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Section 6 Module 1 Page 1

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Service Router Operating System (SROS)
Section 6
Quality of Service
Section 6 Module 1 Page 2
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Quality of Service 6 1 2
Objectives
Upon successful completion of this module, you will be
able to explain:
The need for Quality of Service in todays Service Providers
Network
The difference between Integrated Services and Differentiated
Services Model
The Alcatel-Lucent 7750 Service Router Quality of Service Model
The Classifying mechanisms available (BA and MF)
The (Re)Marking methods and rules
The Buffer Acceptance Decision techniques (WRED and HPO)
The different queue types and modes
The Scheduling priorities, Single and Multi Tier

Section 6 Module 1 Page 3


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QoS Enforcement Sequence
DATA
Access
Control
List
Buffering
Traffic
Classification
And Marking
1
st
Class
Economy
Standby
Scheduling
To
Fabric
Core
By having the traffic flow through the traffic filter, network resources are conserved on the filtered datagram.
The filtered traffic is then subject to traffic classification and traffic marking. Traffic classification maps
traffic to different forwarding classes which in turn can be mapped into different queues. Traffic belonging to
different forwarding classes can buffered according to the marked priority to ensure that the high priority
traffic is handled by the scheduler first. The schedulers determine the order in which different queues are
serviced by taking the datagrams out of the queues and forwarding them to the appropriate destinations within
the node.
Section 6 Module 1 Page 4
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Service Router Operating System (SROS)
Quality of Service 6 1 4
Network-Wide View On QoS
Service QoS Policies
Network QoS Policies PE PE
SAP SAP
Service
Ingress
Service
Egress
Network
Ingress
Network
Egress
1 2 3 4
Classification: mapping of
traffic into forwarding
classes according L2/L3/L4
header bits.
Buffer acceptance: accept
packets according queue
filling levels.
Scheduling: schedule
packets out of queues
according queue
parameters. Defines in or
out of profile traffic.
(Re)Marking: Mark the
DSCP bits
Buffer acceptance:
accept packets
according queue filling
levels and in/out of
profile.
Scheduling: schedule
packets out of queues
according queue
parameters.
(Re)Marking: map the
forwarding class and
in/out profile into IP
DSCP bits, MPLS EXP
bits and/or dot1p bits
Classification: mapping of
traffic into forwarding
classes according IP
DSCP, MPLS EXP bits or
dot1p bits
Buffer acceptance: accept
packets according queue
filling levels and in/out of
profile.
Scheduling: schedule
packets out of queues
according queue
parameters.
Buffer acceptance: accept
packets according queue
filling levels and in/out of
profile.
Scheduling: schedule
packets out of queues
according queue
parameters.
(Re)Marking: mark the
dot1p bits.
MAP1 MAP2
IP or application match criteria for service ingress traffic:
Source IP address/prefix
Destination IP address/prefix
Source port/range
Destination port/range
Protocol type (TCP, UDP, etc.)
DSCP value
IP fragment
Section 6 Module 1 Page 5
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Quality of Service 6 1 5
Service
Ingress
Service
Egress
Network
Ingress
Network
Egress
1
Service (SAP) Ingress
Service ingress/egress point can be delimited by a physical port or
encapsulation
SAP-ingress QoS policy:
Defines traffic queues (type, en-queuing and de-queuing parameters, mode,
etc.)
