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COMPARISON BETWEEN YOUR HOUSEHOLD AND

THE DWA AVERAGE* HOUSEHOLD

DWA
Your House
Average

Interior per capita gallons per day 135

Exterior per capita gallons per day 72

http://www.dwa.org/water_info/w_average_...

For the entire USA, one site said "101 gallons per capita (person) per day (gpcd), for both
indoor and outdoor water use in a single-family residence."
http://www.cob.org/documents/pw/utilitie...

This site, from the U.K. gives litres per day of domestic water consumption:
http://www.sustainable-development.gov.u...

1 year ago
100% 1 Vote
What fixtures use the most water in my home?
Toilet flushing, using the faucet, and washing laundry are all things we do around
the home that use
water. Some of these fixtures require differing amounts of water to operate
effectively. If your home
or apartment was constructed before 1993, you likely have fixtures installed that
sometimes can use
twice as much water as homes or apartments that were built after 1993.
Fixture Type Pre-1993 Low-Flow
Toilets (gallons per flush- gpf) 3.5 1.6
Urinals (gallons per flush- gpf) 3.0 1.0
Faucets (gallons per minute- gpm) 3.0 2.5
Showerhead (gallons per minute- gpm) 3.0 2.5
Washing Machines (gallons per load- gpl) 40.0 25.0
Indoor Water Use Per Capita
Clothes
Washer, 21.7%
Dishwasher,
1.4%
Faucet, 15.7%
Shower, 16.8%
Toilet, 26.7%
Leak, 13.7%
Other Domestic,
Bath, 1.7% 2.2%
Source: American Water Works Association

rate your water usage.


Gallons Per Person
Per Day Rank Comments
<80 gal/day Excellent Wow! You use water wisely. Please share your
conservation techniques with friends and neighbors.
80 . 100 gal/day Good
Good Job! You use less water than the average
Maryland citizen. Look at the conservation tips below
to learn how you can conserve even more water.
101 . 120 gal/day Fair
You use more water than the average Maryland citizen.
Read the conservation tips below to learn how you can
conserve water.
>120 gal/day Poor You use a lot of water. Read the conservation tips below
to learn how to conserve water in the home.
HOW CAN I CONSERVE WATER?
Check for Leaks
Low Consumption Toilet*** 1.6 flush
Conventional Showerhead* 3-10 min
Low-Flow Showerhead 2-2.5 min.
Faucet Aerator* 3-6 min.
Flow Regulating Aerator 0.5-2.5 min.
Top-Loading Washer 40-55 load
Front-Loading Washer 22-25 load
Dishwasher 8-12 load
* Manufactured before 1978
** Manufactured from 1978 to 1993

Household Water Usage

What is average?
The water industry estimates that an average person uses 3,000 gallons of water monthly,
so a family of 4 would use 12,000 gallons, for bathing, cooking, washing, recreation and
watering. But a lot of factors come into play when calculating average use so, in reality,
one person's usage may be a lot higher or lower than another person's. Here are some
things to think about, if you suspect your water bill is too high.

• Households with backyard swimming pools are likely to see a spike up in water
use in months when the pools are filled and filtered.
• Households with lawns or gardens must factor in the amount of water sprinkled
on grass, flowers and vegetables. Outdoor watering uses 5 to 10 gallons per
minute. So in 10 or 20 minutes, you may use 100 gallons – the amount industry
experts estimate is used by an average person each day for all personal water
needs! If the climate turns unseasonably dry, expect to use even more water to
keep your garden alive and your grass green.
• The number of people in the household is an important factor. Water use
generally rises if your family grows, if Uncle Harry moves in for a week or if you
host a birthday party for 20 guests.
• A family with fashion conscious teen-agers probably washes more clothes more
often than an older person who lives alone. More water is used per load when the
machine is set on high.
• If you take a tub bath, you will use about 36 gallons of water, compared with the
25 to 50 gallons required for a shower. New showerheads, however, reduce the
water used in an average shower to just 2 gallons per minute versus 5 or 6 gallons
that spurt out of older showerheads.
• One toilet flush will use 5 to 7 gallons unless it is in a new home where 1.5 gallon
comm

Overall, per capita water usage in Fort Collins and Loveland was similar, during the period
1998-2007. On average, Fort Collins consumed more gallons of water per person per day than
Loveland (176 gallons per person per day, compared to 161 in Loveland).

