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Useful Language and similar words/phrases Suggested Endings In my view - In my opinion In the first place - To begin with In addition - What is more Furthermore - Apart from this Also - Besides It is argued that - As opposed to the above ideas In conclusion - To sum up (T is advised to ask Ss to memorise the Useful Language section as shown on p. 71 in the Student's Book. T checks in the next lesson.) (Suggested ways of beginning the essay) used to start p. 66 in the out that the opinion.) Cars therefore, are not one of the most serious threats to human life - the drivers are. Cars may be a serious threat to human life. However, how many drivers would be willing to abandon this convenience, which is now no longer a luxury but a necessity for most? Suggested composition

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Writing Upper-Intermediate

Unit 11: Opinion Essays

"Cars are the greatest danger to human life today" In my view the invention of the motor car has caused nothing but problems; from pollution to accidents and deaths. There are various facts and figures that support this opinion. In the first place, cars contribute greatly to air pollution. The poisonous gases emitted by car exhausts are dangerous to our health and can make cities very unpleasant places to live in. In addition to this, cars nowadays can travel at high speeds and as a result people are tempted to drive faster. This causes more traffic accidents and thousands of people die each year from reckless driving and speeding vehicles. On the other hand, it is argued that the car is something that we cannot live without. Its comfort and convenience are hard to beat and these days most families own at least one car. All things considered, I believe that the motor car does endanger our lives in many ways. Only if action is taken to reduce the risks, will it become a safer and healthier form of transport. 5 (Suggested answer)

(T is advised to remind Ss of techniques an argumentative essay as shown on Student's book. T should also point beginnings should include the writer's

The British poet, W.H. Auden, once said that "the aim of education is to induce the largest amount of neurosis that the individual can bear without cracking." It is highly possible that the poet had exams in mind when he uttered these words as many students suffer extreme anxiety when faced with the prospect of exams. In my opinion, far too much emphasis is placed on examinations today. Sleepless nights, cold sweats and headaches; these are just three of the symptoms experienced every year by thousands of students suffering from 'exam pressure'. In my opinion, far too much emphasis is placed on examinations by educational authorities today: 4 (T is advised to ask Ss to give their opinions on cars and provide reasons as well. Then, Ss do the exercise.) (Suggested answer)

I agree that people spend too much time and mar ley on fashion. The way someone dresses shouldn't be the most important thing in life. It's also a waste of money as fashion changes so quickly. Paragraph plan
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I don't think cars are the greatest danger to human life. In my opinion, nuclear weapons, guns and wars pose a much greater threat to mankind. .1.

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3. d

4. b

Suggested

Beginnings

When asked about the safety of cars, most people think about traffic accidents. But have you ever thought about the dangers cars pose to the environment? Every day, hundreds of people are killed in traffic accidents. The automobile can be a very dangerous machine. Yet, there are certain steps people can take to reduce the risk of car travel.

Paragraph 1: Introduction [state the topic and give opinion (not necessary to be a slave to fashion to look smart) li Paragraph 2: Viewpoint 1 and reason (it is expensive to follow fashion - people ge~ into debt trying to keep up)'l Paragraph 3: Viewpoint 2 and reason (fashion followers give up their individuality for the sake of fashion - this gives wrong impression) Paragraph 4: Opposing viewpoint and reason (dressing fashionably gives the correct image for jobs - people who work with the public) Conclusion: Re-state opinion (it is better to wear clothes which reflect one's personality rather than become a fashion slave)

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