of the global means that it must be channeled through a series of locali-ed networks) which means that macro-level actors can and do act to produce phenomena# But they act only through a particular series of conduits) and not through some abstract social structure: or social force: 3 The grand abstractions of social theory = social forces) class) nationalism) ethnicity) etc# = do not e.ist# "oreover) conflict does not operate in a vacuum) but rather filters through e.isting actor-networks3 Th!s local networks can *e seen to provide a n!$*er of "ifferent f!nctions, t'o of 'hich 'e 'ill consi"er here% (8/ pree.isting disputes and social relations and their effects throughout the conflict period> and %7& the personal networks of recruitment3 /e?ect systematic or all-encompassing root cause: e.planations for human actions -- they totali-e systems of power) render resistance melancholy and free-es our understanding of human agency to reify the systems of domination they criti0ue Bleiker 2 =olan", Professor of &nternational =elations, University of I!eenslan" Eisco!rse an" H!$an Agency) ,onte$porary Political Theory3 Avenel% .ar 200@3Gol3 2, &ss3 8? pg3 2D * conceptuali-ation of human agency cannot be based on a parsimonious proposition) a onesentence statement that captures something like an authentic nature of human agency# There is no essence to human agency) no core that can be brought down to a lowest common denominator) that will crystalli-e one day in a long sought after magic formula# * search for such an elusive centre would free-e a specific image of human agency to the detriment of all others# The "angers of s!ch a totaliAing position have *een 'ell rehearse"3 1oucault %1 67) 7; &) for instance) believes that a theory of power is unable to provide the basis for analytical work) for it assumes a prior ob?ectification of the very power dynamics the theory is trying to assess# Bourdieu %1 6) 78& speaks of the 'imperialism of the universal' and @ist %1 2) 11& warns us of an approach that 'subsumes) or) rather) pretends to be able to subsume everything into one concept) one theory) one position#' 9uch a master discourse , she clai$s, inevitably oppresses everything that does not fit into its particular view of the world# Bhat, then, is the alternative to anchoring an !n"erstan"ing of h!$an agency in a fo!n"ationalist $aster narrative9 Ho' to gro!n" criti<!e, actions, nor$s an" life itself if there are no !niversal val!es that can ena*le s!ch a process of gro!n"ing9 Gario!s a!thors have a"vance" convincing s!ggestions3 ,onsi"er the follo'ing three e5a$ples% "e ,ertea! (8990, D8/ atte$pts to avoi" totalitarian tho!ght *y gro!n"ing his position not in a syste$atic theory, *!t in 6operational sche$es36 A theory is a $etho" of "elineation3 &t freeAes 'hat sho!l" *e !n"erstoo" in its fl!i"ity3 An !n"erstan"ing of operational sche$es, *y contrast, recogniAes that events sho!l" *e assesse" in their changing "i$ensions3 =ather than trying to "eter$ine 'hat an event is, s!ch an approach $aps the conto!rs 'ithin 'hich events are incessantly constit!te" an" reconstit!te"3 Fr, e5presse" in "e ,ertea!6s ter$inology, one $!st co$prehen" for$s of action in the conte5t of their reg!latory environ$ent3 (!tler (8992, @2L/ speaks of contingent fo!n"ations3 1ike "e ,ertea!, she too *elieves that the 4o!ca!ltean recognition that po'er perva"es all aspects of society, incl!"ing the position of the critic, "oes not necessarily lea" into a nihilistic a*yss3 &t $erely sho's that political clos!re occ!rs thro!gh atte$pts to esta*lish fo!n"ational nor$s that lie *eyon" po'er3 1ike'ise, to reopen this political "o$ain is not to "o a'ay 'ith fo!n"ations as s!ch, *!t to

ackno'le"ge their contingent character, to ill!$inate 'hat they a!thoriAe, e5cl!"e an" foreclose3 Fne $!st co$e to ter$s 'ith ho' the s!*:ect an" its agency are constit!te" an" fra$e" *y specific regi$es of po'er3 Ho'ever, this is not the en" of h!$an agency3 I!ite to the contrary3 (!tler (8992, 82287/ arg!es pers!asively that 6the constit!te" character of the s!*:ect is the very precon"ition of its agency36 To appreciate the practical relevance of this clai$, one $!st investigate the possi*ilities for agency that arise o!t of e5isting 'e*s of po'er an" "isco!rse3 Fne $!st scr!tiniAe ho' social change can *e *ro!ght a*o!t *y a re'orking of the po'er regi$es that constit!te o!r s!*:ectivity ((!tler, 8992, 8@/3 5eleu-e and Auattari (899K, @22D, @LL/ go a step f!rther3 Fpting for the rhiAo$e, they re?ect all forms of foundations) structures) roots or trees# The latter three) they say) has dominated much of the 'estern thought# * tree is a hierarchical system in which ones becomes two) in which everything can be traced back to the same origin# /oots and radicles may shatter the linear unity of knowledge) but they hold on to a contrived system of thought) to an image of the world in which the multiple always goes back to a centred and higher unity# The *rain, *y contrast, is not roote", "oes not strive for a central point3 &t f!nctions like a s!*terranean rhiAo$e3 &t gro's si"e'ays, has $!ltiple entry'ays an" e5its3 &t has no *eginning or en", only a $i""le, fro$ 'here it e5pan"s an" overspills3 Any point of the rhiAo$e, Eele!Ae an" C!attari e$phasiAe, is connecte" to any other3 &t is a $!ltiplicity 'itho!t hierarchies, !nits or fi5 points to anchor tho!ght3 There are only lines, $agnit!"es, "i$ensions, platea!s, an" they are al'ays in $otion3 To travel along these lines an" "i$ensions is to engage in no$a" tho!ght, to travel along a5is of "ifference, rather than i"entity3 o$a" tho!ght, says one of Eele!Ae6s fe$inist interpreters, 6co$*ines coherence 'ith $o*ility,6 it is 6a creative sort of *eco$ing, a perfor$ative $etaphor that allo's for other'ise !nlikely enco!nters an" !ns!specte" so!rces of interaction of e5perience an" of kno'le"ge6 ((rai"otti, 8997, 28/3 The e5tent to 'hich this for$ of thinking constit!tes a gro!n"ing process $ay *e left open to <!estion3 J!"ging fro$ Eele!Ae6s o'n 'ork it is clear, ho'ever, that the e.ploration of difference and multiplicities does not prevent him from taking positions for or against specific political issues# 'hat he does forgo) however) is a central authorial voice -- to the benefit of a polyphonic array of whispers and shouts#

"neoliberalism e.ists and is bad"


'hile Neoliberalism was the political economy of the 70s that ended with the new millenium and was based on an oppositionality of
public/private often characterized through debates about protectionism and flows of goods, services and yes, migrants across borders !oday the consolidation of the state and corporate form have become complete" neoliberalism is no longer a relevant theoretical frame for understanding political economy, since it obscures the way that global levelling has inaugurated the possibility of new social antagonisms where identities are only served as appropriation for aggregations of capital and power

Tsianos et al# 6 Vassilis, teaches sociology at the University of Hamburg, Germany, Dimitris Papadopoulos teaches social theory at Cardiff
University, Niamh Stephenson teaches social science at the University of Ne South !ales" #$scape %outes& Control and Subversion in the '( st Century) Pluto Press

Bostliberalism appropriates this solution - and in this sense postlib- eralism is also the heir to the crisis of sovereignty and relies on the same organisational substratum as transnationalism# But postliberalism attempts to initiate a strategic rearrangement of the transnationalist hori-ontal and networked organisation of space< in the midst of an even plane of global action it establishes vertical aggregates of power# !he brea# occurs when postliberalism leaves

nationalist imperialist geopolitics behind irrevocably $nstead it uses the global transnational space to install dominant hegemonic alliances which cannot be simply reduced to the imperialist geopolitics of entire nation states" %ather these ne postliberal aggregates reconnect different
segments of nation states and different social actors ho have emerged in the phase of transnational governance into ne condensations of po er"
*lthough postliberal sovereignty feeds on the hori+ontal transnational order of po er, it introduces a ne hegemonic strategy ith a pro,ect of global corporativism" %ostliberalism involves the ver& ticalisation of horizontal transnational geopolitics !ransnationalism is the legal algorithm of post& 'ordist, neoliberal globalisation (nd in this sense, transnationalism is hegemonic on a global scale )hat postliberal sovereignty does now is to hegemonise hegemony, that is, to insert and realise conflict in the hegemonic pro*ect of transnational neoliberalism $n the years from +,70 to -000, we used to thin# of the neoliberal globalisation which transnational governance made possible as a more or less unified pro*ect of domination on a planetary scale -Held, (../0 Urbinati, '1123" Ho ever, the concept of postliberal sovereignty is an attempt to contest this position and to trace the internal

!he globalisation of transnational neoliberalism can no longer be characterised as a bloc of global power" this notion does not help us to understand or to gain any purchase on the political constitution of the present *lthough it is the hegemonic form of
conflicts and ambivalences of this pro,ect"

geopolitics today, the globalisation of transnational neoliberalism is not unified .ather it contains conflicting alliances of diverse interests which try to dominate the process of transnational neoliberal globalisation" 4n this sense, postliberal vertical aggregates attempt to appropriate the

!he concept of postliberal sovereignty gives us the possibility to move beyond a simplistic understanding of globalisation as a matter of dominant neoliberal forces being opposed by the rest of the world .ather global domination is itself a diverse and conflicted process !he conflict emerges through the formation of vertical aggregates which try to seize more power with the global unfurling of transnational neoliberalism
space hich as created by transnational governance and in so doing they conflict ith other vertical aggregates attempting to do the same"

The postliberal era has voided the old distinction between capital and sovereignty> welfare states which insulate their populations through border protections and transnational corporate interests which struggled against those borders# Today) the insitutions have collapsed = the ,9 as a nation-state acts more in the interests of protecting flows of transnational capital than in the interests of its own population as such# The 1*4 myopic focus on the neo-imperialist violence obscures the way in which it is the very struggle against imperialism
which plays into the hands of the interests of transnational capital .esistance couched in these terms can only define itself in the negative, insinuating a reactionary melancholy that undoes the force of subversion

Tsianos et al# 6 Vassilis, teaches sociology at the University of Hamburg, Germany, Dimitris Papadopoulos teaches social theory at Cardiff
University, Niamh Stephenson teaches social science at the University of Ne South !ales" #$scape %outes& Control and Subversion in the '( st Century) Pluto Press

3t has been argued that ,nited /tates foreign policy during the 5ush administration is serving to consolidate a new imperialism -Harvey,
'1123" Ho ever, the role of the United States in the formation of a ne global system of po er is the main point of divergence bet een those attempting to grasp the current geopolitical situation -*rrlghi, '1120 *t+ert and 6iiller, '1120 Hardt and Negri, '1110 Panitch and Gindin, '1120 !allerstein, '1123" 4n the case for characterising the United States as a ne imperialistic po er, the United States is thought to reoccupy the po er vacuum left after the collapse of the Soviet Union, claiming unipolar leadership" *ccording to this position, the United States no longer performs 5ill Clinton7s multilateral hegemonic

geopolitics, but a unilateral politics of violent dominance" 5ut what this account of the new imperialism fails to understand is that if unilateral power is not part of a broader global, postliberal aggregate, it then ta#es the form of na#ed power " *nd na8ed po er bloc8s and cancels transnationalist hori+ontality bet een global social and economic actors" !his is something which nobody can afford today " !he 0nited /tates & more than anyone else & needs a viable transnational, horizontal, hegemonic system that frees capital flows and access to both resources and to technological innovation ( neo&imperialist strategy could possibly impose domination in order to restore superiority when a rupture in the actual balance of power occurs, but the productivity of such an imposition is bound to be limited ( neo&imperialist strategy signifies the opposite of what the United States is actually striving for today1 globalised mar#ets, circulating culture, travelling technoscience" The United /tates is not striving for neo9imperialist dominance but for a system of postliberal sovereignty" 4t functions, not as a nation trying to represent its own interests, but as an administration which see#s to change how politics operates !he 0nited /tates tries to effect this shift by wor#ing to consolidate a series of postliberal vertical aggregates on a global scale, which contest and effectively compete with other emerging vertical aggregates in the 2uro&(sian, east (sian or /outhern geopolitical space :nly by continuing to promote a transnational field criss9crossed by permeable, hori+ontal connections, is it possible to instate fluid, global vertical aggregates hich incorporate different social actors in common hegemonic formations"

!hese actors can vary immensely and

can rarely be reduced to nation states

;hey are much more polymorphic, fragmented, energetic, and diversified than a massive bloc of a series of nation states" !he 0nited /tates is not underta#ing nationalist& based geopolitics" rather it
attempts to create a strong formation of alliances with many different actors 3not primarily nation states4 using e5isting transnational multi&centred networ#s of power ;he United States does not dominate globalisation0 it attempts to hegemonise the already hegemonic structure of globalisation" *nd the United States is striving more than ever before to build up such a postliberal vertical aggregate, not because it ants to consolidate or e<pand its po er0 rather, it tries to do this because it is losing po er as other ne postliberal aggregates emerge and contest the po er of the United States on a global scale" !his necessitates a very different form of subversion from either a simplistic anti&imperialist approach or the traditional left position hich e described earlier in the case of $uropean politics" !he main problem with reductionist anti9*mericanism, formulaic anti& imperialism or left conservatism is that they define themselves in the negative !hey fail to connect with the productivity of power and they condemn resistance and subversion to melancholy 36rown, +,,74 /ubversion then becomes the constitutive outside of what it tries to negate

"the patriarchy is bad and we gotta oppose it"


3dentifying the patriarchy as a an enemy-ob?ects enslaves women to the endless process of reversing historically disempowering relations -- this revisits victimhood upon the sub?ectposition of femininity and internali-es ressentiment) making patriarchal domination a condition of possibility for the articulation of feminine identity -- turns case 9tringer) '; ; Professor of Anthropology at the University of Ftago ; 2000(=e*ecca, A Page 2D ; 2K/ ietAschean (ree"),

Ressentiment gives *irth to $orals at the sa$e ti$e that it co$es to serve as a $eans of i"entity for$ation, an" on the plane of the political the concept can *e !se" to "iscern the process thro!gh 'hich negative an" non2transfor$ative political i"entities are achieve"3 The feeling of po'erlessness an" the e5perience of s!ffering are al'ays at the root of ressenti$ent ; 'hether inc!rre" as a res!lt of a loss of po'er (the no*le force" to slavery/ or a perpet!al state of po'erlessness (the original) slave/3 &n the case of fe$inis$, the "anger) of ressenti$ent presents itself 'ith the "esire to co!nter the forces that have ca!se" 'o$enOs oppression historically3 =essenti$ent fe$inis$ can *e !n"erstoo", to !se 0eat$anOs ter$, as a reactive pro:ect of s!rvival3) 70 As s!ch, this fe$inis$ for$s its political i"entity in accor"ance 'ith the tactic of inversion, an" its opposition to the socioc!lt!ral config!rations that have prove" in:!rio!s to 'o$en is $otivate" *y the 'ill to reverse these config!rations3 This reversal occ!rs, at an i$agine" or "isc!rsive level ; 'hich is not to say that i" "oes not have real) effects ; at *irth of fe$inist $orals or, $ore specifically, 'hen this fe$inis$ co$es to e<!ate 'o$enOs po'erlessness 'ith 'o$enOs goo"ness3 As 0eat$an "escri*e", echoing the concerns of the pop!lar press fe$inists "ealt 'ith a*ove, H!ch a fe$inis$ is co$$itte" to "iscovering 'hat is goo" & 'o$enOs "istinctive 'ays of relating an" "oingthings Pan"Q en"s !p cele*rating as virt!es all those aspects of the i"enity of the oppresse" 'hich are associate" 'ith strategic self2preservation in a con"ition of 'eakness3) 78 Hi$ilarly, (ro'n co$$ents that this fe$inis$ $ane!vers to'ar" attaining sing!lar p!rchase on Nthe goo"3) 72 4or this fe$inis$, patriarchy ass!$es the appearance of a syste$ that en:oys the privilege of !nhin"ere" activity% patriarchy is a force 'hich "oes no separate itself fro$ its effects or its $anifestations3) This fe$inis$ 'ill atte$pt to forge s!ch a separation *y casting the activity of patriarchy as the *la$e'orthy ca!se of in:!ry as a force that $!st *e separate" fro$ its $anifestations (the "oer posite" *eyon" the "ee"/ an" *e $a"e acco!nta*le for its effects3 Bith the intro"!ction of acco!nta*ility thro!gh acc!sation, this fe$inis$ casts itself an" its constit!ency as the "eserving cre"itors3 Ho'ever, the less o*vio!s co$panion of this cre"it clai$s is an invest$ent in, or in"e*te"ness to, the po'er relationship fro$ 'hich it is ela*orate"3 ietAsche notes that the creat!re of ressenti$ent re<!ires a hostile 'orl" in or"er to e5ist)% here this $eans that the evils of patriarchy *!ttress this fe$inis$Os $oral i"entity an" serve as a necessary reso!rce for its s!rvival) (C./3 &n this sense, this fe$inis$ is in"e*te" to the config!ration of po'er against 'hich it is sit!ate", an in"e*te"ness that has t'o effects% for 0eat$an, it preserves the i"entity of the oppresse" s!*:ect)? for (ro'n, it ina"vertently re"ra'PsQ the very config!rations an" effects of po'er that PitP seekPsQ tp van<!ish3) As 'ith previo!s set of 'riters & "isc!sse", (ro'n, 0eat$an, an" Tapper share the concern that the politics of ressenti$ent lea"s fe$inists to position the$selves politically) in a $orally s!perior real$ o!tsi"e of po'er3 &n this real$ ; the $argins, the *otto$ of the hierarchy ; participating in po'er is a"$onishe" as an !nfe$inist act that is e<!ate" 'ith !n"e$ocratic "o$ination3) Fne of the pri$ary points fo!n" in each of their criti<!es is that this real$ is no less i$plicate" in a 'ill to po'er an" no less prone to the "esire to "o$inate than is the center, the top of the hierarchy3 The 4rench 'or" ressenti$ent, fro$ 'hich the #nglish resent$ent 'as "erive", co$$only "enotes a state of revengef!l rancor pro"!ce" as an effect of an in:!rio!s enco!nter3 The 'or" resent con:!gate" the prefi5 re2, 'hich "esignates *oth repetition an" *ack'ar" $otion, 'ith sent, 'hich co$es fro$ the 1atin ver* sentire, to feel3) Th!s ressenti$ent pertains to reactive feelings repeate"ly felts an" "esignates a psychological state that is al'ays an" only relations% resent$ent is al'ays the pro"!ct of interaction) *et'een in:!re" forces an in:!ring forces (4ro$ the har$f!l actions of a tyrannical person the $ore general con"ition of h!$an s!ffering/, an" it al'ays pro"!ces in t!rn a reactive "esire on the part of the in:!re" to e5act retri*!tion fro$ the in:!ring (their assailant, life)/3 As Anna 0eat$an notes, ressentiment $akes sense to a s!*:ect 'ho is syste$atically *r!taliAe" an" e5ploite" *y $ore po'erf!l forces3) =essenti$ent is an econo$y of negative affect rather than an affect in itself% it is a config!ration fo e$otions 'herein pain is constantly re$e$*ere" an" revisite", an" in 'hich hatre" an" the "esire for e$otions 'herein pain is constantly re$e$*ere" an" revisite" an" in 'hich hatre" an" the "esire for revenge are constantly rene'e"3 Bhat is $ost i$portant for o!r p!rposes is the point at 'hich

ressenti$ent *eco$es creative)% that is, the point t 'hich it *eco$es a con"ition of possi*ility) an" ceases to *e si$ply a con"ition)

"but we do things that involve the economics###"


Their understanding of economics creates an amoral tunnel vision that can only see profit 9mithson :C2 =o*ert, fa$o!s concept!al artist, &ntervie' 'ith Alison Hky, =F(#=T H.&THHF % TH# ,F11#,T#E B=&T& CH, 2n" #"ition, e"ite" *y Jack 4la$, The University of ,alifornia Press, (erkeley an" 1os Angeles, ,alifornia? University of ,alifornia Press, 1TE3 1on"on, #nglan"? 899K There is an association with architecture and economics) and it seems that architects build in an isolated) self-contained) ahistorical way# They never seem to allow for any kind of relationship outside of their grand plan# *nd this seems to be true in economics too# Dconomics seem to be isolated and self-contained and conceived of as cycles) so as to e.clude the whole entropic process# There's very little consideration of natural resources in terms of what the landscape looks like after the mining operations or farming operations are completed# 9o that a kind of blindness ensues# 3 guess it's what we call blind profit making# *nd then suddenly they find themselves within a range of desolation and wonder how they got there# 9o it's rather static way of looking at things# & "on6t6 think things go in cycles3 & think things :!st change fro$ one sit!ation to the ne5t, there6s really to ret!rn3
This invests abstract capital with greater value than life -- authori-ing a pathological form of rationality which is as self-destructive as it is delerious 5eleu-e E Cilles, Eesert &slan"s an" Fther Te5ts 89D@289L7) p3 2K822K@ Act!el% &n yo!r "escription of capitalis$, yo! say% "There isn't the slightest operation, the slightest industrial or financial mechanism that fails to manifest the dementia of the capitalist system and the pathological character of its rationality (not a false rationality at all, *!t a tr!e rationality of this pathology, this $a"ness, *eca!se the $achine 'orks, there can *e no "o!*t/3 There is no danger of it going insane) because through and through it is already insane , fro$ the get2go, and that's where its rationality comes from#" Eoes this $ean that after this Ja*nor$alJ society, or o!tsi"e it, there can *e a Jnor$alJ society9 Cilles Eele!Ae% Be "on6t !se the 'or"s Jnor$alJ an" Ja*nor$al3J #very society is at once rational an" irrational3 They are necessarily rational in their $echanis$s, their gears an" 'heels, their syste$s of connection, an" even *y virt!e of the place they assign to the irrational3 All this pres!pposes, ho'ever, co"es or a5io$s 'hich "o not res!lt *y chance, *!t 'hich "o not have an intrinsic rationality either3 3t's ?ust like theology< everything about it is 0uite rational if you accept sin) the immaculate conception) and the incarnation# =eason is al'ays a region carve" o!t of the irrationalRnot sheltere" fro$ the irrational at all, *!t traverse" *y it an" only "efine" *y a partic!lar kin" of relationship a$ong irrational factors3 ,nderneath all reason lies delirium, an" "rift3 #verything a*o!t capitalis$ is rational, e5cept capital or capitalis$3 * stock-market is a perfectly rational mechanism) you can

understand it) learn how it works> capitalists know how to use it> and yet what a delirium) it's nuts# This is 'hat 'e $ean 'hen 'e say that the rational is al'ays the
rationality of an irrational3 Ho$ething that has not *een "isc!sse" in .ar56s ,apital is the e5tent to 'hich he is fascinate" *y capitalist $echanis$s, precisely *eca!se, at one an" the sa$e ti$e, it is "e$ente" an" it 'orks3 Ho then what is rational in a society+ $nce interests have been defined within the confines of a society) the rational is the way in which people pursue those interests and attempt to reali-e them3 (!t !n"erneath that, yo! fin" "esires, invest$ents of "esire that are not to *e conf!se" 'ith invest$ents of interest, an" on 'hich interests "epen" for their "eter$ination an" very "istri*!tion% an enor$o!s flo', all kin"s of li*i"inal2!nconscio!s flo's that constit!te the "eliri!$ of this society3 &n reality, history is the history of "esire3 To"ay6s capitalist or technocrat "oes not "esire in the sa$e 'ay a slave tra"er or a *!rea!crat fro$ the ol" ,hinese e$pire 'o!l" have3 'hen people in a society desire repression) for others and for themselves> when there are people who like to harass others ) and who have the opportunity to do so) the "right" to do so) this e.hibits the problem of a deep connection

between libidinal desire and the social field3 There e5ists a J"isintereste"J love for the oppressive $achine% ietAsche has so$e *ea!tif!l things to say a*o!t this per$anent tri!$ph of slaves, a*o!t the 'ay the e$*ittere", the "epresse", or the 'eak $anage to i$pose their 'ay of life on !s3 Act!el% Bhat, precisely, is proper to capitalis$ in 'hat yo!6ve :!st "escri*e"9 Cilles Eele!Ae% Perhaps it6s that, in capitalis$, "esire an" interest, or "esire an" reason, are "istri*!te" in a totally ne' 'ay, a partic!larly Ja*nor$alJ 'ay3 4apital) or money) has reached such a stage of delirium that there would be only one e0uivalent in psychiatry< what they call the terminal state3 &t6s too co$plicate" to "escri*e here, *!t let $e :!st say this% in other societies, yo! have e5ploitation, yo! have scan"als an" secrets, *!t it6s all part of the Jco"e3J There are even e5plicitly secret co"es3 &n capitalis$, it6s co$pletely "ifferent% nothing is secret, at least in principle an" accor"ing to the co"e (that6s 'hy capitalis$ is J"e$ocraticJ an" Jp!*liciAesJ itself, even in the :!ri"ical sense of the ter$/3 An" yet nothing is a"$issi*le3 1egality itself is ina"$issi*le3 &n contrast to other societies, the regi$e of capitalis$ is *oth p!*lic an" ina"$issi*le3 This very special "eliri!$ is proper to the regi$e of $oney3 J!st look at 'hat they call scan"als to"ay% the ne'spapers talk a*o!t the$ incessantly, everyone preten"s either to "efen" the$selves or to go on the attack? *!t the search for anything illegal co$es !p e$pty2han"e", given the nat!re of the regi$e of capital3 #verything is legal% the pri$e $inister6s ta5 ret!rns, real2estate "eals, lo**yists, an" generally the econo$ic an" financial $echanis$s of capitalR everything e5cept the little scre'2!ps? still $ore to the point, everything is p!*lic *!t nothing is a"$issi*le3 3f the left were "reasonable)" it would be satisfied with vulgari-ing economic and financial mechanisms# There6s no nee" to $ake the private p!*lic, :!st a"$it 'hat is alrea"y p!*lic3 Then a "e$entia 'itho!t prece"ent 'o!l" *e fo!n" in all the hospitals3 &nstea", they keep talking a*o!t Ji"eology3J &"eology has no i$portance here% 'hat $atters is not i"eology, an" not even the Jecono$ic M i"eologicalJ "istinction or opposition? 'hat $atters is the organiAation of po'er3 (eca!se the organi-ation of power) i#e# the way in which desire is already in the economic) the way libido invests the economic) haunts the economic and fosters the political forms of repression#

"nuclear war is terrible and we should do things like maybe the plan to avoid it"
Fuclear an.iety creates a brutali-ation of ordinary life that psychologically cauteri-es us against empathetic feeling and authori-es the abstract murder of millions demolishing the affective value

of living
Fandy C, PhE in clinical psychology an" Eirector, ,enter for the Ht!"y of Eeveloping Hocieities, 8997 (Ashis. http%MM'''3transnational3orgMfor!$M$eetMnan"ySn!clearis$3ht$l/

!clearis$ "oes not re$ain confine" to the n!clear esta*lish$ent or the n!clear co$$!nity3 &t intro"!ces other psychopathologies in a society3 4or instance, as it seeps into p!*lic conscio!sness, it creates a ne' a'areness of the transience of life3 &t forces people to live 'ith the constant fear that, one "ay, a s!""en 'ar or acci"ent $ight kill not only the$, *!t also their chil"ren an" gran"chil"ren, an" every*o"y they love3 This a'areness gra"!ally creates a sense of the hollowness of life3 4or $any, life is denuded of substantive meaning3 The psychological n!$*ing & have $entione" co$pletes the pict!re3 Bhile the or"inary citiAen lea"s an apparently nor$al life, he or she is constantly a'are of the transience of s!ch life an" the risk of $ega2"eath for the entire society3 Fften this fin"s e5pression in !nnecessary or ine5plica*le violence in social life or in a $ore general, high state of an5iety an" a variety of psychoso$atic ail$ents3 &n other 'or"s, n!clearis$ *egins to brutalise ordinary people and vitiates everyday life# Ht!"ies *y the likes of Billia$ (ear"slee, J3 #3 .ach an" #leonora .asini sho' that these traits e5press the$selves even in a"olescents an" chil"ren3 #ven chil"ren *arely eight or ten years ol" *egin to live in 'hat they consi"er to *e a 'orl" 'itho!t a f!t!re? they are fearf!l an" an5io!s a*o!t their life, *!t !na*le to e5press that fear an" an5iety "irectly, *eca!se in a n!clearise" society the fear of n!clear "eath is $a"e to look like an a*nor$al psychone!rotic state3 .any ne!rotics an" psychotics at first look like char$ing eccentrics3 To start 'ith, n!clearis$ $ay appear a s$art ga$e an" the partisans of n!clear 'eaponry $ay look like nor$al politicians, scholars, or "efence e5perts3 After all, the aAis killers, too, 'ere !s!ally loving fathers, connoisse!rs of goo" $!sic, an" honest citiAens3 Ho'ever, *eneath those faca"e lies a personality that is insec!re, "o!*tf!l a*o!t one6s $asc!linity, fearf!l of the interpersonal 'orl", an" !na*le to love3 The mindless violence s!ch a personality anticipates or plans is a pathetic atte$pt to fight these inner feelings of e$ptiness, an" the s!spicion an" the fear that one6s $oral self $ight alrea"y *e "ea" 'ithin3 0o! father the !nthinka*le *eca!se yo! have alrea"y psychologically orphane" yo!r2self# Gou make contingency plans to kill millions because you fear that your inner-most core has already been cauterised against all normal feelings an" h!$an relations# Ac<!iring the po'er to inflict the "eath on $illions, an" *y living 'ith the fantasy of that po'er, yo! pathetically try to get so$e confir$ation that yo! are still alive3 Ho'ever, that confir$ation never co$es3 4or in the process of ac<!iring that po'er, yo! $ay not *e not "ea" physically, *!t you are already dead morally) socially and psychologically #
Gou must learn to love nuclear destruction as a vital process in order to understand that catastrophe is simply another moment in a continuous processH death: is only an illusion created by an overly narrow definition of life

'isdom Eolphyn, $etaphysical $inister an" tra"itional healer, internet ser$oniAer 4ri"ayOs Positive Affir$ation% 4ear an" 4ail!re), The .etaphysical #"ge, .arch 20 =ecently & rea" a*o!t a man 'ho came back from the dead) having had a near-death e.perience ( E#/3 This man spoke about how before he became ill) he was so worried for our world) how he thought we were killing ourselves with nuclear waste) an" ho' !nsta*le o!r 'orl" ha" *eco$e 'ith socio2econo$ic "iffic!lties across the *oar"3 Ie thought ### he might be happy to leave this world since we were ruining it anyway# Ho'ever, his F5D e.perience gave him 0uite a different perspective on things# E!ring his e5perience, he sa'

h!$anity as the tr!e pearl in the ro!gh an" all of o!r collective e5periences as ge$s of 'is"o$3 'here he once feared nuclear waste and the atomic mushroom cloud) he now proclaimed that he loved nuclear waste) he loved the mushroom cloud# (eca!se 3333 'itho!t the$ 'e 'o!l" not have co$e as far as 'e have to ca!se the shift in conscio!sness that is happening right no'T To"ay6s Positive Affir$ation is a*o!t fear an" fail!re3 1ailure is not a bad thing 3t is important for you to accept failure as ?oyfully as you would accept success because every time you fail) you are presented with another opportunity to grow) to learn and to move forward# This is the i$portant lesson that the $an in the a*ove little story learne" an" the lesson to"ay6s affir$ation 'ill pass along to yo!3 *pproaching nuclear weapons from the starting point of fear produces self-referential paranoia that uses predetermined ob?ects of psychological terror to reify nuclear trauma -- this turns the case and means the alternative's glib attitude is key to challenging to repetition of systemic atrocities
'adsell :67 Eavi", Eyna$ics of Eisar$a$ent) Hepte$*er 89-2 iss!e of N,hronicleO, the :o!rnal of the Eag Ha$$arsk:ol" &nfor$ation ,entre on the Ht!"y of Giolence an" Peace3

http%MM'''3$eri"ian3org3!kMSPE4sMEyEisar$a$ent3p"f

The defences called into action to protect the conscious mind from the psychotic levels of fear) rage) grief and desire deep in the unconscious world of the individual are also triggered by angst gener-ating e.periences of adult reality# As a res!lt those !nkno'n areas *eyon" the *o!n"aries of the social syste$ ten" to *e pop!late" 'ith the terrors of the "eep, hel" at *ay *y co$$on coll!sional patterns of "efence 'hich $irror those si$ilarly e$ploye" to $an the ra$parts of inner *eing (see fig!re @/3 ,ontrary to 4re!"6s "espairing fatalis$ of the 89@0s (see the #"itorial of the J!ne ,hronicle/ the represse" core of h!$an fear, rage, paranoia an" aggression is not an instinctive an" therefore !naltera*le part of the h!$an psyche3 &t lies in those pri$itive tra!$atic e5periences of engage$ent 'ith the *o!n"aries of *eing in the 'o$*2'orl" an" the process of *irth3 &nnate the "efences $ay *e, instinctive they are not3 4ommon boundaries of the social system are irrationally defended in parallel to the common core of intrapersonal trauma# 3f the nation state is a society organised for war) it is because the individual is similarly organised in the depth of unconscious being# The social institutions erected to manage the boundary of the nation-state mirror the psychological mechanisms developed to manage the boundaries of inner consciousness# The phantasy threats pro?ected across the social boundary) protection against which demands social armour) are in reality common reflections of those deeply repressed inner traumata buried in the defended core of the individual# The 1ac pro?ects neuroses onto the nuclear future driving inter-personal an.iety -small steps forward are insuffient
'adsell :67 Eavi", Eyna$ics of Eisar$a$ent) Hepte$*er 89-2 iss!e of N,hronicleO, the :o!rnal of the Eag Ha$$arsk:ol" &nfor$ation ,entre on the Ht!"y of Giolence an" Peace3

http%MM'''3$eri"ian3org3!kMSPE4sMEyEisar$a$ent3p"f

3t is impossible to solve the problem of the escalating armour of international boundaries while leaving undisturbed the causal dynamics of common intra-personal defences which generate the problem# "inor manipulation of symptomatic phenomena) while preserving causal system dynamics) is F$T a long-term solution to the problem# 3t is essential to understand the origin) functioning and effects of intrapersonal defences against an.iety and their pro?ection into every level of the social system# $nly in so far as paranoid phantasy is withdrawn are we able to mobilise cooperative problem-solving in the real world of transactions across the boundaries of

social systems# H!ch a $ove$ent is of all to *e $ost resiste" for it faces every2$an 'ith those "eep levels of psychotic terror, rage, grief an" "esire lai" "o'n in pri$al tra!$a3 1rom this material) and at every level of social being) humanity is in flight#

