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1 Copyright 2013 by ASME

Proceedings of the ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
Novemer 1!"21# 2013# San $iego# California# %SA
N%ME(ICA) ANA)*SIS +, -.E ,)+/ AN$ .EA- -(ANS,E( IN -.E
S%0" C.ANNE) +, S%PE(C(I-ICA) /A-E( (EAC-+(
A1o2 $earma
Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering
National Institute of Technology, Silchar, Assam,
E-mail ID: eril!oym e"#$gmail%com
34M Pande2
&rofessor, Department of Mechanical Engineering
National Institute of Technology, Silchar, Assam,
India E-mail ID: ' m pand e y "(()$gmail%com
Research activities are ongoing for High performance light
ater reactor !H"#$R% ith s&'are (o'ble ros f'el assembly
to (evelop n'clear poer plants ith the p'rpose to achieve a
high thermal efficiency an( to improve their economical
competitiveness) Hoever* there is still a big (eficiency in
'n(erstan(ing an( pre(iction of heat transfer in s'percritical
fl'i(s) +his paper eval'ates three,(imensional t'rb'lent flo
an( convective heat transfer in a single,phase an( stea(y,state
s'b,channel of H"#$R by 'sing general comp'tational fl'i(
(ynamics co(e* Ansys 1- .l'ent) +he ma/or concern 'sing
s'percritical ater as or0 fl'i( is the heat transfer
characteristics ('e to large variations of thermal properties of
s'percritical ater near pse'(o,critical line) 1n or(er to ens're
the safety of operation in High performance light ater reactor
!H"#$R%* heat transfer (eterioration !H+2% m'st be avoi(e()
3'merical res'lts prove that the R34 0,e mo(el ith the
enhance( near,all treatment obtaine( the most satisfactory
pre(iction an( lea( to satisfactory sim'lation res'lts) +he
H"#$R S&'are f'el assembly has many s&'are,shape( ater
ro(s* 5't of fo'r types of s'b,channels6 three s'b,channels SC,
1* SC,2 an( SC,3 are investigate( !a(/acent to the si(e of the
mo(erator flo channels !SC,1% !mo(erator t'be an( assembly
gap%* central s'b,channels forme( by fo'r f'el ro(s !SC,2%*
a(/acent to the corner of the mo(erator t'be !SC,3%) Since
coolant flo (istrib'tion in the f'el assembly strongly (epen(s
on the gap i(th beteen the f'el ro( an( ater ro(* f'el ro(
pitch to (iameter ratio 1)1 , 1)- ith 7mm (iameter are
consi(ere( for sim'lation) S'b,channel analysis clarifies that
coolant flo (istrib'tion becomes 'niform hen the gap i(th
is set to 1)0 mm) as less than 8209C) Effects of vario's
parameters* s'ch as bo'n(ary con(itions an( pitch,to,(iameter
ratios* on the mi:ing phenomenon in s'b,channels an( heat
transfer are investigate() +he effect of pitch,to,(iameter ratio
!";2% on the (istrib'tions of s'rface temperat're an( heat
transfer coefficient !H+C% in a s'b, channel* it as fo'n( that
H+C increases ith ";2 1)1 first an( then (ecreases ith
increasing ";2 ratio) Apart from the basic geometry s'b,
channel* a s&'are s'b,channel ith a ire,rappe( ro( insi(e
has been chosen to investigate the <ire effect=)
3e25ords6 H"#$R s'b,channels6 S'percritical* Heat transfer
(eterioration* R34 0,e mo(el)
+he High "erformance #ight $ater Reactor !H"#$R%* ho the
E'ropean S'percritical $ater Coole( Reactor is calle(* is a
press're vessel type reactor operate( ith s'percritical ater at
2> M"a fee( ater press're an( >00
C average core o'tlet
temperat'res) 1t is (esigne( an( analy?e( by E'ropean
consorti'm of 10 partners an( 3 active s'pporters from 7
E'ratom member states in the secon( phase of the H"#$R
pro/ect) Most emphasis has been lai( on a core ith a thermal
ne'tron spectr'm* consisting of small f'el assemblies in bo:es
ith -0 f'el pins each an( a central ater bo: to improve the
ne'tron mo(eration (espite the lo coolant (ensity) "ea0
cla((ing temperat'res of the f'el ro(s have been minimi?e( by
heating 'p the coolant in three steps ith interme(iate coolant
mi:ing) +he containment (esign ith its safety an( resi('al
heat removal systems are base( on the latest boiling ater
