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Seminar Report

Lie Detector

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Seminar Report

Lie Detector

PSYCHO PHYSIOLOGICAL CREDIBILITY ASSESSMENT


INTRODUCTION

Lies are part of human life! People often tell lies to deceive others. many of us have heard about lie detector ,some where seen in movies or read it in fiction stories. Does anything of this sort really e ist! "f yes, does it really detect lies! #es it does. $he first thing that comes to our mind is how an instrument with some electronic components can read out our mind. $hough science and technology are growing at the speed of light, has it reached a stage where it can read mind! %ot e actly! &ut it can approach to that stage by monitoring the physiological reaction by plotting graphs.
WHAT IT IS

Polygraph, a multigraph of physiological reaction. Lie detector or polygraph as it is technically called is an instrument that monitors the physiological reaction. "t can detect only deceptive behavior of human mapped to lies. $he underlying factor of this concept is a person is sub'ected to stress while trying to decieve.&iomedical technology is used to bring out this deception. Lying is a sort of defense mechanism used by human to avoid trouble but when it is a serious crime li(e murder, spying on a country, it is necessary to bring out the truth. in such a case polygraph provide a helping hand to the law.
PRINCIPLE APPLIED

)hen someone decieves, sometimes we are able to guess by his*her reactions whether they are deceiving or not. &ut most of the times we are unable to predict this. $his principle of guessing is more widely used with the growing technologies to monitor the physiological reactions. "t monitors the involuntary change that occurs in the body when the person is under stress. &iomedical instruments are used to monitor those physiological reactions. $hey are+
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Seminar Report TAKING THE TEST:

Lie Detector

$his test challenges the mind of the most stoical person. .ll the e5uipments are attached to the sub'ect6s body. . polygraph e am is along process that can be divided up in to several Stages.
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:orensic psychophysiologist, a trained e aminer e amines the sub'ect ;pretest< .he 5uestions the sub'ect ;intest< and loo( for fluctuations in the graphs produced ;post= test< to find the amount of deception.
PRETEST:

$his consists of an interview between the e aminer and the e aminee, where the two individuals get to learn about each other. $his may last about one hour. During this the e aminer gets the e aminee6s side of the story concerning the events under investigation.while the sub'ect is sitting there answering 5uestions, the e aminer also profiles the e aminee. $he e aminer sees how the sub'ect responds to 5uestions and processes information. $he e aminer designs 5uestions that are specific to the issue under investigation. $he physiological reactions that are monitored are heart rate , heart sound,respiratory rate,galvanic s(in resistance.
HEART RATE AS A FACTOR IN DETECTION OF DECEPTION+

%ormally a heart beats >8 times per minute. &ut while decieving, the sub'ect is under stress, hence the rate of heart beat increases. $hat is the fre5uency of heart rate increases. $his involuntary response going in a person6s body is detected by forensic psychophysiologist.hence by monitoring heart beat one can detect deception. "n heart rate there are two parameters monitored. 7. &ioelectric signals produced by heart muscle cells. 8. Sound produced by the heart.
WHAT ARE BIOELECTRIC SIGNALS?

0ertain types of cells inside the body, such as nerve and muscle cells are encased in semi permeable membrane that permits some substance to pass through the membrane and bloc( the others. Surrounding the cells are body fluids. $hese are conductive solutions containing ions. $he principle ions are sodium, potassium and chloride. $he cell membrane readily permits potassium and chloride ions and bloc( sodium ions. Since a balance is re5uired between inside and outside of the cell, both according to concentration and electric charge, the inability of sodium to penetrate the membrane results in two condition.
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Seminar Report

Lie Detector

7. $he concentration of sodium ions inside the cell becomes much lower than the fluid outside. Since sodium ions are positive, they would ma(e the outside of the cell more positive. 8. $o balance electric charge, additional potassium ions which are also positive enter the cell, ma(ing the concentration higher inside than outside. Due to concentration imbalance of potassium ions, e5uilibrium is reached with a potential difference across the membrane, negative on the inside and positive on the outside. $his membrane potential is called resting potential or bio electric potential. $his potential is negative since it is measured from inside to the body fluids. . cell at resting potential is said to be polari?ed. )hen a cell membrane is e cited by the flow of ionic current or by some form of e ternally applied energy, the membrane changes its characteristics and begins to allow some of the sodium ions to enter. $hese movements of sodium ions into the cell constitute an ionic current flow. $his process of disturbing the cell from its polari?ed state by the rushing in of sodium ions is called depolari?ation. /nce the rushing in of sodium ions is stopped, the in lying sodium ions are rushed out by an active process called sodium pump. $hus the cell again becomes polari?ed. $his process of converting the cell from depolari?ed state bac( to polari?ed state is called repolari?ation.
PHYSIOLOGICAL NATURE OF BIOELECTRIC SIGNAL