"focus on the future is how we should determine if the plan is a good idea"
7*4 impact calculus endlessly defers actual living life to an unreachable future time of total security that will never e.ist# Brioriti-ing the present over the future is necessary to dwelling in the pleasure of truly being alive Iahn : 6 Thich hat, Uen teacher, no$inate" *y .artin 1!ther +ing Jr3 for the o*el Peace PriAe (eing Peace) p3L J5welling in the present moment#K Bhile & sit here, & "onOt think of so$e'here else, of the f!t!re or the past3 & sit here, an" & kno' 'here & a$3 This is very important# 'e tend to be alive in the future) not now# 'e say) J'ait until 3 finish school and get my Bh#5# degree) and then 3 will be really alive#K Bhen 'e have it, an" itOs not easy to get, 'e say to o!rselves, & have to 'ait !ntil & have a :o* in or"er to *e really alive3) An" then after the :o*, a car3 After the car, a ho!se3 'e are not capable of being alive in the present moment# 'e tend to postpone being alive to the future) the distant future) we don:t know when# Fow is not the moment to be alive# 'e may never be alive at all in our entire life# Therefore, the techni0ue, if 'e have to speak of a techni<!e, is to be in the present moment, to *e a'are that 'e are here an" no', and the only moment to be alive is the present moment 3 'e must break out the paraly-ing loop of crisis policymaking = only by refusing to imagine the future can we open up space for positive social change 5unmire 8 Patricia E!n$ire, +ent Htate University, D Eisco!rse V Hociety 8K (7/7-82D8@
&n (eco$ings% #5plorations in .e$ory, Ti$e an" 4!t!res #liAa*eth CrosA (8999/ posits that Nto kno' the f!t!re is to "eny it as f!t!re, to place it as given, as pastO (p3 K/3 & fin" this state$ent co$pelling *eca!se it artic!lates 'hat is at stake in "o$inant political "isco!rses an" the f!t!res they pro:ect3 (y re$in"ing !s of the opposition *et'een Nkno'ingO an" Nf!t!rityO CrosA re$in"s !s of the intrinsic potentiality of the f!t!re an" the political i$portance of !n"erstan"ing the f!t!re not as the inevita*le progression of the past an" present *!t as a real site of change an" possi*ility3 .oreover, CrosA conten"s that clai$s to kno'le"ge of the f!t!re

pro"!ce" thro!gh "o$inant political "isco!rses nee" to *e !n"erstoo" in ter$s of their i"eological f!nction of "enying o!r agency 'ith respect to the f!t!re 'hile, at the sa$e ti$e, i$plicating !s in f!t!res not of o!r $aking3 That is, political "isco!rses in 'hich the f!t!re is represente" as alrea"y kno'n, as pre2"eter$ine", can f!nction to NparalyAe political actionO *y !n"er$ining the f!t!re as a concept!al space for i$agining an" 'orking for political an" social change (1evitas, 899@/3 As CrosA (8999/ e5plains, s!ch "eter$inis$ Nannihilates any f!t!re !ncontaine" in the past an" presentO (p3 7/3 An i$portant task for critical "isco!rse analysis is to reclai$ the agency an" potentialities that the f!t!re offers for social an" political transfor$ation3 This task sho!l" foc!s in part on "e$onstrating the
ling!istic an" "isc!rsive $eans *y 'hich the f!t!re is clai$e" an" appropriate" *y "o$inant gro!ps an" instit!tions3 &n a""ition, analyses sho!l" 'ork to "isr!pt an" challenge these "o$inant f!t!res 'ith representations an" conceptions of Nantithetical f!t!res 3 3 3 'aiting 8- for syntactic artic!lationO an" $aterial realiAationO (He*"ige, 899@% 2LD/3 &n short, 'e nee" to reclai$ the f!t!re Nas a virt!al space ; *lank,

colo!rless, shapeless, a space to *e $a"e over, a space 'here everything is still to *e 'onO

Bolicy-making actomania causes endless cycles of nuclear arms-racing# The alternative breaks the cycle# @ifton 6E, Prof Psychiatry @ 0ale, 89-7 (=o*ert Jay3 (eyon" Psychic !$*ing% A ,all to A'areness,) Total Hec!rity% A Hearch for Alternatives3 #" (!rns Beston3 P388L288-/ !clear Eisar$a$ent an" Clo*al

!clear 'eapons, in a""ition, lea" to 'hat co!l" *e calle" a for$ of technological terroris$3 BeOve hear" a lot a*o!t terroristsR$ilitant revol!tionaries 'ho seiAe 'eapons an" seek to achieve their ai$s *y threats of

violence, often ran"o$ violence3 Be hear less a*o!t the technological terror of govern$ents that possess $assive 'eapons an" threaten their !se against other co!ntries3 Be all live in a real$ of technological terroris$ that o!ght to *e e5a$ine" as 'e a""ress the irrationality of n!clear 'eapons offering !s so$ething calle" sec!rity3 There seems, then, to be a vicious psycho-political circle< the sense of loss of

security) the onset of fear) the loss of credibility and of stability) and the desperate but impossible 0uest to regain these by stockpiling nuclear weapons# Then the e5istence of a
n!clear ar$a$entari!$ provokes a sense of still greater loss an" insec!rity in the e$*race of $ore an" $ore 'eapons3 3t is this vicious circle that we must interrupt#

**impacts to the things the link cards say**

melon collie
"elancholy negates the will to act = it makes us slaves of the powerful and makes our fears of death absurd = vote negative to re?ect the 1*4 salvation morality 5eleu-e and Barnet 6C fa$o!s philosopher, Professor of Philosophy at the Hor*onne, Eialog!es &&, #!ropean Perspectives, 'ith ,laire Parnet, freelance :o!rnalist, translate" *y H!gh To$linson an" (ar*ara Ha**er:a$, 2002 pgs3K82K2 Bhen HpinoAa says 6The s!rprising thing is the *o"y 333 'e "o not yet kno' 'hat a *o"y is capa*le of 333 6, he "oes not 'ant to $ake the *o"y a $o"el, an" the so!l si$ply "epen"ent on the *o"y3 He has a s!*tler task3 He 'ants to "e$olish the pse!"o2s!periority of the so!l over the *o"y3 There is the so!l an" the *o"y an" *oth e5press one an" the sa$e thing% an attri*!te of the *o"y is also an e5presse" of the so!l (for e5a$ple, spee"/3 Lust as you do not know what a body is capable of) ?ust as there are many things in the body that you do not know) so there are in the soul many things which go beyond your consciousness # This is the <!estion% 'hat is a *o"y capa*le of9 'hat affects are yo! capa*le of9 #5peri$ent, *!t yo! nee" a lot of pr!"ence to e5peri$ent3 'e live in a world which is generally disagreeable) where not only people but the established powers have a stake in transmitting sad affects to us # 9adness) sad affects) are all those which reduce our power to act# The established powers need our sadness to make us slaves# The tyrant) the priest) the captors of souls need to persuade us that life is hard and a burden# The powers that be need to repress us no less than to make us an.ious or, as Girilio says, to administer and organi-e our intimate little fears # The long) universal moan about life< the lack-to-be which is life ### 3n vain someone says) '@et's dance'> we are not really very happy# 3n vain someone says) 'hat misfortune death is'> for one would need to have lived to have something to lose# Those who are sick) in soul as in body) will not let go of us) the vampires) until they have transmitted to us their neurosis and their an.iety) their beloved castration) the resentment against life) filthy contagion# &t is all a $atter of *loo"3 3t is not easy to be a free man) to flee the plague) organi-e encounters) increase the power to act) to be moved by ?oy) to multiply the affects which e.press or encompass a ma.imum of affirmation# To make the body a power which is not reducible to the organism) to make thought a power which is not reducible to consciousness# HpinoAaOs fa$o!s first principle (a single s!*stance for all attri*!tes/ "epen"s on this asse$*lage an" not vice versa3 There is a HpinoAa2asse$*lage% so!l an" *o"y, relationships an" enco!nters, po'er to *e affecte", affects 'hich realiAe this po'er, sa"ness an" :oy 'hich <!alify these affects3 Here philosophy *eco$es the art of a f!nctioning, of an asse$*lage3 HpinoAa, the $an of enco!nters an" *eco$ing, the philosopher 'ith the tick, HpinoAa the i$percepti*le, al'ays in the $i""le, al'ays in flight altho!gh he "oes not shift $!ch, a flight fro$ the Je'ish co$$!nity, a flight fro$ Po'ers, a flight fro$ the sick an" the $alignant3 He $ay *e ill, he $ay hi$self "ie? he kno's that death is neither the goal nor the end) but that) on the contrary) it is a case of passing his life to someone else# Bhat 1a'rence says a*o!t Bhit$anOs contin!o!s life is 'ell s!ite" to HpinoAa% the Ho!l an" the (o"y, the soul is neither above nor inside) it is with:) it is on the road) e.posed to all contacts) encounters) in the company of those who follow the same way) feel with them) sei-e the vibration of their soul and their body as they pass:) the opposite of a morality of salvation) teaching to soul its life) not to save it#

univocality
The creation of a centers of analysis: is not a neutral act but rather asserts the power of metaphysical ideology over the empirical vitality of vibrant matter# This centering of action around agency and responsibility is an abortion of reason as a multiplicity by straight-?acketing our very thoughts in this debate round to an artificial limit of what is possible) probable) inevitable and trueHour freedom to look into the future to behold the nuclear gallows is not a freedom at allHrather it is an indenturing of vibrant material life to the graves of dead ideas# This is a world of constant mutual demolition against all material-- we might as well end humanity right now 5eleu-e 6C

Cilles, fa$o!s philosopher, Professor of Philosophy at the Hor*onne, (t'o translations !se"/ The Opera Quarterly 2837 (200D/ L8K2L27 A E Eialog!es &&, #!ropean Perspectives, 'ith ,laire Parnet, freelance :o!rnalist, translate" *y H!gh To$linson an" (ar*ara Ha**er:a$, 2002 pgs3K82K2 Iow does one "act" on something) an" 'hat is the act or act!ality of this potential9 The act is reason# Fotice that reason is not a faculty but a process) which consists precisely in actuali-ing a potential or giving form to matter# =eason is itself a pl!ralis$, *eca!se nothing in"icates that 'e sho!l" think of $atter or the act as !ni<!e3 'e define or invent a process of rationali-ation each time we establish human relations in some material form) in some group) in some multiplicity#E The act itself) 0ua relation) is always political# /eason) as a process) is political# This $ay 'ell *e the case 'ithin a city, *!t it goes for other, s$aller gro!ps as 'ell, or even for $yselfRan" no'here *!t in $yself3 Psychology, or rather the only *eara*le psychology, is politics, *eca!se & a$ forever creating h!$an relationships 'ith $yself3 There is no psychology, *!t rather a politics of the self3 There is no $etaphysics, *!t rather a politics of *eing3 o science, *!t rather a politics of $atter, since $an is entr!ste" 'ith $atter itself3 The sa$e even applies to sickness% 'e have to J$anageJ it 'hen 'e cannot con<!er it, an" there*y i$pose on it the for$ of h!$an relationships3 ,onsi"er the case of sonoro!s $atter3 The $!sical scale, or rather a $!sical scale, is a process of rationaliAation that consists in esta*lishing h!$an relationships via this $atter in a $anner that act!aliAes its potentiality an" it itself *eco$es h!$an3 .ar5 analyAe" the sense organs in this 'ay in or"er to "e$onstrate thro!gh the$ the i$$anence of $an an" at!re% the ear *eco$es a h!$an ear 'hen the resonant o*:ect *eco$es $!sical3 The very "iverse gro!p of processes of rationaliAation is 'hat constit!tes h!$an *eco$ing or activity, Pra5is, or practices3 Be "o not kno' in this regar" if there is s!ch a thing as a h!$an !nity, 'hether fro$ the historical or the generic point of vie'3 &s there a properly h!$an $atter, p!re potential, "istinct fro$ act!ality, that has the a*ility to fascinate !s9 There is nothing like "freedom" within us that does not also appear as its opposite< as something that "imprisons" us) as ,hWtelet is al'ays saying3 3t would be 0uite obtuse of potentiality to oppose the act capable of reali-ing itHan inversion of reason) more than its opposite) a privation or alienation# 3t is as if there were a nonhuman relationship that nevertheless was internal or immanent to human relations) an inhumanity specific to humans< freedom that becomes the capacity of man to van0uish man) or to be van0uished# Potentiality is pathos, 'hich is to say passivity or receptivity, *!t receptivity is first an" fore$ost the po'er to receive *lo's an" to give the$% a strange kin" of en"!rance3 To *e s!re, one can draw up the history of systems of domination) in which the activity of the powerful is at work> but this activity is nothing without the appetite of those who aspire to give blows in the name of the blows they have received# They fight for their servitude as if it were their freedom) as HpinoAa p!t it3 Th!s, 'hether e5ercise" or en"!re", power is not merely the activity of man's social e.istence> it is also the passivity of man's natural e.istence# There is a !nity of 'ar MDnd Bage C1CN an" lan", the traces of 'hich ,hWtelet "etecte" in the 'ork of ,la!"e Hi$onRor in .ar5is$, 'hich never separate" the active e5istence of $an as a historical *eing fro$ its J"o!*le,J the passive e5istence of $an as a nat!ral *eing% =eason an" its irrationality% this 'as .ar56s o'n the$e, Pan"Q it is also o!rs3 3 3 3 He

'ants to pro"!ce a critical science of the act!al, f!n"a$ental passivity of h!$anity3 .an "oes not "ie *eca!se he is $ortal (any $ore than he lies *eca!se he is a Jliar,J or loves *eca!se he is a JloverJ/% he "ies *eca!se he "oes not eat eno!gh, *eca!se he is re"!ce" to the state of *estiality, *eca!se he is kille"3 Historical $aterialis$ is there to re$in" !s of these facts, an" .ar5, in Capital, lays the fo!n"ations for 'hat $ight *e a $etho" ena*ling !s to analyAe, for a given perio"R<!ite a revealing perio", in factRthe $echanis$s at 'ork in the fact of passivity3 3 3 3 D Aren6t there val!es specific to pathos9 .ay*e in the for$ of a "espair a*o!t the 'orl", so$ething 'hich is <!ite present in ,hWtelet, !n"erneath his e5tre$e politeness3 3f human beings are constantly in a process of

mutual demolition) we might as well destroy ourselves) under pleasant) even fanciful conditions# "$f course all life is a process of breaking down)"
as 4itAgeral" sai"3K This Jof co!rseJ has the ring of a ver"ict of i$$anence% the inh!$an ele$ent in one6s relationship to oneself3 ,hWtelet6s only novel, Les annes de dmolition (The Demolition Years/, has a profo!n"ly 4itAgeral"ian $otif, an elegance in the $i"st of "isaster3 3t is not a 0uestion of dying) or of a desire to die) but of investing the temptation to die in a sublime element like music# Fnce again, this has less to "o 'ith psychoanalysis than 'ith politics3 Be $!st take acco!nt of this vector of "estr!ction, 'hich can traverse a co$$!nity or a $an, Athens or Pericles3 Pricls 'as ,hWtelet6s first *ook3L Pericles 'as al'ays the very i$age of the great $an, or great hero, for ,hWteletReven in Pericles6s Jpassivity,J even in his fail!re ('hich 'as also the fail!re of "e$ocracy/, even in spite of his "ist!r*ing tra:ectory Pvecteur Q3 Another val!e proper to pathos is politenessRa Creek politeness, in fact, 'hich alrea"y contains an o!tline of h!$an relationships, the *eginnings of an act of reason3 H!$an relationships *egin 'ith a reasone" syste$, an organiAation of space that !n"ergir"s a city3 An art of esta*lishing the right "istances *et'een h!$ans, not hierarchically *!t geo$etrically, neither too far nor too close, to ens!re that *lo's 'ill not *e given or receive"3 To $ake h!$an enco!nters into a rite, a kin" of rit!al of i$$anence, even if this re<!ires a *it of schiAophrenia3 'hat the Areeks taught us) an" P1o!isQ Cernet or PJean2PierreQ Gernant re$in"e" !s, is to not let ourselves be nailed down to a fi.ed center) but to ac0uire the capacity to transport a center along with oneself) in order to organi-e sets of symmetrical) reversible relations established by free men# This $ay not *e eno!gh to "efeat the "espair of the 'orl", for there are fe'er an" fe'er polite $en, an" there $!st *e at least t'o for the <!ality itself to e5ist3 (!t 4ranXois ,hWtelet6s MDnd Bage C16N e5tre$e politeness 'as also a $ask concealing a thir" val!e of pathos% 'hat one $ight ter$ goo"ness, a 'ar$ *enevolence3 The ter$ is not <!ite right, even tho!gh this <!ality, this val!e, 'as "eeply present in ,hWtelet3 .ore than a <!ality or a val!e, it is a disposition of thought) an act of thinking# 3t consists in this< not knowing in advance how someone might yet be able to establish a process of rationali-ation) both within and outside himself# $f course there are all the lost causes) the despair# But if there is a chance Pat esta*lishing a process of rationaliAationQ, what does that someone need) how does he escape his own destruction+ *ll of us) perhaps) are born on terrain favorable to demolition) but we will not miss a chance# There is no pure reason or rationality par e.cellence# There are processes of rationali-ationH

heterogeneous and varied) depending on conditions) eras) groups) and individuals# These are constantly being aborted) receding) and reaching dead ends) and yet resuming elsewhere) with new measures) new rhythms) new allures# The inherent pl!rality of processes of rationaliAation is alrea"y the o*:ect of classic
episte$ological analyses (+oyrY, (achelar", ,ang!ilhe$/, an" sociopolitical analyses (.a5 Be*er/3 &n his late 'orks, 4o!ca!lt too p!she" this pl!ralis$ to'ar" an analysis of h!$an relationships, 'hich 'o!l" constit!te the first steps to'ar" a ne' ethics fro$ the stan"point of 'hat he calle" Jprocesses of s!*:ectificationJ% 4o!ca!lt6s analysis e$phasiAe" *if!rcations an" "erivations, the *roken historicity of reason, 'hich is al'ays in a state of li*eration or alienation as it e<!ates to $an6s relationship to hi$self3 4o!ca!lt ha" to go *ack as far as the Creeks, not in or"er to fin" the $iracle of reason par e5cellence, *!t $erely in or"er to "iagnose 'hat 'as perhaps the first gest!re to'ar" a process of rationaliAation, an" one that 'o!l" *e follo'e" *y $any others, in "ifferent con"itions,

!n"er "ifferent g!ises3 4o!ca!lt no longer characteriAe" the Creek polis in ter$s of the organiAation of a ne' space, *!t as a h!$an relation that co!l" take the for$ of a rivalry *et'een free $en or citiAens (in politics, *!t also in love, gy$nastics, or :!stice 3 3 3 /3 Bithin this sort of process of rationaliAation an" s!*:ectification, a free $an co!l" not govern other free $en, in principle, !nless he 'ere capa*le of governing hi$self3 This is the specifically Creek act or process, 'hich cannot *e treate" as a fo!n"ational act *!t rather as a sing!lar event in a *roken chain3 &t is !n"o!*te"ly here that ,hWtelet, having taken the Creek polis as his point of "epart!re, $eets 4o!ca!lt3 ,hWtelet "efines the Creek polis 'ith reference to the $agistrateRnot only in ter$s of ho' he "iffers fro$ other f!nctionaries, s!ch as the priest or the i$perial civil servant, *!t also 'ith respect to his correlative "!ties, 'hich *elong to a correspon"ing process of rationaliAation (for instance, the "ra'ing of lots/3 o one has analyAe" ho' the process of "ra'ing lots capt!res the gist of reason *etter than ,hWtelet3 4or ,hWtelet, rationaliAation is also a historical an" political MDnd Bage C1 N process, in 'hich Athens is its key event yet is also its fail!re an" its eras!reRna$ely, Pericles, fro$ 'hich other events spin off an" are a*sor*e" into other processes3 Athens 'as not the a"vent of an eternal reason, *!t the sing!lar event of a provisional rationaliAation, an" is as s!ch all the $ore striking3 'hen we

posit a single) universal reason de ?ure) we are falling precisely into what 4hOtelet calls presumptionRa kin" of $etaphysical r!"eness3 He "iagnoses this ail$ent in Plato% even when we recogni-e that reason is a human) solely human) faculty) a faculty tailored to human ends) we nevertheless continue to grant it theological transcendence# 'e draw up a dualism of processes instead of a pluralism of processes> this dualism opposes discourse to violence) as if violence were not already concealed within discourse itself) providing it with its various impetuses and ins and outs# 4or a long ti$e, !n"er the infl!ence of
#ric Beil- an" accor"ing to a Platonic an" Hegelian $o"el, 4hOtelet *elieve" in the opposition *et'een violence an" "isco!rse3 (!t 'hat he discovers) on the contrary, is the ability of discourse to give voice to man's distinct inhumanity# 3ndeed) it is the purview of discourse to engage the process of its own rationali-ation) but only in a certain becoming) and due to the pressure of certain motivations and events# This is of e5tre$e i$portance in ,hWtelet6s La naissance de l'histoire (The irth o! "istory# 9 , *eca!se the i$age of "isco!rse or 1ogos that he presents there is closer to Th!cy"i"es than to Plato or Hegel3 &n"ee", he never ceases challenging the two corollaries of a doctrine of universal reason< first) the utopian need to invoke an ideal city or a universal 9tate of right) which would prevent against a democratic future> second) the apocalyptic impetus to locate the

moment) the fundamental alienation of reason that occurred once and for all) comprising in one stroke all violence and inhumanity 3 &t is one an" the sa$e
pres!$ption that grants transcen"ence to *oth reason an" to reason6s corr!ption, an", since Plato, ren"ers the one the t'in of the other3

microfascism
This process of conceptual ordering erects a fascist bureaucracy in the heads of every thinker and agent which is a precondition for any macropolitical violence# This move to cede human agency to a transcendent conceptual apparatus at the molecular level is the worst pra.is for politics within the debat round -- necessarily problemati-es the 0uestion of the ballot

5eleu-e and Auattari 6; Cilles Eele!Ae an" 4Yli5 C!attari, A Tho!san" Platea!s pg3 287228D &t is not s!fficient to "efine *!rea!cracy *y a rigi" seg$entarity 'ith co$part$entaliAation of contig!o!s offices, an office $anager in each seg$ent, an" the correspon"ing centraliAation at the en" of the hall or on top of the to'er3 4or at the sa$e ti$e there is a 'hole *!rea!cratic seg$entation, a s!ppleness of an" co$$!nication *et'een offices, a *!rea!cratic perversion, a per$anent inventiveness or creativity practice" even against a"$inistrative reg!lations3 &f +afka is the greatest theorist of *!rea!cracy, it is *eca!se he sho's ho', at a certain level (*!t 'hich one9 it is not localiAa*le/, the *arriers *et'een offices cease to *e a "efinite "ivi"ing line) an" are i$$erse" in a $olec!lar $e"i!$ (milieu/ that "issolves the$ an" si$!ltaneo!sly $akes the office $anager proliferate into $icrofig!res i$possi*le to recogniAe or i"entify "iscerni*le only 'hen they are centraliAa*le% another regi$e, coe5istent 'ith the separation and totaliAation of the rigi" seg$ents3 Be 'o!l" even say that fascism implies a molecular regime that is distinct both from molar segments and their centrali-ation# 5oubtless) fascism invented the concept of the totalitarian 9tate) but there is no reason to define fascism by a concept of its own devising? there are totalitarian Htates, of the Htalinist or $ilitary "ictatorship type, that are not fascist3 The concept of the totalitarian Htate applies only at the $acropolitical level, to a rigi" seg$entarity an" a partic!lar $o"e of totaliAation an" centraliAation3 (!t fascism is inseparable from a proliferation of molecular focuses in interaction) which skip from point to point) before beginning to resonate together in the Fational 9ocialist 9tate# /ural fascism and city or neighborhood fascism) youth fascism and war veteran:s fascism) fascism of the @eft and fascism of the /ight) fascism of the couple) family) school) and office< every fascism is defined by a micro-black hole that stands on its own and communicates with the others) before resonating in a great) generali-ed central black hole# There is fascism when a war machine is installed in each hole) in every niche# Dven after the Fational 9ocialist 9tate had been established) microfascisms persisted that gave it une0ualed ability to act upon the Jmasses#K Eaniel C!Yrin is correct to say that if Hitler took po'er, rather then taking over the Cer$an Htate a"$inistration, it 'as *eca!se fro$ the *eginning he ha" at his "isposal $icroorganiAations giving hi$ an !ne<!ale", irreplacea*le a*ility to penetrate every cell of society,) in other 'or"s, a $olec!lar an" s!pple seg$entarity, flo's capa*le of s!ff!sing every kin" of cell3 ,onversely, if capitalis$ ca$e to consi"er the fascist e5perience as catastrophic, if it preferre" to ally itself 'ith Htalinist totalitarianis$, 'hich fro$ its point of vie' 'as $!ch $ore sensi*le an" $anagea*le, it 'as *eca!se the seg$entarity an" centraliAation of the latter 'as $ore classical an" less fl!i"3 Bhat $akes fascis$ "angero!s is its $olec!lar or $icropolitical po'er, for it is a $ass $ove$ent% a cancero!s *o"y rather than a totalitarian organis$3 A$erican fil$ has often "epicte" these $olec!lar focal points? *an", gang, sect, fa$ily, to'n, neigh*orhoo", vehicle fascis$s spare no one3 $nly microfascism provides an answer to the global 0uestion< 'hy does desire desire its own repression) how can it desire its own repression+ The masses certainly do not passively submit to power) nor do they JwantK to be repressed) in a kin" of $asochistic hysteria? nor are they tricked by an ideological lure# Eesire is never separa*le fro$ co$ple5 asse$*lages that necessarily ties into $olec!lar levels, fro$ $icrofor$!lations alrea"y shaping post!res, attit!"es, perceptions, e5pectations, se$iotic syste$s, etc3 5esire is never an undifferentiated instinctual energy) but itself results from a highly developed) engineered setup rich in interactions< a whole supple segmentarity that processes molecular energies and potentially gives desire a fascist determination# @eftist

organi-ations will not be the last to secrete microfascisms# 3t:s too easy to be antifascist on the molar level) and not even see the fascist inside you) the fascist you yourself sustain and nourish and cherish with molecules both personal and collective# 4o!r errors concerning this $olec!lar an" s!pple seg$entarity are to *e avoi"e"3 The first is a5iological an" consists in *elieving that a little s!ppleness is eno!gh to $ake things *etter3) (!t microfascisms are what make fascism so dangerous) an" fine seg$entations are as har$f!l as the $ost rigi" of seg$ents3 The secon" is psychological, as if the $olec!lar 'ere in the real$ of the i$agination an" applie" only to the in"ivi"!al an" interin"ivi"!al3 (!t there is :!st as $!ch social2=eal on one line as on the other3 Thir", the t'o for$a are not si$ply "isting!ishe" *y siAe, as a s$all for$ an" a large for$? altho!gh it is tr!e that the $olec!lar 'orks in "etail an" operates in s$all gro!ps, this "oes not $ean that it is any less coe5tensive 'ith the entire social fiel" than $olar organiAation3 4inally, the <!alitative "ifference *et'een the t'o lines "oes not precl!"e their *oosting or c!tting into each other, there is al'ays a proportional relation *et'een the t'o, "irectly or inversely proportional3

rivers of blood
$nly G$, can resist the fascism of the affirmative that seeks to bureaucrati-e your very thought process in a mechanical effort to systemati-e and then abolish all e.istence 5eleu-e and Auattari :6E A Tho!san" Platea!s pgs327K227This *rings !s *ack to the para"o5 of fascis$, an" the 'ay in 'hich fascis$ "iffers fro$ totalitarianis$3 4or totalitarianis$ is a Htate affair% it essentially concerns the relation *et'een the Htate as a localiAe" asse$*lage an" the a*stract $achine of overco"ing it effect!ates3 #ven in the case of a $ilitary "ictatorship, it is a Htate ar$y, not a 'ar $achine, that takes po'er an" elevates the Htate to the totalitarian stage3 Totalitarianis$ is <!intessentially conservative3 1ascism, on the other han", involves a war machine# 'hen fascism builds itself a totalitarian 9tate) it is not in the sense of a 9tate army taking power) but of a war machine taking over the 9tate# A *iAarre re$ark *y Girilio p!ts !s on the trail% in fascism) the 9tate is far less totalitarian than it is suicidal. There is in fascism a reali-ed nihilism# ,nlike the totalitarian 9tate) which does its utmost to seal all possible lines of flight) fascism is constructed on an intense line of flight) which it transforms into a line of pure destruction and abolition# 3t is curious that from the very beginning the Fa-is announced to Aermany what they were bringing< at once wedding bells and death) including their own death) and the death of the Aermans# They tho!ght they 'o!l" perish *!t that their !n"ertaking 'o!l" *e res!$e", all across #!rope, all over the 'orl", thro!gho!t the solar syste$3 An" the people cheered) not because they did not understand) but because they wanted that death through the death of others # 1ike a 'ill to 'ager everything yo! have every han", to stake yo!r o'n "eath against the "eath of others, an" $eas!re everything *y J"eleo$eters3J +la!s .ann6s novel, $ephisto% gives sa$plings of entirely or"inary aAi speeches an" conversations% "Ieroism was something that was being ruled out of our lives #### 3n reality) we are not marching forward) we are reeling) staggering# $ur beloved 1uhrer is dragging us toward the shades of darkness and everlasting nothingness# Ho' can 'e poets, 'e 'ho have a special affinity for "arkness an" lo'er "epths, not a"$ire hi$9 333 1ires bla-ing on the hori-on> rivers of blood in all the streets> and the fren-ied dancing of the survivors) of those who are still spared, around the bodies of the dead!"32 9uicide is presented not as a punishment but as the crowning glory of the death of others# Fne can al'ays say that it is :!st a $atter of foggy talk an" i"eology, nothing *!t i"eology3 (!t that is not tr!e3 The ins!fficiency of econo$ic an" political "efinitions of fascis$ "oes not si$ply i$ply a nee" to tack on vag!e, so2calle" i"eological "eter$inations3 Be prefer to follo' 4aye6s in<!iry into the precise for$ation of Fa-i statements) 'hich are :!st as $!ch in evi"ence in politics an" econo$ics as in the $ost a*s!r" of conversations3 They al'ays contain the "stupid and repugnant" cry) Long live death!, even at the economic level) where the arms e.pansion replaces growth in consumption and where investment veers from the means of production toward the means of pure destruction# Pa!l Girilio6 s analysis strikes !s as entirely correct in "efining fascis$ not *y the notion of the totalitarian Htate *!t *y the notion of the s!ici"al Htate% so2calle" total 'ar see$s less a Htate !n"ertaking than an !n"ertaking of a 'ar $achine that appropriates the Htate an" channels into it a flo' of a*sol!te 'ar 'hose only possi*le o!tco$e is the s!ici"e of the Htate itself3 "The triggering of a hitherto unknown material process) one that is limitless and aimless #### $nce triggered) its mechanism cannot stop at peace) for the indirect strategy effectively places the dominant powers outside the usual categories of space and time 3333 &t 'as in the horror of "aily life an" its environ$ent that Hitler finally fo!n" his s!rest $eans of governing, the legiti$ation of his policies an" $ilitary strategy? an" it laste" right !p to the en", for the ruins and horrors and crimes and chaos of total war) far from discharging the repulsive nature of its power) normally only increase its scope# Telegra$ L8 is the nor$al o!tco$e% If the war is lost, may the nation perish. Iere) Iitler decides to ?oin forces with his enemies in order to complete the destruction of his own people) by obliterating the last remaining resources of its life-support system) civil reserves of every kind %potable water) fuel) provisions) etc#&#"22 3t was this reversion of the line of flight into a line of destruction that already animated the molecular focuses of fascism) and made them interact in a war machine instead of res onating in a 9tate apparatus# A war machine that no longer had anything but war as its ob ect and would rather annihilate its own servants than stop the destruction# *ll the dangers of the other lines pale by comparison#

anti-sponaneity
The elimination of spontaneity outweighs the threat of nuclear war 'illiam 9# Burroughs 1 8 , "r!g a""ict, ti$e2traveler, a!thor, 1etters of Billia$ H3 (!rro!ghs e"3 Fliver Harris pg32K-22K9 JThe novel is taking shape3 9omething even more evil than atomic destruction is the theme--namely an anti-dream drug which destroys the symboli-ing) myth-making) intuitive) empathi-ing) telepathic faculty in man) so that his behavior can be controlled and predicted by scientific methods that have proved so useful in the physical sciences# 3n short this drug eliminates the disturbing factor of spontaneous) unpredictable life from the human e0uation# & have spoken of the increase" sensitivity to "rea$2like, nostalgic i$pressions that is conveye" *y light :!nk2sickness3 This is point of "epart!re for creation of anti2"rea$ "r!g3 ovel treats of vast +afkian conspiracies, $alevolent telepathic *roa"cast stations, the *asic conflict *et'een the #ast22representing spontaneo!s, e$ergent life, an" the Best22representing control fro$ 'itho!t, character ar$or, "eath333) 'e re?ect the gendered language in this evidence

don't prioriti-e preserving organic life


* priori ?ustifications 5$ F$T DP39T and there is QD/$ empirical reason to value organic life# Dmpirically) what the affirmative understands as life: is merely a temporary coagulation of streams of self-organi-ed inorganic of matter and energy and within this continuum humans are large decorations in the universes of most of organic life which takes place at the microscopic level# 3f you think death is upsetting) what right do you have to authori-e a pharmaceutical bacterial genocide every time you catch a cold+ Ludge this debate round with the indifference of a scientist) not an organic chauvinist) and place no special value on human life or death

5e @anda C .an!el "e 1an"a, A":!nct Associate Professor at Cra"!ate Hchool of Architect!re, Planning an" Preservation at ,ol!$*ia University ( e' 0ork/, the Cilles Eele!Ae ,hair of ,onte$porary Philosophy an" Hcience at the #!ropean Cra"!ate Hchool in Haas24ee, H'itAerlan", a professor at the ,anisi!s ,ollege in (!ffalo, e' 0ork, an" professor at the University of Pennsylvania Hchool of Eesign in Phila"elphia, Pennsylvania3 A tho!san" years of non2linear history) ,a$*ri"ge University Press, 899L pgs3 80@280D 3n the eyes of many human beings) life appears to be a uni0ue and special phenomenon# There is, of co!rse, so$e tr!th to this *elief, since no other planet is kno'n to *ear a rich an" co$ple5 *iosphere3 Iowever) this view betrays an "organic chauvinism" that leads us to underestimate the vitality of the processes of self-organi-ation in other spheres of reality# 3t can also make us forget that) despite the many differences between them) living creatures and their inorganic counter-parts share a crucial dependence on intense flows of energy and materials# &n $any respects that circulation is what matters) not the particular forms that it causes to emerge# As the *iogeographer &an C3 Hi$$ons p!ts it, "The flows of energy and mineral nutrients through an ecosystem manifest themselves as actual animals and plants of a particular species#" $ur organic bodies are) in this sense) nothing but temporary coagulations in these flows< we capture in our bodies a certain portion of the flow at birth) then release it again when we die and micro-organisms transform us into a new batch of raw materials# The $ain for$ of $atter2energy flo' in the *iosphere is the circ!lation of flesh in foo" chains3 4lesh, or J*io$ass,J circ!lates contin!o!sly fro$ plants to her*ivores, an" fro$ her*ivores to carnivores, giving the ecoyste$ its sta*ility an" resilience3 (This *asic foo" chain is in reality only one a$ong several, for$ing a syste$ of interlocking chains referre" to as a Jfoo" 'e*3J The fo!n"ation of any foo" 'e* is its plants, 'hich J*iteJ into the stea$ of solar ra"iation, capt!ring so$e of it as s!gars *y $eans of photosynthesis3 Blants are the only nonparasitic creatures in an ecoystem) its

primary producers) while the animals who eat flesh %plant or animal& are mere consumers# The comple. microflora and microfauna that process the ecosystem's waste are as important as plants) since these organisms
reminerali-e and rein?ect dead plant and animal bodies back into the web# 4ompared to plants and microorganisms) "higher" andimals are ?ust fancy decorations in an ecosystem) consuming and transforming biomass with decreasing efficiency as their si-e increases#