Assigns forwarding classes to queues
Maps traffic to a forwarding class based on user-defined match criteria and
assigns in or out-of-profile status to the packets
Applied to SAPs
SAP Ingress Buffer Acceptance
Forwarding classes into Queues
Packet acceptance into Queues at SAP ingress
Buffer pool allocation
Queue buffer management
HPO: High Priority Only
WRED: Weighted Random Early Discard
High priority versus low priority packets
Section 6 Module 1 Page 6
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Service Router Operating System (SROS)
Quality of Service 6 1 6
Network Egress
Service
Ingress
Service
Egress
Network
Ingress
Network
Egress
2
Network-Queue QoS Policy
Each network egress port supports a queue for each of the 8 internal forwarding
classes; queues are created automatically when a port is configured as a network port
Network queue policy defines the mapping of FCs to the queues
Queue parameters are defined in a network-queue QoS policy; on network
egress the policy is applied to an entire port
Network QoS Policy
Marks EXP or dot1p according to the FC of the traffic
The marking will be used by the Network Ingress of the PE on the other side of the
IP/MPLS Network to classify the traffic
The IP DSCP bits are set at network egress by a network QoS policy
The DSCP markings at network egress are user configurable
The bits are marked according to which FC the outgoing packet belongs to
The marking is used at network ingress of the PE on the other side of the IP/MPLS network to classify the
traffic; any default network egress DSCP marking changes should be consistent across the network
Section 6 Module 1 Page 7
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Service
Ingress
Service
Egress
Network
Ingress
Network
Egress
3
Network Ingress
Network QoS policy
Defines the mapping of EXP bits to one of the internal forwarding classes
Network-queue QoS policy
Specifies the queue to host the traffic of one or more paricular FCs
Network ingress queues are created automatically when a port is placed in
the network mode
Queue parameters are defined in a network-queue QoS policy; on ingress the
policy is applied at the MDA level to all network ingress ports on that MDA
Section 6 Module 1 Page 8
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SAP-egress QoS policy defines:
Forwarding class to output queue mapping
In/Out-of-profile marking to high/low priority mapping
Service (SAP) Egress
Service
Ingress
Service
Egress
Network
Ingress
Network
Egress
4
Section 6 Module 1 Page 9
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Classifying Traffic on SAP Ingress
Network Control <NC>
High Priority 1 <N1>
Expedited Forwarding <EF>
High Priority 2 <H2>
Low Priority 1 <L1>
Assured Forwarding <AF>
Low Priority 2 <L2>
Best Effort <BE>
DATA
SAP 1
Classification order
1. IP criteria | IPv6 criteria | mac-criteria
2. DSCP bits (IP Header)
3. Precedence bits (IP Header)
4. Dot1p bits (Ethernet Header)
5. Default settings
(The search is stopped when a match is made)
Access Ingress At SAP 1, purple traffic arrives on a port. As the traffic enters the ingress forwarding complex,
incoming datagrams of purple traffic are classified into one or more forwarding classes as determined by SAP
ingress QoS policies. The mapping of traffic to forwarding classes is based on the multi-field classification
rules in the SAP ingress policy.
Classification order
1. IP criteria | IPv6 criteria | mac-criteria
2. DSCP bits (IP Header)
3. Precedence bits (IP Header)
4. Dot1p bits (Ethernet Header)
5. Default settings
For a port configured in access mode, two buffer pools an access ingress pool and an access egress pool are
allocated for that ports exclusive use. A queue has the following three buffer-related parameters:
1. Committed burst size (CBS)
2. Maximum buffer size (MBS)
3. High priority only (HPO) buffer size
A flow cannot exceed its queues peak information rate (PIR) and maximum buffer size (MBS) limit. (Discussed in
detail a little later)
Section 6 Module 1 Page 10
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Service Router Operating System (SROS)
Quality of Service 6 1 10
qos
sap- i ngr ess 10 cr eat e
queue 3 pr i or i t y- mode cr eat e
exi t
queue 2 profile-mode cr eat e
r at e 2000 cir 1000
exi t
f c ef cr eat e
queue 3
exi t
f c " af" cr eat e
queue 2
exi t
dot 1p 0 f c " af"
dot 1p 5 f c " ef" pr i or i t y hi gh
dscp ef f c " ef" pr i or i t y hi gh
i p- cr i t er i a
ent r y 10 cr eat e
mat ch
dst - i p 10. 0. 0. 0/ 8
exi t
act i on f c "ef " pr i or i t y l ow
exi t
exi t
def aul t - f c "be
exi t
Forwarding Classes into Queues
service
epipe 100 customer 1 create
sap 1/2/5:100 create
ingress
qos 10
exit
exit
spoke-sdp 12:100 create
exit
no shutdown
exit
4. Creating a policy-id 10
3. Declaring Queues
2. Mapping Traffic into Queues
1. Classifying Traffic
Applying policy to a
SAP on Ingress
T
r
a
f
f
i
c

F
l
o
w
Classifying Traffic:
Incoming traffic is identified by looking into the datagram and viewing the priority that has been set. Depending
on the priority of the ingress datagrams, they will be assigned to the appropriate classification.
Network Control <NC>
High Priority 1 <N1>
Expedited Forwarding <EF>
High Priority 2 <H2>
Low Priority 1 <L1>
Assured Forwarding <AF>
Low Priority 2 <L2>
Best Effort <BE>
Mapping Traffic into Queues:
The classified incoming traffic is then placed into the appropriate queue
Declaring Queues:
The queues themselves are configured with priority-mode or profile-mode.