reactor concept* b't ith (ifferent passive high press're coolant
in/ection systems to ca'se a force( convection thro'gh the core)
+he (esign concept of the steam cycle is in(icating the
envisage( efficiency increase to aro'n( --@)Moreover6 it
provi(es the constraints to (esign the components of the
balance of the plant)
,I7%(E 1
&roperties of supercritical *ater *ithin pseudo-critical point
+he 'se of ater at s'percritical press're as coolant an(
mo(erator intro('ces a challenge in the (esign of High,
"erformance #ight ater Reactor !H"#$R% f'el assembly)
Heat,transfer at s'percritical press'res is infl'ence( by
significant changes in thermo physical properties at these
con(itions) +he most significant properties variations occ'r
ithin critical an( pse'(o,critical points) S'percritical fl'i(s
have 'ni&'e properties) .ig) 1 shos properties variations in
ater passing thro'gh the pse'(o,critical point at 2> M"a* the
propose( operating press're for H"#$R) +he most significant
changes in properties occ'r ithin A2>BC from the pse'(o,
critical temperat're !37-)CBC%) D1E
.I7. PE(,+(MANCE )I7.- /A-E(
High "erformance #ight $ater Reactor !H"#$R% has been
selecte( as one of the 4eneration 1F n'clear systems) 1t is a
high,press're ater,coole( reactor hich operates above the
thermo(ynamic critical point of ater !3G- 9C* 22 M"a%) 1t as
fo'n( that a heat 'p of the coolant from 270
C to >00
C in one
single step o'l( locally e:cee( the temperat're limits of the
core internals !in (etailH ma:) cla((ing temperat're of 820
D2E) +herefore* in a H"#$R the coolant is heate( in three
stages) Ieteen these three stages* there are to interme(iate
mi:ing ?ones) At that ay the coolant flo from f'el
assemblies ith an enthalpy rise in respect to the operating
point , the so, calle( hot spots J ill be homogeni?e( in
temperat're) Hence* an interme(iate mi:ing lea(s to a more
'niform heating an( avoi(s hot spots) .ig) 2 shos a scheme of
the coolant flo in the 111,pass,core)
1n the center of the core* >2 f'el assembly cl'sters
form the first heat,'p stage) .olloing the (enotation of ..""
they are calle( evaporator) After gap* mo(erator an( (on
comer ater has been mi:e(* it flos 'par(s as coolant into
the evaporator ith an average entrance temperat're of 310 C)
,I7%(E 2
Three-pass core concept *ith target temperatures for each heat up step
+left, and cross-section of the core *ith the conceptual arrangement of
the fuel assemlies +right, +Schulenerg et al%, "((-,
1t ill be heate( 'p to an average temperat're of 3C0 C) 3e:t*
the coolant ill be mi:e( in the 'pper mi:ing ?one before it
flos (onar(s thro'gh the secon( heat,'p stage* the so,
calle( s'per heater 1) +he s'per heater 1 consists of >2 f'el
assembly cl'sters s'rro'n(ing the center ?one of the core) After
the s'per heater 1 the coolant ill have an average temperat're
of -3> C an( a (ensity of 121 0g;m3) .olloing the flo
schema* the coolant flos thro'gh a thir( mi:ing ?one before it
rises thro'gh the s'per heater 11 into the steam plen'm) +he
s'per heater 11 is compose( of >2 f'el assembly cl'sters
arrange( in an o'ter cycle aro'n( the s'per heater 1) .rom the
steam plen'm the coolant flos (irectly to the t'rbines ith a
pro/ecte( average temperat're of >00 C
,I7%(E 3
.luster of nine assemlies *ith a central moderator o/
+he assembly cl'ster* b'ilt ith nine assemblies an( ith a
gap of 10mm beteen the bo:es D3E* is shon in .ig) 3 )A total
n'mber of -0 f'el ro(s per assembly ith 7mm o'ter cla((ing
(iameter at a pitch of C)--mm is ho'se( ithin a stainless steel
bo: of 2)>mm all thic0ness an( G2)>mm o'ter si?e) A single
ire of 1)3-mm (iameter is rappe( aro'n( each f'el ro( ith
an a:ial pitch of 200mm* leaving a tolerance of 0)1mm beteen
the ire an( the f'el ro(s or the bo: alls* respectively) +he
rappe( ires are capable to g'arantee a cross mi:ing in both
'par( an( (onar( flo of the coolant in the f'el
assemblies an( also to prevent the neighboring ro(s from