**e.ample overviews ( stories**

cyclops The 4yclopses made a deal with the devil# They would give up one eye and they would be able to see the future# But the only future they where able to see was the day they were going to die# 3f they tried to change that future) like not to sleep under the rock they saw fall on them) then they would die an even more painful death that they did not see coming# The affirmative is a 4yclops marching along their own pathways of linear causality to a death that they have asked you to postpone by voting for them) every round they ask ?udges to save their lives) begging for the mercy of the ballot) living under the rock of global catastrophe waiting for it to crush them# 9uch an e.istence entrenches a form of depressive melancholy in our consciousness that negates the pleasure of being alive) our breaths choke our throats) our food turns to ash in our mouths) makes us into slaves of the future) willing to march in these straight lines of causality for the sake of any preservation) for the sake of anyone who will save us) for the sake of a strong leader to come secure the dangerous futureHthis salvation mentality is the basis for the popular rise of the most destructive forms of fascism and sets the stage for a continuous repetition of the atrocities of the 7;th 4entury# This debate round is about competing strategies for encountering the worldHuse the ballot to encounter the present) e.perience the pleasure of a precarious e.istence and find the world as if you are e.periencing everything for the first time) like a scientist on an alien planet#

spaghetti sauce monster This debate round is about competing strategies for encountering the world# The affirmative:s world is a wondrous plastic palace) filled with restricted -ones) where all sub?ects are re0uired to be human by obediently en?oying themselves as much as possible as their lives progress within the approved narrow channels of possibility) stretching predictably and monotonously until the day that they die# This world produces a sub?ective melancholy that a priori negates the pleasure of being alive and makes ethical action impossible# 3n contrast) our world is a dark night filled with possibilities) where life can reach out in all directions and grasp at strange ob?ects and e.periment with their properties# The affirmative:s world is ideological) treating arbitrary perceptual devices such as the trinity of risk) timeframe and magnitude as though they were reflections of some prior natural order# $ur world is empirical) describing material as it is encountered) stripping away all preconceptions# /egardless of your role as a policy-maker) you should ?udge this round as an empiricist# The aff tells you that our planet will be digested in the bowels of a creature the si-e of a gala.y) as an empiricist you must stand up and tell these alarmist astronomers that what they thought was an inter-stellar space monster is nothing more that a spaghetti sauce stain on the lens of their telescope# Fow they have turned the same telescope on our planet and see nothing but spaghetti sauce monsters wherever they lookHa version of reality that is not impossible but from an empirical perspective) highly implausible and far-fetched# !oting negative is an insistence on a material reality that breaks down the prison of ideology and reveals a world of infinite possibility#

medium R message
The 1*4 would like to believe that the outcome they hope for can be separated from the way they have performed the 1ac as an aesthetico-political ob?ect -- they are mistaken# Dvaluate out links prior to conse0uences of 1ac

Auattari 7
4Yli5 C!attari, philosopher, psychoanalyst Chaosmosis 8992 pg3 8002808
9cience) technology) philosophy, art and human affairs confront respectively the constraints and resistances of specific materials which they loosen and articulate within given limits# They do this with the help of codes) know-how and historical teachings which lead them to close certain doors and open other ones# The relations *et'een the finite $o"es of these $aterials an" the infinite attri*!tes of the Universes of the possi*le they i$ply are "ifferent 'ithin each of these activities3 Philosophy, for e5a$ple, generates its o'n register of creative constraints, secretes its $aterial of te5t!al reference? it pro:ects their finit!"e onto an infinite po'er correspon"ing to the a!to2 positioning an" a!to2consistency of its key concepts, at least as each $!tant phase of its "evelop$ent3 4or their part, the paradigms of techno-science place the emphasis on an ob?ectal world of relations and functions) systematically bracketing out sub?ective affects) such that the finite) the delimited and coordinatable) always takes precedence over the infinite and its virtual references# 'ith art) on the contrary, the finitude of the sensible material becomes a support for the production of affects and precepts which tend to become more and more eccentred with respect to preformed structures and coordinates# .arcel 5uchamp declared< Jart is a road which leads towards regions which are not governed by time and space#K The "ifferent "o$ains of tho!ght, action an" sensi*ility position, in "issi$ilar 'ays, their $ove$ent fro$ infinity into the passage of ti$e, or rather into epochs capa*le of ret!rning to or intersecting each other3 4or e5a$ple, theology, philosophy an" $!sic to"ay no longer co$pose a constellation as strong as "!ring the .i""le Ages3 The metabolism of the infinite) proper to each assemblage) is not fi.ed once and for all# *nd when an important mutation appears within a domain) it can have Jfallout)K it can transversally contaminate many other domains (for e5a$ple, the effect on the arts an" literat!re of the potentially !nli$ite" repro"!ci*ility of te5t an" i$age *y the printing press, or the po'er of cognitive transference ac<!ire" *y $athe$atical algorith$s in the sciences/3 The aesthetic power of feeling) although e0ual in principle with the other po'ers of thinking philosophically, kno'ing scientifically, acting politically) seems on the verge of occupying a privileged position within the collective *ssemblages of enunciation of o!r era3 (!t *efore approaching this iss!e, it is necessary to f!rther clarify its position 'ithin the anterior asse$*lages3

transcendence R e.termination
The 1ac performs a secular ritual of transcendence which presumes the power to act lies in a displaced ideal named Aovernment# This displacement R annihilation

4hOtelet C8 4rancois, Z 1es annYes "e "Y$olition [ p3 2K@


3n our philosophical ?argon) we call transcendence a priciple posed both as a source of all e.planation and as a superior reality# The 'or" has a nice ring to it an" & fin" it fitting3 The presumptuous) small or large) from the leader of a small group to that the president of the ,nited 9tates) fro$ a psychiatrist to a ,#F can only function by recourse (coups# to transcendence- ?ust as a drunk might get by through sips (coups# of red wine# The medieval Aod has spread himself thin) without losing his strength or his profound formal unity# 9cience) the 'orking 4lass) the "otherland) Brogress) Iealth) 5efense) 5emocracy) 9ocialism = the list would be too long = are all among his avatars# These transcendences) which e.ercise with a heightened ferocity their labors of organi-ation and e.termination) have taken his place (to s!ch a "egree that 'e can say he is still there, o$nipresent/3

**alternatives %not that you need 1###&**

refuse givens
!oting negative means refusing to recogni-e the authority of the state as a manager of the future to produce givens by which we live our lives# 3f we win the a.ioms of the 1ac are invalid) we have disproven their postulate -- vote negative

9mith 97, professor of political science at the University of Bales, (Hteve, =evie' of &nternational Ht!"ies, ,a$*ri"ge :o!rnals online/ ,oncl!sion &n s!$$ary, & think that Ballace f!n"a$entally $isrepresents the relationship *et'een theory an" practice3 His article 'orks very effectively, *!t only *eca!se of its internal logical an" political str!ct!re3 (y his setting !p of t'o alternatives (cooption or scholasticis$/ the logical str!ct!re of the article perfor$s a "isciplining f!nction *y placing anyone o!tsi"e of his logic of the policy;theory relationship in a pre"efine" position of *eing self2righteo!s, self2in"!lgent, oppose" to e$pirical 'ork, too "etache" fro$ the 'orl" of practice an" too fon" of theory3 ote also the very revealing 'ay in 'hich those "efine" as having to Nstr!ggle 'ith the "ile$$as of po'erO are policy2 $akers? there are $assive nor$ative an" ethical ass!$ptions at 'ork here, ones that !n"er$ine his very notion of theory as e5planatory an" reveal his political pro:ect3 The tro!*le is that BallaceOs logical str!ct!re is a te5t!al constr!ction an" is therefore never s!*:ecte" to any self2critical analysis in the article3 .y 'orry is that his prescriptions 'o!l" $ake aca"e$ic &nternational =elations a servant of the state, respon"ing to to"ayOs hea"lines3 Agreeing 'ith Ballace $eans that academics will run the risk of having to work within the agenda of the policy community , of being unable to stand back and examine the moral, ethical and political implications of that choice 3 Civing policy a"vice is not the pro*le$? the problem is if those who give it are unaware of the extent to which they are standing on the policy conveyor-belt of the state . &t $eans pro*le$2solving, it means taking the givens of policy-makers as the starting points of analysis 3 &t $eans 'alking the thin line *et'een infl!ence an" fitting the val!es of policy$akers3 ,learly the "iscipline 'ants an" nee"s to give a"vice on policy, *!t to 'ho$9 &s "oing so for policy2$akers a re<!ire$ent for aca"e$ics in "ischarging their responsi*ility to the state9 .y 'orry is that policy advice all too often means talking to governments unfortunately, they may not be the right people to talk to if ones concern is really with those who have to struggle with the dilemmas of power 3 An", cr!cially, are policy2$akers listening to i"eas or are they searching for an intellect!al :!stification for their e5isting val!es9 Ulti$ately, BallaceOs pict!re 'orries $e *eca!se he has a very restri#cte" vie' of politics an" its relationship to aca"e$ia3 Politics for Ballace is a far $ore li$ite" activity than & think it is, an" that is 'hy & fin" no aca"e$ic activity $ore political or ethical than sho'ing the episte$ological ass!$ptions of &nternational =elations theory3 4or $e it is not so much a !uestion of speaking truth to power as of showing how various versions of the power"truth relationship operate between civil society and the state 3 &n that relationship it $ay 'ell *e that those who espouse a restrictive view of theory are the ones who are hiding behind walls , preaching ser$ons of self2 righteo!sness, and ultimately acting as the discipliners of the discipli ne3 4or all of !s intereste" in international relations, Ballace has raise" i$portant <!estions concerning o!r responsi*ilities an" o!r self2 a'areness3 & hope that this reply has sho'n 'hy the pict!re is not <!ite as si$ple as his *eg!iling arg!$ent s!ggests an" 'hy, !lti$ately, it $ay *e i$possi*le for Ntr!th to speak to po'erO in the li*eral 'ay that he s!ggests3 After all, if truth itself only gets meaning from the regimes of truth within which it operates, then how can it speak to power when it is itself a construction of those same power relationships# $ow do we know that it is truth rather than power that we speak when we are speaking to policy-makers# %urely the task of academics is to show how these very relationships between truth and powe r, an" *et'een the e$pirical an" the theoretical, operate. &hat, rather than the search for influence within the policy-making community, is the ultimate ethical and political engagement with the civil society in which we work and to which we are responsible 3

unthinking
$ur alternative is a de-structure of thought itselfHnot merely a prescription that e.ists within e.isting flawed paradigms---only a process of encountering the world which refuses to strategically e.plain its phenomena can liberate us from the totalitarianism of reality Belevin 7 Gictor,1eo +ropy'iansky Gictor Pelevin) &ntervie', &ss!e L9 Hpring 2002, 1&T#=ATU=# GP Hince it happene" a long ti$e *efore & starte" to 'rite, thereOs no 'ay to "eter$ine ho' it affecte" $y 'riting3 Ho'ever, the effect of this *ook 'as really fantastic3 There:s an e.pression Jout of this world#K This *ook 'as totally o!t of the Hoviet 'orl"3 The evil magic of any totalitarian regime is based on its presumed capability to embrace and e.plain all the phenomena) their entire totality) because e.planation is control# Ience the term totalitarian# 9o if there:s a book that takes you out of this totality of things e.plained and understood) it liberates you because it breaks the continuity of e.planation and thus dispels the charms# 3t allows you to look in a different direction for a moment) but this moment is enough to understand that everything you saw before was a hallucination (tho!gh 'hat yo! see in this "ifferent "irection $ight 'ell *e another hall!cination/3 The $aster and $ar&arita 'as e5actly this kin" of *ook an" it is very har" to e5plain its s!*tle effect to any*o"y 'ho "i"nOt live in the UHH=3 9ol-henitsyn:s books were very anti-9oviet) but they didn:t liberate you) they only made you more enslaved as they e.plained to which degree you were a slave# The $aster and $ar&arita "i"nOt even *other to *e anti2Hoviet yet rea"ing this *ook 'o!l" $ake yo! free instantly3 3t didn:t liberate you from some particular old ideas) but rather from the hypnotism of the entire order of things# 1+ Bhat *ooks have yo! $ost en:oye" rea"ing in the last fe' years9 &n partic!lar & 'on"er if there are any A$erican a!thors a$ong yo!r recent favorites3 GP & canOt say & rea" too $!ch fiction3 & like" Pastoralia an" Civil'arLand in ad Decline *y Ceorge Ha!n"ers, *!t his *est story & rea" so far 'as & ,an HpeakT\) p!*lishe" in The (e) Yor*er3 & like" so$e stories *y Eavi" 4oster Ballace an" plan to siege his +n!inite ,est one infinite "ay3 Talking of the ol" g!ar", & like =o*ert .3 Pirsig3 The real heroes in his *ooks are concepts rather than h!$ans, an" they change an" "evelop like characters "o in $ore tra"itional novels% this is incre"i*le3 1+ The ghost of ,he C!evara appears in yo!r $ost recent *ook, "omo -apiens, propo!n"ing a theory of television as either (8/ s'itche" off, in 'hich case it is like any other o*:ect, i3e3, not any $ore or less "iffic!lt for the !n<!iet $in" to pay attention to than, say, a rock, or (2/ s'itche" on, in 'hich case it g!i"es the attention of the vie'er to s!ch an e5tent that he *eco$es possesse",) techno2$o"ifie",) a virt!al s!*:ect) an" no longer hi$self3 &n A!g!st of 2000, the Fstankino TG to'er in .osco' ca!ght fire, interr!pting *roa"casts for several "ays an" ren"ering all television sets as o*:ects of type (8/3 Bas there a percepti*le change of $oo" a$ong .osco' citiAens at that ti$e9 GP & think so3 People 'ere getting nervo!s an" irritate", like "r!g a""icts 'itho!t a ro!tine in:ection3 (!t there 'ere a lot of :okes a*o!t it nevertheless3 As for $e, & ha"nOt *een 'atching television for a long ti$e *y that $o$ent, so & "i"nOt e5perience any personal pro*le$s3 1+ A *ig change over the last "eca"e has *een the "ecline in the infl!ence of =!ssiaOs $ilitary, 'hich 'as calle" !pon to fight a "iffic!lt 'ar in ,hechnya even as $orale 'as falling an" reso!rces availa*le to it 'ere shrinking3 0o!r father, 'ho & !n"erstan" passe" a'ay several years ago, 'as hi$self in the $ilitary3 Ho' "i" he vie' this "ecline in infl!ence9 GP .y father 'as a rather strange Hoviet $ilitary $an, an" never ha" any partic!lar infl!ence as s!ch3 He 'asnOt even a party $e$*er, 'hich $a"e hi$ kin" of a 'hite cro' an" i$pe"e" his career *a"ly3 &t 'asnOt his choice to :oin the $ilitary% the Hoviet Union starte" its $issile progra$ 'hen he 'as a st!"ent in +iev, an" $any st!"ents fro$ technical instit!tes 'ere "rafte" to serve in this ne' *ranch of ar$e" force as officers3 0o!r consent 'asnOt necessary for this at that ti$e3 & never ha" access to the inner 'orkings of $y fatherOs so!l *!t & think he never totally i"entifie" hi$self 'ith the =e" Ar$yOs $ilitary $ight, tho!gh he 'as a goo" specialist3 At the ti$e of the "ecline he 'as $!ch $ore concerne" 'ith his o'n health, 'hich 'as "eteriorating <!ickly3 (!t & think that, like $any people 'ho spent their entire lifeti$e in the UHH=, he 'as too st!nne" *y its "e$ise to take any ens!ing events serio!sly3 1+ &n "omo -apiens, the =!ssian govern$ent is portraye" as virt!al)% three2"i$ensional "!$$ies on TG 'hose $ove$ents are scripte" *y screen'riters3 This "evice see$s partic!larly apt in "escri*ing the 0eltsin govern$ent, hel" together as it 'as 'ith television coverage, f!n"ing fro$ tycoons an" the &.4, $!ltiple heart *ypasses an" so forth3 Eo yo! *elieve it has *eco$e any less apt no', !n"er the lea"ership of P!tin9 GP Bhenomenologically any politician is a T! program) and this doesn:t change from one government to another# (!t if yo! 'ant $e to co$pare the govern$ent 'e ha" !n"er 0eltsin 'ith the one 'e have !n"er P!tin, & 'onOt *e a*le to "o it3 ot only *eca!se & "onOt 'atch television3 4or this kin" of assess$ent yo! nee" a criterion3 & g!ess the right one 'o!l" *e the 'ay the govern$ent han"les the econo$y,

*eca!se its pri$ary f!nction is to take care of the econo$y3 Politics is !s!ally the f!nction of the latter3 To pass a :!"g$ent here yo! nee" to !n"erstan", even appro5i$ately, ho' the econo$y 'orks3 &n the Bestern econo$y yo! have a set of instr!$ents that allo' yo! to $ake this assess$ent even if yo! are not a specialist3 &t is al'ays clear 'hether it is a *!ll $arket or *ear $arket3 Ho yo! can say% *!ll $arket, goo" govern$ent, *ear $arket, *a" govern$ent (& kno' it is an oversi$plification, *!t still/3 (!t these instr!$ents are not applica*le to the =!ssian econo$y *eca!se its very nat!re is "ifferent3 The essence of yo!r *!siness cycle here in =!ssia is that yo! al'ays have a pig $arket, 'hich $eans that yo! "onOt get 'hacke" as long as yo! pay the pigs3 An" so$eti$es yo! get 'hacke" even if yo! pay *eca!se it is a real pig $arket3 =!ssian econo$y is the "i$ension 'here $iracle $eets s!*poena an" *eco$es state secret3 Ho' "o yo! co$pare the n!$ero!s "ifferent govern$ents that presi"e over this9 The only criterion 'o!l" *e personal appeal of the $inisters% a goatee fashion, a necktie color, et cetera3 (!t for this yo! have to 'atch television3 1+ /eading philosophy is in some ways a disease) like alcohol or drugs or dog racing or any other addiction# & 'on"er 'hat Bestern philosophers yo! have fo!n" $ost co$pelling3 &n partic!lar & 'on"er if, like the $oth .itya in The Li!e o! +nsects, yo! have a partic!lar affinity for .arc!s A!reli!s3 Here & think of the .arc!s A!reli!s 'ho insists !pon an inner self that canOt *e, e5cept *y its o'n assent, corr!pte" *y the o!ter 'orl"3 This see$s to *e a rec!rring the$e in yo!r 'orks% the pri$acy of the in"ivi"!al $in" in the face of a "angero!s e5ternal 'orl", 'hether the Hoviet one or that of post2Hoviet 'il" capitalis$3 GP &f 'e p!t it yo!r 'ay, the most compelling 'estern philosophers in my life were /emy "artin and Lack 5aniels# They compelled me to do many things 3 otherwise would never think of# 3f seriously) 3 don:t take professional philosophers seriously even when 3 understand what they say# Bhilosophy is a self-propelled thinking) and thinking) no matter how refined) only leads to further thinking# ,ncoerced thinking gives us the best it can when it subsides down and halts) because it is the source of nearly all our problems# As far as &O$ concerne", thoughts are ?ustified in two cases< when they swiftly make us rich and when they fascinate us with their beauty# Bhilosophy could sometimes fit into the first categoryHfor instance) if you write JThe Bhilosophy That Burns 1atK or something like JThe Bhilosophy of 9wimming with 9harks without Being DatenKHbut it would be an e.ception# Ho$eti$es philosophy fits into the secon" category (also an e5ception/, an" .arc!s A!reli!s is e5actly the case3 & rea" his *ook $any ti$es 'hen & 'as a ki" *!t &O$ not s!re & !n"erstoo" his philosophyR& 'as si$ply captivate" *y the no*le *ea!ty of his spirit3 (y the 'ay, & rea" so$e'here that (ill ,lintonOs favorite <!ote ca$e fro$ .arc!s A!reli!s% Fne co!l" lea" a "ecent life even in a palace3) The very notion of Bestern philosophy as oppose" to #astern see$s to $e <!ite "!*io!s an" ar*itrary, tho!gh (ertran" =!ssell 'rote a very goo" *ook on its history3 This la*el i$plies that yo!r $in" starts to generaliAe in a "ifferent $anner 'hen it is place" in a "ifferent geographical location3 (!t ho' 'o!l" yo! classify Al"o!s H!5leyOs Perennial Philosophy R as #astern or Bestern9 As for the self, it is a very tricky notion3 Be sho!l" "efine it *efore 'e !se it3 & prefer the ter$ mind3 & think yo! are a*sol!tely right 'hen yo! say that $y the$e is the pri$acy of the $in"3 (!t the e5ternal 'orl" is also yo!r $in" *eca!se the categories e5ternal an" internal are p!rely $ental3 "ind is the ultimate parado. because when you start to look for it you can:t find it# But when you start to look for something that is not mind you also can:t find it# .in" is the central iss!e that interests $e as a 'riter an" as a person3

radical empiricism
Bolicy debate rounds function around wholly contrived mechanisms for decision-calculus that have more to do with abstract theoretical principles of behavior and prediction which assume that individuals and nation-states are more similar to one another than different -- these principles of behavior may seem seductively scientific but they have nothing to do with how events actually occur# 'e ask you for this debate to assume the position of a radical empiricist) to strip away the nonsense and encounter the world as if you are discovering everything for the first time) like a scientist on an alien planet Ailles 5eleu-e provides a possible model for doing this in 6C

fa$o!s philosopher, Professor of Philosophy at the Hor*onne, Eialog!es &&, #!ropean Perspectives, 'ith ,laire Parnet, translate" *y H!gh To$linson an" (ar*ara Ha**er:a$, 2002 ZPreface to the #nglish 1ang!age #"ition[ pgs3 D72DK 'hy write, 'hy have 'ritten about empiricism) and about Iume in particular+ Because empiricism is like the #nglish novel3 &t is a case of philosophiAing as a novelist, of being a novelist in philosophy# Dmpiricism is often defined as a doctrine according to which the intelligible 'comes' from the sensible) everything in the understanding comes from the senses# (!t that is the stan"point of the history of philosophy% they have the gift of stifling all life in seeking an" in positing an a*stract first principle3 Bhenever one *elieves in a great first principle, one can no longer pro"!ce anything *!t h!ge sterile "!alis$s3 Philosophers 'illingly s!rren"er the$selves to this an" centre their "isc!ssions on 'hat sho!l" *e the first principle ((eing, the #go, the Hensi*le9 333 /3 But it is not really worth invoking the concrete richness of the sensible if it is only to make it into an abstract principle# 3n fact the first principle is always a mask) a simple image# That does not e.ist) things do not start to move and come alive until the lever of the second) third) fourth principle) and these are no longer even principles# Things "o not *egin to live e5cept in the $i""le3 &n this respect what is it that the empiricists found) not in their heads) but in the world) which is like a vital discovery) a certainty of life which) if one really adheres to it) changes one's way of life+ 3t is not the 0uestion '5oes the intelligible come from the sensible+' but a 0uite different 0uestion) that of relations# !elations are e"ternal to their terms. 6Peter is s$aller than Pa!l6, 6The glass is on the ta*le6% relation is neither internal to one of the ter$s 'hich 'o!l" conse<!ently *e s!*:ect, nor to t'o together3 "oreover) a relation may change without the terms changing# $ne may ob?ect that the glass is perhaps altered when it is moved off the table) but that is not true# The ideas of the glass and the table) which are the true terms of the relations) are not altered# =elations are in the $i""le, an" e5ist as s!ch3 This e.teriority of relations is not a principle) it is a vital protest against principles# 3ndeed if one sees in it something which runs through life) but which is repugnant to thought) then thought must be forced to think it) one must make relations the hallucination point of thought) an e.perimentation which does violence to thought# Dmpiricists are not theoreticians) they are e.perimenters< they never interpret) they have no principles# &f one takes this e5teriority of relations as a con"!cting 'ire or as a line, one sees a very strange 'orl" !nfol", frag$ent *y frag$ent% a Harle<!in6s :acket or patch'ork, $a"e !p of soli" parts an" voi"s, *locs an" r!pt!res, attractions an" "ivisions, n!ances an" *l!ntnesses, con:!nctions an" separations, alternations an" inter'eavings, a""itions 'hich never reach a total an" s!*tractions 'hose re$ain"er is never fi5e"3 Fne can see clearly ho' the pse!"ofirst principle of e$piricis$ "erives fro$ this, *!t as a negative li$it, al'ays *eing p!she" *ack, a $ask p!t on at the start% in effect if relations are e5ternal an" irre"!ci*le to their ter$s, then the "ifference cannot *e *et'een the sensi*le an" the intelligi*le, *et'een e5perience an" tho!ght, *et'een sensations an" i"eas, *!t only *et'een t'o sorts of i"eas, or t'o sorts of e5perience, that of ter$s an" that of relations3 The fa$o!s association of i"eas is certainly not re"!ci*le to the platit!"es 'hich the history of philosophy has retaine" fro$ it3 &n H!$e there are i"eas, an" then the relations *et'een these i"eas, relations 'hich may vary

without the ideas varying) and then circumstances) actions and passions which make these relations which may vary without the ideas varying) and then circumstances actions and passions which make these relations vary# A co$plete NH!$e2asse$*lageO, 'hich takes on the $ost varie" fig!res3 3n order to become the owner of an abandoned city) does one have to touch its gate with one:s hand) or is it enough to throw one:s ?avelin from a distance+ Bhy in so$e case" "oes 'hat is a*ove prevail over 'hat is !n"erneath an" in other cases the reverse (the gro!n" prevails over the s!rface, *!t painting over the canvas, etc3/9 Try your own e.periments< each time there is and assemblage of ideas) relations and circumstances< each time there is a veritable novel) where the landowner) the thief) the man with the ?avelin) the $an 'ith *are han"s, the la*o!rer, the painter take the place of concepts#
This means you must cultivate a disposition of e.perimentality towards the present# 5on:t make interpretations) predictions or good guesses as if the future can be measured or estimatedHyour best guess is less accurate than trying to figure out how many ?elly beans fill a ?ar that could be the si-e of a biscuit tin or the planet Feptune# 3nstead you should e.periment) rigorously define your terms and their relations and let your approach be fluid# /eali-e that this debate round has always been an e.periment of which you are already a component part) throw your pre-conceptions to the wind and become a radical empiricist# 5eleu-e and Barnet 6C fa$o!s philosopher, Professor of Philosophy at the Hor*onne, Eialog!es &&,

#!ropean Perspectives, 'ith ,laire Parnet, freelance :o!rnalist, translate" *y H!gh To$linson an" (ar*ara Ha**er:a$, 2002 pgs 7L2D8 Gour secret can always be seen on your face and in your eyes# @ose your face# Become capable of loving without remembering) without phantasm and without interpretation) without taking stock# @et there ?ust be flu.es) which sometimes dry up) free-e or overflow) which sometimes combine or diverge# * man and a woman are flu.es# All the *eco$ings 'hich there are in $aking love, all the se5es, the n se5es in a single one, or in t'o, 'hich have nothing to "o 'ith castration3 $n lines of flight there can no longer be but one thing) life-e.perimentation# $ne never knows in advance) since one no longer has either future or past# '9ee me as 3 am'< all that stuff is over# There is no longer a phantas$, *!t only progra$$es of life, al'ays $o"ifie" in the process of co$ing into *eing, *etraye" in the process of *eing hollo'e" o!t, like *anks 'hich are "ispose" or canals 'hich are arrange" in or"er that a fl!5 $ay flo'3 There are no' only voyages of e5ploration in 'hich one al'ays fin"s in the Best that 'hich one ha" tho!ght to *e in the #ast, organs reverse"3 #very line in 'hich so$eone gets carrie" a'ay is a line of restraint in co$parison 'ith the la*orio!s, precise, controlle" trash of 4rench 'riters3 o longer is there the infinite acco!nt of interpretations 'hich are al'ays slightly6 "isg!sting, *!t fin2 ishe" processes of e5peri$entation, protocols of e5perience3 Sleist and Safka spent their time making programmes for life# Brogrammes are not manifestos - still less are they phantasms) but means of providing reference points for an e"periment which e"ceeds our capacities to foresee (like'ise, 'hat is calle" progra$$e $!sic/3 The strength of ,astane"a6s *ooks, in his progra$$e" e5peri$ent 'ith "r!gs, is that each ti$e the interpretations are "is$antle" an" the fa$o!s signifier is eli$inate"3 o, the "og & sa' an" ran along 'ith !n"er the effect of the "r!g 'as not $y 'hore of a $other 333 This is a proce"!re of ani$al2*eco$ing 'hich "oes not try to say anything other than 'hat he *eco$es, an" $akes $e *eco$e 'ith hi$3 Fther *eco$ings 'ill link !p here, $olec!lar*eco$ings in 'hich the air, so!n", 'ater are graspe" in their particles at the sa$e ti$e as their fl!5 co$*ines 'ith $ine3 A 'hole 'orl" of $icro2perceptions 'hich lea" !s to the i$2 percepti*le3 D.periment) never interpret# "ake programmes) never make phantasms# Henry Ja$es, 'ho is one of those to have penetrate" $ost "eeply the 'o$an2*eco$ing of 'riting, invents a post2office girl, a heroine ca!ght in a telegraphic fl!5, 'hich at the start she "o$inates, thanks to her 6pro"igio!s art of interpretation6 (eval!ating the sen"ers, the anony$o!s or co"e" telegra$s/3 (!t fro$ frag$ent to frag$ent is constr!cte" a living e5peri$ent in 'hich interpretation

*egins to cr!$*le, in 'hich there is no longer perception or kno'le"ge, secret or "ivination3 6Hhe ha" en"e" !p kno'ing so $!ch a*o!t it that she co!l" no longer interpret, there 'ere no longer o*sc!rities 'hich $a"e her see clearly3 33 all that )as li!t )as a &arish li&ht.' #nglish or A$erican literat!re is a process of e5peri$entation3 They have kille" interpretation3 The great and only error lines in thinking that a line of flight consists in fleeing from life> the 3ight into the imaginary) or into art# $n the contrary) to flee is to produce the real) to create life) to find a weapon# Cenerally it is in the sa$e false $ove$ent that life is re"!ce" to so$ething personal an" that the 'ork is s!ppose" to fin" its en" in itself, 'hether as total 'ork, or 'ork in the process of *eing create", 'hich al'ays refers *ack to a 'riting of 'riting3 This is 'hy 4rench literat!re a*o!n"s in $anifestos, in i"eologies, in theories of 'riting, at the sa$e ti$e as in personal conflicts, in perfecting of perfectings, in ne!rotic toa"ying? in narcissistic tri*!nals3 Briters have their o'n filthy hovel in life, at the sa$e ti$e as having their lan", their $otherlan", 'hich is all the $ore spirit!al in the 'ork to *e create"3 They are happy to stink personally, since 'hat they 'rite 'ill *e all the $ore s!*li$e an" significant3 4rench literat!re if often the $ost sha$eless e!logy of ne!rosis3 The 'ork 'ill *e all the $ore significant for referring to the sly 'ink an" life6s little secret, an" vice versa3 0o! sho!l" hear <!alifie" critics talking of +leist6s fail!res, 1a'rence6s i$potence, +afka6s chil"ishness, ,arroll6s little girls3 &t is !n'orthy3 &t is al'ays "one 'ith the *est intentions% the 'ork 'ill appear all the greater the $ore pitif!l the life is $a"e to see$3 There is th!s no risk of seeing the po'er of life 'hich r!ns thro!gh a 'ork3 All has *een cr!she" in a"vance3 &t is the sa$e resent$ent, the sa$e taste for castration, 'hich ani$ates the great Hignifier as propose" finality of the 'ork, an" the little i$aginary Hignifie", the phantas$ as s!ggeste" e5pe"ient of life3 1a'rence criticiAe" 4rench literat!re for *eing inc!ra*ly intellect!al, i"eological an" i"ealist, essentially critical, critical of life rather than creative of life3 4rench nationalis$ in letters% a terri*le $ania for :!"ging an" *eing :!"ge" r!ns thro!gh that literat!re% there are too $any hysterics a$ong these 'riters an" their characters3 Hating, 'anting to *e love", *!t a h!ge incapacity to love an" a"$ire3 &n reality writing does not have its end in itself, precisely because life is not something personal. $r rather) the aim of writing is to carry life to the state of a non-personal power# 3n doing this it renounces claim to any territory) any end which would reside in itself# Bhy "oes one 'rite9 (eca!se it is not a case of 'riting3 &t $ay *e that the 'riter has "elicate health, a 'eak constit!tion3 He is none the less the opposite of the ne!rotic% a sort of great Alive (in the $anner of HpinoAa, ietAsche or 1a'rence/ in so far as he is only too 'eak for the life 'hich r!ns in hi$ or for the affects 'hich pass in hi$3 To write has no other function< to be a flu. which combines with other flu.es - all the minority-becomings of the world# * flu. is something intensive) instantaneous and mutant - between a creation and a destruction# 3t is only when a flu. is deterritoriali-ed that it succeeds in making its con?unction with other flu.es) which deterritoriali-e it in their turn) and vice versa# &n an ani$al2*eco$ing a $an an" an ani$al co$*ine, neither of 'hich rese$*les the other, neither of 'hich i$itates the other, each "eterritorialiAing the other, p!shing the line f!rther3 A syste$ of relay an" $!tations thro!gh the $i""le3 The line of flight is creative of these becomings# @ines of flight have no territory# 'riting carries out the con?unction) the transmutation of flu.es) through which life escapes from the resentment of persons) societies and reigns# +ero!ac6s phrases are as so*er as a Japanese "ra'ing, a p!re line trace" *y an !ns!pporte" han", 'hich passes across ages an" reigns3 &t 'o!l" take a tr!e alcoholic to attain that "egree of so*riety3 Fr the heath2 phrase, the heath2line of Tho$as Har"y% it is not that the heath is the s!*:ect or the content of the novel, *!t that a fl!5 of $o"ern 'riting co$*ines 'ith a fl!5 of i$$e$orial heath3 A heath2 *eco$ing? or else .iller6s grass2*eco$ing, 'hat he calls his ,hina2*eco$ing3 Girginia Boolf an" her gift of pasing fro$ one reign to another, fro$ one ele$ent to another? "i" it nee" Girginia Boolfs anore5ia9 Fne only 'rites thro!gh love, all 'riting is a love2letter% the literat!re2=eal3 Fne sho!l" only "ie thro!gh love, an" not a tragic "eath3 Fne sho!l" only 'rite thro!gh this "eath, or stop 'riting thro!gh this love, or contin!e to 'rite, *oth at once3 Be kno' no *ook of love $ore i$portant, $ore insin!ating than +ero!ac6s The /nder&round Ones. He "oes not ask 6Bhat is 'riting96, *eca!se he has all its necessity, the i$possi*ility of another choice 'hich in"ee" $akes

'riting, on the con"ition that for hi$ 'riting is alrea"y another *eco$ing, or co$es fro$ another *eco$ing3 'riting) the means to a more than personal life) instead of life being a poor secret for a writing which has no end other than itself# $h) the poverty of the imaginary and the symbolic) the real always being put off until tomorrow#

flat ontology
$ur alternative is to refuse the narcissism of presuming our uni0ue human ability to narrate reality# The 0uestion of what e.ists within the world inevitably precedes the ethical and normative 0uestions of how we ought to relate to the world of ob?ects# Their metaphysical error confuses facts and values) when we cannot separate our interpretation of a fact from how we value the ob?ects which it describes# 'e cannot say that we care about humans without first defining what it means to care: and what we mean by human:# /efuse the metaphysics of the 1*4 for a philosophy of unscripted combinations where every relation is itself an ob?ect