Data Tables:

Per Capita Water Consumption (Gallons Per Person Per Day)

Fort Collins Loveland


1996 203 176
1997 188 163
1998 196 176
1999 185 161
2000 211 204
2001 198 188
2002 183 161
2003 154 149
2004 146 139
2005 155 158
2006 172 143
2007 162 127

Number Of People In Residence 1

Bathroom Water Use


Daily Showers In The Residence 1

Average Shower Time In Minutes 6.3

Shower Head Flow Rate (3.8 std. 1.6 res.) 3.8

Total Weekly Baths In Residence 0

Toilet Water Use


Average Number Of Flushes Daily Per Person 4

Gallons Per Flush (5 std. 1.6 res.) 5

Faucet Water Use


Average Number Of Times Each Person Uses Faucet Daily 5

How Many Minutes Each Use .5

Dishwashing Water Use


How Many Times Are Dishes Washed By Hand Daily 1

How Many Minutes Each Use 5

How Many Dishwasher Loads Each Week 7

Gallons Per Dishwasher Load 15

Laundry Water Use


How Many Loads Of Laundry Each Week 7

How Many Gallons Each Load 55

Lawn Water Use


How Many Times Is The Lawn Watered Each Week 7

For How Many Minutes Each Time 30

How Many Minutes For Other Outdoor Use Each Week 10

Reset Form

Calculated Results
Bathroom 24
gallons

Lawn Watering 450


gallons

Toilets 20
gallons
Other Outdoor Uses 14
gallons
Faucets 8
gallons

Laundry 55
gallons

Dishwasher 15
gallons

Hand Washing Dishes 15


gallons

COMPARISON BETWEEN YOUR HOUSEHOLD AND


THE DWA AVERAGE* HOUSEHOLD
DWA
Your House
Average
Interior per capita gallons per day 137 135