coming close to each other ('e to the thermal stresses an( the
possible e:ternal forces)
"arameters Range
Ro( b'n(le arrangement S&'are
Ro( (iameter 7)0 mm
"itch,to,(iameter ratio 1)1 J 1)-
"ress're 2>)0 M"a
Mass fl': >00,1>00 0g;!m
Heat fl': -00,1-00 0;m
.l'i( b'l0 temperat're 270,>00
Reynol(s n'mber >0*000,>00*000
+'rb'lence mo(els R34 k
+he coolant mi:ing insi(e assemblies in('ce( by ire
spacer has been investigate( by Himmel et al) D-E) +he res'lts
(emonstrate( that ire spacer is capable of provi(ing s'fficient
mi:ing to coolant) +he (esign st'(ies foc'se( on several
important iss'es of the core (esign* for instance* heat transfer
analyses by Koshi?'0a et al) D>E* a 32 ne'tronics;thermal,
hy(ra'lics co'ple( core (esign !Kamei et al)* D8E% ith
s'bchannel analyses !Lama/i et al)* DGE%* f'el ro(
thermal;mechanical analyses !Lama/i et al)* D7E%* safety
analyses incl'(ing #oss of Coolant Acci(ent !#5CA%
!1shiatari et al)* DCE%* an( so on) 1n 200>* a research pro/ect of
a S'per .ast Reactor has starte( in Mapan !1shiatari et al)*
D10E%) 1t aims at ma:imi?ing the poer (ensity an( 'tili?ing
pl'toni'm from the #$R spent f'el rather than the f'el
bree(ing !1shiatari et al)* D11E%) An improve( core has been
(esigne( to 0eep both overall an( local voi( reactivity negative
by 'p(ating the ('el an( core config'rations !Cao et al)* D12E%)
1n or(er to (evelop a basic thermal,hy(ra'lic (atabase for the
S'per .ast Reactor* a set of e:perimental tests have been
carrie( o't ith HC.C22 as the or0 fl'i() 1t starte( from a
smooth circ'lar t'be !Mori et al)* D13E% an( afterar(s to a G,
ro( b'n(le !Mori et al)* D1-E%) Iesi(es the fast,spectr'm
concept* a ne RN2 pro/ect on thermal,spectr'm SC$R
concept as grante( in 2007 D11E) Op to no* both of the fast
an( thermal options are ongoing in Mapan) A preliminary reactor
core ith mi:e( ne'tron spectr'm has been propose( by
Cheng et al) D1>E) 5ther or0 on aspect of heat transfer
investigation an( materials test is s'mmari?e( by Cheng D11E)
1n or(er to 'n(erstan( the geometry effect an( the mechanisms
of the H+2* the pitch to (iameter ratio !";2% of a s&'are f'el
assembly are chosen as follos 1)1* 1)2* 1)3* an( 1)-) 1n
partic'lar* the mechanisms of the H+2 also have to be
'n(erstoo( for the p'rpose of the safety analysis) Iase on the
first tas0 res'lt* 32 ann'lar s'b,channel relevant to the H"#$R
(esign are ta0en in to acco'nt for secon( tas0 of the st'(y) +he
P part geometry of a s&'are f'el assembly is chosen for
sim'lation as shon in .ig) -
consi(ere( ith vario's ";2 ratio an( 1mm constant for gap
beteen mo(erator bo: an( f'el ro() 4eometrically* fo'r type
of s'b,channels can be consi(ere(* i)e) a(/acent to the si(e of
the mo(erator flo channels !SC,1% !mo(erator t'be an(
assembly gap%* central s'b,channels forme( by fo'r f'el ro(s
!SC,2%* a(/acent to the corner of the mo(erator t'be !SC,3% an(
corner of the assembly gap !SC,-%)
,I7%(E !
Selected Su-channel types of the s0uare fuel assemly
A proper t'rb'lence mo(el is alays cr'cial to a correct
pre(iction on the heat transfer behavio'r in s'percritical fl'i(s
an( so (oes the mo(el config'ration) Heat transfer to ater at
s'percritical press'res has been n'merically investigate( 'sing
a to,(imensional mo(eling approach) +he sim'lations in a
to,(imensional (omain have been performe( 'sing the lo,
Reynol(s 0J t'rb'lence mo(el* an( the 1A"$S,1.CG
form'lation to (escribe the properties of ater at (ifferent
con(itions) +he e:perimental (ataset as obtaine( in
s'percritical ater floing 'par( in a - m long vertical bare
t'be ith 10 mm 12) +he temperat're (ata ere collecte( at
m'ltiple heights in the t'be an( at press'res of abo't 2-)> M"a*
an inlet temperat're of 300
-A0)E6 14 Detailed parameters of the 1&23R used for
+he governing e&'ations !A3SLS1- .#OE3+ Oser Man'al%
are as follosH
Mass conservation e&'ationH
,I7%(E 8
6ne-fourth part of 1&23R fuel assemly