Bryant :1; M1evi, professor of philosophy at ,ollin ,ollege, &nh!$an #thics), 1arval H!*:ects, Jan!ary 20M http%MMlarvals!*:ects3'or"press3co$M2080M08M20Minh!$an2ethicsM &t 'as this an5iety an" tre$*ling that 'as recalle" to $e 'ith ikkiOs <!estions to"ay a*o!t 1ato!r an" trials of strength3 At present & a$, at this point, no closer to artic!lating a coherent theoretical response to the <!estions raise" *y The &nh!$anities3 Ho'ever, 'hat is at iss!e here is not, at this $o$ent, the for$!lation of a coherent theoretical response, *!t rather a posin& o! the 0uestion or the a"e<!ate posing of the pro*le$ 'hich $!st s!*se<!ently g!i"e ethical an" political in<!iry3 &t is not !ntil the nat!re of the pro*le$ is a"e<!ately pose" that the <!estion of ethics an" politics in the 'ake of o*:ect2oriente" ontology 'ill *e capa*le of *eing a"e<!ately pose" an" a correspon"ing theory for$!late"3 An" a large part of the iss!e here 'ill *e the <!estion of 'hat an anti2correlationist ethics an" politics $ight look like3 ,an 'e go so far, onticology 'ill ask, as to even for$!late an anti2 correlationist ethics an" politics9 Bill philosophy finally, at last, *eco$e capa*le of resc!ing even ethics, aesthetics, an" politics fro$ their e5cl!sive restriction to the "o$ain of the h!$an9 Bill, in other 'or"s, it *eco$e possi*le to think nonh!$an actors as gen!ine actors 'itho!t re"!cing the$ to props in "ra$as of h!$an interest an" 'itho!t portraying o!rselves as gracio!s sovereigns that 'ave o!r han"s in acts of "ispensation "eigning to concern o!rselves 'ith ani$als, rocks, planets, ele$ents, etc3, s!ch that 'e resc!e) the$ fro$ their re"!ction to o!r cons!$ptions9 Bill, in short, 'ill 'e *e a*le to get over o!rselves an" o!r o'n self2inflate" sense of o!r place in the 'orl" an" *eing9 #ven for the .ar5ists a$ong !s, a$ong 'ho$ & co!nt $yself *y virt!e of the fact that .ar5is$, han"s "o'n, has the $ost acc!rate characteriAation of o!r historical $o$ent, 'e 'ill have to ask o!rselves "o 'e have the fortit!"e to for$!late the possi*ility of a co$$!nis$ of h!$an an" nonh!$an *eings, or 'ill 'e re$ain in the r!t of h!$an e$ancipation alone, preten"ing that the h!$an, even in the face of Alth!sserOs protestations of a process 'itho!t a s!*:ect, is nonetheless the e5cl!sive "o$ain of a $o"ernist h!$an e$ancipation9 Bhen 'ill 'e *e a*le to finally conce"e that 'e "o not kno' even 'hat 'e o!rselves are an" that the very fact of o!r relations calls into <!estion the !nivocal "eter$ination of o!r essence3 Bhen 'ill 'e finally *e capa*le of $oving *eyon" the Philosophical $anuscriptsto Capital] An" *eyon"9 Here, as al'ays, the <!estion is not one of e5cl!"ing the h!$an or "enigrating the h!$an3 =ather, the iss!e is one of o!sting the h!$an fro$ its occ!pation of the center, fro$ its point of privilege, fro$ its allege" e5cl!sive right to legislate the "o$ain of val!e3 &f flat ontology $eans anything, it "oes not $ean the e5cl!sion of the h!$an an" c!lt!ral, *!t rather the $ilitant overt!rning of any theological pretension to treat h!$ans as the 1or", center, or $aster of *eing3 H!$ans are a$ong *eing, not at the top of *eing3 An" against reactionary $entalities that 'o!l" ask 'hy 'o!l" & *e intereste" in a philosophy that isnOt centere" in the h!$an), flat ontology an" o*:ect2oriente" ontology respon"s that yo!r conception of yo!rself is a narcissistic ill!sion, that yo! cannot even *egin to !n"erstan" 'hat yo! are <!a h!$an, s!*:ect, c!lt!ral s!*:ect, an" val!ing *eing so long as yo! ref!se this 'o!n" to yo!r narcissis$ an" enco!nter yo!r a$ongness rather than lor"ship 'ithin *eing 3 HpinoAa 'ill proclai$ that 'e "onOt kno' 'hat a *o"y can "o, an" to this 'e o*:ect2oriente" ontologists 'ill a"" that 'e "onOt even kno' 'hat a h!$an is3 Ho far all 'e have are flattering $irrors *orne of "efense for$ations3 (!t to ears traine" on the se"!ctive siren song of r!le *ase" ethics, on the

so$nolerific) "r!g of :!"g$ent, all of these <!estions, 'hether fro$ the spec!lative realists an" their I!i5otic 1a!r!ellian spi"er 'e* spinning, or fro$ the o*:ect2oriente" ontologists, 'ill resonate as strange an" *iAarre, for, *ase" on the factMval!e "istinction that g!i"es the "estiny of all .o"ernist tho!ght, it 'ill prove i$possi*le to see or "iscern 'hat relevance ontology an" episte$ology co!l" possi*ly have to <!estions of ethics, politics, an" aesthetics3 An" here & evoke the 'or" ethics intentionally, rather than morality, to "isting!ish the nat!re of these <!estions fro$ all rule 1ased $oralities that iss!e fro$ 'e* spinners that apparently never separate" fro$ their $others an" fathers, yearning as they "o for a syste$ of co$$an"s an" r!les that $ight ren"er the opacity of the 'orl" naviga*le3 o, here ethics sho!l" *e rea" philologically an" ho$ony$o!sly, resonating like the strings of a cello 'ith connotations of he2is, econo$y, an" the ho!sehol"3 (!t he5es, econo$y, an" the oikos $!st *e li*erate" fro$ their h!$an centere"ness, *eing given ontological signification, 'here h!$ans are *oth ho!se" a$ong *eing an" 'ithin *eing 'itho!t *eing at the top of *eing # 3f the 0uestions raised by the speculative realists an" the o*:ect2oriente" ontologists are destined to resonate so strangely in the ears of the normo-maniacs) then this is because the a.iomatic that governs the normo-maniac discourse whether in its untilitarian or deontological formulation is nothing less than the endless bleating of the sheep on its way to the slaughter-house about the constitutive gap and distinction between the domain of facts and values3 &n short) the normo-maniac will find the idea that ontology or 0uestions about what is could have any bearing on 0uestions of normativity or ethics3 Ff co!rse, the nor$o2$aniacs never !n"erstoo" ethics to *egin 'ith, *!t only echoing co$$an"$ents transfor$e" into a for$alistic co$$an" of parental co$$an"$ent3 (!t setting asi"e the pleas!res of ad hominem attacks on these sa" an" irrelevant so!ls, 'hat is al'ays $isse" a$ong the nor$o2$aniacs is the point that this factMval!e "istinction, so fo!n"ational for all "isco!rses since the #nlighten$ent !p to an" incl!"ing the nihilistic $aterialists, is always based on an implicit ontological thesis3 That is, this "istinction can only get off the gro!n" 'hen it is taken as a5io$atic an" 'itho!t a rigoro!s concept, that there is a !nivocal "eter$ination of the category of the h!$an, or alternatively the s!*:ect) (the ne' $antra of crypto2h!$anis$ an" the ne' theology/, that is the sole "o$ain of val!e or the nor$ative, caref!lly separa*le fro$ the in"ifferent (i3e3, val!eless)/ "o$ain of facts3 (!t 'hat o*:ect2oriente" ontology, "eparting fro$ the #nlighten$ent separation of nat!re an" c!lt!re, calls so "eeply into <!estion is 'hether it is possi*le to localiAe a site for s!ch a category3 Here, a*ove all, it is necessary to follo' the in"ications of 1ato!rOs $ost ra"ical thesis% every new relation is a new ob?ect3 o' this thesis re<!ires caref!l philosophical scr!tiny an" criti<!e3 Eespite the valiant effort of Har$an to cro'n 1ato!r 'ith the cro'n of philosopher; a philosopher, no less, capa*le of s!staining !s for the ne5t 800 years ;'e s!spect that 1ato!r the philosopher is $ore "arman3s creation than the 'ork of 1ato!r3 This is a co$pli$ent to Har$anOs creativity an" h!$ility3 .oreover, Har$an hi$self senses that perhaps there is so$ething pro*le$atic in this thesis an" that it is necessary to "isting!ish *et'een those relations that are gen!inely o*:ect2generative) an" those relations, as the tra"ition 'o!l" say, that are $erely e5ternal)3 onetheless, in the ra"icality of this thesis a ne' space is opene" for ethical, political, an" aesthetic "eli*eration for 'e can no longer *e s!re of 'hat 'e are saying 'hen 'e refer to the h!$an3 An" if this is the case, then it is *eca!se 'e "o not yet kno' 'hether, an" the con"itions !n"er 'hich, a relation for$s a ne' entity3 (!t if this is the case, the *eg!iling, !nivocal "istinction *et'een the "o$ain of facts an" the "o$ain of val!es co$pletely collapses as it is no longer possi*le to refer to a single category that co!l" *e separate" fro$ the in2"ifferent "o$ain of the nat!ral3 3s a human with a hammer still a human+ $r is it something else+ Bhat of a h!$an 'ith a co$p!ter9 Bhat of a h!$an 'ith fossil f!els9 Bhat of a h!$an 'ith *irth control9 Bhat a*o!t h!$ans that s!stain the$selves on genetically engineere" *eakless chickens9 &t is necessary to here take a page fro$ Eonna Hara'ay3 The point is that the s$ooth "ivisions that 'o!l" allo' !s to "isting!ish "o$ains of facts an" val!es no', 'ith 1ato!rOs thesis, *reak "o'n3 An" as a conse<!ence, the "o$ain of the a5iological fin"s that it overflo's the "ikes an" "a$s that previo!sly, tho!gh ill!sorily, he$$e" it in to an i"eological space 'here so$e allege" entity calle" the h!$an

'as a*le to "ecree all val!e3 0et all of this $!st *e rigoro!sly pose", artic!late", at the ontological level to even *egin for$!lating these a5iological <!estions3

**cardfile for being affirmative**

a7< using the state is always bad T the state always screws up
9erial policy failure is a myth -- the history of bureaucracies is closer to serial policy successU The big problems of e.clusion probably can never be "solved" in totality but that's part of why the constant work of trying to make peoples' lives better is so important Aoodsell '2 ,harles, Professor #$erit!s at Girginia Tech6s ,enter for P!*lic A"$inistration an" Policy JThe ,ase for (!rea!cracy, 4o!rth #"itionJ orig3 89-7 p3 @-270 Be concl!"e o!r "isc!ssion of 'hat citiAens e5perience fro$ *!rea!cracy *y noting so$e of the achieve$ents that have *een $a"e in recent years 'ith respect to econo$ic, social, an" environ$ental con"itions in the co!ntry3 Fthers6 'ritings on tl8is point 'ere $entione" in tl8e pro2*!rea!cracy literat!re covere" in chapter l3 These achieve$ents are not acco$plishe" *y *!rea!cracy alone, ho'ever, *!t *y the Unite" Htates as a 'hole3 The reason & p!t it this 'ay is that while the work of bureaucracy can be crucial to social progress) individual improvements are often influenced by other institutions and forces active in the society as well# Feedless to say) policy interventions to improve conditions in any society is a comple. and unpredictable business# Blans to meet goals or solve problems by even the best bureaucracies are at best educated guesses# 3n fact) few policy problems are ever completely "solved" in a final sense3 To prepare s!ccessive e"itions of The Case !or ureaucracy over the "eca"es, & have *een in the ha*it of clipping fro$ the ne'spapers on a "aily *asis3 (eginning 'itl8 the $i"28990s, & *egan to notice, 'ith increasing fre<!ency, articles that report statistics sho'ing significant an" often s!rprising i$prove$ent in vario!s aspects of the <!ality of A$erican life3 Ta*le 229 s!$$ariAes so$e of the tren"s & enco!ntere" in $y clippings3 ota*ly, the "ata for these gains (8/ cover a 'i"e range of pro*le$ areas, (2/ r!n co!nter to cynical thinking that govern$ent action can lea" to no goo", an" ( @/ all take place 'ithin a narro' span of years, in the late t'entieth an" early t'enty2first cent!ries32@ Throughout this information we see significant) if incremental improvement# This is so in the 0uality of the air we breatl1e and of tl1e water in which we swim) as well as in the safety of our streets) roads) and places of work# 1ewer babies die) people live longer) and smoking and ilie incidence of some cancers are down# There is less hunger) teen-age pregnancy is diminished) and fewer teens die before their time# Arowth in the prison population and in wetlands destruction is lower) and fewer animal and plant species are in danger# 1or several years the poverty rate declined , altho!gh that tren" 'as !nfort!nately reverse" $ore recently as the res!lt of an !neven econo$y3 These statistics have real

meaning for real people# The lives of millions of *mericans have been made markedly better as a result# At the sa$e ti$e, of co!rse) any rate of progress on

serious social problems can never be enough) not even where it is greatest# it is regrettable that the rate of improvement is often lower for members of racial and ethnic minorities than for the white population# "oreover) in many areas of social need) little or no headway is being made# Get) overall) a substantial spread of notable socioeconomic progress has been made by America% partic!larly in the past t'o or three "eca"es3 As $entione", *!rea!cracy is not the only so!rce of this acco$plish$ent3 #lecte" officials are responsi*le for initiating an" f!n"ing progra$s, an" $!ch i$ple$entation of p!*lic policy is carrie" o!t not *y govern$ent at all *!t *y private parties3 0et govern$ent agencies are often at the center of it all3 &t is in *!rea!cracy that all the necessary ele$ents for collective social action are *ro!ght together 22 legal a!thority, p!*lic reso!rces, professional e5pertiese, insit!tional kno'le"ge an" a sense of $ission in *ehalf of all citiAens3 .oreover, bureaucracies are not ?ust passive implementers but social and political advocates for their missions# The Dnvironmental Brotection *gency) to a degree that is dependent on the administration in power) presses 1ish and 'ildlife 9ervice urges developers to save habitat for endangered species# Police "epart$ents of the nation seek o!t $ore tools an" reso!rces to go fight cri$e3 The ational High'ay Traffic Hafety A"$inistration an" the Fcc!pational Hafety an" Health A"$inistration a"vocate high'ay an" 'orkplace safety3 The Fational 3nstitutes of Iealth and 4enters for 5isease 4ontrol and Brevention promote medical research and good health practices) as do the tens of thousands of public health departments and public schools throughout the ,nited 9tates# ,nlike the policy-making activity of elected officials) this work by bureaucrats is undramatic) hidden) ongoing) and persistent# 3t is through bureaucracy) directly or indirectly) that much of *merica's collective action takes place# 'itl1out it) our nation's widespread accomplishments in recent decades would not have been achieved#

/e?ect monolithic characteri-ations of bureaucracy -- if they don't have arguments about our specific policy reform you should re?ect their arguments as generic to the point of meaningless Aoodsell '2 ,harles, Professor #$erit!s at Girginia Tech6s ,enter for P!*lic A"$inistration an" Policy JThe ,ase for (!rea!cracy, 4o!rth #"itionJ orig3 89-7 p3 -280 The descriptive category) then) is vast# 3t embraces thousands of institutions and millions of people# 3t incorporates an incredible variety of activities) from investigating child abuse to filling potholes to combating *359 to negotiating international treaties and conducting wars # The very enormity of the category speaks elo0uently of the critical importance of our sub?ect# The vast range of organi-ations included cries out for thoughtful assessment of individual bureaucracies rather than characteri-ation by stereotype # .any rea"ers 'ill *e a'are of the sociological $o"el of *!rea!cracy posite" *y .a5 Be*er early in the past cent!ry3 To Be*er, a *!rea!cracy 'as an organiAation 'ith specifie" f!nctional attri*!tes% large siAe? a gra"e" hierarchy? for$al r!les? specialiAe" tasks? 'ritten files? an" e$ployees 'ho are salarie", technically traine", career2appointe", an" assigne" state" "!ties re<!iring e5pert kno'le"ge3 Be*er regar"e" his $o"el as an i"eal type, !sef!l for "escription an" analysis3 D "any academic theorists and researchers contend that by possessing these characteristics) an organi-ation tends automatically to e.hibit certain patterns of behavior# These include rigidity) proceduralism) resistance to change) oppressive control of employees) dehumani-ed treatment of clients) indifference to citi-en input) use of incomprehensible ?argon) and tendencies toward empire building and concentration of power# These ascribed traits are) obviously) all pe?orative# They also happen to spring) for the most part) from predisposed beliefs about large organi-ations rather than from empirical study# Bhen aca"e$ic 'riters on *!rea!cracy reflect negatively on the conse<!ences of the JBe*erian $o"el,J they are often *eing not ne!tral social scientists at all *!t i"eological critics of hierarchical organiAation2a position share" *y $any intellect!als3 As if *y a kin" of original sin e$*e""e" in its organiAational for$, *!rea!cracy is seen as a!to$atically an" perpet!ally con"e$ne" to inco$petence an" anti"e$ocratic e5cess3 =et!rning to $y o'n !se of the 'or", & "o not "eny that $!ch if not $ost of A$erican p!*lic a"$inistration is $a"e !p of organiAations that ans'er to $any if not all of Be*er6s *asic str!ct!ral characteristics3 0es, steps are often taken to flatten chains of co$$an", create fle5i*le roles an" tea$s, e$po'er e$ployees an" citi Aens, an" stress service to citiAens3 Htill, $ost p!*lic sector organiAations an" :!ris"ictions contin!e to feat!re "ifferentiate" levels of office, *o!n"e" areas of a!thority, internal r!les, electronic or paper files, career or at least long2ter$ e$ployees, an" professional e5perts of one kin" or another3 Ho, to that e5tent, $ost a"$inistrative co$ponents of U3H3 govern$ent are still essentially J*!rea!craciesJ in the Be*erian sense 2 'hatever that $ay $ean in ter$s of res!ltant *ehavior3 (They are not, ho'ever, necessarily very *ig, as 'e "iscover later3/ 1et $e $ake $yself a*!n"antly clear3 & "o not "eny that selecte" atte$pts to "ee$phasiAe these str!ct!ral characteristics in o!r p!*lic a"$inistration instit!tions 'o!l" *e helpf!l in $any instances3 3 do not) however) accept the deterministic thought implicit in theories of bureaucracy that automatically e0uate any substantial presence of Be*er6s characteristics 'ith inco$petence or rigidity) dehumani-ed or oppressive conduct) or imperialistic behavior# Ience 3 am not) obviously) using the term bureaucracy in the typical pe?orative sense# To p!t the $atter another 'ay, my debating opponents and 3 disagree not over whether *merican public administra tion is essentially bureaucratic) but over whether that means it is inevitably pathological3 K 3dentifying bureaucratic institutions as a focal point for criticism allows corporations to use social movements to defund public services and coopts their alternative in the service of market forces# $ur affirmative maintains ambivalence about the state's perfectibility -- but that's why a positive criti0ue is a necessary bulwark against neoliberal dismantlement 4larke '6 John, Professor of Hocial Policy, Hocial Policy an" ,ri$inology J=econstr!cting nation, state an" 'elfare% The transfor$ation of 'elfare statesJ &n% Heelei*2+aiser, .artin e"3 Belfare Htate Transfor$ations% ,o$parative Perspectives3 (asingstoke% Palgrave .ac$illan, pp3 89L;2093 Dach of the terms here = welfare) state and nation = has been the focus of multiple challenges (,larke, 2007/3 *nti-welfarism:) for e.ample) combines and condenses social movement criti0ues of welfare:s inade0uacy) inaccessibility) and demeaning conditionality) welfare

providers: an.ieties and frustrations about the problems of managing relations with client groups:) and neo-conservative as well as neo-liberal criti0ues of welfare dependency:# That such neo-liberal and neo-conservative challenges have become the dominant position in the reform of some national welfare provision %most notably in the ,9* , of co!rse/ should not disguise the multiple and contradictory orientations that are condensed in anti-welfarism and the drive to welfare reform:3 Active s!*:ects are not only the fantasy of neo2li*erals3 9imilarly) antistatism: condenses many different doubts about) and challenges to) the authoritative position of the state as a power: in) and over) society# Dven those who have viewed the state as the best available engine: for social improvement have doubts about both its effectiveness and about its dark side:< the e.ercise of power and authority without ade0uate controls (Nsocial controlO in the ol"er socialist sense/3 Hocial $ove$ents in *oth the orth an" the Ho!th have *oth looke" to states to !n"er'rite rights, :!stice an" e<!ality, 'hile at the sa$e ti$e looking to an active an" po'erf!l civil society as a $eans of *oth challenging an" $aking "e$an"s on the state3 This is the "o!*le "yna$ic that EagninoOs analysis of social $ove$ents in (raAil $akes visi*le ; "riving *oth "e$an"s on the state an" "e$an"s for its transfor$ation3 9uch ambivalence about the state needs to be kept in view even as we take note of the dominance of neo-liberal market liberating: discourses of anti-statism = both in some national settings and in international organisational settings of global governmentality: (1arner an" Balters, 2007/3 Bro?ects of state reform are rarely singular and coherent (,larke et al, 200L/3 The remaking of the apparatuses) practices and personnel through which the social is governed has been shaped by different forces = and has taken different forms# Be $ight also 'ant to consi"er ho' state refor$ pro:ects have typically *een a*o!t $!ch $ore than the N'elfare stateO, *!t a*o!t re$aking the 'hole architect!re of governance an" the relationships *et'een state an" society, state an" econo$y, as 'ell as inter2state relations3 I!estions pose" in "e*ates a*o!t governance an" govern$entality, arg!$ents a*o!t states *eco$ing N"isaggregate"O, or the shifting relationships *et'een "ifferent $o"es of a!thority have ha" little i$pact on the "isc!ssion of 'elfare states (as tho!gh 'elfare states 'ere so$eho' separate fro$ states% see, inter alia, e'$an, 200D? Hla!ghter, 2007? Hansen an" Halskov&versen, forthco$ing? van (erkel, 200L/3 4orporations use vested political power in order to de-fund public institutions in order to claim that they are inefficient) thus paving the way for their profitable privati-ation and further stratification Berelman 8 .ichael, Professor of #cono$ics at ,HU2,hico, .an!fact!ring Eiscontent% The Trap of &n"ivi"!alis$ in ,orporate Hociety) Pl!to Press, p38K28L Perhaps the most cynical e.ample of the perverse conse0uences of political power comes from the strategy of purposefully defunding public institutions# Fne of the $ost o!trageo!s e5a$ples of ro**ing p!*lic instit!tions to favor private interests is the treat$ent of the p!*lic school syste$s in the Unite" Htates3 $pponents of public education first starve schools of the funds necessary to operate efficiently# 'hen these organi-ations inevitably fail to satisfy public demands for 0uality service) the proponents of private education play upon the growing dissatisfaction with public schools) claiming that private systems will operate more efficiently 3 Then the proponents of privatiAe" e"!cation "e$an" that the state "istri*!te vo!chers that s!*si"iAe private schools 'ith state f!n"s, even tho!gh these private schools are free to ref!se to 'ork 'ith st!"ents that re<!ire special e"!cation3 To $ake $atters 'orse, once e"!cation *eco$es privatiAe", not $!ch ti$e 'ill pass *efore conservatives 'ill "e$an" that p!*lic s!pport go only to those 'ho cannot affor" to pay for school on their o'n3 (y this $eans, public financial support for education becomes transformed into a form of welfare rather than a universal right# Brograms for the poor inevitably become poor programs# * well-financed public outcry will almost certainly demand that hardworking ta.payers be absolved from having to pay for the education of families who are too la-y to earn enough on their own# 9imilarly) in the case of public transportation) the lack of ade0uate funding forces fares to rise) discouraging the use of public transportation# 9ince costs do not fall proportionately to the number riders) the cost per rider increases) allowing enemies of public e.hortation to declare that the system is hopelessly inefficient#

1atalism about bureaucracy or disengagement from their specific policy programs amounts to a to.ic phobia of institutions that supports a political culture of right-wing attack and demoni-ation on the public sphere *my 'C Eo!glas J3, Professor of Politics at .o!nt Holyoke ,ollege JThe ,ase 4or (!rea!cracyJ http%MM'''3govern$entisgoo"3co$Marticles3php9ai"^20Vprint^8 The =ole of =efor$ 1et $e *e clear% 3 am not suggesting that we look at bureaucracy and bureaucrats through rose-colored glasses = or ignore their shortcomings 3 There are so$e inherent pro*le$s that can afflict govern$ent *!rea!cracies ; $ost nota*ly corr!ption an" 'aste3 An" a h!n"re" years ago, these 'ere ra$pant pro*le$s3 The enor$o!sly corr!pt political $achines that e5iste" in $any large cities "!ring the early part of the t'entieth cent!ry are e5a$ples of ho' *a"ly *!rea!cracies can go 'rong3 But decades of reform efforts have greatly reduced these problems# 'e have rooted out large-scale corruption and are increasingly minimi-ing the amount of bureaucratic inefficiency) e.cessive paperwork) etc# These problems have not completely disappeared) and we must continue to try to improve the performance of our administrative institutions# A goo" e5a$ple of this on2going effort 'as Gice2Presi"ent Al CoreOs pro:ect, calle" the ational Perfor$ance =evie', 'hich so!ght to re"!ce e5cess fe"eral 'orkers3 (et'een 899@ an" 2000, the n!$*er of civilian e$ployees in the e5ec!tive *ranch 'as re"!ce" *y 89@,0003 (!t 'hile 'e $!st *e vigilant a*o!t p!rs!ing these kin"s of refor$ efforts, 'e $!st not e5aggerate the e5tent of the pro*le$s in o!r a"$inistrative agencies3 An" 'e sho!l" not allo' the occasional fail!res of govern$ent *!rea!cracies to oversha"o' their achieve$ents3 A $ore realistic an" acc!rate vie' of these instit!tions recogniAes that on the 'hole they are 'orking 'ell an" they contin!e to play a cr!cial role in a"$inistering vital progra$s that are i$proving the lives of all A$ericans3 The =eal 1essons fro$ +atrina An" yet, 'hat are 'e to $ake of the kin" of $assive *!rea!cratic fail!re that occ!rre" 'hen h!rricane +atrina 'hen it hit e' Frleans in the fall of 200D9 The 4e"eral #$ergency .anage$ent AgencyOs response 'as too little too late, an" the agency 'as harshly criticiAe" for its ina"e<!ate an" *!ngling efforts3 This fiasco see$e" $erely to confir$ $any peoplesO 'orst ass!$ptions a*o!t the pro*le$s of *!rea!cracy3 Ho'ever, it 'o!l" *e a $istake to !se the fail!res of 4#.A to paint a negative pict!re of govern$ent *!rea!cracies3 4#.A faile" in e' Frleans not *eca!se of so$ething inherently 'rong 'ith govern$ent *!rea!cracies, *!t *eca!se of a policy of neglect *y the (!sh a"$inistration3 4irst, the a"$inistration appointe" .ichael (ro'n to hea" the agency, a political crony 'ith no e5perience in e$ergency response $anage$ent an" 'ho 'as fire" fro$ his previo!s :o* for $is$anage$ent3 The agency 'as then "o'ngra"e" an" fol"e" into the Eepart$ent of Ho$elan" Hec!rity, 'here its $ission 'as re2oriente" to'ar" fighting acts of terroris$3 4inally, 4#.AOs *!"get 'as slashe", 'ith (!sh officials arg!ing that J.any are concerne" that fe"eral "isaster assistance $ay have evolve" into an oversiAe" entitle$ent progra$333J@0 As the 'ashin&ton $onthly concl!"e", 4#.A 'as "eli*erately "o'nsiAe" as part of the (!sh a"$inistration6s conservative agen"a to re"!ce the role of govern$ent3)@8 &n the en", then, 4#.AOs fail!re in e' Frleans 'as in large part a res!lt of a conservative a"$inistration that ha" only conte$pt for the role of govern$ent in society an" ha" little interest in ens!ring the 'ell*eing of vital govern$ent agencies3 &ronically, the real pro*le$ 'ith $any p!*lic *!rea!cracies to"ay is not that they are *loate" instit!tions 'ho are over2staffe" an" spen" too $!ch $oney, *!t that they are !n"erstaffe" an" "onOt have the f!n"s to "o their :o*s3 The contin!ing right2'ing attack on govern$ent has left $any agencies in a 'eakene" state, !na*le to vigoro!sly p!rs!e their $issions3 There are not eno!gh $ine inspectors to protect $ine'orkers3 The &=H lacks the personnel to "etect an" retrieve the *illions of "ollars lost every year fro$ in"ivi"!als an" corporations that cheat on their ta5es3 .any school "istricts lack the teachers to keep their class siAe "o'n to a reasona*le level3 &n $any cases, 'e have gone 'ay past c!tting fat) o!t of these *!rea!cracies an" 'e have *eg!n to c!t into flesh an" *one3 The main threat to the public interest posed by government bureaucracies these days is not that they are wasting huge amounts of our money) but that many are not healthy enough to do their ?ob of promoting and protecting our collective wellbeing# To make matters worse) the very right-wing forces who are starving these vital agencies then turn around and cite any poor performance by these debilitated organi-ations as evidence of the ineptness of government# Bhen Presi"ent F*a$a 'as electe" in 200-, he 'as co$$itte" to revitaliAing i$portant fe"eral agencies3 4or e5a$ple, he 'orke" to ena*le the 4EA to have eno!gh inspectors to ens!re that o!r foo"s are safe to eat? an" the Ee$ocratic ,ongress acte" to increase the f!n"ing for the ,ons!$er Pro"!ct an" Hafety ,o$$ission3 These 'ere i$portant steps in the right "irection, *!t $!ch $ore nee"s to *e "one to strengthen the n!$ero!s *!rea!cracies that serve o!r vital p!*lic interests3 Unfort!nately, the =ep!*lican takeover of the Ho!se of =epresentatives in 2080 threatens to !n"er$ine any syste$atic efforts to reinvigorate $any fe"eral agencies3 (eyon" the (!rea!cratic Htereotypes

The negative stereotypes of bureaucracy that 'e have looke" at in this article contribute to a political atmosphere that legitimi-es the right-wing attack on government 3 The problem with these stereotypes is not simply that they are e.aggerated and mistaken) but that conservatives and libertarians are able to e.ploit these misperceptions to ?ustify their attempts to defund and hamstring the public sector# The more *mericans believe that bureaucracies are bad) the more likely they are to agree with efforts to slash ta.es and gut government programs# That is why it is increasingly important that we begin to see that most of the criticisms of government bureaucracy are based more on myth than reality) and that these administrative agencies play a central role in promoting the important missions of a modern democratic government#

a7< can't make small reforms


The distinction between radical withdrawal and reform is distinctly Durocentric -- they take the 'with-us-or-against-us' logic of capitalist hegemony and catastrophically apply it to resistance -only the permutation allows for autonomist struggle

5ay 8 =ichar", professor in the "epart$ent of glo*al "evelop$ent at I!een6s University Cra$sci is Eea"% Anarchist ,!rrents in the e'est Hocial .ove$ents) http%MM'''3scri*"3co$M"ocM892-0LL2MCra$sci2is2Eea"

There is no longer the division between reform and revolution) not because the reasons for either have disappeared) but because the political traditions behind these concepts have e.hausted themselves# N,HAO, for$er &talian
social centre activist &n or"er to !n"erstan" precisely ho' the logic of hege$ony is *eing challenge" *y certain ele$ents of conte$porary ra"ical social $ove$ents, & 'ill no' t!rn to a "isc!ssion of so$e of the 'ays in 'hich aca"e$ic co$$entators have trie" to !n"erstan" these activist c!rrents3 & "onOt preten" that 'hat & 'ill present here is anything like a co$plete overvie' of the relevant positions3 =ather, & 'ill "ra' fro$ selecte" 'riters 'ho e5e$plify certain *roa"er ten"encies 'ithin the li*eral, neoli*eral, $ar5ist an" post$ar5ist tra"itions3 .y goal in each case is to assess the a*ility of these para"ig$s to co$prehen" 'hat is Nne'estO a*o!t conte$porary ra"ical social $ove$ents3 &n so "oing, & 'ill engage not only 'ith the c!rrent con_ g!rations of the "o$inant political para"ig$s, *!t 'ith the historical "evelop$ents that have le" the$ to *eco$e 'hat they are3 *s theorists of hegemony have long pointed out) dominant ideas tend to take on

an appearance of naturalness and inevitability that renders them relatively impervious to criti0ue# This is preciselyHand ironicallyHwhat makes the hegemony of hegemony so difVcult to talk about) and even more difVcult to escape# (!t, like every other discourse) hegemonic thought does have a history) and this history can be critically e.amined to show how it forecloses alternative understandings of the past) present and future# To work a history in this way is to work against it) to refuse to accept the basic assumptions that allow it to function# 3t is to move away from history as such) towards a genealogical account that offers new narratives with new kinds of social) political) and economic relations in mind (4o!ca!lt 89-D/3 &n the case at han", the goal is to show how

the logic of hegemony has become hegemonic) how it has come to structure the political sense that is common to %neo&liberalism and most forms of mar.ism) incl!"ing post$ar5is$3 At the sa$e ti$e, & 'ant to sho' ho' the theory an" practice of
hege$ony are !nravelling, *eing taken apart fro$ 'ithin their o'n tra"itions *y the very forces that ha" to *e e5cl!"e" to esta*lish these tra"itions in the _rst place3 &n the &ntro"!ction 3 proposed a preliminary definition of hegemony as a struggle for dominance) generally li$ite" to the sy$*olic, geographical, econo$ic an" political conte5t of a partic!lar nation2state or gro!p of states, *!t increasingly occ!rring at a glo*al level3 This "e_ nition 'as an atte$pt to capt!re the sha"es of $eaning that this ter$ evokes in post$ar5is$, c!lt!ral st!"ies an" other "isciplines of the h!$anities an" social sciences3 H!ch an atte$pt al'ays fails, of co!rse, so & 'ill no' *egin to !npack this "e_nition, to give it life *y placing it in its historical conte5ts3 1ike so $!ch in the 'estern tra"ition, the concept of hegemony originated in

*ncient Areece) where the term hegemonia signiV ed the domination of one city-state by another# The rhetorical content of this ter$ is not apparent fro$ the "ictionary "e_ nition, ho'ever3 To

!n"erstan" this 'e $!st note ho' it is !se" 'ith reference to 'hat is co$$only presente" as the co$$an"ing height of Ancient Creek civiliAation% "e$ocratic Athens, 'hich provi"es a $ythical fo!n"ation for 'estern i"eas a*o!t free"o$ an" e<!ality3 Athenians are tho!ght to have ha" a Nnat!ralO i$p!lse to govern the$selves, *!t the scholarly literat!re is f!ll of references to NThe Hpartan Hege$onyO an" NThe The*an Hege$onyO, that is, to Ne5ceptionalO ti$es 'hen (rich, genetically correct, $ale/ Athenians 'ere governe" *y others3 Hi$ilarly, Philip of .ace"onia (Ale5an"erOs father/ is kno'n for having esta*lishe" hi$self as the hege$on (lea"er/ of $ost of Creece, pri$arily *y 'ay of s!perior $ilitary force3 Thus to be hegemoni-ed meant to be

unable to rule oneself because one was under the sway of another> not another class) or even another nationH9partans) Thebans and "acedonians were all considered