Priority Mode (Default) recognizes the queuing priority of the ingress classification and will ignore the explicitly
specified profile state of the forwarding class or subclass.
Profile Mode ignores the queuing priority of the ingress traffic classification. All the packets are either marked
explicitly as in-profile, or out-of-profile based on the Committed Information Rate. Out-of-profile packets are
treated as low priority.
Section 6 Module 1 Page 11
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Some packets are dropped
because the peak size is larger
than Maximum Burst Size (MBS)
No drop because the peak
size is smaller than the
Committed Burst Size (CBS)
In Profile and Out of Profile Traffic
Time
Offered
BW
PIR
CIR
in-profile
out-of-profile
This traffic will be dropped
first in case of congestion
further in the network.
This traffics throughput is
guaranteed throughout the
network.
In-Profile Traffic < Committed Information Rate
Out-Of-Profile Traffic >Committed Information Rate
queue 2 profile-mode create
rate 2000 cir 1000
exit
CIR: This is the minimum guaranteed service rate of a queue. Its functions are to prioritize the queue scheduling
for in-profile and out-of-profile, and to determine the markings of datagrams based on their profiles. For
example, a queue that is below the CIR is services as in-profile and marked as such. If a queue rate exceeds
the CIR, then it is marked out-of-profile and serviced as such.
PIR: This is the maximum rate at which datagrams can exit a queue.
Committed Burst Size (CBS)
The CBS parameter specifies the amount of buffer space reserved for use by a given ingress or egress queue. Once
the reserved buffer space for a queue has been used, the queue contends with other queues for additional
buffer resources up to the Maximum Burst Size (MBS) of the queue. The CBS for a given queue can be
configured or the system can assign a default size.
Maximum Burst Size (MBS)
The Maximum Burst Size parameter specifies the maximum size to which a queue can grow. This parameter
ensures that customers that are exceeding the PIR of a queue will not consume all the available buffer
resources. The MBS for a given queue can be configured or will be assigned a default value by the system.
Service ingress and egress QoS policies define CBS and MBS for each queue separately, and the network QoS policy
defines CBS and MBS for each network queue.
Section 6 Module 1 Page 12
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Quality of Service 6 1 12
Buffering Traffic
Configured as a
% of total
buffer space
0 x
Max
High-Priority-Only
Water Mark
Shared Buffers
Queues are created and use Reserved
AND/OR Shared memory
Every Buffer Pool receives
Shared and Reserved portion
of memory
Reserved
Buffers
MBS
HPO Water Mark identifies the
percentage that is reserved for High
Priority Traffic
High
priority
only
CBS
Q
u
e
u
e
MBS
Buffer Pools
Reserved Buffers
Reserved buffer space is a percentage of the total buffer space allocated to a queue. You can configure the
amount of reserved buffer space allocated to each queue, the default being fifty percent of the total buffer
space of the queue. The amount of reserved buffer space for a queue is known as the committed burst size
(CBS) of the queue.
Shared Buffers
Shared buffer space is the buffer space that is not reserved for use by specific queues.
Shared Buffers = Total Buffer Pool Reserved Buffers
A Committed Burst Size (CBS) of 0 means there is no guaranteed buffer space for a queue, and all the buffer
space for a queue is drawn from the shared portion of the buffer pool. In order to guarantee buffer space for
queues within a buffer pool, ensure that the sum of the CBS of queues created with the pool does not
oversubscribe the reserved portion of the pool.
HPO defines the amount of queue space reserved for high-queuing priority (in-profile) traffic. It is defined as a
percentage of MBS. For example, as long as low-queuing priority traffic is less than MBS*(1-HPO), then it will be
admitted. If it goes above that threshold, it will be discarded since the rest of the queue is reserved for high-
queuing priority traffic.
Best practices suggest that all high priority traffic classes be in-profile and all best effort classes be out-of-
profile. That makes HPO unnecessary for these classes. In addition, if HPO is configured greater than 0 for out-
of-profile classes, then buffer space is wasted. Only assured forwarding classes can benefit from the
configuration of HPO.
