Você está na página 1de 18

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

High Voltage Substation


Modification and Presentation by Asst. Prof. Dr. Teratam Bunyagul KMUTNB

Copyright by:
AREVA Energietechnik GmbH Dr. Uwe Kaltenbron
Berlin, Germany

Prof.Dr.-Ing. Armin Schnettler


RWTH Aachen University

Air Insulated Substation

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

AIS

Introduction
Substation: nodal points in power system

Internationally standardized voltage level: 66 kV, 110 kV, 132 kV, 150 kV, 220 kV, 380 kV 500 kV*, 800 kV* * For
very long transmission distances

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

Introduction

Introduction
Tasks of substation:
Distribution power towards load circuit Separation of different network groups (reduction of short circuit power) Coupling of different voltage level via power transformers Measuring, signaling and monitoring of network data (e.g. U, I, P, Q, f)

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

Substation design
Conventional substations (AIS):
Construction according to standardized minimal distances (clearance) between phase and earth

Normally used for outdoor substations, just in very few cases used for indoor substations Base on single power system equipments
Replacement of single equipment by equipments from other manufacturers is possible. GIS : replacement bay-by-bay; even this is difficult

Simply to expand (in case that space is not an issue) Excellent overview, simple handling and easy access

Minimum clearance in air according to IEC 61936-1


Nominal voltage of system Un r.m.s. kV 110 Highest voltage for equipment Um r.m.s. kV 123 Rated short- duration power frequency withstand voltage r.m.s. kV 185 230 220 245 275 325 360 395 460 Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage 1.2/50 s (peak value) kV 450 550 650 750 850 950 1050 mm 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 Minimum phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase clearance (N)

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

Minimum clearance in air according to IEC 61936-1


Nominal voltage of system Highest voltage for equipment Rated short duration power frequency withstand voltage Rated switching impulse withstand voltage Minimum phase-toearth clearance Rated switching impulse withstand voltage Minimum phase-tophase clearance

Un r.m.s.

Um r.m.s.

1.2/50 s (peak value)

Phase-toearth 250/2500 s (peak value) kV 850 950 1050

Conductor To structure

Rod To structure

Phase-tophase 250/2500 s (peak value) kV

Conductor To Conductor parallel

Rod To Conductor

kV 380

kV 420

kV 1050/1175 1175/1300 1300/1425

mm 1900 2200 2200 2400 2600 2400 2900 3400

mm 2900 3100 3600 3400 3600 4200

1360 1425 1575

Planning of substations
Basis requirements for new substations:
Optimal location of substations within power system (load flow, shortcircuit, customer requirements, long term planning, land space) Selection of substation design Calculation of short-circuit currents and long term development (ratings) Selection of power system requirements Adaption of design according to available space, fixing of busbar configuration (e.g. using wire conductor or tubular conductor) Detailed planning of
Primary and secondary equipment Auxiliary equipment Basement, steel structure Building, earthing system

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

Planning of substatation
Important standards for power system installations:
IEC 61936-1 Power installations exceeding 1 kV a.c. - Part 1: Common rules

Substation configurations
Design planning of a substation normally starts with the development of the electrical single line diagram: Single line diagram:
Number of busbars and substation bays including the relevant equipment

Selection of substation layout depends on


Its importance within the power system (power system reliability in case of failures and maintenance activities) Power system operation

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

Substation configuration
Single busbar configuration

Substation configuration
Double busbars configuration

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

Substation configuration
Double busbars configuration with U-from

Substation configuration
Triple busbars configuration

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

Substation configuration
Double busbars configuration with bypass bus

Substation configuration
Double busbars configuration with bypass disconnector

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

Substation configuration
1 1/2 breaker configuration

Substation configuration
Ring busbar configuration

10

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

Substation configuration
H - configuration

Substation configuration
Busbar coupling/sectionalizing
Busbar coupling Busbar sectionalizing and coupling

11

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

Switchyard layouts
Named based on the switchyard configuration and the location of the busbar disconnectors Criteria to choose the switchyard layout are: Available land Requirements by power system operator Economical requirement Based on voltage level, main purpose (e.g. main transformer station, load-centre substation) different switchyard layouts have shown technical and economical advantages.

Classical layout
115-kV-outdoor AIS bay

12

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

Classical layout
Centre-break disconnector or vertical-break disconnector are arranged side by side in line with the feeder below the busbars Application up to 220 kV Today, not so often used Advantages: Narrow spacing between bays Excellent ways for maintenance of busbars and busbar disconnectors Disadvantages: Higher costs for portal structures and for means for means of tensioning the wires At least one busbar are spanned by connecting wires

In-line layout
115-kV-outdoor AIS bay

13

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

In-line layout
Poles of busbar Centre-break disconnectors stand in line with the busbars Application up to 132 kV Advantages: Lower costs for steel structures are means of tensioning the wires (in case of tubular portals are needed only for the outgoing overhead lines) Busbars not spanned by connecting wires Disadvantages: Wide spacing of bays Maintenance at busbars more difficult longer planned outage times In case of short circuit higher loading of post insulators

Transverse layout
115-kV-outdoor AIS bay

14

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

Transverse layout
Busbar disconnectors are in a row at right angles to the busbar Busbar can be of wire or tube (busbar can be directly installed on busbar disconnectors) Application up to 245 kV Advantages: Narrow spacing between bays(width) Excellent access to busbars Disadvantages: Wide spacing of substation (depth) All busbars are spanned by connecting wires

Diagonal layout
110-kV-outdoor AIS bay, busbar above

15

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

Pantograph disconnector

Diagonal layout
110-kV-outdoor AIS bay, busbar below

16

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

Diagonal layout
Single column disconnectors as busbar disconnector are arranged diagonally with reference to the basbars Busbar arrange below (buabars are mounted on the disconnectors) or above the busbar disconnector Busbar can be of wire or tube Reduced land usage Application especially for 220 kV and 380 kV (land usage)

Diagonal layout
Busbar above: Busbar portals with relatively big hight; dimensioned for high mechanical forces More difficult access to busbar Excellent maintenance access to busbar disconnectors Busbar below: Busbar mounted directly on disconnector reduced means for portals Excellent access to busbars Maintenance on disconnectors require de-energzing of complete busbar

17

Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

11/22/2010

Busbars
All layouts can be installed with either wire or tube busbars:
Wire busbar: Today mainly Al/St- oder Aldrey (AlMgSi)-wires Span width up to 50 m For high current ratings up to four conductors required (per phase) Conductors mounted using tension insulators (porcelain, cap-andpin insulator) In order to protect insulator against flashovers use of arcing horns common In case of short circuit currents additional mechanical stresses will appear. Double pole short-circuit currents critical due to maximum deflection (approximation) after fault clearance.

Busbars
Tubular busbars (preferred for new substation): AIMgSi-tube (outer diameter 50-300 mm, thickness 4-12 mm) Advantageous for high current ratings Due to lower mechanical forces (spanning forces) reduced means for steel and fundaments Additional means for post insulators and mounting material Spanning distance exceeding 20 m Use of welded tubes up to lengths of 140 m Higher wind load forces, damping of oscillations using inserted wires In short circuit cases additional bending moments. Resonant frequencies of busbar in the range of power frequency or double power frequenices have to be avoided.

18