Exterior per capita gallons per day 464 72

Total Per Capita Gallons Of Water Used


Per Day Per Month Per Year

CE 516
Design of Water Distribution Systems
In this section, we have learned how to size pipelines and pumps
for pipe networks.
We will now examine some of the practicalities which need to be
considered when
designing such closed conduit systems. This is a review of section
2.5 in your
text (which you should read). The primary function of water
distribution systems
are to
1. meet the water demands of users while maintaining acceptable
pressures
in the system
2. supply water for fire protection at specific locations within the
system,
while maintaining acceptable pressures for normal service.
3. provide sufficient level of redundancy to support minimum level
of service
during emergency conditions (i.e. power loss or water main failure.)
Components
The components of a water distribution system include:
• pipelines - carry water from the treatment facility to the users.
transmission mains - the largest pipes which carry flow from the
water
treatment facility to the network. These pipes are often greater than
(D > 600 mm).
feeder mains - (pipelines which feed flow from the transmission
main
to the individual pipe networks of every service area (D _ 400 - 500
mm)
distribution mains - the grid of pipelines which provides service to
all users (D _ 150 - 300 mm)
service lines - pipelines which go from the distribution mains to the
individual house/facility.
The individual lines are sized as per momentum equation (Darcy-
Weisbach) and
energy equation (head loss equation.)
Closed Conduit Flow 1 of 12 Design of water distribution systems
CE 516
Components (continued)
• pumps - maintain required pipeline service pressure. Because of
variable demand
requirements multiple pumps or pumps with variable motors are
often
required.
booster pumps - maintain required service pressure along long
pipelines
fire-service pumps - provide additional capacity for emergency
situations
Pumps operate at the intersection of pump performance and
network
system curves and must adjust to highly variable demand. As such,
multiple pumps may be required for steady, cyclical, and
emergency
demands
• storage facilities - accommodates demand fluctuation by storing
excess
water until it’s necessary
ground storage - ground level storage which discharge water to the
system with a pump
elevated storage - storage tank at the elevation required to deliver
water at required pressure (or head).
• Valves - required for removing components and rerouting flows
• Meters - required for monitoring flows
Closed Conduit Flow 2 of 12 Design of water distribution systems
CE 516
Component Design Life
The preferred design life for the various components of water
supply systems is
given with the following table (Chin, Table 3.11)
Component Design Period Design Capacity
(years)
Sources of supply
River indefinite Max daily
Wellfield 10-25 Max daily
Reservoir 25-50 Average annual
Pumps
Low-lift 10 Max daily
High Lift 10 Max hourly
Water Treatment 10-15 Max daily
Service Reservoir 20-25 Working storage +
fire + emergency
Distribution system
Pipe or Conduit 25-50 Max daily + fire OR
max hourly demand
Distribution Grid
Closed Conduit Flow 3 of 12 Design of water distribution systems
CE 516
Operating Pressure of System
The required system pressure demands on several considerations
listed below:
• excellent flow to a 3 story building requires 290 kPa
• adequate flow for residential areas requires 240 kPa
• adequate flow to a 20 story building requires 830 kPa*
*Please note this isn’t desirable because of waste and leak,
instead most tall
buildings have their own on site pumps. Generally, pressures of
greater than
650 kPa should be avoided.
• adequate flow to most systems recommends 410-520 kPa
ordinary consumption for 10 story buildings
adequate service for sprinklers in buildings of 4-5 stories
adequate fire hydrant service
adequate margin for fluctuations due to clogging and other losses
Closed Conduit Flow 4 of 12 Design of water distribution systems
CE 516
Water Demand
Demands of the entire population must be considered before
designing a water
distribution system. Possible demand sources include:
• residential
• commercial
• industrial
• public
The average city requires 660 liters/day/person. The distribution of
demand
between all the possible sources is given in the table below.
Typical distribution of water use for an average city (Shin, 2000,
Table 3.4)
Category Average use Percent of total
(liters/day)/person
Residential 260
Commercial 90
Industrial 190
Public 70
Loss 50
Total 660
Closed Conduit Flow 5 of 12 Design of water distribution systems