( u
Moment'm conservation e&'ationH
+hree s'b,channels for present sim'lation ere consi(ere(

u u j _
from a &'arter of the thermal f'el assembly an( is calc'late(
u u






i k
x x x x
ta0ing symmetry into consi(eration) 4ap beteen to ro(s are
j j

j i
k !0)2%
x x

Energy conservation e&'ationH
MES. SENSI-I9I-* S-%$*


u C T

T _1





1n the .ig) G three (ifferent val'es of no(e n'mber along ra(i's
i p


u u


j j
i ,
] j
j i ,
k 1
are 'se( in sim'lations) +he coarse mesh has a no(e n'mber of
R34 k mo(el is a(opte( to close the t'rb'lence 0inetic
20 an( the refine,factor is - for mi((le mesh !200% an( fine
energy an( (issipation e&'ation)
+'rb'lent 0inetic energy e&'ationH
mesh !700%) As is shon in the .ig* the res'lts become
in(epen(ent of the no(e n'mber hen it is more than 200) +he
information reveale( by .ig) G* it is clear that the no(e n'mber
of 200 can be treate( as a stan(ar( mesh config'ration near the
( k ) ( ku

+ G
+ G
t x

k eff

k b

heate( all)
$here G
is the effect of b'oyancy on t'rb'lent 0inetic
energy* an( is (efine asH
G g

_ !0)>%
b i
" r


$here G
t i
, p
is t'rb'lent 0inetic energy pro('ce( by velocity

S !0)8%
,I7%(E :
S 2S S *


+ ; 2
Sensiti7ity studies of node numer along radius
ij ij ij

j i
MES. S-(%C-%(ES AN$ 0+%N$A(* C+N$I-I+NS
+'rb'lent 0inetic energy (issipation ratioH


A cross,sectional schematic (iagram of a 32 comp'tational

( u


) C

k k

(omain is shon in .ig) 7) +he inlet an( o'tlet bo'n(ary

con(itions are mass fl': (ensity an( o'tflo* respectively) As


ill'strate( in the fig're* the cla((ing material has been alrea(y
eff mol

ta0en into acco'nt) +he mesh in the flo (omain gra('ally
!0)C% refine( toar(s the li&'i(,soli( interface to ma0e a smooth
is the molec'le viscosity
1 ;

mesh transition from the flo (omain to the soli( (omain)

1 +
Sk ;