AreeksHbut another political formation in which one did not have an e0ual voice#
Hege$ony, in Ancient Creece, 'as very clearly seen as a non2"e$ocratic fro$ of political organiAation3&n its c!rrent !sage the concept of hege$ony is "eeply tie" !p 'ith the syste$ of nation2states that *egan to for$ 'ith the rise of #!ropean constit!tional $onarchies, an" 'as f!rther entrenche" *y the creation of instit!tions of li*eral "e$ocracy3 Th!s, hegemony must be seen as very much a modern Duropean phenomenon# &ts con"itions 'ere esta*lishe" *y #nlighten$ent li*erals, 'ho "i" not !se the ter$ as s!ch, *!t 'ho provi"e" later theorists 'ith a rich array of concepts that 'ere essential to the appearance of gege$oniya as a key ter$ in the "e*ates *et'een =!ssian socialists of the late nineteenth an" early t'entieth cent!ries3 To s!pport $y contention that the logic of hege$ony "eeply str!ct!res the t'o lea"ing tra"itions of 'estern social an" political theory, & 'ill no' t!rn to a $ore "etaile" "isc!ssion of ho' these t'o tra"itionsR co$$only tho!ght to *e $!t!ally inco$pati*leRin fact share a *asic set of ass!$ptions a*o!t social organiAation an" social change that "eeply str!ct!reRan" severely li$itRtheir a*ility to co$prehen" conte$porary ra"ical social $ove$ents3

a7< aff leads to endless cycles of interventions


Sey distinction = the threat of preemption effectively deters conflict B,T there won:t be cycles of future intervention = the ,9 can:t afford it Iuffington Bost :11 John .c,ain% Be Bon6t Co To Bar &n The .i""le #ast Again) 9M88 http%MM'''3h!ffingtonpost3co$M2088M09M88M:ohn2$ccain2'e2'ont2go2toSnS9DL@0@3ht$l BAHH& CTF 22 Hen3 Jon "c4ain "efen"e" the govern$ent6s "ecision to go to 'ar in &ra< an" Afghanistan in the 'ake of the Hept3 88 terrorist attacks, but said he recogni-es that public opinion would prevent the ,nited 9tates from going to war in the "iddle Dast again soon 3 J& think 'e "i" the right thing there, *!t & also think 'e learne" a lot of lessons, an" frankly, 3 don't think you're going to see the ,nited 9tates of *merica in another war in that part of the world)" "c4ain %/-*ri-#& said on J4o5 e's H!n"ay,J speaking on the 802year anniversary of the 9M88 attacks3 "3 don't think *merican public opinion would stand for it)" he a""e"3 .c,ain6s tone 'as a slight shift fro$ his nor$al ha'kishness on foreign policy, 'here he has *een <!ick to criticiAe the presi"ent for !sing too little force in 1i*ya an" planning a "ra'2"o'n of troops in Afghanistan3 He ackno'le"ge" the fr!stration that $any A$ericans feel 'ith the 'ars in &ra< an" Afghanistan, 'hich have contin!e" for years *eyon" their planne" en"2"ates3 *nti-imperialists infle.ibly condemn foreign innocents to easily preventable bloodshed -intervention can be moral -- @ibya proves 'eiss :11 Heth, .ar5ist2H!$anist &nstit!te, 1i*ya an" the 1eft) *This piece 'as originally p!*lishe" in #orld #ar $ !eport, &ss!e `8L7, .ay 87 20883 http%MM'''3$ar5isth!$anistinitiative3orgMforces2of2 revol!tionMli*ya2an"2the2left3ht$l Those on the @eft advancing an anti-interventionist position can be divided into two camps# The first camp supports the Waddafi regime, so$e e5plicitly an" others tacitly, as a bulwark in a struggle against 'estern imperialism# "ost prominent here are 1idel 4astro and !ene-uela:s Iugo 4have-# Also in this ca$p are $any of the sa$e 1eft intellect!als an" :o!rnalists R incl!"ing Ale5an"er ,ock*!rn, Jean (ric$ont, .ichel ,hoss!"ovsky, an" Eiana Johnstone R 'ho carve" o!t an anti2i$perialist position on the 'ars in the (alkans in the 8990s *y 'ay of genoci"e "enial an" apologetics for Hlo*o"an .ilosevic an" his hench$en3 Iere) a narrow and refle.ive anti-imperialism H that is) an Jthe enemy of my enemy is my friendK kind of mentality H prevails# ,onsi"er, for instance, a recent anno!nce$ent *y a Trotskyist gro!p in e' 0ork ,ity for a $eeting on 1i*ya at the ,U 0 Cra"!ate ,enter3 &t stresses% Unlike T!nisia an" #gypt, 1i*yan re*els have avi"ly so!ght Bestern ai",an" event!ally *o$*s against Ia""afi3 =e*els 'ho fly the flag of the $onarchy 'hile allying 'ith religio!s reaction an" the ,&A are appealing to i$perialis$ instea" of fighting it) (4or!$% F*a$aOs African Bar, e' 0ork Activist ,alen"ar, poste" April 80, 2088, http%MMnycal3$ayfirst3orgMno"eM292-/3 As Trotsky hi$self note" in reply to this kin" of $echanical anti2i$perialis$% &n ninety cases o!t of a h!n"re" the 'orkers act!ally place a $in!s sign 'here the *o!rgeoisie places a pl!s sign3 &n ten cases ho'ever they are force" to fi5 the sa$e sign as the *o!rgeoisie *!t 'ith their o'n seal, in 'hich is e5presse" their $istr!st of the *o!rgeoisie3 The policy of the proletariat is not at all a!to$atically "erive" fro$ the policy of the *o!rgeoisie, *earing only the opposite sign ; this 'o!l" $ake every sectarian a $aster strategist ] (1earn to Think% A 4rien"ly H!ggestion to ,ertain Ultra21eftists,) .ay 89@-, http%MM'''3$ar5ists3orgMarchiveMtrotskyM89@-M0DMthink3ht$/3 * second camp of the @eft antiinterventionists endeavors a principled anti-imperialist position which re?ects both F*T$ intervention and the Waddafi regime# "ost in this camp also) although not all) share a genuine commitment to supporting popular forces for freedom within @ibya# Ho'ever, a narrow

anti-imperialism) although of a different sort) also prevails here# This camp faces a real antinomy between its anti-imperialist principles and its interest in supporting freedom struggles in @ibya and throughout the region# 3t has been unable to find a positive resolution to the contradiction) and it has allowed opposition to 'estern intervention to trump both solidarity with freedom struggles and protection of civilian populations

from massacre by tank brigades and aerial bombardment# As Cil*ert Achcar

arg!es in a recent intervie' 'ith Htephen Hhalo$ on U et)% ] if Ca""afi 'ere per$itte" to contin!e his $ilitary offensive an" take (enghaAi, there 'o!l" *e a $a:or $assacre3 Iere is a case where a

population is truly in danger) and where there is no plausible alternative that could protect it# The attack *y Ca""afiOs forces 'as ho!rs or at $ost "ays a'ay3 0o! canOt in the
na$e of anti2i$perialist principles oppose an action that 'ill prevent the $assacre of civilians3 &n the sa$e 'ay, even though we know well the nature and double standards of cops in

the bourgeois state) you can:t in the name of anti-capitalist principles blame anybody for calling them when someone is on the point of being raped and there is no alternative way of stopping the rapists (1i*yan

Eevelop$ents,) .arch 89, 2088, http%MM'''3Aco$$!nications3orgMli*yan2"evelop$ents2*y2gil*ert2achcar/3 At stake, as 'ell, 'as the fate of the 1i*yan revol!tion an" perhaps that of the other Ara* revol!tions, too3 A victory for Ia""afi, "raining the confi"ence of the $asses an" e$*ol"ening other "espots in the region, $ight 'ell have spelle" the en" of the Ara* Hpring3

a7< re?ect ethical complicity with capitalism(neoliberalism as a decisionrule


There is no all-encompassing capitalist system = their totali-ing 0riti0 makes coherent analysis of economic power impossible 5e@anda) C, A":!nct Associate Professor ; Cra"!ate Hchool of Architect!re, Planning an" Preservation ; ,ol!$*ia University, A Tho!san" 0ears of onlinear History, p3 7K2#ven in this age of h!ge $!ltinational corporations, the co$$an" ele$ent in the co$$ercial $i5t!re is far fro$ 800 percent3 The econo$ist John +enneth Cal*raith, 'ho sharply "ifferentiates *et'een spontaneo!s econo$ic activity ($arkets/ an" planne" econo$ic processes (*ig *!siness/,
$anip!late those forces to a certain "egree

calc!lates that to"ay ro!ghly half of the Bestern econo$y has *een taken over *y capitalist hierarchies3 The other half co$prises the lo'2profit regions, 'hich those hierarchies 'illingly a*an"on to the $arket3 Accor"ing to Cal*raith, 'hat gives capitalis$ this free"o$ of $otion is econo$y of scale, 'hich is 'hy since the .i""le Ages co$$ercial capitalis$ has *een associate" 'ith 'holesale an" not retail3 A large fir$ is *etter a*le to a*sor* shocks an" fl!ct!ations an" create the plans an" strategies that $ay 'in it a "egree of in"epen"ence fro$ $arket forces, in"ee" the a*ility to control an"

3 H!ch consi"erations le" (ra!"el to the startling concl!sion that J'e sho!l" not *e too <!ick to ass!$e that capitalis$ e$*races the 'hole of 'estern society, that it acco!nts for every stitch in the social fa*ric333that o!r societies are organiAe" fro$ top to *otto$ in a 6capitalist syste$36 Fn the contrary333there is a "ialectic still very $!ch alive *et'een capitalis$ on one han", an" its antithesis, the 6non2 capitalis$6 of the lo'er level on the other3JDK An" he a""s that, in"ee", capitalis$ 'as carrie" !p'ar" an" on'ar" on the sho!l"ers of s$all shops an" Jthe
revol!tion? all the ne' i"eas ca$e fro$ enterprising s$all *!sinesses

enor$o!s creative po'ers of the $arket, of the lo'er story of e5change3333 PThisQ lo'est level, not *eing paralyse" *y the siAe of its plant or organiAation, is the one rea"iest to a"apt? it is the see"*e" of inspiration, i$provisation an" even innovation, altho!gh its $ost *rilliant "iscoveries sooner or later fall into the han"s of the hol"ers of capital3 &t 'as not the capitalists 'ho *ro!ght a*o!t the fast cotton

3JDL There is a $isconception, 'i"ely share" *y econo$ists an" philosophers on either si"e of the political spectr!$, that capitalis$ "evelope" in several stages, *eing at first co$petitive an" s!*servient to $arket forces an" only later, in the t'entieth cent!ry, *eco$ing $onopolistic3 Ho'ever, starting in the thirteenth cent!ry, capitalists engage" in vario!s nonco$petitive practices, in or"er to create the large acc!$!lations of $oney that have al'ays characteriAe" the !pper levels of the tra"e pyra$i"3 As
'e "isc!sse", the early $e"ieval fairs, the $eeting points of rich $erchants fro$ all over #!rope, 'ere verita*le hierarchies of $esh'orks, in 'hich the l!5!ry an" $oney $arkets "o$inate" the !pper echelons3 either in the long2"istance tra"e of prestige goo"s nor in the 'orl"s of precio!s $etals an" cre"it "i" s!pply an" "e$an" reign s!pre$e3 Fn the contrary, $ost fort!nes in these areas 'ere $a"e *y the $anip!lation of these $arket forces thro!gh a variety of nonco$petitive practices3 There 'as, of co!rse, intense co$petition a$ong rich $erchants an" fa$ilies, $!ch as to"ay large

3D4ro$ the .i""le Ages to the nineteenth cent!ry, not only "i" in"ivi"!al *!sinesses engage in $onopolistic practices, entire cities "i" too, even gro!ps of cities3 (y $eans of nonco$petitive practices, a to'n co!l" greatly ai" its $erchants an" financiers, protecting
corporations co$pote 'ith one another, *!t these rivalries a$ong oligopolies are f!n"a$entally "ifferent fro$ the kin" of Janony$o!s co$petitionJ in 'hich s$all pro"!cers an" tra"ers engage

the$ fro$ foreign rivals, an" sti$!lating the acc!$!lation of $oney 'ithin its 'alls3 The $e"ieval cities that controlle" the .e"iterranean an" the (altic an" orth Heas finance" $!ch of their gro'th fro$ $anip!lation of $arkets an" *y ac<!iring e5cl!sive control of certain flo's, s!ch as spices an" silks fro$ the 1evant in the case of Genice, or salt in the case of 1a*eck3 Bith a $onopoly on l!5!ry goo"s, 'on an" $aintaine" *y $ilitary force, fo!rteenth2cent!ry Genice "o$inate" the cities aro!n" it, not only the s$all to'ns constit!ting its s!pply regions *!t other giant to'ns, s!ch as 4lorence an" .ilan3 &n the north, *et'een the thirteenth an" fifteenth cent!ries, cities like 1a*eck an" (r!ges for$e" a $esh'ork of cities kno'n as the Hanseatic 1eag!e, 'hich 'as capa*le of collective action 'itho!t a centraliAe" organiAation *ehin" it3 The leag!e also engage" in $onopolistic practices to trap the to'ns 'ithin its Aone of econo$ic infl!ence in a 'e* of s!pervision an" "epen"ence3D9 Be 'ill

3 This 'ill $ake clear ho' 'rong it is to ass!$e (as $any econo$ists to the right an" center of the political spectr!$ ten" to "o/ that $arket po'er is so$ething that $ay *e "is$isse" or that nee"s to *e st!"ie" only in relation to so$e a*errant instit!tional for$s s!ch as overt $onopolies3 (!t certain conceptions fro$ the left (partic!larly the .ar5ist left/ also nee" to *e correcte", in partic!lar, a teleological conception of econo$ic history in ter$s of a linear progression of $o"es of pro"!ction3 &n this (ra!"el e5plicitly agrees 'ith Cilles Eele!Ae an" 4eli5 C!attari% capitalis$ co!l" have arisen any'here an" long *efore it "i" in #!rope3K0 &ts e$ergence $!st *e pict!re" as a *if!rcation, a phase transition that $ight have taken place so$e'here else ha" the con"itions *een right (for instance, in the h!ge ca$el caravans along the Halk =oa" in the thirteenth cent!ry/3K8 .oreover, the instit!tions that e$erge" after this *if!rcation $!st *e vie'e" not as replacing previo!s instit!tions (i3e3, $arkets/ *!t as f!lly coe5isting 'ith the$ 'itho!t for$ing a society'i"e Jsyste$3J &t is tr!e that prices across #!rope 'ere p!lsating to the sa$e rhyth$ fro$ $e"ieval ti$es an" this gave the entire continent a certain econo$ic coherence (so$eti$es referre" to as a J'orl"2econo$yJ/, *!t it 'o!l" *e a $istake to conf!se 'orl"2 econo$ies 'ith the Jcapitalist syste$,J since &n"ia, ,hina, an" &sla$ also for$e" coherent econo$ic areas (as po'erf!l as those of #!rope/ 'itho!t giving rise to capitalis$3K2 The concept!al conf!sion engen"ere" *y all the "ifferent !ses of the 'or" Jcapitalis$J (as Jfree enterpriseJ or as Jin"!strial $o"e of pro"!ctionJ or, $ore recently, as J'orl"2econo$yJ/ is so entrenche" that it $akes an o*:ective analysis of econo$ic po'er al$ost i$possi*le3 Fne co!l", of co!rse, si$ply re"efine the ter$ Jcapitalis$J to incl!"e Jpo'er to $anip!late $arketsJ as a constit!tive part of its $eaning an" to ri" it of so$e of its teleological connotations3 (!t as philosophers of science kno' 'ell, 'hen a theory *egins re"efining its ter$s in an a" hoc 'ay to fit the latest ro!n" of negative evi"ence, it sho's *y this very act that it has reache" the li$its of its !sef!lness3 &n vie' of this, it 'o!l"
ret!rn shortly to other for$s of $arket $anip!lation 'hich, accor"ing to (ra!"el, have al'ays characteriAe" certain co$$ercial instit!tions since the .i""le Ages see$ that the only sol!tion is to replace this tire" 'or" 'ith a neologis$, perhaps the one (ra!"el s!ggeste", Janti$arkets,J an" to !se it e5cl!sively to refer to a certain seg$ent of the pop!lation of co$$ercial an" in"!strial instit!tions

3K@

/e?ect the negative:s attempt to render an ethical ?udgment on a system = this move both assumes a universali-ed set of ethical rules and a homogenous economic system that can be ade0uately characteri-ed by universal norms 5e@anda) C, .an!el, A":!nct Associate Professor ; Cra"!ate Hchool of Architect!re, Planning an" Preservation ; ,ol!$*ia University, A Tho!san" 0ears of onlinear History, p3 KK2L0 Th!s, $!ch as se"i$entary rocks, *iological species, an" social hierarchies are all stratifie" syste$s (that is, they are each the historical pro"!ct of a process of "o!*le artic!lation/, so igneo!s rocks, ecosyste$s, an" $arkets are self2consistent aggregates, the res!lt of the co$ing together an" interlocking of heterogeneo!s ele$ents3 An" :!st as the "iagra$ "efining the stratifying a*stract $achine) $ay t!rn o!t to re<!ire $ore co$ple5ity than o!r *asic "iagra$ of a "o!*le artic!lation, so 'e $ay one "ay "iscover (e$pirically or thro!gh theoriAing an" co$p!ter si$!lations/ that the "iagra$ for the $esh'ork2pro"!cing process involves $ore than the three ele$ents o!tline" a*ove 3 .oreover, in reality 'e 'ill al'ays fin" $i5t!res of $arkets an" hierarchies, of strata an" self2consistent aggregates 3 As Hi$on says, it $ay see$ pri$a facie correct to say that 'hereas $arkets fig!re $ost pro$inently in coor"inating econo$ic activities in capitalist co!ntries, hierarchic organiAations play the largest role in socialist co!ntries3 (!t that is too si$ple a for$!la to "escri*e the realities 'hich al'ays e5hi*it a *len" of all the $echanis$s of coor"ination3 The econo$ic !nits in capitalist societies are $ostly *!siness fir$s, 'hich are the$selves hierarchic organiAations, so$e of enor$o!s siAe, that $ake only a $o"est !se of $arkets in their internal f!nctioning3 ,onversely socialist states !se $arket prices to a gro'ing e5tent to s!pple$ent hierarchic control in achieving inter2in"!stry coor"inatnon399 There is one final aspect of $esh'ork "yna$ics & $!st e5a$ine *efore ret!rning to o!r e5ploration of

the geological) history of h!$an societies3 Be $ay 'on"er 'hy, given the !*i<!ity of self2consistent aggregates, it see$s so har" to think a*o!t the str!ct!res that pop!late the 'orl" in any *!t hierarchical ter$s3 Fne possi*le ans'er is that stratifie" str!ct!res involve the si$plest for$ of ca!sal relations, si$ple arro's going fro$ ca!se to effect3800 Accor"ing to .agoroh .ar!yana, a pioneer in the st!"y of fee"*ack, Bestern tho!ght has *een "o$inate" *y notions of linear (nonreciprocal/ ca!sality for t'enty2five h!n"re" years3 &t 'as not !ntil Borl" Bar && that the 'ork of or$an Biener (an" engineers involve" in "eveloping ra"ar syste$s/ gave rise to the st!"y of negative fee"*ack an" 'ith it the *eginning of nonlinear thinking3 The classic e5a$ple of negative fee"*ack is the ther$ostat3 A ther$ostat consists of at least t'o ele$ents% a sensor, 'hich "etects charges in a$*ient te$perat!re, an", an effector, a "evice capa*le of changing the a$*ient te$perat!re3 The t'o ele$ents are co!ple" in s!ch a 'ay that 'henever the sensor "etects a change *eyon" a certain threshol" it ca!ses the effector to $o"ify the s!rro!n"ing te$perat!re in the opposite "irection3 The ca!se2 an"2effect relation, ho'ever, is not linear (fro$ sensor to effector/ since the $o$ent the effector ca!ses a change in the s!rro!n"ing te$perat!re it there*y affects the s!*se<!ent *ehavior of the sensor3 &n short, the ca!sal relation "oes not for$ a straight arro' *!t fol"s *ack on itself, for$ing a close" loop3 The overall res!lt of this circ!lar ca!sality is that a$*ient te$perat!re is $aintaine" at a given level3 .ar!yana opposes negative fee"*ack 'ith Jpositive fee"*ackJ (a for$ of nonlinear ca!sality that 'e have alrea"y enco!ntere" in the for$ of a!tocatalysis/3 Bhile the first type of reciprocal ca!sality 'as incorporate" into Bestern tho!ght in the 89D0s, the secon" type ha" to 'ait another "eca"e for researchers like Htanislav Ula$, HeinA Gon 4oerster, an" .ar!yana hi$self to for$aliAe an" "evelop the concept3808 The t!r*!lent "yna$ics *ehin" an e5plosion are the clearest e5a$ple of a syste$ governe" *y positive fee"*ack3 &n this case the ca!sal loop is esta*lishe" *et'een the e5plosive s!*stance an" its te$perat!re3 The velocity of an e5plosion is often "eter$ine" *y the intensity of its te$perat!re (the hotter the faster/, *!t *eca!se the e5plosion itself generates heat, the process is self2 accelerating3 Unlike the ther$ostat, 'here the arrange$ent helps to keep te$perat!re !n"er control, here positive fee"*ack forces te$perat!re to go o!t of control3 Perhaps *eca!se positive fee"*ack is seen as a "esta*iliAing force $any o*servers have ten"e" to !n"erval!e it relative to negative fee"*ack3 (&n the so2calle" Caia hypothesis, for instance, 'here sta*iliAing negative fee"*ack is post!late" to e5ist *et'een living creat!res an" their environ$ent, positive fee"*ack is so$eti$es referre" to pe:oratively as Janti2Caian3J/802 .ar!yana sees the <!estion in "ifferent ter$s3 4or hi$ the principal characteristic of negative fee"*ack as its ho$ogeniAing effect% any "eviation fro$ the te$perat!re threshol" at 'hich the ther$ostat is set is eli$inate" *y the loop3 egative fee"*ack is J"eviation2 co!nteracting3J Positive fee"*ack, on the other han", ten"s to increase heterogeneity *y *eing J"eviation2a$plifyingJ% t'o e5plosions set off !n"er slightly "ifferent con"itions 'ill arrive at very "ifferent en" states, as the s$all original "ifferences are a$plifie" *y the loop into large "iscrepancies380@ Be have alrea"y o*serve" the $any roles that positive fee"*ack has playe" in the t!r*!lent history of Bestern to'ns3 Ho'ever, it is i$portant to "isting!ish *et'een si$ple a!tocatalytic "yna$ics an" co$ple5 a!tocatalytic loops, 'hich involve not only self2sti$!lation *!t self2$aintenance (that is, positive fee"*ack an" clos!re/3 Another 'ay of stating this "istinction is to say that the increase in "iversity that $!t!ally sti$!lating loops *ring a*o!t 'ill *e short2live" !nless the heterogeneo!s ele$ents are inter'oven together, that is, !nless they co$e to for$ a $esh'ork3 As .ar!yana 'rites, JThere are t'o 'ays that heterogeneity $ay procee"% thro!gh localiAation an" thro!gh inter'eaving3 &n localiAation the heterogeneity *et'een localities increases, 'hile each locality $ay re$ain or *eco$e ho$ogeno!s3 &n inter'eaving, heterogeneity in each locality increases, 'hile the "ifference *et'een localities "ecreases3J807 &n other 'or"s, the "anger 'ith positive fee"*ack is that the $ere pro"!ction of heterogeneity $ay res!lt in isolationis$ (a high "iversity of s$all cli<!es, each internally ho$ogeneo!s/3 Hence the nee" for intercalary ele$ents to ai" in artic!lating this "iversity 'itho!t ho$ogeniAation ('hat .ar!yana calls Jsy$*iotiAatson of c!lt!ral heterogeneityJ/3 egative fee"*ack, as a syste$ of control an" re"!ction of "eviation, $ay *e applie" to h!$an hierarchies3 Eecision $aking in stratifie" social str!ct!res "oes not al'ays procee" via goal2 "irecte" analytic planning *!t often incorporates a!to$atic $echanis$s of control si$ilar to a ther$ostat (or any other "evice capa*le of generating ho$eostasis/380D Fn the other han", social $esh'orks (s!ch as the sy$*iotic nets of pro"!cers 'ho$ Jaco*s "escri*es as engage" in volatile tra"e/ $ay *e $o"ele" on positive2fee"*ack loops as long in o!r $o"el also incorporates a $eans for the res!lting heterogeneity to *e inter'oven3 .oreover, specific instit!tions 'ill likely *e $i5t!res of *oth types of reciprocal ca!sality, an" the $i5t!res 'ill change over ti$e, allo'ing negative or positive fee"*ack to "o$inate at a given $o$ent380K

3 &f this *ook "isplays a clear *ias against large, centraliAe" hierarchies, it is only *eca!se the last three h!n"re" years have 'itnesse" an e5cessive acc!$!lation of stratifie" syste$s at the e5pense of $esh'orks3 The "egree of ho$ogeneity in the 'orl" has greatly increase", 'hile heterogeneity has co$e to *e seen as al$ost pathological, or at least as a pro*le$ that $!st *e eli$inate"3 Un"er the circ!$stances, a call for a $ore "ecentraliAe" 'ay of organiAing h!$an societies see$s to reco$$en" itself3 Ho'ever, it is cr!cial to avoi" the facile concl!sion that $esh'orks are intrinsically *etter than hierarchies (in so$e transcen"ental sense/3 &t is tr!e that so$e of the characteristics of $esh'orks (partic!larly their resilience an" a"apta*ility/ $ake the$ "esira*le, *!t that is e<!ally tr!e of certain characteristics of hierarchies (for e5a$ple, their goal2"irecte"ness/3 Therefore, it is cr!cial to avoi" the te$ptation of cooking !p a narrative of h!$an history in 'hich $esh'orks appear as heroes an" hierarchies as villains3 ot only "o $esh'orks have "yna$ical properties that "o not necessarily *enefit h!$anity (for e5a$ple, they gro' an" "evelop *y "rift, an" that "rift nee" not follo' a "irection consistent 'ith a society6s val!es/, *!t they $ay contain heterogeneo!s co$ponents that are the$selves inconsistent 'ith a society6s val!es (for e5a$ple, certain $esh'orks of hierarchies/3 Ass!$ing that h!$anity co!l" one "ay agree on a set of val!es (or rather on a 'ay of $eshing a heterogeneo!s collection of partially "ivergent val!es/, f!rther ethical :!"g$ents co!l" *e $a"e a*o!t specific $i5t!res of centraliAe" an" "ecentraliAe" co$ponents in specific conte5ts, *!t never a*o!t the t'o p!re cases in isolation3 The co$*inatorial possi*ilitiesRthe n!$*er of possi*le hy*ri"s of $esh'orks an" hierarchiesRare i$$ense (in a precise technical sense/,80L an" so an e5peri$ental an" e$pirical attit!"e to'ar" the pro*le$ 'o!l" see$ to *e calle" for3 &t is s!rely i$possi*le to "eter$ine p!rely theoretically the relative $erits of these "iverse co$*inations3 =ather, in o!r search for via*le hy*ri"s 'e $!st look for inspiration in as $any "o$ains as possi*le3 Here, 'e have looke" to a real$ that 'o!l"
The <!estion of $i5t!res sho!l" *e also kept in $in" 'hen 'e :!"ge the relative ethical val!e of these t'o types of str!ct!re so$e of the keys to !n"erstan"ing se"i$entary h!$anity, igneo!s h!$anity, an" all their $i5t!res

nor$ally see$ o!t of *o!n"s% the $ineral 'orl"3 (!t in a nonlinear 'orl" in 'hich the sa$e *asic processes of self2organiAation take place in the $ineral, organic, an" c!lt!ral spheres, perhaps rocks hol"

capitalism doesn't e.ist 1ar e.ample


Aroup the link debate4apitalism does not e.ist consistently but rather was an idea invented by "ar.ists to characteri-e two structurally inconsistent modes of production< meshworks and hierarchies# "eshworks are markets where many diverse participants compete *A*3F9T one another and 5$ F$T necessitate the Je.traction of surplus valueK that their authors assume is the 5D13F3FA D@D"DFT $1 4*B3T*@39"# The purest form of TI39 capitalism is the black market where individuals compete to sell illegally obtained goods through interpersonal which internally /D939T9 the structures of control that attempt to /DA,@*TD their activity# $ur 5e @anda evidence indicates that this form of bottom-up social organi-ation is the e.act $BB$93TD of the hierarchical systems of control that characteri-e both corporations and the state which attempt to organi-e production through bureaucratic hierarchies# This argument has three implications< *# $B!3*TD9 @3FS9- all of their link arguments beg the 0uestion of not 'IDTID/ the plan is capitalist B,T I$'# 3f we win that the bottom-up "*/SDT forces of capitalism are a form of resistance against the 4$FT/$@ elements of capitalism then their evidence that only indicates that B@*FR4*B3T*@39T might easily mean that we are the form of capitalism that subverts surplus value B# T*SD9 $,T TID 3"B*4T- non-market hierarchies are responsible for the violence their impacts describe- valuation is inevitable in *FG B$@3T34*@ $/ D4$F$"34 9G9TD" which means that the market solves their impact and their alternative re-inscribes more violent forms of valuation 4# T,/F9 TID *@T- 4apitalism breeds its own crises through hegemonic antiproduction in the form of corporate consolidation that prevents true market competition- their opposition to hierarchical antiproduction prevents the sort of systemic crisis that could collapse the system This argument should frame the debate = hierarchical analysis that places power at the top fails to recogni-e the embeddedness of market relations = capitalism doesn:t e.ist
5e@anda) C, A":!nct Associate Professor ; Cra"!ate Hchool of Architect!re, Planning an" Preservation ; ,ol!$*ia University, A Tho!san" 0ears of onlinear History, p3 2KK22L7 This list of a*stract $achines is pro*a*ly not e5ha!stive% there $ay certainly *e others, governing "yna$ics in areas o!tsi"e the scope of this *ook3 An", in"ee", even in the areas 'e "i" e5plore there $ay *e alternatives (or a""itions/ to the "iagra$s here propose"3 (!t 'hether these or other "iagra$s are !se" to $o"el the str!ct!re2generating processes involve" in the genesis of social for$s, 'hat $atters is e5plaining this genesis in an entirely *otto$2!p 'ay3 That is, not si$ply to ass!$e that society for$s a syste$, *!t to acco!nt for this syste$aticity as an e$ergent property of so$e "yna$ical process3 This is very "ifferent fro$ the top2"o'n $etho" that ortho"o5 sociologists an" other social scientists !se 'hen they *egin their analysis at the level of society as a 'hole, :!stifying that approach either *y !sing the in"ivi"!al organis$ as a $etaphor for society, as in f!nctionalist sociology, or on the *asis of an i$aginary "yna$ics, as in .ar5ist sociology6s "ialectics3 Fn the other han", the opposite $istake (ill!strate" *y ortho"o5 $icroecono$ics/ $!st also he avoi"e"% ato$iAing society into a set of in"epen"ently acting in"ivi"!als3 =ather, 'e $!st take into acco!nt that the larger2scale str!ct!res that e$erge fro$ the actions of in"ivi"!al "ecision $akers , s!ch as for$al organiAations or infor$al net'orks, have a life of their o'n3 They are 'holes that are $ore than the s!$ of their parts, *!t 'holes that a"" the$selves to an e5isting pop!lation of in"ivi"!al str!ct!res, operating at "ifferent scales (in"ivi"!al instit!tions, in"ivi"!al cities, in"ivi"!al co$ple5es of cities, an" so on/3 As Eele!Ae an" C!attari p!t it% Be no longer *elieve in a pri$or"ial totality that once e5iste", or in a final totality that

a'aits !s at so$e f!t!re "ate3 Be no longer *elieve in the "!ll gray o!tlines of a "reary, colorless "ialectic of evol!tion, ai$e" at for$ing a har$onio!s 'hole o!t of heterogeneo!s *its *y ro!n"ing off their ro!gh e"ges3 Be *elieve only in totalities that are peripheral3 An" if 'e "iscover s!ch a totality alongsi"e vario!s separate parts, it is a 'hole of these partic!lar parts *!t "oes not totaliAe the$? it is a !nity of all those partic!lar parts *!t "oes 6not !nity the$% ratter it is a""e" to the$ as a ne' part fa*ricate" separately388 4ro$ the perspective of a *otto$2!p $etho"ology, it is incorrect to characteriAe conte$porary societies as J"isciplinary,J or as Jcapitalist,J or, for that $atter, JpatriarchalJ (or any other la*el that re"!ces a co$ple5 $i5t!re of processes to a single factor/, !nless one can give the "etails of a str!ct!re2generating process that res!lts in a society'i"e syste$3 ,ertain instit!tional for$s $ay in"ee" proliferate in a pop!lation, *!t even 'hen this lea"s to the e5tinction of prior for$s this sho!l" not *e treate" as the achieve$ent of a ne' !nifie" stage of "evelop$ent3 .oreover, a given proliferation of instit!tions $ay *e the res!lt of an intensification of previo!sly e5isting processes3 &n the case of !tilitarian rationaliAation, as 4o!ca!lt says, Jthe classical ago "i" not initiate it, rather it accelerate" it, change" its scale, gave it precise instr!$ents3J o "o!*t, an intensification $ay lea" to the crossing of a threshol", as in the critical point of co$ple5ity at 'hich a!tocatalytic loops *eco$e self2s!staining, lea"ing to in"!strial takeoff3 Fr it $ay lea" to the creation of tr!ly novel types of instit!tion3 (!t the res!lting e$ergent str!ct!res si$ply a"" the$selves to the $i5 of previo!sly e5isting ones, interacting 'ith the$, *!t never leaving the$ *ehin" as a prior stage of "evelop$ent (altho!gh, perhaps, creating the con"itions for their "isappearance/3

capitalism doesn't e.ist 7ar e.ample


3n order for the negative to win any part of their criticism they have to 13/9T '3F that capitalism e.ists as a coherent system that can be opposed on universal terms# $ur argument is very simple- the phenomenon that their authors describe as capitalism I*9 FD!D/ DP39TD5Hthe idea was invented by "ar.ist theorists attempting to describe the centrali-ation of production around factories during the 3ndustrial /evolution# Those conditions are not only historically contingent but 93"B@G 5$ F$T *BB@G to other modes of production# TI3FS *B$,T 3T- does the social organi-ation of a factory with workers and bosses) proletariat and petty bourgeouis e.plain for e.ample the way a black market works) where there are no JbossesK and there is no surplus value e.tracted+ 'hat about a web design start-up company where every employee owns stock in the company and therefore personally benefits from all value e.tracted+ 'hat about a professional sports team where each player benefits reputationally for the value of their labor+ $r what about the economic organi-ation of a comic book company where each artist sells their own merchandise through a de-centrali-ed production model like 4afe-Bress and the value of the comic book production comes entirely from access to distribution+ The fundamental mistake their "ar.ist authors make is that they assume that social reality is 1,F5*"DFT*@@G I$"$ADF$,9 or in other words that $FD $!D/-*/4I3FA ,F3!D/9*@ B/3F43B@D $1 B/$5,4T3$F 4*F DPB@*3F *@@ B*/T34,@*/ "*F31D9T*T3$F9# $ur 5e @anda evidence disproves this fundamental assumption- it indicates that economic systems evolved through a series of historical accidents) F$T some grand dialectic that operates as the motor for historical change) and that they have been persistently characteri-ed through an opposition between meshworks and hierarchies# The 1*/ impacted this opposition in terms of the debate< *# $B!3*TD9 @3FS9- all of their link arguments beg the 0uestion of not 'IDTID/ the plan is capitalist but I$'# ,nregulated market forces are the e.act opposite of the hierarchical bureaucratic form of 4$FT/$@ capitalism that their authors critici-e# This is D4$F 1;1- corporate consolidation 5D4/D*9D9 competition because there are fewer market participants- this is why most economies their authors would call JcapitalistK have laws against monopolies< because they are anti-market# Wuestion-begging is a logical fallacy- you can simply vote aff on the argument that "ar.ism is logically incoherent $/) in debate-speak) *FG @3FS TIDG '3F BD4$"D9 * @3FS T,/F because our re-entrenchment of capitalism becomes the foundation for its resistance B# T*SD9 $,T TID 3"B*4T- economic valuation is inevitable which means that whether the ideology of production is capitalist or "ar.ist is irrelevant to their material conditions# This is why factories in the ,99/ and Forth Sorea operated in basically the same way as factories in the ,9 and 'estern Durope e.cept that workers earned less and those earnings were worth less# There is no material difference between capitalism and anti-capitalism which means their impact is either inevitable or empirically denied or probably both 4# T,/F9 TID *@T- 4apitalism breeds its own crises through hegemonic antiproduction in the form of corporate consolidation that prevents true market competition- their opposition to hierarchical antiproduction prevents the sort of systemic crisis that could collapse the system# The fact that the recent recession was caused largely by corporate consolidation of ownership within the housing market and that most new economic growth comes from small businesses aptly

demonstrates that opposition# $ur Buchanan evidence indicates that the Jdual tendenciesK within capitalism mean that if we really wanted the system to collapse we need to identify with the antiproductive elements of it i#e# the 9tate and corporations) which is DP*4T@G what the alternative resists) the result is that they re-entrench capitalist production Iistory is on our side- there is no successful e.ample of a non-e.ploitative economy in the twentieth century that wasn:t e.plicitly capitalist and the reason that socialism has been so violent probably has more to do with how bureaucratic and fanatically ideological it is than with the degree to which it has successfully resisted capitalist wage-labor structures# *t the end of the debate) if you think "ar.ist theory doesn:t e.plain *FG 93FA@D instance of social reality then you should vote aff- their link claims presume that it I*9 T$ BD ,F3!D/9*@# $ur argument is ?ustified by basic logic- any counter-e.ample to a general rule falsifies that rule 3F 3T9 DFT3/DTG# 3f we find $FD counter-e.ample to the "ar.ist theory of surplus value then we have successfully falsified the general rule that *@@ $1 TID3/ @3FS */A,"DFT9 B/D9,"D) which means that voting negative would be logically incoherent# 'hen you call for evidence after the debate you:ll find that the neg ev is probably more rhetorically powerful B,T TI*T 5$D9F:T "*SD 3T T/,D# Gou need to ?udge the debate with a side-constraint for truth< only after the negative has ?ustified their ontological assumptions about the e.istence of capitalism should offense(defense calculations come into play# This is the most logical decision calculus- TI3FS *B$,T 3T- you wouldn:t vote on a mitigated risk that the planet is inhaled by a giant spacedinosaur without 13/9T knowing that such a space-dinosaur e.isted and lived in this vicinity of the gala.y# *FG /39S that capitalism doesn:t e.ist means the criticism literally impact-turns itself which means that all traditional offense-defense paradigm bets are off#