CE 516
Water Demand (continued)
The distribution of average per capita rates among 292 water
supply systems in
the U. S. that serve 95 million people is given in the table below.
Average distribution of per capita water demand (Shin, 2000, Table
3.5)
Range Number of Percent of total
(liters/day)/person systems
190-370 30 8
380-560 132 34
570-750 133 34
760-940 51 13
950-1130 19 5
>1140 27 7
Please note: these figures are based on 392 US water supply
systems serving 95
million people (1984 Water Utility Operating Data, 1986 AWWA)
Closed Conduit Flow 6 of 12 Design of water distribution systems
CE 516
Water Demand Projections
When planning for a water supply system, the water demand at the
end of the
network design life is generally used as the basis for the project
design. Because
the demand of the system 20 years in the future is not known, it is
necessary to
make some kind of prediction or forecasting about the municipality
growth. A
variety of Forecasting models exist, including:
• aggregate models - treat the population as a whole
• disaggregate models - break up the population into groups and
predict the
growths of each group. An example of this is cohort analysis
(Sykes 1995)
which segregates age and gender. These models require large
quantities of
data.
• empirical models - are based solely on data.
Please note that after 10 years, empirical models are as reliable as
disaggregate
models.
Population growth is not generally steady and tends to grow at
varying rates.
Closed Conduit Flow 7 of 12 Design of water distribution systems
CE 516
Geometric growth phase - occurs when there are wide open
spaces and is
modelled with
Arithmetic growth phase - occurs after the initial growth has leveled
off and
is modelled with
Declining growth phase - occurs when growth becomes limited by
available
resources
Each of the above phases is generally limited to 10 years in
duration. For situations
when a longer projection is required a long term projection can be
approximated
with an S-curve (most common used is a logistic curve)
Please note, use existing data to determine a & b.
Please note, that for projections of less than 10 years a 10% error
can be expected,
but for projections greater than 20 years a 50% error can be
expected.
Closed Conduit Flow 8 of 12 Design of water distribution systems
CE 516
Demand Variations
The demand in a water distribution system varies, daily, weekly,
seasonally, and
in the case of emergencies such as fires. Typical daily variations
are given in the
below figure (Chin, Figure 3.23)
Closed Conduit Flow 9 of 12 Design of water distribution systems
CE 516
The range of demand conditions are specified with peaking or
demand factors.
An example of the demand factors is found in the below table
(Chin, Table 3.6).
Condition Range of Typical
demand factors value
Daily average in maximum month 1.1-1.5
Daily average in maximum week 1.2-1.6
Maximum daily demand 1.5-3.0
Maximum hourly demand 2.0-4.0
Minimum hourly demand 0.2-0.6
In emergency situations as a result of fires the demand may
increase significantly.
The most common method for estimating peak demands due to
fires is a method
proposed by the Insurance Services Office (ISO, 1980). Their
method estimates
the Needed Fire Flow, NFF, with
NFFi = CiOi(X + P)i
where
C is the construction factor
O is the occupancy factor
X is the exposure factor
P is the proximity factor
i is the location where the flow is needed
The maximum needed fire flow is less than 45,000 L/min
Please see Chin for a more complete discussion of needed fire
flows and the required
coefficients
Closed Conduit Flow 10 of 12 Design of water distribution systems
CE 516
Required fire flow durations to satisfy insurance requirements
(Chin, Table 3.10)
Required fire flow Durations
(L/min) (hours)
<9,000 2
11,000-13,000 3
15,000-17,000 4
19,000-21,000 5
23,000-26,000 6
26,000-30,000 7
30,000-34,000 8
34,000-38,000 9
38,000-45,000 10
Closed Conduit Flow 11 of 12 Design of water distribution systems
CE 516
Example
A water-supply system is being designed to serve a population of
200,000 people,
with an average per capita demand of 600 L/day/person and a
needed fire flow
of 28,000 L/min. If the water supply is to be drawn from a river,
then what
should be the design capacity of the supply pumps and water
treatment plant?
For what must be kept in the service reservoir to accommodate a
fire? What
should the design capacity of the distribution pipes be?
Solution
assume:
a) find design capacity given:
b) determine required flow duration and volume
c) determine design capacity for pipes
Closed Conduit Flow 12 of 12 Design of water distribution systems