.ig)8 shos the comparison beteen o'r calc'lation
(ata an( the e:perimental (ata !Lamagata et al)* 1CG2%) +he
heat transfer coefficient (istrib'tion in the s'per critical
press're region is calc'late( 'sing R34 k mo(el) +he
,I7%(E &
.omparison et*een present results and the e/perimental data
R34 k mo(el ith the enhance( near,all
treatment obtaine( the most satisfactory pre(iction)
+herefore in this
,I7%(E ;
Su-channel +S.-) AND S.-", geometry and mesh
,I7%(E '
st'(y the R34 k
mo(el is a(opte( to sim'late the t'rb'lent
3rapped-*ire geometry and mesh
.ig) C ill'strates a str'ct're( mesh* hich (iscreteness
the flo an( soli( (omain ith he:ahe(ral elements) +he mesh
strategy is one of the most important iss'es associate( ith the
rappe(,ire geometry )+he mesh is compose( of to partsH a
circ'lar mesh in the core an( a all mesh) +he mesh in the flo
(omain is compresse( toar(s heate( ro( in or(er to f'lly
resolve the visco's s'b,layer !y1QR 1%* hich is a prior
con(ition to pre(ict the cla((ing temperat're precisely an(
f'rthermore to capt're the onset of a possible 2H+) +he mesh
in the soli( (omain is also gra('ally refine( toar(s the li&'i(,
soli( interface to ma0e a smooth mesh transition from the flo
(omain to the soli( (omain)
enthalpy* reaches the ma:im'm val'e near the pse'(o,critical
point* an( then (ecreases) $ith the increase of ";2* the heat
transfer coefficient (ecreases an( the location of the ma:im'm
heat transfer coefficient moves toar(s the loere enthalpy
region) As the Reynol(s 3'mber is fi:e(* the flo velocity is
relatively small) Iefore the main stream enthalpy reaches a
high val'e* H+2 alrea(y ccc'ts) $hen the lecocity is small* the
b'oyancy force accelerates the flo velocity of the fl'i( in the
near,all region) +his ma0es the flo velocity (istrib'tion to
be flat an( generation of t'rb'lence energy re('ce() +h's the
heat transfer is (eteriorate()
+he st'(y on the heat transfer behavio'r of the s'percritical
fl'i(s ill carry o't an( e:ten( to a i(er range of or0ing
con(itions to gain a (eeper insight into the heat transfer
behavio'r an( also the mechanisms of heat transfer
(eterioration* hich is one of the most important targets in this
.o'r "itch,to,2iameter ratio !";2% cases of vertical 'par(
flo !S'b,channel 22% in beteen to ro(s of a S&'are s'b,
channel are sim'late( base( on the test con(itions from
Lamagata an( D18E* for Heat transfer enhancement) .'rther
sim'lations are carrying o't ith best !";2% ratio for High mass
fl': ith #o heat fl': an( #o mass fl': ith High heat fl':)
As the !";2% is increase(* the all temperat're meas're( in
sim'lation strongly increases at the beginning of the heate(
section) .ig 10 shos the all temperat're (istrib'tion in
beteen to parallel f'el ro(s -m vertical height) $all
temperat're increases ith the main stream enthalpy an( the
increase is &'ite significant after pse'(o,critical point) $hen
the main stream enthalpy reaches abo't 1800,1G00 0M 0g
* the
all temperat're increases very sloly) .or main enthalpy
val'e of S1C00 0M 0g
* (ifferent tren(s appear (epen(ing on
";2 val'e) 1f ";2 is small* the all temperat're increases
sloly) I't if ";2 is larger* the all temperat're increases very
,I7%(E 11
1eat transfer coefficient
,I7%(E 12
1eat transfer coefficient, 8*9m