Section 6 Module 1 Page 13
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HPO Examples: exists per queue
0 x
Max
MBS
High
priority
only
CBS
Q
u
e
u
e
MBS
High Priority Packet
Tail Drop (Buffer full => Drop)
0 x
Max
High
priority
only
CBS
Q
u
e
u
e
MBS
Low Priority Packet
Buffer not full up to HPO => Accept
0 x
Max
High
priority
only
CBS
Q
u
e
u
e
MBS
Low Priority Packet
Buffer full over HPO => Drop
Buffer not full => Accept
Section 6 Module 1 Page 14
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Quality of Service 6 1 14
Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED)
If the utilization of a buffer exceeds a certain threshold, WRED discards
incoming datagrams randomly using a given drop probability
The low slop manages shared buffer access of the low priority traffic,
and the high slope manages the shared buffer of the high priority traffic
Low Slope High Slope
Average Shared Buffer Utilization
D
i
s
c
a
r
d

P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
0
1
Slope Knee
Slope Start
Shared Buffers
Reserved
buffers
Slope policies can be used to manage the shared portion of buffers using the RED buffer management technique. The default
is to drop the tail of any traffic that does not fit in the buffer.
When buffers are neither available/allowed for a given traffic stream, datagrams get discarded. Generally, discards happen
using the tail drop buffer management technique. Under some circumstances, random early detection (RED) buffer
management is ideal. For example, for applications that use TCP (eg. HTTP, SSH, FTP), using RED provides better bandwidth
multiplexing because of TCPs slow-start algorithm. With tail drop, TCP behavior of multiple simultaneous streams may
become sub-optimal due to a condition called global synchronization of the streams. RED avoid this condition and provides
optimal behavior for TCP streams. RED can be configured on interfaces using Slope Policies.
qos
slope-policy "myred" create
high-slope
start-avg 55
max-avg 100
max-prob 100
no shutdown
exit
low-slope
start-avg 40
max-avg 50
max-prob 100
no shutdown
exit
Section 6 Module 1 Page 15
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Quality of Service 6 1 15
WRED Examples: On Shared Buffer Pool
Average Shared Buffer Utilization
D
i
s
c
a
r
d

P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
0
1
Slope Knee
Slope Start
Low Priority Packet + Random Number below Low Slope => Drop
Low/High Priority Packet => Accept
High Priority Packet + Random Number below High Slope => Drop
Low Priority Packet + Random Number above Low Slope => Accept
High Priority Packet + Random Number above High Slope => Accept
x
x
x
x
For packet congestion control, RED and WRED mechanisms are available for congestion management of the
service and network interfaces. A RED slope can be user configured to manage this feature
The 77x0 SR ATM MDAs support PPD. PPD will detect if an ATM cell is dropped from an AAL5 frame, and drop all
subsequent cells up to the tail cell of the AAL5 frame.
ATM PVCs are terminated on a Layer 3 service. Backpressure mechanisms are applied from each per-VC queue in
the ATM MDA to the Forwarding Class queues in the IOM, where congestion management is applied. As a result,
discards can only occur in the IOM queues and not in the per-VC ATM queues.
Section 6 Module 1 Page 16
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Quality of Service 6 1 16
WRED CLI example
qos
slope-policy "myred" create
high-slope
start-avg 55
max-avg 100
max-prob 100
no shutdown
exit
low-slope
start-avg 40
max-avg 50
max-prob 100
no shutdown
exit
D
i
s
c
a
r
d

P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
0
1
Max-avg
Start-avg
Max-prob
show pools network-egress 9/2/1
Pool Information
======================================================
Port : 9/2/1
Application : Net-Egr Pool Name : default
Resv CBS : Sum
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Utilization State Start-Avg Max-Avg Max-Prob
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
High-Slope Up 55% 100% 100%
Low-Slope Up 40% 50% 100%
Once a queue exceeds its reserved buffer allocation and starts using shared buffers, each service packet mapped
to that queue is subject to the probability based drop function. The above slide depicts WRED slope
configurable parameters. Each slope is configured with thresholds describing points on the slope that intersect
the average utilization of the shared portion of the buffer pool (X-axis or horizontal plot with utilization
increasing from 0 to 100%) and the probability of discard (Y-axis or vertical plot with probability rising from 0 to
1).
Configurable parameters are:
Start-avg
Sets the low priority or high priority WRED slope position for the shared buffer average utilization value where the
packet discard probability starts to increase above zero.