$#P-S /: ).2-S P=wave R=wave ;BRS comple < $=wave 4=wave

/R"3"% atrial depolari?ation or contraction

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D4R.$"/% second @.78=@.88 ;PR=interval< @.@>=@.7 @.@A=@.7A ;S$=interval< @.8 ;$4=interval<

repolari?ation of atria and depolari?ation of 7.C ventricles ventricular repolari?ation repolari?ation of inter ventricular system @.7=@.A D@.7

SOUNDS OF HEART www.seminarsonly.com

Seminar Report

Lie Detector

Listening to sound produced by organs and vessels is called auscultation. . normal heart beat produces two distinct sounds often described as Elub=dubE. Lub:-it is a long and a dull sound caused by the closure of atrio=2entricular valves, which permits flow of blood from the atria into the ventricles but prevent in the reverse direction. Dub:-it is a short and sharp sound caused by the closure of semi lunar 2alves, which release blood into pulmonary and systemic circulatory systems. $here is sometimes a third heart sound especially in young adults which occurs from @.7=@.8 second after the second heart sound. $his is due to the rush of blood from atria into the ventricles.

CORRELATION OF HEART SOUND WITH BIOELECTRIC SIGNALS:

$he first heart sound occurs at the time of BRS=comple . $he second heart sound occurs at the time of end of t=wave.

HEART RATE MONITORING.

$he bioelectric signals generated in the heart muscle cells are converted to electric signals. .lso the sound signals of the heart are converted to electric signals and the graph of those signals is monitored.
TRANSDUCTION OF BIOELECTRIC SIGNALS. BLOCK DIAGRAM: www.seminarsonly.com

Seminar Report

Lie Detector

output

SURFACE ELECTRODES:

"t is employed to pic( up electrical signals. "t is a type of biopotential electrode. $hey use metal=electrolyte interface. $he interface of metallic ions in the solution with their associated metals results in an electric potential which is called electrode or half=cell potential. $his potential acts as voltage source. $his potential is the result of the difference in the diffusion rate of ion in and out of the metal. -5uilibrium is produced by the formation of the layer of charge at the interface. $his charge is a double layer, with the layer nearest to the metal being on one polarity and the layer ne t of opposite polarity. $his double layer acts as capacitor. $here is some lea(age potential. $his acts as a resistor which is in parallel with the capacitor. $here is some s(in resistance to the electrode. $his acts as series resistor to the parallel circuit. $hese parameters form the electrical e5uivalent of the electrode interface circuit.

$he electrode measures the ionic potential at one point of the body. $he bioelectric potential is
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Seminar Report

Lie Detector

actually the ionic potential difference between two points of the body. ,ence to obtain bioelectric potential two electrodes are re5uired. $his combination of two electrodes acts as a transducer. $he two electrodes should be of same type to ensure that we obtain the true bioelectric potential of the body.
ISOLATION AMPLIFIER

"t increases the input impedence.Low pass filter with carrier fre5uency 7@ (,? to reduce the "nterference due to surgery. ,igh and over volt protection to withstand volt during refibrillation. %otch filter to eliminate interference due to line fre5uency.

TRANSDUCTION OF HEART SOUND SIGNALS+ BLOCK DIAGRAM:

CONDENSER MICROPHONE:

$he conversion of heart sound to electric signal can be done using a transducer called condensor microphone.there is two main categories. 7. air coupled microphone 8. contact microphone "n air coupled microphone, the movement of chest is transferred in air cushion and presents low mechanical impedance to the chest. &ut contact microphone is directly
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Seminar Report

Lie Detector

coupled to the chest wall and presents higher impedance, high sensitivity, low noise and light weight. 0ontact microphone is mostly preferred.