8 +&9D )%", :;)((( 'g m
,I7%(E 10
3all temperature distriution
.ig)11 shos the heat transfer coefficient c'rves for (ifferent
";2 an( main stream enthalpy beteen f'el ro(s) 1t can be seen
that the heat transfer coefficient increases ith the main stream
,I7%(E 13
1eat transfer coefficient, 8*9m
8 +&9D )%", 0;-(( '*
.ig)12 shos heat transfer coefficient (istrib'tion) As
the ro( (iameter an( the gap si?e beteen the ro( an( all is
fi:e(* ith the increase of heat fl': the heat transfer coefficient
increases an( reversely occ'r hen heat fl': (ecreases)
.'rthermore* the location of the ma:im'm val'e of the heat
transfer coefficient moves toar(s the lo enthalpy region ith
the ";2 (ecreasing)
I'l0 fl'i( temperat're Ro( -
Ro( 1 Ro( 8
Ro( 2 Ro( G
Ro( 3 Ro( 12
.ig 13 shos the heat transfer occ'r ith (ifferent mass
fl':) 1t can seen that at lo mass fl': !&;4S7% *in the inlet
region all temperat're increases sharply* f'rther along higher
enthalpy in the mi((le region the all temperat're (ecreases
an( then again increases in the procee(ing higher region) Also
n'merical res'lt shos that ith increasing mass fl':
!&;4TG)>%* the all temperat're increases sloly itho't any
pic0 temperat're in the inlet region) +herefore goo( agreement
heat transfer ta0e place hen &;4 RG)>* hich is shon on
.ig)13* b't hen &;4 SG)> is lea(ing to (ecrease heat transfer
5ne,fo'r part of vertical 'par( flo f'el assembly is
sim'late() .ig)1- a,b shos the Conto'rs of velocity Magnit'(e
an( Static +emperat're at o'tlet) More concerning on heat
transfer enhancement hich means at high mass flo rate ith
lo heat fl': is sim'late() As mention above three s'b,channels
!SC,1* SC,2* an( SC,3% ere consi(er to 'n(erstan( the effect
of heat transfer in high mass flo rate) .ig) 1> shos the
velocity (istrib'tion at o'tlet section)
!a% !b%
,I7%(E 18
.ontours of 7elocity Magnitude +2E4T,, Static Temperature +RI:1T, at
.ig) 18 shos the temperat're (istrib'tion at o'tlet section of
each in(ivi('al channels) 1t is seen that toar(s the ro(s all*
temperat're is higher than toar(s mo(erator all) .ig) 1G
(escribes the temperat're (istrib'tion thro'gho't the a:ial
(irection of the channels) 1nlet temperat're increases rapi(ly in
the entry region* it can be seen in the mi((le region ere the
temperat're increases sloly an( last region increases rapi(ly
SC,2 SC,3
,I7%(E 1&
.ontours of Static Temperature at outlet
,I7%(E 1!
.ontours of 7elocity Magnitude at outlet
,I7%(E 1:
Temperature distriution
.ig) 17 shos in the flatten region heat transfer coefficient
increases) As a res'lt* the cla((ing temperat're increases from
the inlet as the heat transfer coefficient increases) At the point
here the heat transfer has a ma:im'm* the cla((ing
temperat're (ecreases) Ieyon( the pse'(o,critical line* here
the heat transfer coefficient (ecreases* the cla((ing temperat're
increases) +he ma:im'm cla((ing temperat'res in the (ifferent
s'b,channels ith ";2 1)2 are ithin the alloable limits of
C for the H"#$R)
Cla((ing s'rface
$ire s'rface
,I7%(E 20
1eat transfer distriution in 3ire-3rapped Rod in a S0uare
,I7%(E 1;
1eat transfer distriution
.ig) 1C,20 shos the temperat're (istrib'tion in Iare
Ro( S&'are ith an( itho't ire) +he p'rpose of s&'are
ann'lar channel is to the performance in the non,circ'lar