The purpose with a domestic water supply system is to provide the consumers with enough hot and
cold water.

Common in old buildings is the system with gravity storage tanks on the top floor of the building. More
common in new systems are pressurized tanks connected to the supply pumps.

Domestic Water Supply with Gravity Tank

The domestic water supply system with gravity tank is presented below:
For proper operation of the system, the gravity tank is located at least 30 ft or 10 m above the highest
outlet or consumer. In tall buildings it's necessary to use pressure reducing valves in the lowest floors
before the fittings.

The volume of the tank must be designed to compensate for the limited capacity of the supply lines.
The tank fills up when the consumption of hot and cold water is lower than the capacity of the supply
lines - and the tank is emptied when the consumption is higher than the supply lines capacity.

A drawback with the system with the open gravity tank on the top floor is the potential danger of
freezing during winter conditions. Huge tanks will also influence the construction of the building.

Domestic Water Supply with a Pressurized Tank


The domestic water supply system with a pressurized tank is presented below:

The pressurized tank is partly filled with air behind a membrane. The air compensates for pressure
variations during consumption and during supply pump starts and stops.

The pressurized tank has a limited compensating capacity for shortage in main supply lines.

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Hot and Cold Water Pipes Sizing


Recommended dimensions of hot and cold water pipes
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The table below can be used to determine the maximum numbers of draw offs
served by a pipe:
Maximum number of draw offs served
Nominal bore of pipe
Flow pipes

Return pipes
Head up to Head over
Steel pipe Copper pipe
in 20 m 20 m
(mm) (mm)
(70 ft) (70 ft)

1/2 15 15 1 1-2 1-8

3/4 20 22 2-4 3-9 9 - 29

1 25 28 5-8 10 - 19 30 - 66

1 1/4 32 35 9 - 24 20 - 49 67 - 169

1 1/2 40 42 25 - 49 50 - 79 170 - 350

2 50 54 50 - 99 80 - 153

2 1/2 65 67 100 - 200 154 - 300

• Basins, Zinks, showers and similar are regarded as 1 draw off

The table below indicates sewage pipe capacity in gpm:

Carrying Capacity of Sewer Pipe (gallons per minute)

Size of Decline per 100 ft pipe (feet)


pipe
(inches)
1 2 3 6 9 12 24 36

3 13 19 23 32 40 46 64 79

4 27 38 47 66 81 93 131 163

6 75 105 129 183 224 258 364 450

8 153 211 265 375 460 527 750 923


9 205 290 355 503 617 712 1006 1240

10 267 378 463 655 803 926 1310 1613

12 422 596 730 1033 1273 1468 2076 2554

15 740 1021 1282 1818 2224 2464 3617 4467

18 1168 1651 2022 1860 3508 4045 5704 7047

24 2396 3387 4155 5874 7202 8303 11744 14466

27 4407 6211 7674 10883 13257 15344 21770 26622

30 5906 8352 10223 14298 17717 20204 28129 35513

36 9700 13769 16816 23760 29284 33722 47523 58406

The discharge rate is based on clean water and half filled pipes.

• 1 gal (US)/min = 6.30888x10-5 m3/s = 0.0227 m3/h = 0.06309 dm3(liter)/s = 2.228x10-3 ft3/s =
0.1337 ft3/min

The table below can be used to indicate cold water storage per occupant:

Storage per occupant


Type of building
liters gal

Factories (no process) 10 2

Hospitals, per bed 135 30

Hospitals, per staff on duty 45 10

Hostels 90 20

Hotels 135 30
Houses and flats 135 30

Offices with canteens 45 10

Offices without canteen 35 8

Restaurant per meal 7 1.5

Schools, boarding 90 20

Schools, day 30 7

The Water Supply Fixture Units - WFSU - are used to determine the water demand in water supply
systems. One WFSU for a singel unit corresponds to one GPM.

• 1 WSFU = 1 GPM

This conversion can only be used for one or a few fixtures. When the total amount for many fixtures
are added up, the number must be compensated due to the intermittent use of the fixtures. This is
normal taken care of in the tables available for sizing supply pipe lines.

When special equipment or manifolds are sized the table below can be used to indicate the flowrate.
Note that the minimum flow rate can never be less than the fixture with the largest demand.

The tables below can be used to estimate the demand in the water supply system when the load in
WSFU is known. There are tables for systems with and without flush valves.

Water Supply System without Flush Valves

WSFU GPM ft3/min liter/sec

1 3 0.41 0.19

2 5 0.68 0.32

4 8 1.07 0.51

8 12.8 1.71 0.81

15 17.5 2.3 1.1


30 23.3 3.1 1.5

50 29.1 3.9 1.8

Water Supply System with Flush Valves

WSFU GPM ft3/min liter/sec

5 15 2 1

7 19.8 2.7 1.3

10 27 3.6 1.7

15 31 4.1 2

20 35 4.7 2.2

30 42 4 1.9

50 50 6.7 3.2

Probably Water Supply Diagram

The Drainage Fixture Unit Values (DFU) are defined by the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC), and can
be used to determine the required drainage capacity from the fixtures and their service systems.