"t consists of a diaphragm which acts as rotor and a bac( plate acts as stator of a variable capacitor. $he two electrodes are placed very close to each other. )hen a regulated dc voltage is supplied through a high a resistance across the electrodes, a constant charge is maintainted.it is given by cF5*v.$he vibrations produced by the chest wall changes the position of diaphragm. $his results in change in voltage.
PHONOAMPLIFIER:

$he voltage produced in the condenser microphone is of the order of millivolts.the preamplifier is used to amplify in the order of volts.phonoamplifier has two stages. :irst stage has an amplification of about 8@, second stage about A@.hence the total gain is 7@@@.0ontinuous variation of gain can be achieved through 88 (ilo=ohms potentiometer.

FILTERS:

,igh pass filter of gradual slope of attenuation is used. &and pass filters produce transients and mas(s the splitting of heart sounds. "n abnormal hearts additional heart sounds called murmurs. "n the case of murmurs where greater selectivity is re5uired, high pass filters with sharper slopes are re5uired.

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Seminar Report

Lie Detector

RESPIRATORY RATE:

Pneumographs, rubber tubes filled with air are placed around the test sub'ect6s chest and abdomen. )hen the chest or abdominal muscles e pand, the air inside the tubes is displaced. "n an analog polygraphs, the displayed air acts on a bellows, an accordion li(e device that contracts when the tube e pands. . digital polygraph also uses the pneumographs, but employs transducers to convert the energy of the displayed air in to electronic signals.

ELECTRODERMAL ACTIVITY:

$his is also called as galvanic s(in resistance. $his is basically a measure of sweat on finger tips as they are one of the most porous areas of the body. )e sweat more when we are under stress. :inger plates called galvanometers are attached to the fingers of the sub'ect. $hese plates measures s(ins ability to conduct electricity. )hen s(in is hydrated, it conducts electricity more easily than when it is dry.
INTEST:

$his is the actual test. ,ere the e aminer as(s certain number of 5uestions out of which only a few will be relevant to the issue or crime being investigated. $he others are control 5uestionsE. . control 5uestion is a very general 5uestion, such as have you ever stolen anything in your life!EGa type of 5uestion that is so broad that almost no one can honestly respond with aEnoE.if the person answers no, the e aminer gets an idea of the reaction that the e aminee demonstrates when being deceptive. )hile as(ing 5uestions he simultaneously monitors the physiological reactions which are plotted as graphs in the monitor.
POSTTEST+

$he e aminer analyses the data of physiological responses and ma(es a determination regarding whether the person has been deceptive or not. "f there are significant fluctuations that show up in the results, this may signal that the sub'ect
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Seminar Report

Lie Detector

has been deceptive. -specially when a person displays different responses to a 5uestion that was as(ed repeatedly.
MISINTERPRETATION OF RESULTS+

$here are times when a polygraph e aminer misinterprets a person6s reaction to a particular 5uestion. $he human factor of a polygraph e am and the sub'ective nature of the test are two reasons why polygraph e am results are seldom admissible in court. ,ere are two ways that a response can be misinterpreted+ :.LS- P/S"$"2-+ $he response of a truthful person is found to be deceptive. :.LS- %-3.$"2-+ $he response of a deceptive person is found to be truthful. "f we loo( at laboratory=based studies, false positive errors occur more than false=negative errors. 0ritics of polygraph e ams say that false=positive errors occur in real world scenarios, which biases the system against the truthful person. $hese errors are li(ely to occur if the e aminer has not prepared the e aminee properly or if the e aminer misreads the data following an e am.
APPLICATIONS: %.$"/%.L S-04R"$# 0R"1"%.L "%2-S$"3.$"/% :-D-R.L &4R-.4 /: "%2-S$"3.$"/%S CONCLUSION:

.merican polygraph association has certified that a polygraph is H@I to HJI truthful. $he outputs from the post=test are fed in to the computer, which uses an algorithm developed by applied physics lab of Kohannes ,op(ins 4niversity. "t6s all up to the e perience of the e aminers to line up the 5uestions and interpreting the results. $he .merican government now reali?es their mista(e of overseeing the test and not sub'ecting Robert ,ansenn ;who was spying on .merica for Russia< to this assessment. .fter this incident the .merican government is (een in using this in various fields. $hey want this to get upgraded to be 7@@I accurate. )ith such a progress in this field why can6t an instrument read a person6s mind! #es, it will. "n a very short span of time this field will spread widely all over the world.and one day, very soon our country6s dream of satyameva jayateEwill be fulfilled through this.
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Seminar Report

Lie Detector

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