channels* hich is closer to the realistic flo channel in the f'el
assembly) 1n H"#$R the (esign ith ire spacers raise several
challenging iss'es ith regar( to the transfer behavio'r of the
ater 'n(er a s'percritical press're* ith the spacers lea( to a
goo( mi:ing an( a lo press're (rop in the assembly)
Cla((ing s'rface
Iare Ro( in a S&'are
Cla((ing s'rface
$ire s'rface
$ire,$rappe( Ro(
in a S&'are
,I7%(E 1'
Temperature distriution
+he sim'lations are performe( at a mass fl': (ensity
of 1000 0g;m2s an( at heat fl':es of 8000;m2) +he res'lts of
the non,circ'lar channel ith an( itho't ire,rappe( are
shon .ig) 1C* its shos the (ifference of the temperat're
(istrib'tion beteen the bare ro( an( ire,rappe( channel)
+he res'lt of the comparison shos that cla((ing temperat're
(ecreases ith ire,rappe() At high mass flo rate b'oyancy
effect can be neglecte( 'nless ith lo flo rate* even tho'gh
the b'oyancy sho'l( not be relevant* heat transfer is still
(eteriorate() .ig) 20 shos the effect of heat transfer coefficient
ith ire,rappe() $ith the ire affect its give the goo(
agreement ithin the temperat're range limits for cla((ing
s'rface temperat're) 5n the set of heat transfer (eterioration*
near the pse'(o,critical point this all temperat're increase is
m'ch sloer ('e to the higher heat transfer coefficient)
3'merical st'(y as performe( on the ro( b'n(le s'b,channels
base( on one of the H"#$R propose( mo(el) +he R34
k mo(el ith the enhance( near,all treatment obtaine( the
most satisfactory pre(iction ith Lamagata e:periment* an(
eval'ate( for the flo an( heat transfer characteristics in
U'arter channel* S'b,channel* an( typical S&'are Iare ro(
channels ere investigate() +he folloing concl'sions have
been obtaine()
1n the s'b,channel* the effect of ";2 on H+C as st'(ie()
$hen ";2 is R1)-* H+C increase ith ";2 first an( then
(ecreases significantly) $hen ";2 is 1)2* there is a VVflat
region= at the ma:im'm val'e) 1f it is larger than1)2* H+2
occ'rs hen the main stream enthalpy is still very small an(
more than one pea0 occ'rs) $ith the increase of ";2* the
temperat're (ifference beteen the all an( main stream
increases* an( H+C (ecreases) .'rthermore* the locations of
the ma:im'm val'e of the H+C move toar(s the lo
enthalpy region ith the ";2 (ecreasing)
S'b,channels hich consi(ere( in this paper* shos near
the pse'(o,critical point* the temperat're (ifference is small*
hile in the s'b,critical an( s'per critical regions it is large)
+he non 'niformity at the o'tlet is largest) 1n the mi((le height
of the channel* the fl'i( reaches the pse'(o,critical point in the
near,all region* hich ca'ses the heat transfer coefficient to
(ecrease an( the all temperat're increases rapi(ly)
+he res'lt of the non,circ'lar channel ith an( itho't
ire,rappe( res'lt of the comparison shos that cla((ing
temperat're (ecreases ith ire,rappe() $ith the ire affect
its give the goo( agreement ithin the temperat're range limits
for cla((ing s'rface temperat're)
1t has to be pointe( o't that the concl'sions achieve( in this
paper are only vali( for the parameter ranges consi(ere()
.'rther analysis ith a i(er range of parameters is nee(e( an(
D1E Sarah Mo0ry* Am/a( .arah* Krysten King* Sahil 4'pta*
1gor "ioro) Development of Supercritical Water Heat-