7ac to radically anarchistic deleu-e alternatives


*bsent specific mechanisms of reform) moves away from stratified linear systems risk catastrophe de @anda C .an!el "e 1an"a, A":!nct Associate Professor at Cra"!ate Hchool of Architect!re, Planning an" Preservation at ,ol!$*ia University ( e' 0ork/, the Cilles Eele!Ae ,hair of ,onte$porary Philosophy an" Hcience at the #!ropean Cra"!ate Hchool in Haas24ee, H'itAerlan", a professor at the ,anisi!s ,ollege in (!ffalo, e' 0ork, an" professor at the University of Pennsylvania Hchool of Eesign in Phila"elphia, Pennsylvania3 A tho!san" years of non2linear history) ,a$*ri"ge University Press, 899L pgs3 2L822L@ This *rings !s to the <!estion of the prag$atic !ses of these i"eas3 The last three or four centuries have witnessed an intense homogeni-ation of the world (*iologically, ling!istically, econo$ically/, a fact that in itself would seem to recommend the in?ection of a healthy dose of heterogeneity into the mi.3 Fr, in the shorthan" 'e have *een !sing, the 'orl" has *eco$e so greatly stratifie" that the only 'ay o!t is to "estratify it3 But there are several things wrong with this knee-?erk reaction# 4irst, although it is true that nation-states have swallowed their minorities and digested them by imposing national standards for language) currency) education) and health) the solution to this is not simply to break up these large sociopolitical entities into smaller ones (say, one for each $inority% for instance) the way Gugoslavia was broken up into territories for Her*s, ,roats, an" other $inorities/3 To simply increase heterogeneity without articulating this diversity into a meshwork not only results in further conflict and friction) it rapidly creates a set of smaller) internally homogenous nations# (Hence, the balkani-ation of the world would increase heterogeneity only in appearance3/ Hecon", even if we manage to create local connections between heterogeneous elements) the more presence of an emergent meshwork does not in itself mean that we have given a segment of society a less oppressive structure 3 The nat!re of the res!lt 'ill "epen" on the character of the heterogeneo!s ele$ents $eshe" together, as 'e o*serve" of co$$!nities on the &nternet% they are !n"o!*te"ly $ore "estratifie" than those s!*:ecte" to $assification *y one2to2$any $e"ia, *!t since everyone of all political stripesHeven fascists--- can benefit from this destratification) the mere e.istence of a co$p!ter meshwork is no guarantee that a better world will develop there# 4inally, increasing the proportion of $esh'ork in the $i5 is in"ee" "estratifying, *!t 'e still nee" to *e ca!tio!s a*o!t the spee" an" intensity of this "estratification, partic!larly if it t!rns o!t to *e tr!e that the $ost "estratifie" ele$ent in a $i5 effects the $ost rigi" restratification) later on% Gou don:t reach the Bw$) and its plane of consistency) by wildly destratifying### 3f you free it with too violent an action) if you blow apart the strata without taking precautions) then instead of drawing the plane you will be killed) plunged into a black hole) or even dragged towards catastrophe# 9aying stratifiedH organi-ed) signified sub?ectedHis not the worst that can happen> the worst that can happen is if you throw the strata into demented or suicidal collapse) which brings them back down on us heavier than ever# This is ho' it sho!l" *e "one% lo"ge yo!rself on a strat!$, e5peri$ent 'ith the opport!nities it offers, fin" an a"vantageo!s place on it, fin" potential $ove$ents of "eterritorialiAation, possi*le lines of flight, e5perience the$, pro"!ce flo' con:!cntions here an" there, try o!t contin!!$s of intensities seg$ent *y seg$ent, have a s$all plot of lan" at all ti$es3 (Eele!Ae an" C!attari, 4 Thousand Plateaus, pp3 8K02K8/ *ll of these precautions are necessary in a world that does not possess a ladder of progress) or a drive toward increased perfection) or a promised land) or even a socialist post of gold at the end of the rainbow# .oreover, these 'arnings "erive fro$ a recognition that o!r 'orl" is governe" not only *y nonlinear "yna$ics, 'hich $akes "etaile" pre"iction an" control i$possi*le, *!t also *y nonlinear co$*inatorics, 'hich i$plies that the n!$*er of possi*le $i5t!res of $esh'ork an" hierarchy, of co$$an" an" $arket of centraliAation an" "ecentraliAation, are i$$ense an" that 'e si$ply cannot pre"ict 'hat the e$ergent properties of these $yria" co$*inations 'ill *e3 Th!s the call for a $ore e2perimental attit!"e to'ar" reality an" for an increase" a'areness of the potential for self2 organiAation inherent in even the h!$*lest for$s of $atter2energy3 They have it backwards-- failing to plan is planning to fail "acy 8

.acy, Ceneral Hyste$s Hcholar, 899D (Joanna, #copsychology/ .acy 899D (Joanna, general syste$s scholar an" "eep ecologist, #copsychology/ There is also the s!perstition that negative tho!ghts are self2f!lfilling3 This is of a piece 'ith the notion, pop!lar in e' Age circles, that 'e create o!r o'n reality & have ha" people tell $e that to speak of catastrophe 'ill :!st $ake it $ore likely to happen3) Act!ally, the contrary is nearer to the tr!th3 Psychoanalytic theory an" personal e5perience sho' !s that it is precisely 'hat 'e repress that el!"es o!r conscio!s control an" ten"s to er!pt into *ehavior3 As ,arl J!ng o*serve", Bhen an inner sit!ation is not $a"e conscio!s, it happens o!tsi"e as fate3) (!t ironically, in o!r c!rrent sit!ation, the person 'ho gives 'arning of a likely ecological holoca!st is often $a"e to feel g!ilty of contri*!ting to that very fate3 *nd their alternative is little more than an irresponsible escape from material realityH hollowing out all organisms in order to make way for conceptual space Brotevi C John Protevi, 1o!isiana Htate University, =evie'% Peter Hall'ar"Os %ut of &his #orld) Fotre 5ame Bhilosophy /eview 2(2(7;;C &n s!pport of his thesis, Hall'ar"6s *ook has a t'o2fol" str!ct!re that follo's 'hat he clai$s is the 'ay reality fol"s for Eele!Ae along the line of the virt!al M act!al "istinction3 &n the first three chapters he follo's the creative virt!al spark into the act!al, into creat!ral Jconfine$ent3J The *ook then pivots, an" the last three chapters follo' the arc of Hall'ar"6s rea"ing of Eele!Ae6s ter$ Jco!nter2effect!ationJ% the $ove a'ay fro$ act!al creat!ral confine$ent *ack to the virt!al3 *lthough counter-effectuation -- or the "e.traction of the event" -- is not an annihilation of the creature) it is a "redemptive" move) Hall'ar" clai$s, taking us "out of this world)" as the *ook6s title 'o!l" have it3 Eele!Ae seeks al'ays, Hall'ar" 'rites, Jto s!*tract the "yna$ics of creation fro$ the $e"iation of the create"J? in this 'ay, 5eleu-e s!ppose"ly seeks to show that "purely creative processes can only take place in a wholly virtual dimension" (@/3 Provocatively, Hall'ar" a""s, "5eleu-e is most appropriately read as a spiritual) redemptive or subtractive thinker # # # 5eleu-e's philosophy is oriented by lines of flight that lead out of the world> tho!gh not other2'orl"ly, it is e"tra-worldly" (@? e$phasis in original/3 Fnce again, Hall'ar" is caref!l not to paint Eele!Ae as "esiring the annihilation of the creat!re (7? -72-L/ *!t rather its Jself2 transcen"ence,J so that it $ay *eco$e Jan a"e<!ate vehicle for the creating 'hich s!stains an" transfor$s itJ (K/3 This is "one $ost p!rely in philosophical tho!ght, 'here action an" creation are one insofar as tho!ght creates its o'n o*:ects of tho!ght3 3n such "abstract) immediate or demateriali-ed thought" %2-E&) the creature is evacuated to let the creating work through it# 3n this way 5eleu-e "affirms the creative telos of thought in terms that invite comparison with what 9pino-a called the 'intellectual love of Aod#' The sub?ect of such thought or love is nothing other than infinite creativity or Aod himself) insofar as he thinks and loves through us" (2/3 (Be 'ill ret!rn to Hall'ar"6s !se of the phrase Jinvite co$parison 'ithJ an" other si$ilar rhetorical strategies, 'hich closely associate 'hile still "isting!ishing Eele!Ae fro$ the theophantic tra"ition 22 e3g3, p3 D% Jyo! are only really an in"ivi"!al if Co" (or so$ething like Co"/ $akes yo! soJ3/

**psychoanalysis criti0ue**

1nc psychonorming
Bositioning the debate through the lens of analysis pathologi-es "hyperarousal" as one side of a binary against a presumed universal sub?ect of se.uality that can be understood as "normal"# This erection of a universal sub?ect of desire is particularly disturbing as their speech act subsumes the entire "debate community" under a sick body-politic as a monolith that only the affirmative's methodology can restore to normalcy# This binary understanding of typologi-ed desire is profoundly dangerous) as it allows for the violent assertion of a normali-ed se.ual sub?ect that authori-es profound social cruelty "ilchman and /osenberg ' 6# Alan .ilch$an, professor of political science at I!eenOs ,ollege of the ,ity University of e' 0ork, in e' 0ork, an" Alan =osen*erg, professor of philosophy at I!eenOs ,ollege of the ,ity University of e' 0ork, in e' 0ork, A 4o!ca!l"ian Analysis of Psychoanalysis% A Eiscipline that NEisciplines,O) http%MM'''3aca"e$yanalyticarts3orgM$ilchVrosen3ht$

&f psychoanalysis loo$e" large in 4o!ca!lt6s concerns a*o!t the "eveloping "isciplinary society, it 'as *eca!se it 'as one of the "isciplines 'hich has had a decisive role in constituting the modern sub?ect) which has shaped its very deployment and the mode in which it is disciplined# Accor"ing to 1o!is Hass, Jpsychoanalysis is *y far the $ost infl!ential conte$porary vision of h!$an nat!re3333J &t shapes the way in which we today understand the personal domain %self) self-identity and sub?ectivity& as well as the relation between selforgani-ation and the contemporary social and political worlds 3 .oreover, the knowledge proffered by psychoanalysis presupposes the person of desire) whose essential truth lies in her se.uality) and which is revealed through a confession) a verbali-ation) brought within the confines of a rigorous scientificity 3 &n a""ition, as 4rancoise .eltAer has arg!e", JPsychoanalysis has infiltrate" s!ch "iverse areas as literat!re (to 'hich it o'es its $yths/, ling!istics, philosophy, anthropology, history, fe$inis$, psychology, archeology, ne!rology, to na$e so$e3 An" it is in the notion of 6so$e,6 perhaps, that lies the cr!5 of the pro*le$3 4or there is in psychoanalysis an overt conviction that it e5ists as the !lti$ate totality, of 'hich everything else is a part3J (eyon" the vast scope of its theoretical clai$s, psychoanalysis also shapes the therapies 'hich are "eploye" *y the health professions% a s #li Uaretsky has pointe" o!t, J333 all for$s of psychotherapy, other than "r!gs or *ehavioral $o"ification, are *ase" on so$e variation of psychoanalysis3 4inally, the modern sub?ect) in the deployment of 'hich, an" in 'hose therape!tic treat$ent, psychoanalysis has playe" so i$portant a role, has itself assumed an une.amined) taken-for-granted character> its truth is taken to be universal , an" as s!ch, it is rarely <!estione"3 4o!ca!lt6s concerns a*o!t psychoanalysis 'ere linke" to his overall concern to alert !s to the "angers involve" in that 'hich is taken to *e self2evi"ent, !niversal, an" necessary3 *ction based on the une.amined) taken-for-granted)

assumptions implicit in our practices and thinking can have painful conse0uences# 4or, as Billia$ #3 ,onnolly has pointe" o!t, 4o!ca!lt *elieve" that it was the "arbitrary cruelty installed in regular institutional arrangements taken to embody the @aw) the Aood) or the Formal " that was most dangerous# These institutional arrangements are an integral part of the developing disciplinary society> their cruelty inseparable from it# 3n the case of psychoanalysis this "arbitrary cruelty" refers to the operations of a mode of thinking that creates the binary opposition between normality and pathology# This "dividing practice)" to !se a 4o!ca!l"ian trope, is dangerous because it

?udges individuals as "insiders" %normal& and "outsiders" %pathological&# 9uch an ordering procedure in effect dictates what an individual should be) namely normal) and then, accor"ing to John ,ap!to, develops "administrative practices and professional competencies to see to it that such individuals are in fact produced####3ndividuals who

are specified by the e.pert) the professional) as pathological come to understand themselves as "sick)" and this designation may then become the basis for them not only being stigmati-ed) but feeling themselves to be) and understanding themselves as) perverted3 Bhat is no less tro!*ling is the sit!ation of those in"ivi"!als 'ho "o not see the$selves as JsickJ *!t 'ho are nonetheless stig$atiAe" *y virt!e of *eing so classifie"3 As Eavi" Halperin has asserte", these individuals are unable to speak the truth about their own lives

because they have "been denied a rational basis on which to speak at all)" that power having been arrogated by the e.pert) the psychoanalyst# Th!s, for
e.ample, many psychoanalysts in the 89D06s an" 89K06, incl!"ing s!ch pro$inent fig!res as &rving (ie*er, 1ionel Fvesy, an" ,harles Hocari"es, designated homose.uality as necessarily pathological) and viewed the adoption of heterose.ual behavior to be a valid and important goal of treatment# Their scientifically *ase" ass!$ption of a s!ppose" nor$al pattern of se5!al "evelop$ent, accor"ing to ikolas =ose, si$!ltaneo!sly "efine" a state that 'as pres!$e" to *e healthy at the level of the in"ivi"!al, "esira*le at the social level, an" nor$al at the statistical level3 ,onfronte" *y s!ch nor$ative clai$s, $any ho$ose5!als 'ere trappe" *y a rhetoric of pathologiAation an" re:ection, ca!sing great personal ang!ish3 That ang!ish 'as co$po!n"e" *y the fact that the ho$ose5!al confronte" a series of clai$s an" assertions that 'ere s!ppose"ly scientifically gro!n"e", an", there*y, see$ingly !nchallengea*le3 As Eavi" Halperin has pointe" o!t% To be, an" to fin" oneself *eing, kno'n an" described--rationally (or so it can *e $a"e to see$/ and therefore definitively) more ob?ectively (or so one is tol"/ than one is capable of describing oneself and therefore irrefutably) resistlessly, an" 'ith an instantaneo!s finality that pree$pts an" defeats any attempt on one's own part to intervene in the

process by which one becomes an ob?ect of knowledge) and that renders one helpless to stave off the effects of a knowledge one has had no share in creating -- that is an e.perience whose peculiar terror is hard to convey to those who have never suffered from the social liabilities that cause the rest of us to be continually and endlessly prey to it#
The rhetorical technologies by which the 1ac pathologi-es psychological behavior or improper relation to trauma normali-es e.clusion to the abnormal in an epoch where power is e.ercised at the level of populations) making massacres vital and empowering the righteousness of worldkilling technologies of e.termination

5ean '1# .itchell Eean) professor of sociology at .ac<!arie University in A!stralia, 2008, Hovereignty an" (iopolitics
in onli*eral =!le,) Htates of &$agination e"ite" *y Tho$as Hansen an" 4inn Htepp!tat, pg3 782K7

There are, of co!rse, plenty of e5a$ples of the e5ercise of sovereignty in the t'entieth cent!ry that have practice" a "eci"e"ly nonli*eral for$ an" progra$ of national govern$ent *oth in relation to their o'n pop!lations an" those of other states3 Eoes this $ean that the for$ of govern$ent of s!ch states is asse$*le" fro$ ele$ents that are ra"ically "ifferent fro$ the
ones 'e have "isc!sse" here9 Eoes this $ean that state socialis$ an" ational Hocialis$, for e5a$ple, cannot *e s!*:ect to an analysis of the arts of govern$ent9 The ans'er to *oth these <!estions, & *elieve, is no3 The general arg!$ent of this essay is that the e5ercise of govern$ent in

all $o"ern states entails the artic!lation of a for$ of pastoral po'er 'ith one of sovereign po'er3 1i*eralis$, as 'e have :!st seen, $akes that artic!lation in a specific 'ay3 Fther types of r!le have a no less "istinctive response to the co$*ination of ele$ents of a *iopolitics concerne" 'ith the "etaile" a"$inistration of life an" sovereign po'er that reserves the right of "eath to itself3 ,onsi"er again the contrastive ter$s in 'hich it is possi*le to vie' *iopolitics an" sovereignty3
The final chapter in the first vol!$e of the History o He5!ality that contrasts sovereignty an" *iopolitics is title" =ight of Eeath an" Po'er over 1ife3)

The initial ter$s of the contrast *et'een the t'o registers of govern$ent is th!s *et'een one that co!l" e$ploy po'er to p!t s!*:ects to "eath, even if this right to kill 'as con"itione" *y the "efense of the sovereign, an" one that 'as concerne" 'ith the fostering of life3 evertheless, each part of the contrast can *e f!rther *roken "o'n3 The right of "eath can also *e !n"erstoo" as the right to take life or let live)? the po'er over life as the po'er to foster life or "isallo' it3) Hovereign po'er is a po'er that "isting!ishes *et'een political life (*ios/ an" $ere e5istence or *are life (Aoe/3 (are life is incl!"e" in the constit!tion of sovereign po'er *y its very e5cl!sion fro$ political life3 &n contrast, *iopolitics $ight *e tho!ght to incl!"e Aoe in *ios% strippe" "o'n $ere e5istence *eco$es a $atter of ticrli3 Th!s, the cont *et'een *iopolitics an"

sovereignty is not one of a po'er of life vers!s a po'er of "eath *!t concerns the 'ay the "ifferent for$s of po'er treat $atters of life an" "eath an" entail "ifferent conceptions of life3 Th!s, *iopolitics reinscri*es the earlier right of "eath an" po'er over life an" places it 'ithin a ne' an" "ifferent for$ that atte$pts to incl!"e 'hat ha" earlier *een sacre" an" ta*oo, *are life, in political e5istence3 &t is no longer so $!ch the right of the sovereign to p!t to "eath his ene$ies *!t to dis0ualify the lifeRthe $ere e5istenceRof those 'ho are a threat to the life of the pop!lation, to "isallo' those "ee$e" !n'orthy of life,) those 'hose *are life is not 'orth living3 This allo's !s, first, to consi"er 'hat $ight *e tho!ght of as the "ark si"e of *iopolitics (4o!ca!lt 89L9a% 8@KR@L/3 &n 4o!ca!ltOs acco!nt, *iopolitics "oes not p!t an en" to the practice of 'ar% it provi"es it with new and more sophisticated killing machines 3 These $achines allo' killing itself to *e repose" at the level of entire pop!lations3 Bars *eco$e genoci"al in the t'entieth cent!ry3 The sa$e state that takes on the "!ty to enhance the life of the pop!lation also e5ercises the po'er of "eath over 'hole pop!lations3 *tomic weapons are the key weapons of this process of the power to put whole populations to death# Be $ight also consi"er here the aptly na$e" *iological an" che$ical 'eapons that seek an e5ter$ination of pop!lations *y visiting plag!es !pon the$ or poll!ting the *iosphere in 'hich they live to the point at 'hich *are life is no longer s!staina*le3 or "oes the *irth of *iopolitics p!t an en" to the killing of oneOs o'n pop!lations3 =ather, it intensifies that killingH'hether *y an ethnic cleansing) that visits holoca!sts !pon 'hole gro!ps or *y the $ass sla!ghters of classes an" gro!ps con"!cte" in the na$e of the !topia to *e achieve"3 There is a certain restraint in sovereign po'er3 The right of "eath is only occsionally e5ercise" as the right to kill an" then often in a rit!al fashion that s!ggests a relation to the sacre" .ore often, sovereign po'er is $anifest in the refrainn fro$ the right to kill3 The *iopolitical i$perative kno's no s!ch restraint3 Bower is e.ercised at the level of populations and hence wars will be waged at that level , on behalf of everyone and their lives# This point *rings !s to the heart of 4o!ca!ltOs provocative thesis a*o!t *iopolitics% that there is an inti$ate connection *et'een the e5ercise of a life2a"$inistering po'er an" the co$$ission of genoci"e% &f genoci"e is in"ee" the "rea$ of $o"ern po'ers, this is not *eca!se of a recent ret!rn of the ancient right to kill% it is *eca!se po'er is sit!ate" an" e5ercise" at the level of life, the species, the race, an" the large2scale pheno$ena of pop!lation ) (89L9a% 8@L/34o!ca!lt co$pletes this sa$e passage 'ith an e5pression that "eserves $ore notice< Jmassacres become vital#K There is th!s a kin" of perverse ho$ogeneity *et'een the po'er over life an" the po'er to take life characteristic of *iopo'er3 The e$ergence of a *iopolitical racis$ in the nineteenth an" t'entieth cent!ries can *e approache" as a tra:ectory in 'hich this ho$ogeneity al'ays threatene" to tip over into a "rea"f!l necessity3 This racis$ can *e approache" as a fundamental mechanism of power that is inscri*e" in the *iopolitical "o$ain (Htoler 899D% -7R-D/3 4or 4o!ca!lt, the pri$ary f!nction of this for$ of racis$ is to esta*lish a "ivision *et'een those 'ho $!st live an" those 'ho $!st "ie , an" to "isting!ish the s!perior
fro$ the inferior, the fit fro$ the !nfit3 The notion an" techni<!es of pop!lation ha" given rise, at the en" of the nineteenth cent!ry, to a ne' linkage a$ong pop!lation the internal organiAation of states, an" the co$petition *et'een states Ear'inis$, as an i$perial so cial an" political progra$, 'o!l" plot the ranking of in"ivi"!als, pop!lations, an" nations along the co$$on gra"ient of fitness an" th!s $eas!re efflcien<:3K Ho'ever, the series pop!lation, evol!tion, an" race) is not si$ply a 'ay of thinking a*o!t the s!periority of the 'hite races) or of :!stifring colonialis$, *!t also of thinking a*o!t ho' to treat the "egenerates an" the a*nor$als in oneOs o'n pop!lation an" prevent the f!rther "egeneration of the race3 The secon"

an" $ost i$portant f!nction for 4o!ca!lt of this *iopolitical racis$ in the nineteenth cent!ry is that it esta*lishes a positive relation *et'een the right to kill an" the ass!rance of life) (Htoler 899D% -7/3 The life of the pop!lation, its vigor, its health, its capacities to s!rvive, *eco$es necessarily linke" to the eli$ination of internal an" e5ternal threats3 This po'er to "isallo' life is perhaps *est encaps!late" in the in:!nctions of the e!genic pro:ect% i"entifHO those 'ho are "egenerate, a*nor$al, fee*le2$in"e", or of an inferior race an" s!*:ect the$ to force" steriliAation? enco!rage those 'ho are s!perior, fit, an" intelligent to propagate3 &"entify those 'hose life is *!t $ere e5istence an" "is<!alify their propagation? enco!rage those 'ho can partake of a sovereign e5istence an" of $oral an" political life3 (!t
this last e5a$ple "oes not necessarily esta*lish a positive :!stification for the right to kill, only the right to "isallo' life3 &f 'e are to *egin to !n"erstan" the type of racis$ engage" in *y aAis$, ho'ever, 'e nee" to take into acco!nt another kin" of "eno!e$ent *et'een the *iopolitical $anage$ent of pop!lation an" the e5ercise of sovereignty3 This version of sovereignty is no longer the transfor$e" an" "e$ocratiAe" for$ fo!n"e" on the li*erty of the :!ri"ical s!*:ect, as it is for li*eralis$, *!t a sovereignty that takes !p an" transfor$s a f!rther ele$ent of sovereignty, its sy$*olics of *loo") (4o!ca!lt 89L9a% 87-/3 4or 4o!ca!lt, sovereignty is grounded in bloodRas a reality an" as a sy$*olR:!st as one $ight say that

Bhen po'er is e5ercise" thro!gh repression an" "e"!ction, thro!gh a la' over 'hich hangs the s'or", 'hen it is e5ercise" on the scaffol" *y the tort!rer an" the e5ec!tioner, an" 'hen relations *et'een ho!sehol"s an" fa$ilies 'ere forge" thro!gh alliance, *loo" 'as a reality 'ith a sy$*olic f!nction) (y contrast, for *iopolitics 'ith its the$es of health, vigor, fitness, vitality,
se5!ality *eco$es the key fiel" on 'hich *iopolitical $anage$ent of pop!lations is artic!late"3 progeny, s!rvival, an" race, po'er spoke ose5!a8ity an" to se5!ality) (4o!ca!lt 89L9a% 87L/3 4or 4o!ca!lt (89L9a% 879RD0/, the novelty of ational Hocialis$ 'as the 'ay it artic!late" the oneiric e5altation of *loo",) of fatherlan", an" of the tri!$ph of the race in an i$$ensely cynical an" nabve fashion, 'ith the paro5ys$s of a "isciplinary an" *iopolitical po'er concerne" 'ith the "etaile" a"$inistration of the life of the pop!lation an" the reg!lation of se5!ality, fa$ily, $arriage, an" e"!cation3 aAis$ generaliAe" *iopo'er 'itho!t the li$it2criti<!e pose" *y the :!ri"ical s!*:ect of right, *!t it co!l" not "o a'ay 'ith sovereignty3 &nstea", it esta*lishe" a set of per$anent interventions into the con"!ct of the in"ivi"!al 'ithin the pop!lation an" artic!late" this 'ith the $ythical concern for *loo" an" the tri!$ph of the race3) Th!s, the shepher"2flock ga$e an" the city2citiAen ga$e are trans$!te" into the e!genic or"ering of *iological e5istence (of $ere living an" s!*sistence/ an" artic!late" on the the$es of the p!rity of *loo" an" the $yth of the fatherlan"3 &n s!ch an artic!lation of these ele$ents of sovereign an" *iopolitical for$s of

po'er, the relation *et'een the a"$inistration of life an" the right to kill entire pop!lations is no longer si$ply one of a "rea"f!l ho$ogeneity3 &t has *eco$e a necessary relation3 The a"$inistration of life co$es to re<!ire a *loo"*ath3 &t is not si$ply that po'er, an" therefore 'ar, 'ill *e e5ercise" at the level of an entire pop!lation3 &t is that the act of "is<!alifing the right to life of other races *eco$es necessary for the fostering of the life of the race3 .oreover, the eli$ination of other races is only one face of the p!rification of oneOs o'n race (4o!ca!lt igXL*% 2@8/3 The other part is to e5pose the latter to a !niversal an" a*sol!te "anger, to e5pose it to the risk of "eath an" total "estr!ction3 4or 4o!ca!lt, 'ith the aAi state 'e have an a*sol!tely racist state, an a*sol!tely $!r"ero!s state an"
an a*sol!tely s!ici"al state) (2@2/, all of 'hich are s!peri$pose" an" converge on the 4inal Hol!tion3 Bith the 4inal Hol!tion, the state tries to eli$inate, thro!gh the Je's, all the other races, for 'ho$ the Je's 'ere the sy$*ol an" the $anifestation3 This incl!"es, in one of HitlerOs last acts, the or"er to "estroy the *ases of *are life for the Cer$an people itself3 4inal Hol!tion for other races, the a*sol!te s!ici"e of the Cer$an race) is inscri*e", accor"ing to 4o!ca!lt, in the f!nctioning of the $o"ern state (2@2/3

They will claim that the act of analysis frees the debate community from repression of trauma) a sub?ective inability to grapple with suffering and unknowability# Get in this very act of liberation the psychoanalyst posits a new regime of signs that gatekeep the truth of sub?ectivity through the confessional practices of analysis "ilchman and /osenberg ' 6# Alan .ilch$an, professor of political science at I!eenOs ,ollege of the ,ity University of e' 0ork, in e' 0ork, an" Alan =osen*erg, professor of philosophy at I!eenOs ,ollege of the ,ity University of e' 0ork, in e' 0ork, A 4o!ca!l"ian Analysis of Psychoanalysis% A Eiscipline that NEisciplines,O) http%MM'''3aca"e$yanalyticarts3orgM$ilchVrosen3ht$

1or psychoanalysis) the discovery of the truth about one's se.uality is liberating) and) therefore) constitutes one of the primary goals of its therapeutic technologies# These therapeutic technologies) in which the patient is en?oined to speak the truth about his or her se.uality, accor"ing to 4o!ca!lt) are linked to the confessional practices of ancient and medieval 4hristianity3 4or 4o!ca!lt, *oth ,hristian confession an" psychoanalysis en:oin one to speak, to reveal, to "isclose, in the for$er to a priest, in the latter to the analyst3 !erbali-ation is the basis of both# 'hat psychoanalysis) and its scientia se.ualis has wrought is a veritable transformation of confessional practices) which has "caused the rituals of confession to function within the norms of scientific regularity####" 4or 4o!ca!lt, one of

the main dangers of psychoanalysis was precisely its claim to know and reveal the Truth of the human sub?ect? its "enial of the historicity an" varia*ility of the

$o"es of h!$an s!*:ectification3 As John =a:ch$an has opine", hasn6t the p!rporte"ly revol!tionary i"ea of psychoanalysis, that 'e are persons of "esire, only contin!e" Ja confessional tra"ition, a :e! "e verite of a ti$e an" place that ha" $a"e it possi*le to say only one sort of tr!th a*o!t o!rselves% the tr!th concerning o!r "esire9J The claim that there is an invariant human sub?ect) the essence of which is revealed by psychoanalysis and its theoretical matri.) facilitates the constitution of norms of behavior which can be fashioned on the foundation of its purportedly scientific knowledge# Therein lies the basis for the various disciplinary technologies which are deployed in the developing disciplinary society# &t is against the *ack"rop of precisely that "anger that 4o!ca!lt !n"ertakes his confrontation 'ith psychoanalysis3 4or Ja$es (erna!er% The significance an" for$ of 4o!ca!lt6s history of the $an of "esire are *est graspe" if the history is !n"erstoo" in the conte5t of its contri*!tion to his Jarchaeology of psychoanalysisJ? the o*:ective of this latter pro:ect 'as to !n"er$ine $o"ern anthropology an" the notion of the self that 'as one of its fir$est s!pports an" e5pressions3 4re!"6s !n"erstan"ing is a $o"el of this notion, an" th!s *eco$es the principal target of 4o!ca!lt6s effort to ren"er the self freshly pro*le$atic3 The fail!re to recogniAe the confrontation 'ith 4re!" that is taking place in 4o!ca!lt6s last 'orks has often prevente" co$$entators fro$ appreciating his intentions an" organiAation in these 'ritings333370 4or 4o!ca!lt, what links the various psychoanalytic technologies is that they all provide procedures for making the self calculable) manageable) and governable along a set of fi.ed coordinates# Accor"ing to H!*ert Ereyf!s, each of these technologies emanate

from theories which "make causal claims based on an alleged science of human nature which ?ustifies an account of normal and abnormal

psychological function#" Dach of them postulates a sub?ect) the features of which are fi.ed and unchangeable3 Th!s, the 4re!"ian an" +leinian versions of

psychoanalysis insist that the tr!th a*o!t o!r h!$an nat!re is lo"ge" in o!r se5!ality, a vision 'hich they share 'ith the anti2repressive hypotheses of =eich an" .arc!se3 As Ereyf!s points o!t, even the c!rrently very infl!ential 1acanian version of 4re!"ianis$ Jass!$es an ahistorical kno'le"ge of h!$an nat!re3333J 4or John =a:ch$an, it 'as :!st that clai$ on the part of 1acan 'hich provoke" 4o!ca!lt6s <!estioning% JEi" 'e really have to place at the heart of o!r eros a 6signifying chain6 that 'o!l" al'ays *e lea"ing *ack to an i$passe or failing in o!r "esire, an" for'ar" to the intricate role this "esire 'o!l" keep having in o!r lives9 Fr 'as this not :!st the pres!$ption of a specific practice of interpretation, a partic!lar 6her$ene!tic of the self69J Hi$ilarly, ob?ect-relations theory) one of the most important versions of psychoanalysis is the ,nited 9tates today) assumes that there is a fundamental human striving to relate to others) and that) according to /onald 1airbairn) the libido is inherently ob?ect-seeking) not pleasure-seeking# Berhaps most important) ob?ect-relations theory posits algorithms of interaction which work by making human relations calculable3 .ean'hile, self2psychology post!lates that the h!$an infant arrives in the 'orl" 'ith an innate, *iological, nee" for attach$ent, 'hich therapy seeks to facilitate *y "eveloping the analysan"6s capacity to fin" an e$pathetically responsive selfo*:ect $ilie!3
Bsychoanalysis is a 4hurch whose Aod is dead -- vote negative to refuse the ressentiment of attempting to secure the psyche against its own repression and instead embrace the vitalism of the unanaly-ed unconscious -- this move allows us see that the supposed "talking cure" of the 1ac's false promise of cognitive security is simply an attempt to sanctify the Dgo# 3nstead) we must give way to a nonanalysis of the schi-o 9eem '61 .ark, ac!p!nt!rist an" translator, Translator6s &ntro"!ction to 4nti5Oedipus *y Cilles Eele!Ae an" 4eli5 C!attari "@ie down) then) on the soft couch which the analyst provides) and try to think up something different# The analyst has endless time and patience> every minute you detain him means money in his pocket3 3 3 3 Bhether yo! 'hine, ho'l, *eg, 'eep, ca:ole, pray or c!rseRhe listens3 He is :!st a *ig ear $in!s a sy$pathetic nervo!s syste$3 He is i$pervio!s to everything *!t tr!th3 &f yo! think it pays to fool hi$ then fool hi$3 Bho 'ill *e the loser9 &f yo! think he can help yo!, an" not yo!rself, then stick to hi$ !ntil yo! rot3J8c Ho concl!"es Henry .iller in 6e2us% an" Cilles Eele!Ae an" 4eli5 C!attari are <!ick to agree in their attack on psychoanalysis6 o'n Fe"ip!s co$ple5 (the holy fa$ily% "a""y2$o$$y2$e/, an attack that is at ti$es *r!tal an" 'itho!t pity, at other ti$es sy$pathetic an" f!ll of a profo!n" love of life, an" often enor$o!sly a$!sing3 An attack on the ego, on 'hat is all2too2h!$an in $ankin", on oe"ipaliAe" an" oe"ipaliAing analyses an" ne!rotic $o"es of living3 &n confronting an" finally overt!rning the Fe"ipal rock on 'hich .an has chosen to take his stan", 4nti5Oedipus co$es as a kin" of se<!el to another si$ilar vent!re, the attack on ,hrist, ,hristianity, an" the her" in ietAsche6s The 4ntichrist. 4or 'ho 'o!l" "eny, 4nti5Oedipus *egins, that psychoanalysis was from the start, still is, and perhaps always will be a well-constituted church and a form of treatment based on a set of beliefs that only the very faithful could adhere to) ie#) those who believe in a security that amounts to being lost in the herd and defined in terms of common and e.ternal goals+ But where do such beliefs originate+ 'hat are they based on+ 1or it is absolutely hopeless to think in terms of security , as .iller states in 6e2us7 Jthere is none# The man who looks for security , even in the mind) is like a man who would chop off his limbs in order to have artificial ones which will give him no pain or trouble" (page 72-/3 Fo pain) no troubleHthis is the neurotic's dream of a tran0uili-ed an" conflict2free e.istence# 9uch a set of beliefs) Eele!Ae an" C!attari demonstrate) such a herd instinct) is based on the desire to be led) the desire to have someone else legislate life# The very desire that was brought so glaringly into focus in Durope with Iitler) "ussolini) and fascism> the desire that is still at work) making us all sick) today3 4nti5Oedipus starts *y reviving =eich6s co$pletely serio!s <!estion 'ith respect to the rise of fascis$% 6Ho' co!l" the $asses *e $a"e to "esire their o'n repression96 This is a <!estion 'hich the #nglish an" A$ericans are rel!ctant to "eal 'ith "irectly, ten"ing too often to respon"% J4ascis$ is a pheno$enon that took place else'here, so$ething that co!l" only happen to others, *!t not to !s? it6s their pro*le$3J &s it

tho!gh9 &s fascis$ really a pro*le$ for others to "eal 'ith9 #ven revol!tionary gro!ps "eal gingerly 'ith the fascisiAing ele$ents 'e all carry "eep 'ithin !s, an" yet they often possess a rarely analyAe" *!t overri"ing gro!p 6s!perego6 that lea"s the$ to state, $!ch like ietAsche6s $an of ressentiment% that the other is evil (the 4ascistT the ,apitalistT the ,o$$!nistT/, and hence that they themselves are &ood. This concl!sion is reache" as an aftertho!ght an" a :!stification, a s!pre$ely seMM2righteo!s rationaliAation for a politics that can only Js<!intJ at life, thro!gh the thick clo!"s of fo!l2s$elling air that per$eates secret $eeting places an" Jsec!rityJ co!ncils3 The man of ressentiment% as ietAsche e5plains, Jloves hi"ing places, secret paths an" *ack "oors, everything covert entices hi$ as his 'orl", his sec!rity, his refresh$ent? he !n"erstan"s ho' to keep silent, ho' not to forget, ho' to 'ait, ho' to *e provisionally self2"eprecating an" h!$*le3J2 H!ch a $an, ietAsche concl!"es, needs very much to believe in some neutral) independent "sub?ect"Hthe ego Hfor he is prompted by an instinct of self-affirmation and self-preservation that cares little about preserving or affirming life) an instinct "in which every lie is sanctified#" @ This is the real$ of the silent $a:ority3 An" it is into these *ack roo$s, *ehin" the close" "oors of the analyst6s office, in the 'ings of the Fe"ipal theater, that Eele!Ae an" C!attari 'eave their 'ay, e5clai$ing as "oes ietAsche that it s$ells *a" there, an" that 'hat is nee"e" is Ja *reath of fresh air, a relationship 'ith the o!tsi"e 'orl"3J &n e5a$ining the pro*le$ of the s!*:ect, the *ehin"2the2scenes reactive an" reactionary $an, 4nti5Oedipus "evelops an approach that is "eci"e"ly dia&nostic (JBhat constit!tes o!r sickness to"ay9J/ an" profo!n"ly healin& as 'ell3 'hat it attempts to cure us of is the cure itself# 5eleu-e and Auattari term their approach "schi-oanalysis)" which they oppose on every count to psychoanalysis# Bhere the latter $eas!res everything against ne!rosis an" castration, schiAoanalysis *egins 'ith the schiAo, his *reak"o'ns an" his *reakthro!ghs3 1or) they affirm) "a schi-ophrenic out for a walk is a better model than a neurotic lying on the analyst's couch# # # #" Against the Fe"ipal an" oe"ipaliAe" territorialities (4a$ily, ,h!rch, Hchool, ation, Party/, an" especially the territoriality of the in"ivi"!al, 4nti5Oedipus seeks to "iscover the J"eterritorialiAe"J flo's of "esire, the flo's that have not *een re"!ce" to the Fe"ipal co"es an" the ne!roticiAe" territorialities, the desirin&5machines that escape s!ch co"es as lines o! escape lea"ing else'here3