Max-avg
Sets the low priority or high priority WRED slope position for the shared buffer average utilization value where the
packet discard probability rises directly to one.
Max-prob
Sets the low priority or high priority WRED slope position for the maximum non-one packet discard probability
value before the packet discard probability rises directly to one.
Section 6 Module 1 Page 17
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Quality of Service 6 1 17
Default Single Tier Scheduler
Per MDA a fast moving arm takes the packets out of all the queues, called
the scheduler
To differentiate traffic streams, the scheduler will prioritize some queues over
other
The highest priority is given to the Expedited Forwarding Queues that
operate at a speed below (within) the Committed Information Rate (CIR)
The second highest priority is given to the Best Effort Queues that operate
at a speed below (within) CIR
The least priority is given to the Expedited and Best Effort Queues that
operate at a speed above CIR
Best Effort Queue
Scheduling
order
1. Expedited < CIR
2. Best Effort < CIR
3. Expedited and Best Effort > CIR
Expedited Queue
Best Effort Queue
Expedited Queue
Best Effort Queue
Expedited Queue
1
2
3
3
3
3
Single Tier Schedulers
Single-tier schedulers are implemented in hardware and are the default method of
scheduling queues in the 7750 SR. Queues are scheduled with single-tier
scheduling if no explicit hierarchical scheduler policy is defined or applied.
There are no explicit configurable parameters for single-tier scheduling other
than a queues CIR and PIR.
Single tier schedulers schedule queues based on the forwarding class of the queue
and the operational state of the queue relative to the queues CIR and PIR.
Queues operating within their CIR values are serviced before queues operating
above their CIR values with expedited forwarding class queues given
preference over non-expedited forwarding class queues.
Pairs of schedulers send traffic to a switch fabric port, service access port, or
network interface.
Queues of the same type are serviced in a round robin fashion.
Section 6 Module 1 Page 18
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Quality of Service 6 1 18
Tier 2 to 3
Tier 1
Hierarchical Scheduling
Hierarchical Scheduling involves creating layers of scheduling policies
which are then applied to services ingress and service egress queues
Up to three tiers of schedulers are supported
Dynamic bandwidth allocation allows for greater use of available
bandwidth while still assuring high priority traffic throughput
Expedited
Best Effort
Best Effort
SAP 1
Ingress Traffic
Tier 3 Tier 2
Tier 1 to 2
Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation
Hierarchical Schedulers (H-QoS)
The 7750 SR makes use of hierarchical virtual schedulers to implement hierarchical QoS (H-QoS).
H-QoS creates a hierarchy of schedulers configured in a series of parent-child relationships. The levels of
scheduler policies are then treated according to their assigned priority. This design allows the 7750 SR to
implement very granular QoS policies consisting of combinations of strict priority queuing and weighted fair
queuing for bandwidth management.
The Virtual scheduler acts as parent for child associated members (queues or other schedulers)
Each child provisioned with two sets of parameters:
within CIR strict level and weight
above CIR strict level and weight
The Scheduler loop makes two passes to distribute available bandwidth:
within CIR pass based on each childs within CIR strict level and weight within level
above CIR pass based on each childs above CIR strict level and weight within level
The Scheduler itself may be root or child of another virtual scheduler
Section 6 Module 1 Page 19
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Quality of Service 6 1 19
QoS Summary: Where to apply the policies
Port
SAP
Port
SAP
Ing. MDA
Ing. MDA
Egr. MDA
Egr. MDA
Port
i/f
Port
i/f
SAP
Ingress
Policy
SAP
Egress
Policy
Scheduler
Policy
Network Policy
Slope Policy
Network Queue
Policy
Lab 11
Buffer Acceptance (WRED/HPO) @ SAP 1, NP 2, NP 3 and SAP 4
Service Classifying (Precedence/DSCP/dot1p/IP and MAC Criteria) @ SAP 1
Network Classifying (Precedence/DSCP/dot1p/EXP) @ NP 3
Default Scheduling @ SAP 1, NP 2, NP 3, SAP 4
Hierarchical Scheduling @ SAP 1 and SAP 4
Marking and Remarking (DSCP/Precedence/EXP) @ NP 2
Marking and Remarking (dot1p) @ SAP 4
Marking and Remarking (DSCP) @ SAP 1
Section 6 Module 1 Page 20
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End of Module/Lesson
Traffic Management