Transfer Correlation for ertical !are Tubes)
1nternational Conference 3'clear Energy .or 3e
E'rope200C Ile( ; Slovenia ; September 1-,1G
D2E +) Sch'lenberg* M) Starflinger* an( M) Heinec0en* T"ree
pass core #esign proposal for a Hig" $erformance %ig"t
Water Reactor* 2n( C5E,13ES,2 1nternational
Conference on 1nnovative 3'clear Energy Systems* 13ES,
2* Lo0ohama* Mapan* 2008* !2008%)
D3E K) .ischer* +) Sch'lenberg* E) #a'rienc* Design of a
supercritical &ater-coole# reactor &it" a t"ree-pass core
arrangement* 3'clear Engineering an( 2esign 23C* 700J
712* 200C
D-E S) Himmel* A) Class* E) #a'rien* an( +) Sch'lenberg*
<Sub-c"annel 'nal(sis of a H$%WR )uel 'ssembl( &it"
S+AR,C2*= T"e *+t" $acific !asin ,uclear Conference*
Aomori* MapanH 2007)
D>E S) Koshi?'0a* 3) +a0ano* an( L) 50a* <,umerical
anal(sis of #eterioration p"enomena in "eat transfer to
supercritical &ater*= 1nternational Mo'rnal of Heat an(
Mass +ransfer* vol) 37* 3ov) 1CC>* pp) 30GG,307-)
D8E K) Ka?'hiro* L) A0if'mi* 1) L'0i* 5) Loshia0i* an( #) Mie*
<)uel an# Core Design of Super %ig"t Water Reactor &it"
%o& %eakage )uel %oa#ing $attern*= M) 3'cl) Sci)
+echnol* vol) -3* 2008* pp) 12C,13C)
DGE A) Lama/i* +) +anabe* an( L) 50a* <-valuation of t"e
,ominal $eak Cla##ing Surface Temperature of t"e Super
%WR &it" Subc"annel 'nal(ses*= "rocee(ings of
4#5IA# 200>* +s'0'ba* MapanH 200>)
D7E A) Lama/i* L) 50a* L) 1shiatari* M) #i'* an( M) S'?'0i*
<$rinciple of rationali.ing t"e criteria for abnormal
transients of t"e Super %WR &it" fuel ro# anal(ses*=
Annals of 3'clear Energy* vol) 33* A'g) 2008* pp) C7-,
DCE L) 1shiatari* L) 50a* S) Koshi?'0a* A) Lama/i* an( M)
#i'* <Safet( of Super %WR/ 0112 Safet( 'nal(sis at
Supercritical $ressure/= Mo'rnal of 3'clear Science an(
+echnology* vol) -2* 200>* pp) C3>,C-7)
D10E L) 1shiatari* M) Lama0aa* an( L) 50a* <Researc" an#
#evelopment of a Super )ast Reactor 3vervie& an#
Hig"-Temperature Structural #esign/= Aomori* MapanH
D11E W) Cheng* <RN2 Activities on SC$R in China*= 4t"
1nternational S(mposium on Supercritical Water-Coole#
Reactors* Hei(elberg* 4ermanyH 200C)
D12E #) Cao* L) M'* L) 50a* an( S) 10e/iri* <Researc" an#
Development of a Super )ast Reactor Core Design
1mprovement on %ocal oi# Reactivit(*= Aomori* MapanH
D13E H) Mori* S) Loshi(a* S) Moroo0a* an( H) Komita* <Heat
+ransfer St'(y 'n(er S'percritical "ress're Con(itions for
Single Ro( +est Section*= "rocee(ings of 1CA"" X0>*
Seo'l* K5REAH 200>)
D1-E H) Mori* M) 5hno* K) 5hishi* an( L) Hamamoto*
<Researc" an# Development of a Super )ast Reactor Heat
Transfer to a Supercritical $ressure )lui# )lo&ing in a
Sub-bun#le C"annel*= Aomori* MapanH 2007)
D1>E W) Cheng* W)M) #i'* an( L)H) Lang* <' 5ixe# Core for
Supercritical Water-coole# Reactors*= 3'clear
Engineering an( +echnology* vol) -0* .eb) 2007* pp) 11G,
D18E K) Lamagata* K) 3ishi0aa* S) Hasegaa* +) .'/ii* an(
Loshi(a* <)orce# convective "eat transfer to supercritical
&ater flo&ing in tubes*= 1nternational Mo'rnal of Heat an(
Mass +ransfer* vol) 1>* 2ec) 1CG2* pp) 2>G>,2>C3)
D1GE K)M) "an(ey* A) 2ebbarma*) <C.2 analysis of flo an(
heat transfer in s'b,channel of H"#$R !High "erformance
#ight $ater Reactor%*= #A" #AMIER+ Aca(emic "'blishing*
Saarbr'c0en 4ermany* !1SI3 CG7,3,8>C,-0G77,7%*2013)