7nc psychonorming
$ur argument is simple# Bsychoanalysis tells you that the world is sick with repressed trauma) that the debate community is sick with the repressed and alienated memory of (11 that it offers a way out -- analysis -- get on the couchU 'e have three link arguments 1 -- B3F*/3D9 * Gou shouldn't divide the world into pathological sub?ects and normal sub?ects -it authori-es control and e.termination against the periphery through a framework that promotes needless cruelty 7 -- ,F3!D/9*@3TG * The 1ac clearly assumes a universal sub?ect of desire against which the debate community is ?u.taposed -- this is both rude and represents a form of sub?ective weakness since we can only measure deviancy in reference to a 1$/" of cognitive security that we resent our own inability to inhabit as static e.amples of perfection 2 -- 13P3TG $1 T/*,"* * Gou shouldn't assume that everyone has the same trauma or e.periences it in the same way# The 1ac constructs desire as a monolith that can be understood through a series of eternal relations that analysis can uncover The impact is a life of self-hatred and the 5ean evidence which indicates that dis0ualifying deviant life is a move of power that makes massacres vital and mobili-es world-killing machines such as chemical and biological weapons for global e.termination -- this outweighs the aff -- at the level of in-round education it teaches us to pathologi-e difference and enacts a pedagogy of cruelty which outweighs the non-e.istent benefits of any of their neurotic lies *nd if we win our link argument vote negative on presumption -- the psyche is not a structural entity with 0ualities outside of becoming -- this means that claims to act upon or influence it are void @ain 'X8 =3E3 , fa$o!s clinical psychiatrist 'orking on schiAophrenia an" the politics of $ental "isor"ers3 The Politics of #5perience (#5cerpts/, revise" 89-D http%MMthehealingpro:ect3net3a!M'p2 contentM!ploa"sM2009M88M=3E321aing32The2Politics2of2#5perience3p"f F!r alienation goes to the roots3 The realiAation of this is the essential spring*oar" for any serio!s reflection on any aspect of present inter2h!$an life3 Gie'e" fro$ "ifferent perspectives, constr!e" in "ifferent 'ays an" e5presse" in "ifferent i"io$s, this realiAation !nites $en as "iverse as .ar5, +ierkegaar", ietAsche, 4re!", Hei"egger, Tillich an" Hartre3 'e are bemused and cra-ed creatures) strangers to our true selves) to one another) and to the spiritual and material world - mad) even) from an ideal standpoint we can glimpse but not adopt# 'e are born into a world where alienation awaits us# Be are potentially $en, *!t are in an alienate" state, an" this state is not si$ply a nat!ral syste$3 Alienation as o!r present "estiny is achieve" only *y o!trageo!s violence perpetrate" *y h!$an *eings on h!$an *eings3 p3 82 Persons an" #5perience Be can see other peopleOs *ehavio!r, *!t not their e5perience3 This has le" so$e people to insist that psychology has nothing to "o 'ith the other personOs e5perience, *!t only 'ith his *ehavio!r3 The other personOs *ehavio!r is an e5perience of $ine3 "y behaviour is an e.perience of the other# The task of social phenomenology is to relate my e.perience of the other:s behaviour to the other:s e.perience of my behaviour# &ts st!"y is the relation *et'een e5perience an" e5perience% its tr!e fiel" is inter2e5perience3 p3 8D Hocial pheno$enology is the science of $y o'n an" of others6 e5perience3 &t is concerne" 'ithn the relation *et'een $y e5perience of yo! an" yo!r e5perience of $e3 That is, 'ith inter2 e5perience, &t is concerne" 'ith yo!r *ehavio!r an" $y *ehavio!r as & e5perience it, an" yo!r *ehavio!r an" $y *ehavio!r as yo! e5perience it3 pp3 8K28L The relation *et'een e5perience an" *ehavio!r is the stone that the *!il"ers 'ill re:ect at their peril3 Bitho!t it the 'hole str!ct!re of o!r theory an" practice $!st collapse3 p3 8L The relation of e5perience to *ehavio!r is not that of inner to o!ter3 .y e5perience is not insi"e $y hea"3 .y e5perience of this roo$ is o!t there in the roo$3 To say that my e.perience is intra-psychic is to presuppose that there is a psyche that my e.perience is in# "y psyche is my e.perience) my e.perience is my psyche3 pp3 8-289 Be can *egin fro$ concepts of the single person, fro$ the relations *et'een t'o or $ore persons, fro$ gro!ps or fro$ society at large? or fro$ the $aterial 'orl", an" conceive of

in"ivi"!als as secon"ary3 Be can "erive the $ain "eter$inants of o!r in"ivi"!al an" social *ehavio!r fro$ e5ternal e5igencies3 All these vie's are partial vistas an" partial concepts3 Theoretically one needs a spiral of e.panding and contracting schemata that enable us to move freely and without discontinuity from varying degrees of abstraction to greater or lesser degrees of concreteness# Theory is the articulated vision of e.perience# This *ook *egins an" en"s 'ith the person3 pp3 89220 3n a science of persons) 3 shall state as a.iomatic that< behaviour is a function of e.perience> and both e.perience and behaviour are always in relation to someone or something other than self#

a7< permutation
To rid oneself of neuroses attached to the impulse to secure cognitive space with the false "cure" of the 1ac's inviting analysts' couch you must re?ect psychoanalytic frameworks 9eem '61 .ark, ac!p!nt!rist an" translator, Translator6s &ntro"!ction to 4nti5Oedipus *y Cilles Eele!Ae an" 4eli5 C!attari

To be anti-oedipal is to be anti2ego as 'ell as anti2ho$o, willfully attacking all reductive psychoanalytic and political analyses that remain caught within the sphere of totality and unity) in order to free the multiplicity of desire from the deadly neurotic and $edipal yoke3 4or Fe"ip!s is not a $ere psychoanalytic

constr!ct, Eele!Ae an" C!attari e5plain3 Fe"ip!s is the fig!rehea" of i$perialis$, JcoloniAation p!rs!e" *y other $eans, it is the interior colony, an" 'e shall see that even here at ho$e 333 it is o!r inti$ate colonial e"!cation3J This internali-ation of man by man) this "oedipali-ation)" creates a new meaning for suffering) internal suffering, and a new tone for life< the depressive tone# o' "epression "oes not :!st co$e a*o!t one fine "ay, 4nti5Oedipus goes on, nor "oes Fe"ip!s appear one "ay in the 4a$ily an" feel sec!re in re$aining there3 5epression and $edipus are agencies of the 9tate) agencies of paranoia) agencies of power) long before being delegated to the family# $edipus is the figure of power as such) ?ust as neurosis is the result of power on individuals 3 Fe"ip!s is every'here3 4or anti2 oe"ipalists the ego, like Fe"ip!s, is Jpart of those things 'e $!st "is$antle thro!gh the !nite" assa!lt of analytical an" political forces 3J7 Fe"ip!s is *elief in:ecte" into the !nconscio!s, it is 'hat gives !s faith as it ro*s !s of po'er, it is 'hat teaches !s to "esire o!r o'n repression3 #very*o"y has *een oe"ipaliAe" an" ne!roticiAe" at ho$e, at school, at 'ork3 #very*o"y 'ants to *e a fascist3 Eele!Ae an" C!attari 'ant to kno' ho' these *eliefs s!ccee" in taking hol" of a *o"y, there*y silencing the pro"!ctive $achines of the li*i"o3 They also 'ant to kno' ho' the opposite sit!ation is *ro!ght a*o!t, 'here a *o"y s!ccessf!lly 'ar"s off the effects of po'er3 =eversing the 4re!"ian "istinction *et'een ne!rosis an" psychosis that $eas!res everything against the for$er, 4nti5Oedipus concl!"es% the neurotic is the one on whom the $edipal imprints take) whereas the psychotic is the one incapable of being oedipali-ed) even and especially by psychoanalysis# The first task of the revolutionary) they add) is to learn from the psychotic how to shake off the $edipal yoke and the effects of power) in order to initiate a radical politics of desire freed from all beliefs3 H!ch a politics "issolves the $ystifications of po'er thro!gh the kin"ling, on all levels, of anti2oe"ipal forcesRthe schiAAes2flo'sRforces that escape co"ing, scra$*le the co"es, an" flee in all "irections% orphans (no "a""y2$o$$y2$e/, atheists (no *eliefs/, an" nomads (no ha*its, no territories/3 A schiAoanalysis schiAophreniAes in or"er to *reak the hol"s of po'er an" instit!te research into a ne' collective s!*:ectivity an" a revol!tionary healing of $ankin"3 1or we are sick) so sick) of our selves! 3t is actually not accurate to say that 5eleu-e and Auattari develop the schi-oanalytic approach) for) as they show) it has always been at work in writers like "iller or Fiet-sche or *rtaud# 9toned thinking based on intensely lived e.periences< Bop Bhilosophy# To put it simply) as does "iller) "everybody becomes a healer the moment he forgets about himself#" An" .iller contin!es% J=eality is here an" no', every'here, glea$ing thro!gh every reflection that $eets the eye3 3 3 3 #very*o"y is a ne!rotic, "o'n to the last $an an" 'o$an3 The healer, or the analyst, if yo! like, is only a s!per2ne!rotic3 333 To *e c!re" 'e $!st rise fro$ o!r graves an" thro' off the cere$ents of the "ea"3 o*o"y can "o it for anotherRit is a private affair 'hich is *est "one collectively3JD Fnce 'e forget a*o!t o!r egos a non2ne!rotic for$ of politics *eco$es possi*le, 'here sing!larity an" collectivity are no longer at o""s 'ith each other, an" 'here collective e5pressions of "esire are possi*le3 H!ch a politics "oes not seek to regi$ent in"ivi"!als accor"ing to a totalitarian syste$ of nor$s, *!t to "e2nor$aliAe an" "e2in"ivi"!aliAe thro!gh a $!ltiplicity of ne', collective arrange$ents against po'er3 &ts goal is the transfor$ation of h!$an relationships in a str!ggle against po'er3 An" it !rges $ilitant gro!ps, as 'ell as lone in"ivi"!als, to analyAe an" fight against the effects of po'er that s!*:!gate the$% J4or a revol!tionary gro!p at the preconscio!s level re$ains a su18u&ated &roup% even in seiAing po'er, as long as this po'er itself refers to a for$ of force that contin!es to enslave an" cr!sh "esiring2 pro"!ction3 333 A su18ect5&roup% on the contrary, is a gro!p 'hose li*i"inal invest$ents are the$selves revol!tionary, it ca!ses "esire to penetrate into the social fiel", an" s!*or"inates the soci!s or the for$s of po'er to "esiring2pro"!ction? pro"!ctive of "esire an" a "esire that pro"!ces, the s!*:ect2gro!p al'ays invents $ortal for$a2 tions that e5orciAe the eff!sion in it of a "eath instinct? it opposes real coefficients of transversality to the sy$*olic "eter$inations of s!*:!gation, coefficients 'itho!t a hierarchy or a gro!p

s!perego3J There can be no revolutionary actions, 4nti5Oedipus concl!"es, where the the relations between people and groups are relations of e.clusion and segregation# Aroups must multiply and connect in ever new ways) freeing up territorialities for the construction of new social arrangements# Theory must therefore be conceived as a toolbo.) producing tools that work ? or as &van &llich says, 'e $!st learn to constr!ct tools !or conviviality thro!gh the !se of co!nterfoil research3K Bhen &llich speaks of Jconvivial reconstr!ction,J he is very close to Eele!Ae an" C!attari6s notion of a J"esiring2revol!tion3J 1ike Eele!Ae an" C!attari, &llich also calls for a ra"ical reversal of the relationships *et'een in"ivi"!als an" tools or $achines% JThis reversal 'o!l" per$it the evol!tion of a life2style an" of a political syste$ 'hich give priority to the protection, the $a5i$!$ !se, an" the en:oy$ent of the one reso!rce that is al$ost e<!ally "istri*!te" a$ong all people% personal energy !n"er personal control3JL All three a!thors agree that s!ch a reversal $!st *e governe" *y a collective political process, an" not *y professionals an" e5perts3 The !lti$ate ans'er to ne!rotic "epen"encies on professionals is mutual sel!5care.$ur approach leaves the 0uestion of desire unanswered -- this leaves sub?ective space for becomings) in which we discover desire affectively) through encounter 9eem '61 .ark, ac!p!nt!rist an" translator, Translator6s &ntro"!ction to 4nti5Oedipus *y Cilles Eele!Ae an" 4eli5 C!attari

1reed from a psychoanalytic framework) the political group or collective cannot)

however) push aside the problem of desire# For can it leave desire in the hands of new e.perts# 3t must analy-e the function of desire) in itself and in the groups with which it is involved# 'hat is the function of desire) Anti'%edipus asks) if not one of making connections+ 1or to be bogged down in arrangements from which escape is possible is to be neurotic) seeing an irresolvable crisis where alternatives in fact e.ist# An" as Eele!Ae an" C!attari co$$ent, Jperhaps it 'ill *e "iscovere" that the only inc!ra*le is the ne!rotic3J

a7< psychoanalysis is clinical (tested


There is literally no support for the notion that @acanian psychoanalysis as applied for e.ample to a work of literature or a collective affective event constitutes a form of clinical work# 3ndeed) such a claim would be demonstrably ridiculous and further links to our argument about trying to posit the universal truth of sub?ectivity) a violent form of norming 9chi-oanalysis has been e.ecuted in a clinical setting at the antipsychoanalytic @a Borde# 3ts key practical tenets include practices advanced by /#5# @aing such as blurring of social roles between medical professionals and caretakers and offering lots of creative workshops for patients to e.periment with their affect sensations# This would be an e.cellent improvement over the boring-ness of most psychoanalysis# Fo single solution or model is perfect) but schi-oanalysis offers a way to e.periment with different modalities Auattari ' 4eli5, Chaosophy trans3 Hylvere 1otringer p3 8LK 4ollective life) conceived according to rigid schemas) according to a rituali-ation of the 0uotidian) a regular and terminal hierarchi-ation of responsibility-in short) "seriali-ed" collective lifecan become a desperate plight for patients as well as medical staff 3 &t is s!rprising to realiAe that 'ith the sa$e $icrosociological JnotesJ one can co$pose a co$pletely "ifferent instit!tional score3 *t @a Borde) one can count about forty different activities for a population consisting of ?ust a hundred patients and seventy staff members# There is an almost baro0ue treatment at the institution) always in search of new themes and variations in or"er to confer its %6 8 - 8 seal of sing!larity2i3e3, of finit!"e an" a!thenticity2to the slightest gest!res, the shortest enco!nters that take place in s!ch a conte5t3 $ne can only dream of what life could become in urban areas) in schools) hospitals) prisons) etc#) if instead of conceiving them in a mode of empty repetition) one tried to redirect their purpose in the sense of permanent) internal re-creation 3 &t 'as in thinking of s!ch a virt!al enlarge$ent of the instit!tional practice of s!*:ectivitypro"!ction that & "evelope" the concept of Jinstit!tional analysisJ in the early 8 9K0s3 &t 'as not si$ply a $atter, then, of calling psychiatry into <!estion, *!t also of pe"agogy2at least that kin" of Jinstit!tional pe"agogyJ practice" an" theoriAe" *y the gro!p of instr!ctors !nite" aro!n" 4ernan" F!ry, the ol"er *rother of Jean F!ry2an" also the con"itions of st!"y in 'hich the pro*le$, & "are say, *egan to seethe at the very heart of the Ht!"ents6 ational &ns!rance (.!t!elle ationale "es #t!"iants/ , 'here & ha" *eco$e a Jtechnical co!nselor,J an" in the ational Union of Ht!"ents ( U #4/ , 'hich ha" *eco$e a catalyst for the events of 8 9K - 3 As & see it ) all social segments should undergo) step by step) a veritable molecular revolution) i#e#) a permanent reinvention# 3n no way did 3 suggest e.tending the e.periment of @a Borde to the whole of society) no single model being materially transposable in this way# Get it seemed to me that sub?ectivity) at any stage of the socius worth considering) did not occur by itself) but was produced by certain conditions) and that these conditions could be modified through multiple procedures in a way that would channel it in a more creative direction#

a7< ontology focus bad


This argument is based on a linguistic confusion over the word JontologyK and does not apply to our 0riti0# ,sually in debates where you hear Jontology firstK people are reading cards by Ieideggerians such as 5illon and Qimmerman who are using the term in a very particular way to argue that we must focus on capital-B Being before other considerations< here:s conte.tual ev 'ikipedia :1; ; Access Eate) JIeideggerian TerminologyK As oppose" to JonticJ, ontological is used when the nature, or $eaningf!l str!ct!re of e.istence is at issue3 $ntology, a "iscipline of $etaphysics, foc!ses on the for$al st!"y of (eing3 Th!s, something that is ontological is concerned with !n"erstan"ing an" investigating (eing, the gro!n" of (eing, or the concept of Being itself3 $ur 0riti0 has nothing to do with Being) rather when we say that ontological designations are a prior consideration we mean that ontological concepts logically precede acting upon the categories which they define< in order to catch a fish you need to know what properties make a fish a fish and what the best way to catch it is) in other words you need a way to define your terms and specify their relations before you can know how to act< the same is true of political action# This is what 5eleu-e means by ontology< we:ll win a no link

"ay 1 To"", Professor of Philosophy at ,le$son University, The Fntology an" Politics of Cilles Eele!Ae) Theory 9 :vent P$!seQ 'hen 3 use the term "ontology" in reference to 5eleu-e's work) 3 want to be a bit cautious# 'hether or not 5eleu-e "has" an ontology , or has an episte$ic co$$it$ent to any of his ontological posits) is a source of debate among 5eleu-e scholars# Lohn /a?chman) for instance) comments that 5eleu-e's thought "puts e.perimentation before ontology) '*nd' before '3s#'" %p# X& 3n invoking the term) then) 3 mean only to refer to the ontological concepts that find their way into 5eleu-e's work) and not necessarily to any overarching ontological structure that may or may not lie there#
Their ontology focus bad arguments $F@G link to the 1*4Hby placing human e.istence as a given before attending to its formative and destructive processes the decision-calculus of the 1*4 focuses e.clusively on the ontological) depriving us of the ability to describe how those values originally came to be privileged# $ur alternative is an ethical act which de-codes the transcendence of Being to e.amine the vital processes of comple.ity and autocreation#

Auattari : 7 4Yli5, philosopher, schiAoanalyst clinician, ,haos$osis) pg3 80L2880


The new aesthetic paradigm has ethico-political implications because to speak of creation is to speak of the responsibility of the creative instance with regard to the thing created, inflection of the state of things, *if!rcation *eyon" pre2esta*lishe" sche$as, once again taking into acco!nt the fate of alterity in its e5tre$e $o"alities3 But this ethical choice no longer emanates from a transcendent enunciation) a code of law or a uni0ue and allpowerful god# The genesis of en!nciation is itself ca!ght !p in the $ove$ent of process!al creation3 Be see this clearly, 'ith scientific en!nciation, *!t al'ays 'ith $!ltiple hea"s% an in"ivi"!al hea", of co!rse, *!t also a collective hea", an instit!tional hea", a $achinic hea" 'ith e5peri$ental apparat!ses, infor$atics, "ata *anks, artificial intelligence333 The process of "ifferentiating these $achinic interfaces frag$ents the a!topoietic en!nciative n!clei an" ren"ers the$ partial to the e5tent that it itself "eploys itself every'here across the fiel"s of virt!ality of Universes of reference3 (!t how) with this e.plosion of the individuation of the sub?ect and this fragmentation of interfaces) can we still speak of ,niverses of value+ o longer aggregate" an"

territorialise" (as in the first ill!stration of Asse$*lage/ or a!tono$ise" an" transcen"entalise" (as in the secon"/, they are no' crystallise" in sing!lar an" "yna$ic constellations 'hich envelop an" $ake constant !se of these t'o $o"es of s!*:ective an" $achinic pro"!ction3 Fne $!st never conf!se here $achinis$ an" $echanis$3 .achinis$, in the 'ay that & !n"erstan" it, i$plies a "o!*le processR a!topoietic2creative an" ethical2ontological (the e5istence of a $aterial of choice)/R 'hich is !tterly foreign to $echanis$3 This is 'hy the i$$ense $achinic interconnecte"ness, the 'ay the 'orl" consists to"ay, fin"s itself in an a!tofo!n"ational position of its o'n *ringing into *eing3 Being does not precede machinic essence> the process precedes the heterogenesis of being# #$ergence tie" to collective Territories, transcen"ent Universals, process!al &$$anence% three $o"alities of pra5is an" s!*:ectivation specifying three types of en!nciative Asse$*lage involving e<!ally the psyche, h!$an societies, the living 'orl", $achinic species an", in the last analysis, the ,os$os itself3 H!ch a transversalist) enlarge$ent of en!nciation sho!l" lea" to the fall of the ontological &ron ,!rtain) (follo'ing Pierre 1YvyOs e5pression/ that the philosophical tra"ition erecte" *et'een $in" an" $atter3 The esta*lish$ent of s!ch a transversalist *ri"ge lea"s !s to post!late the e5istence of a certain type of entity inha*iting *oth "o$ains, s!ch that the incorporals of val!e an" virt!ality *eco$e en"o'e" 'ith an ontological "epth e<!al to that of o*:ects set in energetico2spatio2 te$poral coor"inates3 &t is less a <!estion of an i"entity of *eing 'hich 'o!l" traverse regions, retaining its heterogeneo!s te5t!re, than of an i"entical process!al persistence3 either a Platonic Bhole, nor an Aristotelian Pri$e .over, these transversal entities appear like a $achinic hyper2te5t R esta*lishing the$selves far *eyon" a si$ple, nea!ral s!pport for for$s an" str!ct!res at the a*sol!te horison of all processes of creation3 Th!s one "oes not sit!ate <!alities or attri*!tes as secon"ary in relation to *eing or s!*stance? nor "oes one co$$ence 'ith *eing as a p!re e$pty container (an" a priori/ of all the possi*le $o"alities of e5isting3 Being is first auto-consistency) a!to2affir$ation) e.istence for-itself deploying particular relations of alterity# The foritself and the for-others stop being the privilege of humanity> they crystallise everywhere that machinic interfaces engender disparity and) in return) are founded by it# The emphasis is no longer placed on BeingHas genera ontological e0uivalent) which) in the same way as other e0uivalents %4apita) Dnergy) 3nformation) the 9ignifier& envelops) encloses and desingularises the processHit is placed on the manner of being) the machination producing the e.istent) the generative pra.es of heterogeneity and comple.ity# The pheno$enological apprehension of *eing e5isting as inert facticity only occ!rs in the case of li$it e5periences s!ch as e5istential na!sea or $elancholic "epression3 A'areness of $achinic *eing, on the other han", 'ill instea" *y "eploye" across $!ltiple an" polyphonic spatial an" te$poral envelop$ents an" across potential, rational an" s!fficient "evelop$ents in ter$s of algorith$s, reg!larities an" la's 'hose te5t!re is :!st as real as its act!al $anifestations3 An" here once again e$erges the the$atic of virt!al ecology an" ecosophy3 The $achinic entities 'hich traverse these "ifferent registers of the act!alise" 'orl" an" incorporeal Universes are t'o2 face" like Jan!s3 They e5ist conc!rrently in a "isc!rsive state 'ithin $olar 4l!5es, in a pres!ppositional relationship 'ith a corp!s of possi*le se$iotic proposition, an" in a non2"isc!rsive state 'ithin en!nciative n!clei e$*o"ie" in sing!lar e5istential Territories, an" in Universes of ontological reference 'hich are non2"i$ensione" an" non2coor"inate" in any e5trinsic 'ay3 Ho' can 'e associate the non2"isc!rsive, infinite character of the te5t!re of these incorporeals 'ith the "isc!rsive finit!"e of energetico2spatio2te$poral 4l!5es an" their propositional correlates9 Pascal sho's !s a 'ay in his response to the <!estion% Eo yo! think it is i$possi*le that Co" is infinite an" in"ivisi*le9 333& 'o!l" like to sho' yo! so$ething infinite an" in"ivisi*le3 &t is a point 'hich $oves every'here at infinite spee"? *eca!se it is in all places an" 'hole in each place) &n fact only an entity ani$ate" *y an infinite spee" (that is to say no longer respecting #insteinOs cos$ological li$it of the spee" of light/ can hope to incl!"e *oth a li$ite" referent an" incorporeal fiel"s of possi*les an" there*y give cre"i*ility an" consistency to the contra"ictory ter$s of the proposition3 (!t 'ith this Pascalian spee" "eploying an infinite an" in"ivisi*le thing) 'e are still only left 'ith an ontological ho$ogeno!s infinity, passive an" !n"ifferentiate"3 The creativity intrinsic to the ne' aesthetic para"ig$ "e$an"s $ore active an" activating fol"s of this infinity, in t'o $o"alities, 'hich 'e 'ill

no' e5a$ine, 'hose "o!*le artic!lation is characteristic of the $achine in the 'i"er sense envisage" here3

a7< hallward ( alienation


Iallward:s work is about the normative preference for achieving Jlines of flightK which has literally nothing to do with our argument# 5eleu-e produced an entire library of incredibly diverse work during his life-time and the only article we read by him is not his own philosophical program but commentary on the ontological philosophy of 1rancois 4hatelet# ,nless the link is that we said the name J5eleu-eK this argument does not apply Iallward misreads one part of 5eleu-e:s Jphilosophy of the virtualK as a normative program rather than a category for empirical analysis# $ur 0riti0 is not a normative recommendation but rather provides a methodological toolbo. for understanding the world which are particulari-ed uni0uely in every application which means you should evaluate the merits of our specific link arguments) not any Jtheory of philosophyK we:re advancing< Iallward misses the boat Brotevi C John, Professor of Philosophy at 1o!isiana Htate University =evie'% Peter Hall'ar", Out o! This 'orld; Deleu<e and the Philosophy o! Creation, Gerso, 200K, 899pp3, d2D300 (p*k/, &H( 9L-8-77KLDDDD3) http%MMn"pr3n"3e"!Mrevie'3cf$9i"^80DK7 Iallward:s dualism an" positing of !ni2"irectional virt!al "o$inance prepares him to say that 5eleu-e:s orientation Jout of this worldK vitiates his politics) leaving it Jlittle more than utopian distractionK (8K2/, one that inhi*its any conse<!ential engage$ent 'ith the constraints of o!r act!al 'orl") (8K8/3 &nstea" of a s!ppose"ly e5tra2'orl"ly preference for the virt!al, Hall'ar" 'rites R elo<!ently an" certainly not 'itho!t :!stification R that the politics of the f!t!re are likely to "epen" less on virt!al $o*ility than on $ore resilient for$s of cohesion, on $ore principle" for$s of co$$it$ent, on $ore integrate" for$s of coor"ination, on $ore resistant for$s of "efense) (8K2/3 But it:s only Iallward:s identification of the intensive and the virtual and conse0uent evacuation of all creativity from our world that leads him to think that) of his desiderata) Jresilient cohesionK and Jintegrated coordinationK are not 5eleu-ean concepts# 3 would submit that these are more aligned with what 5eleu-e and Auattari recommend H e.perimentation with intensiv e processes R than 'ith either virt!al $o*ility) or its allege" co!nterpart, act!al fi5ity,) to 'hich Hall'ar" see$s attracte" here3 & have insiste" eno!gh, & think, on the fact that 'e live in an intensive rather than (or at least in a""ition to/ an act!al) 'orl", so & 'ill concl!"e only *y saying that Iallward has missed the Jtoolbo.K element of 5eleu-e:s work 3 (&O$ referring here to the 'ell2kno'n conversation *et'een 4o!ca!lt an" Eele!Ae, &ntellect!als an" Po'er,) availa*le in #nglish in E3 43 (o!char", e"3, 1ang!age, ,o!nter2.e$ory, Practice P,ornell, 89LLQ? see 20- for the tool*o5) re$ark3/ &n his concl!sion) Iallward verges on the polemical) warning us against the futility of reading 5eleu-e politically# But his reading is theoretical) all-too-theoretical# To e.amine 5eleu-ean politics is not so $!ch to rea" the sing!lar logic of *eing that allege"ly s!*ten"s the $any analyses of the str!ct!res of territorial asse$*lages, the "etaile" theory of capitalis$ an" the state, the $any prag$atic ca!tions a*o!t e5peri$entation 'ith social interaction fo!n" thro!gho!t A Tho!san" Platea!s, *!t to see how these can be and have been used to find points of transformation and intervention in a system# 'hen 5eleu-e and Auattari write) Jwe know nothing about a body until we know what it can do, in other 'or"s, 'hat its affects are, ho' they can or cannot enter into co$position 'ith other affects, 'ith the affects of another *o"y) (A Tho!san" Platea!s @874 M 2DL#/, we have to consider their philosophical writings in this respect# 3n other words) we have to see how they:ve been put to use (an" there is certainly no progressive) g!arantee here, as Hall'ar" hi$self notes P8K@Q/3 Ho in this regar" at least) it:s to the positive attempts at JapplyingK 5eleu-e and 5eleu-e T Auattari that we must turn in order to evaluate the potentials for compositional affects offered by these thinkers) rather than to the critical work of Iallward , as note'orthy an" tho!ght2provoking as that $ight *e in $any other aspects3

a7< badiou
'e don:t defend the 1;);;;Y pages that 5eleu-e published in his lifetime) our criticism has nothing to do with Badiou:s criticism of 5eleu-e) we are only using 5eleu-e:s commentary on psychoanalysis Badiou is nit-picking< his argument that 5eleu-e re-instantiates transcendence by applying his thought to everything is e0uivalent to saying that the statement Jeverything is differentK meaningfully describes properties of every single thing) rather than the relations of variance between them# The only unifying aspect of reality is its pluralism "ay 1 To"", Professor of Philosophy at ,le$son University, The Fntology an" Politics of Cilles Eele!Ae) Theory 9 :vent P$!seQ Here 'e can see the sharp contrast *et'een =a:ch$an6s vie' of Eele!Ae an" (a"io!6s3 1or Badiou) 5eleu-e's logic) because of his overriding commitment to the univocity of Being) must always be a dualist tension of the $ne and the "any# 1or /a?chman, on the other han", the placement of multiplicity rather than univocity at the core of 5eleu-e's thought issues out into a logic as multiplicitous as the ontology it seeks to construct# 1or /a?chman) then) the univocity of Being is 0uite clearly a univocity of difference) an interpretation that seems to me more in keeping with the movement of 5eleu-e's thought than the univocity ascribed to 5eleu-e by Badiou 3 Bhile Badiou) according to the re0uirements of his own thought) is uncomfortable with any univocity and thus seeks to discredit it in 5eleu-e) by contrast /a?chman) in seeing that for 5eleu-e univocity is a way to maintain both immanence and multiplicity) gives it a more sympathetic and to my mind proper reading# & *elieve that there are tensions in Eele!Ae6s tho!ght that ten" to'ar" transcen"ence, an" have a""resse" so$e of the$ in $y o'n 'ork, *!t & fin" the$ $ore at the $argins than at the center of his 'ork3 ear the en" of The Deleu<e Connections =a:ch$an offers a $otivation for rea"ing Eele!Ae that see$s to $e to *e right on target an" that offers a transition into Pa!l Patton6s $ore political rea"ing of Eele!Ae3 =a:ch$an 'rites that, J&n a $o"ern 'orl" of st!pefying *anality, ro!tine, clichY, $echanical repro"!ction or a!to$atis$, the pro*le$ is to e5tract a sing!lar i$age, a vital, $!ltiple 'ay of thinking an" saying, not a s!*stit!te theology or 6a!ratic o*:ect36J (p3 82D/ Eele!Ae, in his vie', has offere" that 'ay of thinking? =a:ch$an, in $y vie', has offere" an e5cellent g!i"e to it3 Bhat Pa!l Patton "oes is to sho' ho' that 'ay of thinking $ight *e rea" on the political level3 Patton, like =a:ch$an, is a clear an" incisive interpreter of Eele!Ae3 &t is pro*a*ly not o!t of place to confess here that 'hen & *egan to st!"y Eele!Ae, Patton6s essays ha" $ore infl!ence on $e than any others & rea"3 This is partly *eca!se of their political character an" partly *eca!se, in the thicket of Eele!Aian concepts 'ith 'hich & 'as confronte", he al'ays see$e" to prove a clear g!i"e3 Deleu<e and the Political *rings together the the$es that "o$inate" those essays into an overvie' of Eele!Ae6s political tho!ght ('hich he engage" in largely in colla*oration 'ith 4eli5 C!attari/ an" ho' that tho!ght e$erges fro$ the conte5t create" *y his ontological approach3 Hince Patton6s ontological approach is largely consonant 'ith =a:ch$an6s, & 'ill foc!s on the political contri*!tion Patton sees Eele!Ae as $aking3As Patton notes) 5eleu-e does not do political philosophy in any traditional sense# Ie does not ask what a ?ust society would be or in0uire into the nature or conditions of ?ustice or rights3 His political vie's are infl!ence" *y ietAsche, 'hose o'n vie's ste$ fro$ his interpretation of the "o$inating forces of a given socio2political arrange$ent3 Fiet-sche saw himself as a political diagnostician whose goal was to see in the symptoms of a situation its arrangement of active and reactive forces# 1urther) he saw himself as trying to promote the active ones while discouraging the reactive ones# 5eleu-e takes up this approach in his own work) focusing upon the multiplicity of active forces that can be released rather than on the 0uestion of what people deserve as members of a given society# That is why his politics does not simply occur at the level of the individual or the state -- although they do make appearances -- but also at the preindividual) supra-individual and pre-state) and supra-state levels as well#

1nc psychoanalysis bad


The 1F4 positions you as the analyst -- we never asked for our 1*4 to be the analy-ed and the negative team certainly didn't obtain our consent -- this violates a fundamental rule of practice for psychoanalysis -- re?ect them on ethical grounds *merican Bsychoanalytic *ssociation Brinciples and 9tandards of Dthics for Bsychoanalysts Fo 5ate http%MM'''3apsa3orgMA*o!tSAPsaAM#thicsS,o"e3asp5 &&3 .!t!ality an" &nfor$e" ,onsent3 The treat$ent relationship *et'een the patient an" the psychoanalyst is fo!n"e" !pon tr!st an" infor$e" $!t!al agree$ent or consent3 At the o!tset of treat$ent, the patient sho!l" *e $a"e a'are of the nat!re of psychoanalysis an" relevant alternative therapies 3 The psychoanalyst sho!l" $ake agree$ents pertaining to sche"!ling, fees, an" other r!les an" o*ligations of treat$ent tactf!lly an" h!$anely, 'ith a"e<!ate regar" for the realistic an" therape!tic aspects of the relationship3 Pro$ises $a"e sho!l" *e honore"3 Bhen the patient is a $inor these sa$e general principles pertain *!t the patient6s age an" stage of "evelop$ent sho!l" g!i"e ho' specific arrange$ents 'ill *e han"le" an" 'ith 'ho$3 &G3 ,onfi"entiality3 ,onfi"entiality of the patientOs co$$!nications is a *asic patientOs right an" an essential con"ition for effective psychoanalytic treat$ent an" research3 A psychoanalyst $!st take all $eas!res necessary to not reveal present or for$er patient confi"ences 'itho!t per$ission, nor "isc!ss the partic!larities o*serve" or inferre" a*o!t patients o!tsi"e cons!ltative, e"!cational or scientific conte5ts3 &f a psychoanalyst !ses case $aterial in e5changes 'ith colleag!es for cons!ltative, e"!cational or scientific p!rposes, the i"entity of the patient $!st *e s!fficiently "isg!ise" to prevent i"entification of the in"ivi"!al, or the patient6s a!thoriAation $!st *e o*taine" after frank "isc!ssion of the p!rpose(s/ of the presentation, other options, the pro*a*le risks an" *enefits to the patient, an" the patient6s right to ref!se or 'ith"ra' consent3 The application of @acanian psychoanalysis in particular to specific legal language creates a circularity where the analysis proves the theory and the theory becomes true in virtue of the analysis# This is sloppy scholarship -- analysts are able to simply make up their conclusions without regard to any sort of testable hypothesis or proof outside of interpretation# /e?ect their epistemic claims

$:Feill '1 (#"'ar", prof soc @ U, Han 4rancisco The 1ast Analysis of Hlavo: UiAek) http%MM'''3fil$2
philosophy3co$MvolD22008Mn8Loneill &t 'o!l" *e hasty to ass!$e that the i"eas propo!n"e" *y a!thors 'ho class the$selves as partisans of a 1acanian school are 'itho!t val!e, even if one concl!"es that the rhetorical strategies e$ploye" to propo!n" the$ are s!spect, :!st as it 'o!l" *e naive to search for a theory 6'itho!t rhetoric6 22 as if that co!l" *e s!*tracte" off like so $!ch *!tterfat3 (!t 'hen so $any of the 6e5a$ples6 given to e5plicate an" to :!stify the theory are *orro'e" fro$ other so!rces, it is possi*le to 'on"er 'hether the i"eas *eing presente" necessitate a reference to 1acan 'itho!t 'hich the i"eas 'o!l" no longer *e 61acanian63 The rea"er *egins to s!spect that 1acan is *eing e5plicate" thro!gh interpretations arrive" at 'itho!t the ai" of 1acan6s theories, 'hich in t!rn ca!ses one to 'on"er a*o!t the val!e of the theories *eing proffere"3 Fne gets the "istinct i$pression that the 'riters collecte" in this vol!$e, chief a$ong the$ its e"itor, *orro' the interpretations of others an" then refine the$ an" re2christen the$ as 61acanian6, all the 'hile clai$ing to set the$selves apart fro$ their aca"e$ic rivals3 (!t the "ifference see$s in so $any cases $ostly no$inal3 Eo!*tless that is a 6perfor$ative6 effect, an" th!s in itself 1acanian, since J3 13 A!stin6s perfor$ative is pro*a*ly itself alrea"y 1acanian3 Eespite consistent appeals to a the speech act $o"el in 1acanian 'riting, the gest!re of appealing to a!thority relies on an a!thority the gest!re cannot itself confer *!t rather $!st "epen" !pon, an" so the very prono!nce$ent of specific state$ents in this case "oes not pro"!ce the effects the state$ents "escri*e, ho'ever $!ch the a!thors $ight 'ish it 'ere so3 (eing for or against a certain a!thor or school sho!l" in principle *e "isting!isha*le fro$ the a*ility to analyAe the arg!$ents presente", the ter$s into 'hich they are cast, an" their $etho" of arg!$entation3 & "o not think the stan"ar"s & have s!ggeste" a*ove are so terri*ly constraining that they "isco!rage serio!s "isc!ssion3 or "o & think the theories c!rrently presente" *y $eans 'hich are s!spect are therefore the$selves to *e "iscar"e"3 (!t to :!"ge the i"eas at iss!e 'o!l" re<!ire *etter arg!$ents *eing $a"e, an" *y *etter $eans too3 The arg!$ents presente" in this vol!$e "o not take $any steps in that "irection3 To ret!rn at last to the <!estion of $etho" in the h!$anities !n"er the *anner of 'hich & *egan this revie', & a$ trying to say that it is not the concl!sions 'hich "eter$ine the vali"ity of the theory *!t rather the

proce"!res, since the concl!sions in the h!$an sciences ten" to *e si$ply the theoretical pre$ises re2state" as if they 'ere concl!sions3 &f proce"!res 'itho!t apparent $etho" or rationale are !se" to reach a concl!sion 'hich as *een "eter$ine" in a"vance, we tend to feel the 'procedures' are a tissue of rationali-ations 3 H!ch is often the case 'ith the arg!$entative 'riting in the c!rrent vol!$e3 A $ore "iffic!lt e5ercise 'o!l" *e to "isentangle, to the e5tent possi*le, the e5act place of 1acan as a rea"er of +ant an" Hegel, rather than collapsing +ant an" Hegel into prefig!rations of 1acan3 The fact that this latter strategy is closer to 'hat patient rea"ers of 1acan like .ikkel (orch2Jaco*son an" Ha$!el Be*er have "one is proof that 1acan c"oesc have so$ething significant to say, or in any case that he can *e rea" as part of a tra"ition, as a rea"er of other te5ts3 (!t ass!$ing in a"vance that 'hat 1acan sai" is *oth tr!e an" !niversally applica*le is an entirely "ifferent pro:ect fro$ either c"eter$iningc e5actly 'hat 1acan said or *applying* it, either of 'hich 'o!l" re<!ire a $etho"3 Ass!$ing 1acan 'as correct $ay *e a con"ition for *eing a 1acanian, *!t as a rhetorical strategy for convincing others that 1acan is a 'riter to *e rea", the strategy leaves much to be desired, since it ass!$es 'hat it $ight instea" set o!t to "e$onstrate , an" "e$onstration is in the en" a far $ore effective rhetorical tack than ass!$ption3 This theory of language fails -- the composition of the 9ign is cultural) not psychological Iolland ' 6 ( or$an, Prof e$eriti!s @ flori"a, The Tro!*le(s/ 'ith 1acan) http%MM'''3clas3!fl3e"!M!sersMnhollan"Mlacan3ht$/ 1acan presents psycholing!istic pro*le$s as 'ell as ling!istic3 #ven if ,ho$sky 'ere all 'rong, 1acan has $a"e a still $ore f!n"a$ental error in psychologiAing Ha!ss!re6s acco!nt of lang!age3 Fver an" over again, 1acan clai$s that ling!istic entities are in fact psychological entities3 The $ost notorio!s instance 'here he converts a ling!istic entity to a psychological one is, of co!rse, signifier an" signifie"3 1acan i"entifies the signifier pretty 'ith the conscio!s an" Ha!ss!re6s signifie" 'ith 4re!"6s !nconscio!s3 Then the ling!istic *arre that Ha!ss!re posite" *et'een signifier an" signifie", 1acan e<!ates to 4re!"6s repression3 As 'e have seen, 1acan appro5i$ates Jako*son6s $etony$y (ro!ghly, se<!ence/ an" Jako*son6s $etaphor (ro!ghly, s!*stit!tion/ to 4re!"6s Jcon"ensationJ an" J"isplace$ent,J an" in t!rn to other ling!ists6 Jsyntag$J an" Jpara"ig$3J &n other 'or"s, 'hat he "oes is say that these ling!istic entitities are in fact psychological entities3 Hi$ilarly, the *arre Ha!ss!re posite" *et'een signifier an" signifie" co$es to e<!al 4re!"6s repression3 The ling!ist6s *arre *eco$es the psychoanalyst6s *ar *et'een conscio!s an" !nconscio!s, an" the signifier cannot cross it3 The hi""en signifie"s are the !nconscio!s, an" the signifiers are the Je$pty speechJ 'ith 'hich 'e try to e5press, as in free associations, o!r real (!nconscio!s/ selves3 Be necessarily fail, *eca!se signifiers signify other signifiers, not signifie"s3 ,onscio!s an" !nconscio!s are th!s oppose" in one of 1acan6s t'o2val!e" syste$s3 &n effect, 1acan ren"ers all psychic "eter$inis$ as the single ling!istic process of a signifier signifying other signifiers3 That6s <!ite a role for a process that modern linguists doubt even e.ists3 Bsychoanalysis fails to recogni-e cultural difference -- there are no universal archetypes) especially true for the diversity evident in the phenomenon of terrorism /obinson 'E (An"re', otes on Hel" an" UiAek on 988 http%MMan"yro*insontheory*log3*logspot3co$M 4or instance% the the$e rec!rs of ho' so$ething 'hich has a horrifying effect is al'ays a realisation of a represse"M"isavo'e" fantasy3 (ehin" this is a cl!$sy conflation of concern $otivate" *y fear (eg3 *eing aro!se" *y a threatening sti$!l!s/ 'ith act!al "esire (in the sense that one fantasises a*o!t, an" secretly 'ants, 'hat one fears/3 This is as far as & can tell an e5egetical "erivative of 1acanian theory, an" & have yet to fin" a single arg!$ent or piece of evi"ence to s!pport s!ch a conflation3 UiAek also ref!ses to a"$it any "istinction *et'een "ifferent in"ivi"!als an" "ifferent social gro!ps, 'ith the res!lt that he often en"s !p inferring the actions of one gro!p fro$ the "isavo'e" "esire of an entirely "ifferent gro!p3 &n this case, he i$plies that the hi:ackers 'ere realising a represse" fantasy internal to the 'est, acting o!t the pre2constr!cte" role of Jthe real2life co!nterpart of #rnst Htavro (lofel"J3 UiAek ro!tinely $akes s!ch clai$s 'itho!t serio!sly e5a$ining the $otives of those involve" an" 'hether they are in the slightest connecte" to the psychological processes he "escri*es3 Has *in 1a"en, hi""en in the $o!ntains of a co!ntry 'here cine$a an" TG are *anne", even hear" of #rnst Htavro (lofel", the .atri5 or Ja$es (on"9 UiAek ignores s!ch <!estions, *eca!se of a general episte$ology 'hich ref!ses to take e$pirical iss!es serio!sly an" re"!ces 6tr!th6 to an o!tgro'th of UiAek6s o'n close" theoretical syste$3 Bhat is the $echanis$ 'here*y the 'est pro"!ces its represse" other9 Besterners $ay $isrecognise the present sit!ation *y !sing 'estern cine$atic fig!res an" tropes? they $ay react against the 6ene$y6 on gro!n"s relate" as $!ch to "eep2roote" fears as to an act!al act or threat (as in the case of J$oral panicsJ/3 &n this case) the hi?ackers' lack of concern for civilian deaths has been

%probably& misinterpreted as a deliberate desire to kill as many civilians as possible> the threat of further attacks may have been e.aggerated? the Je5ceptionalJ stat!s of the attack has *een e5aggerate", pro*a*ly "!e to its sy$*olic rather than act!al effects3 Take all this a'ay, an" one no longer has a (lofel"? *!t one still has a large $assacre, carrie" o!t *y specific people 'ith specific $otives3 UiAek6s e5planatory $etho" hops *et'een "ifferent levels of analysis too easily (eg3 *et'een sy$*olic significance an" $otives, an" *et'een 'estern interpretations a*o!t those involve" an" their act!al align$ents/3 UiAek6s arg!$ents are a perfect e5a$ple of 'hat +orAy*ski "eno!nces as JintensionalJ tho!ght% they refer solely to other ter$s 'ithin his o'n ling!istic syste$, an" are not relate" to the evi"ence an" events they clai$ to *e e5plaining3 The i"ea that Jin this p!re F!tsi"e, 'e PsicQ sho!l" recogniAe the "istille" version of o!r o'n essenceJ is a restate$ent of his J'e are e5cre$entJ line, 'hich rec!rs constantly thro!gho!t his 'ritings3 The principle that 'e are *asically a othingness 'hich $isrecognises itself as val!a*le is pretty $!ch non2 testa*le, an" it certainly cannot *e inferre" fro$ Hepte$*er 88th? in"ee", UiAek6s p!rely e5egetical appeal to Hegel s!ggests that he realises that he is i$posing an interpretation fro$ o!tsi"e, rather than "eriving one fro$ $otives an" pheno$ena 'ithin the sit!ation3 UiAek6s rea"ers are in effect face" 'ith a "og$a 'hich they $ay either en"orse or re:ect, 'hich UiAek passionately asserts *!t cannot provi"e any s!*stantive case for *elieving3 Bitho!t this "og$a (an" others UiAek raises fro$ ti$e to ti$e/, the rest of his concl!sions fall apart, eg3 the i"ea that any actions against a threatening F!tsi"e are Ja paranoiac acting2o!tJ (i3e3 if the roots of Hepte$*er 88th are internal, any act against an F!tsi"e is $isg!i"e"? *!t if this principle isn6t esta*lishe", UiAek6s concl!sion is not vali"ly reache" either/3 (This is not to say that UiAek isn6t right in the clai$ he $akes% e$pirically, the *o$*ing of Afghanistan $ay 'ell "o little to re"!ce the likelihoo" of f!t!re attacks, an" $ay $otivate s!ch attacks? *!t UiAek has not esta*lishe" this 'ith the clai$s he $akes3 He $ay 'ell have reache" the right concl!sion *y the 'rong $eans/3

7nc psychoanalysis bad


Bsychoanalysis views "the symbolic order" as apolitical and independent of culture -- this is both historically ignorant and re-entrenches domination 1raser ; ( ancy, The Uses an" A*!ses of 4rench Eisco!rse Theories for 4e$inist Politics) *o!n"ary 2, Gol3 8L, o3 2 (H!$$er, 8990/, pp3 -22808 &t follo's that one cannot even pose the <!estion of c!lt!ral hege2$ony3 There can *e no <!estion a*o!t ho' the c!lt!ral a!thority of "o$i2nant gro!ps in society is esta*lishe" an" conteste", no <!estion of !ne<!al negotiations *et'een "ifferent social gro!ps occ!pying "ifferent "isc!r2sive positions3 Fn the contrary, on the 1acanian vie' there is si$plyJ the sy$*olic or"er, Ja single !niverse of "isco!rse that is so syste$atic, so all2 pervasive, so $onolithic that one cannot even conceive of s!ch things as alternative perspectives, $!ltiple "isc!rsive sites, str!ggles over social $eanings, contests *et'een hege$onic an" co!nterhege$onic "efinitions of social sit!ations, conflicts of interpretation of social nee"s3 Fne cannot even conceive, really, of a pl!rality of "ifferent speakers3 Bith the 'ay *locke" to a political !n"erstan"ing of i"entities, gro!ps, an" c!lt!ral hege$ony, the 'ay is also *locke" to an !n"erstan"2ing of political practice 3 4or one thing, there is no conceivable agent of such practice3 one of the three $o$ents that co$prise the 1acanian vie' of the person can <!alify as a political agent3 The speaking s!*:ect is si$ply a gra$$atical J&J 'holly s!*:ecte" to the sy$*olic or"er? it can only an" forever repro"!ce that or"er3 The 1acanian ego is an i$aginary pro:ec2tion, "el!"e" a*o!t its o'n sta*ility an" self2possession, hooke" on an i$possi*le "esire for !nity an" self2 co$pletion? it therefore can only an" forever tilt at 'in"$ills3 4inally, there is the a$*ig!o!s 1acanian !ncon2 scio!s, so$eti$es an ense$*le of represse" li*i"inal "rives, so$eti$es the face of lang!age as Fther, *!t never anything that co!l" co!nt as a social agent3 @acanian theory is way too simplistic and has been disproven in the last 2; years Iolland ' 6 ( or$an, Prof e$eriti!s @ flori"a, The Tro!*le(s/ 'ith 1acan) http%MM'''3clas3!fl3e"!M!sersMnhollan"Mlacan3ht$/ Eespite the clai$s of a Jret!rn to 4re!"J an" the psychoanalytic s!*:ect2$atter, 1acan, *y re2psychologiAing Ha!ss!re, posits a ling!istic sti$!l!s2response of the $ost ra"ical kin"3 &n other 'or"s, 1acan ass!$es that lang!age co$*ines an" reco$*ines itself apart fro$ the speaking s!*:ect3 Bhatever his other changes fro$ Ha!ss!re, he keeps the pre$ise that 'or"s are the active ones in the psychological or, $ore precisely, the psycholing!istic process3 &t is lang!age that $eans, not rea"ers or hearers 'ho $ake $eaning3 The chain of signifiers, r!nning along accor"ing to its o'n la's, "eter$ines the &, an" the "eter$inis$ is total, says 1acan3 Fr perhaps 'e sho!l" call it, as =ay$on" Tallis "oes, Jthe "ance of signifiers,J the J1acan2can3J20 ot only

"oes 1acan6s clai$ $ake the philosophical error of !sing Ha!ss!re6s for$al "escription of lang!age psychology as if it 'ere an e$pirical one, he is also 'rong on e$pirical gro!n"s3 That is, & cannot think of a serious psycholinguist who would agree with 9aussure's or
@acan's account of the way we understand language# &n"ee", today's cognitive science shows the

opposite# Bor"s "o not si$ply i$print $eanings on o!r $in"s, as Ha!ss!re tho!ght3 Bor"s re<!ire consi"era*le processing, for e5a$ple, thro!gh sche$ata an" fee"*ack loops3 Any elementary te.tbook in the psychology of rea"ing or the psychology of lang!age 'o!l" $ake this clear 328 The only :!stification for Ha!ss!re6s an" 1acan6s i"ea that signifiers i$pose the$selves on persons is the apparently co$pelling nee" of so$e intellect!als to feel that the in"ivi"!al is not a!tono$o!s3 Their acco!nt is si$ply an" !ne<!ivocally false *y to"ay6s stan"ar"s3 4or one thing, it is too si$ple3 Bhere o!r kno'le"ge of the architect!re an" che$istry of the *rain 'o!l" s!ggest contin!!$ an" flo' an" fee"*ack, 1acan s!*stit!tes a*r!pt "iscontin!ities, si$ple yes2nos3 Bhere *oth2an" $akes sense, 1acan s!*stit!tes either2or an" *eco$es a*le to 'rite para"o5es3 The para"o5es res!lt fro$ 1acan6s replacing a $ore co$ple5, syste$s $o"el lang!age 'ith Ha!ss!re6s t'o2val!e" acco!nt of lang!age as "ifferences in signifiers signifying "ifferences in signifie"s3 &t is Ha!ss!re6s *arre 'hich :!stifies 1acan6s i"ea of the split an" alienate" self3 (!t the *arre is not a goo" ling!istic concept, an" psychologists, psychoanalysts, an" psycholing!ists "o not regar" the self as split3 =ather, it is clear to $e that 1acan6s insistence on a split an" self2alientate" self contra"icts an e5perience fa$iliar to anyone in analysis3 Fne of the things yo! learn on the co!ch is that yo!r or"inary, conscio!s activities e5press an" partially f!lfill "eep, early, an" !nconscio!s 'ishes3 &t is precisely that e5perience that

1acan "enies3 &n "oing so, he clai$s to *e resc!ing psychoanalysis fro$ the ego psychologists, 'ho$ he portrays as preaching a"aptation to society an" fleeing the s!*versive tr!ths "iscovere" *y 4re!" a3 (That is, 1acan $isrea"s HeinA Hart$ann6s *iological concept of a"aptation as a social one3/ (!t in fact, 'hat 1acan has "one is convert 4re!"6s co$ple5 tr!ths into a si$ple yes2no, on2off, *inary syste$3 He has left no place for s!*li$ation3 To *e s!re, Ha!ss!re6s all2or2nothing, so!n"2 concept "ichoto$ies have a certain $o"ish appeal 3 They are certainly easier to !n"erstan" than ,ho$sky6s an" post2,ho$skyan $o"els3 (!t they are no s!*stit!te for the h!$an ele$ent in e5plaining ho' 'e create an" !n"erstan" lang!age3 They lea" to a

false psychology an" a false psychoanalysis3 Bhen 1acan gives to Ha!ss!re6s for$al $o"el of lang!age a psychological vali"ity, 1acan *!il"s his thinking on the idea of a selfrunning language# 1inally that renders his thought profoundly anti- psychoanalytic #

The notion of psychoanalytic therapy makes mental health into a commodity that implicitly e.cludes the opinions of those not privileged enough to afford analysis# Bsychoanalysis is the original 9cientology Basaure ' .a!ro (asa!re, fello' at the instit!te for h!$anities at Eiego Portales University in ,hile, 4o!ca!lt an" the Anti2Fe"ip!s .ove$ent% psychoanalysis as "isciplinary po'er,) History of Psychiatry, 20(@/% @70;@D9, sage Ho, for =oucault, psychoanalysis principally helps those that , on the one han", can manage to get it and, on the other, are more suited for it by their cognitive and discursive abilities ; nat!rally this last aspect also has to do ith class differences3 (y contrast, with respect to those who had no access to psychoanalysis, a

systematic persecution of manifest incestuous practices oc& curred that had more of the character of a police action than a psychotherapeutic treatment 3 ;he rationality that the
bourgeois practices regulated or corrected lay in contrast not so much in the political or ,uridical realm, but rather in a medical rationality, in hich the :edipus comple< formed a neuralgic point (4o!ca!lt, 8999/3 Hince
its conception, the Fe"ip!s co$ple5 has playe" an essential role in the conte5t of a social "ifferentiation of general technologies of se5!ality (4o!ca!lt, 89LK/3 Dven if parts of their argument appear superficially correct) the linking of any individuals with a subconscious grammar tied to language is unprovable -- never vote for poor scholarship# Billig 'X (.ichael, prof social psych @ 1o!gh*o!rgh U 1acan6s .is!se of Psychology % #vi"ence, =hetoric an" the .irror Htage) Theory ,!lt!re Hociety 200K 2@% 8/ (y contrast, it is possi*le to link the skills of repression to the practice of lang!age3 Unfort!nately, 1acanOs linking of lang!age an" the !nconscio!s has ten"e" to *e over2general an" str!ct!ral, rather than getting involve" in the $icro2"etails of 'hat people act!ally say an" e5a$ining 'hat they are "oing 'hen they are speaking3 &t can *e clai$e" that lang!age is *oth e5pressive an" repressive3 &t is repressive *eca!se any chil", in or"er to speak appropriately, or 'ith c!lt!rally appropriate politeness, $!st learn that there are certain 'ays of speaking that are inappropriate or c!lt!rally r!"e3 Bhat is for*i""en is likely to *eco$e an o*:ect of "esire3 =o!tinely the pleas!res of r!"eness $!st *e represse" or p!she" fro$ the $in"3 Th!s, ta*oos an" hi""en te$ptations are create" 'ithin the *!siness of learning to talk3 1!ckily lang!age provi"es the $eans for internal repression, as 'ell as its necessity3 A"!lt speakers are constantly "isplaying to the chil" ho' to change topics of conversation, ho' to "istract attention 'ith lang!age, ho' to i$pose a partic!lar "isc!rsive or"er, etc3 The chil" is s!rro!n"e" *y rhetorical repression that it, too, $!st i$itate or $irror3 The rhetorical skills of repression can then *e internaliAe", so that they can *e !se" to "rive for*i""en "esires fro$ a'areness3 &f repressive skills are pri$arily "ialogic, then they are o*serva*le an" learna*le3 .oreover, the theory of repression then can *e anchore" in the close o*servation of "ialog!e, as investigators $ake sense of 'hat is sai" in ter$s of 'hat is !nsai" (+!lick, 200D/3 To "o this, it is necessary to tie psychoanalytic concepts as clearly as possi*le to the o*serva*le "etails of social life3 4or this, rhetorical l!ci"ity is re<!ire"3 This ret!rns the "isc!ssion to the iss!e of rhetoric an", in partic!lar, to 1acanOs rhetoric3 As a general proposition, it can *e asserte" that aca"e$ic a!thors "o not a"vance the ca!se of criti<!e *y p!tting their rea"ers in a s!*servient position 'here a!thority has to *e taken on tr!st an" 'here o*sc!rity takes priority over clarity3 /eaders should be able to assess the evidential basis for what is being claimed# This is why knowingly careless and misleading practices of citation can represent more than poor scholarship# They

can reveal an a!thorOs conte$pt!o!s attit!"e to'ar"s rea"ers an" to'ar"s intellect!al in<!iry 3 1acan $ight have sai" that citation is :!st for i$*eciles3 The <!estion is not 'hether citation is i$*ecilic *!t 'hat are the repressive conse<!ences of i$agining that it $ight *e3

**random**

unconditional cp
The ,nited 9tates should do the plan unconditionally towards Minsert countryN# The system of conditionality deployed by the affirmative is a benign cover for a hegemonic ontology resting on structural violence# The instillation of modes of governance for the sake of "liberal reform" is a positivist epistemology which necessitates international monitoring and regulation based on colonialism and universality# Fliver P3 /ichmond, Associate Professor of &= at &ntercollege in ,ypr!s an" research fello' at the University of +ent, Fcto*er 20;X, Patterns of Peace,) Clo*al Hociety, Gol3 20, o3 7, pg @KL2@97, &nfor$a'orl" This fra$e'ork esta*lishes the *asis for the reconstr!ction of governance in conflict Aones accor"ing to the nor$ative fra$e'ork that the li*eral peace provi"es3 The conte$porary peace2as2governance fra$e'ork "epen"s !pon the refor$ of co$prehensive fra$e'orks for social, econo$ic, political an" c!lt!ral reg!lation an" governance *y o!tsi"e an" insi"e actors 'orking to'ar"s the sa$e general fra$e'ork enco$passe" *y the li*eral peace3 This e5plains the ever2*roa"ening reach of peace*!il"ing interventions in the post2,ol" Bar conte5t, starting 'ith the tentative state2*!il"ing approaches of the Unite" ations in the conte5t of early $issions s!ch as in ,a$*o"ia, to the co$prehensive control e5ercise" *y international actors in the conte5t of (osnia since 899D, in +osovo since 8999, an" *et'een 8999 an" 2002 in #ast Ti$or3 &nherent in this governance fra$e'ork is the short2 an" $e"i!$2ter$ "eferral of *asic political an" a"$inistrative rights an" tasks a'ay fro$ local actors, 'hich are !n"ertaken *y international actors3 As ,han"ler has pointe" o!t in the conte5t of +osovo, the role of the international actors has $eant that, "espite "e$ocratisation *eing a key o*:ect of li*eral peace*!il"ing, local actors lose, at least in the interi$, their "e$ocratic right to r!le the$selves3@K As Paris has arg!e", the preli$inary nat!re of the li*eral peace*!il"ing enterprise is often rather illi*eral3@L The li*eral peace is the $ain conte$porary concept!alisation of peace prevalent (altho!gh nor$ally i$plicit rather than e5plicitly referre" to/ in the conte$porary aca"e$ic literat!re an" policy "isco!rses an" governance refor$ or esta*lish$ent is the $ain $etho"ology thro!gh 'hich it is esta*lishe"3 This fra$e'ork represents a !nion of so$e or all of the previo!s concepts an" of the thinking that !n"erlines the$, an" can *e charte" thro!gh the evol!tion of instit!tional approaches to constr!cting peace fro$ the Treaty of Bestphalia, to the U syste$ an" *eyon"3 Th!s, it is restrictive) regulative) and conditional)@- 'hile at the sa$e ti$e pro$ising to provi"e the "e$ocratic, political, social, an" econo$ic capacities an" free"o$s in the very near f!t!re in for$er conflict Aones3 &t starts fro$ the present te$poral con"itions in the li*eral international co$$!nity, an" thro!gh internal an" e5ternally pro$ote" con"itional processes of refor$ an" instit!tion *!il"ing it offers Aones of conflict) a f!t!re li*eral peace3 &n this 'ay, the liberal peace also has crusading 0ualities# 3t represents a positive epistemology of peaceRa *elief that it can *e achieve" thro!gh a peace*!il"ing consens!s representing all the $a:or actors involve" in the pro:ection of the li*eral peace, as oppose" to si$ply $aintaining a stat!s <!o, perhaps resting on structural violence3@9 This is ill!strate" in 4ig!res K an" L, 'hich o!tline the $ain <!alities an" "yna$ics of the li*eral peace, an" the i$plications of its transferral into post2conflict Aones3 Altho!gh rarely consi"ere", the liberal peace engenders a specific methodology and ontology3 &ts ontology s!ggests that coe5istence is possi*le if certain modes of governance are adopted3 &ts $etho"ology re<!ires its constr!ction *y $any types of intervening actors incl!"ing states, state an" non2state actors370 This involves a constant negotiation of the liberal peace through a system of conditionality in the conte.t of global governance an" regi$es le" *y key li*eral "onor states (s!ch as the Unite" Htates, the Unite" +ing"o$, ,ana"a, Japan, the $ain Hcan"inavian "onor states, an" others/ pertaining to political, econo$ic an" "evelop$ental processes3 78 These states act as "onor govern$ents that "eploy CFs, international organisations an" international financial instit!tions, $!ltilateral agencies, the $ilitary an" corporations372 Political, social, an" econo$ic regi$es associate" 'ith li*eral an" neo2li*eral governance an" its refor$ have *eco$e the ne' con"itions of peace an" a organisations an" international financial instit!tions, $!ltilateral agencies, the $ilitary an" corporations372 Political, social, an" econo$ic regi$es associate" 'ith li*eral an" neo2li*eral governance an" its refor$ have *eco$e the ne' con"itions of peace an" a peace*!il"ing consens!s, an" an episte$ic co$$!nity7@ of peace*!il"ing actors has e$erge" aro!n" s!ch regi$es an" their installation377 This consens!s is often generally ass!$e" to *e decisive and universal, altho!gh this is often far fro$ the case3 This instit!tional notion of peace is pre"icate" !pon a rationalist understanding of organisations and institutions e.isting beyond the state 3 &t operates on the *asis of a $!t!al restriction of their roles 'ithin certain $!ltilaterally agree" fra$e'orks, 'hile also e$po'ering their capacity

to refor$ on li*eral ter$s thro!gh relationships of con"itionality *et'een states an" s!ch organisations an" instit!tions3 The refor$ of governance is seen as a response to the fail!res that give rise to conflict, an" the $!ltiple processes *y 'hich governance $ay *e refor$e" provi"es the $etho"ology applie" to achieve peace3 This is hope" to give rise to a s!staina*le peace3 An i$portant "ifferentiation is re<!ire" here since it is sustained through international regulation and monitoring , an" not necessarily *eca!se of its local an" in"igeno!s <!alities3 Th!s, the li*eral peace is i"eally, *!t not necessarily, locally self2s!staina*le, *!t at the very least co!l" s!rvive *eca!se of international s!pport an" control3 Covernance has *een e5tensively theorise", !nlike peace, 'hich has generally *een looke" !pon as secon"ary to the analysis of the ca!ses of, an" i$$e"iate responses to, conflict3 Ff co!rse, there are $any conteste" "efinitions of governance, its $etho"s an" fra$e'orks3 &ts *asic <!alities can *e taken as follo's% the reg!lation an" coor"ination of $!ltiple iss!e areas an" social, econo$ic an" political reso!rces *y $!ltiple a!thorities, organisations, private an" p!*lic actors, incl!"ing *oth for$al an" infor$al arrange$ents3 All of these actors foc!s on the application of $!ltiple layers an" fra$e'orks of governance proce"!res to pro"!ce a partic!lar policy o!tco$e37D ,learly, 'hile governance is a !sef!l concept in this conte5t, it has also *een s!*:ect to a tyranny of "efinitions, propagate" thro!gh the roles of regional an" s!pranational instit!tions an" organisations, the &.4 an" the Borl" (ank, the U Eepart$ent of Political Affairs an" U EP37K The i$portant point to note here is that all of these actors are involve" in $anaging iss!es that are perceive" to *e co$$on to all involve"3 There is a nor$ative ele$ent to this !n"erstan"ing of governance in 'hich iss!es are "ealt 'ith *y the establishment of frameworks that represent the norms and values of the main agents of governance3 These agents incl!"e $a:or li*eral states an" "onors s!ch as the Unite" +ing"o$ an" the Unite" Htates, an" &4&s, international agencies, an" the U syste$3 &n this 'ay, governance "epen"s !pon *oth o*:ective an" inter2s!*:ective !n"erstan"ings of *oth $etho"s an" goals37L Bhat this also $eans is that governance cannot only *e instigate" *y official actors 'orking fro$ the o!tsi"e of a conflict Aone re<!iring reg!lation an" coor"ination, *!t that as 'ell as *eing a top2"o'n process it $!st also *e constr!cte" as a *otto$2!p process involving local actors 'ho o'n their o'n peace processes3 This is $ainly 'hy there has *een so $!ch recent e$phasis on *oth the pro$otion an" reg!lation of civil society in conflict Aones *y $a:or "onors an" the international peace*!il"ing co$$!nity3 Hi$ilarly, there has *een a rapi" e5pansion of the role of non2state actors not constraine" *y the strict!res of sovereignty 'hen it co$es to intervention3 Fther'ise, those 'ho are *eing governe" $ay see these e5ternal fra$e'orks of governance as little $ore than a soft for$ of colonialis$, an" the c!sto"ians of s!ch processes 'ill fin" that they are operating 'itho!t local consent an" legiti$acy in conflict Aones37-