Drainage Fixture Unit Values


Minimum Size
(DFU)
Individual Appliance,
Appurtenance or Fixture
Private Public
(inch)
Installations Installations

Bar sink 1 1/2 1 1

Bathroom (water closet,


lavatory, bidet and tub or 6 - -
shower)

Bathtub 1 1/2 2 2
Bidet 1 1/4 1

Bidet 1 1/2 2

Clothes Washer 2 3 3

Dishwasher, domestic 1 1/2 2 2

Drinking fountain 1 1/4 0.5 0.5

Floor drain 2 2 2

Shower 2 2 2

Laundry tub 1 1/2 2 2

Lavatory 1 1/4 1 1

Bar sink 1 1/2 1

Kitchen sink, domestic 1 1/2 2 2

Laundry sink 1 1/2 2 2

Service or mop basin 2 3

Urinal 2 2 2

Water closet with gravity tank 3 3 4

Water closet with flushometer


3 3 4
tank

• 1 WFSU = 1 GPM = 3.79 liter/min

Note that this conversion is only true for one or a few fixtures. Since the fixtures in a system are never
used all at the same time, the total units (capacity) achieved by adding the numbers for all fixtures
must be compensated for intermittent use if we want a realistic estimate of the total drainage load.
Both vertical and horizontal drainage pipes must be supported properly. Recommended maximum
distances between the hangers are indicated in the table below.

Distance between Supports (ft)


Piping Material
Horizontal Pipe Vertical Pipe

ABS plastic 4 4

Galvanized steel 12 15

DWV Copper 10 10

Cast Iron 5 151)

PVC plastic 4 4

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Related Topics
• Water Systems Hot and cold water systems - design properties, capacities, sizing and more

The capacity of vertical downspouts draining roof areas can be found in the table below.

Downspouts Size Roof Area

mm inches m2 ft2

50 2 65 700

65 2 1/2 120 1300

80 3 205 2200

100 4 430 4600

150 6 1255 13500

Both vertical and horizontal drainage pipes must be supported properly. Recommended maximum
distances between the hangers are indicated in the table below.

Distance between Supports (ft)


Piping Material
Horizontal Pipe Vertical Pipe

ABS plastic 4 4

Galvanized steel 12 15

DWV Copper 10 10

Cast Iron 5 151)

PVC plastic 4 4

Each fixture in a water supply system represents a certain demand of water. The table below can be
used to indicate the normal supply requirements of common fixtures.
Minimum Supply
Flow rate
Pressure
Fixture

(gpm) (l/min) (psi) (kPa)

Aspirator 2.5 10 8 55

Bathtub faucet 5 19 8 55

Bidet 2 7.5 4 28

Combination fixture 4 15 8 55

Dishwashing machine 4 15 8 55

Drinking fountain jet 0.75 3 8 55

Laundry faucet 1/2" 5 19 8 55

Laundry machine 4 15 8 55

Lavatory faucet, ordinary 2 7.5 8 55

Lavatory faucet, self closing 2.5 10 8 55

Shower head 5 19 8 55

Shower, temperature controlled 3 10 20 138

Sink 3/8", 1/2" 4.5 17 8 55

Sink 3/4" 6 23 8 55

Urinal flush valve 15 56 15 110

Water closet with flush valve 35 132 25 170

Water closet with gravity tank 2.5 10 8 55


Water closet with close coupled
3 11 8 55
tank, ballcock

Adding up the numbers to cover all fixtures in a system would give the total demand when all fixtures
are used at the same time. This is almost never a realistic situation for a supply system. A reasonable
estimate must be made based on the simultaneously demand of the fixtures

As a rule of thumb the following velocities can be used in design of piping and pumping systems for
water transport:

Pipe Dimension Water

inches mm m/s ft/s

1 25 1 3.5

2 50 1.1 3.6

3 75 1.15 3.8

4 100 1.25 4

6 150 1.5 4.7

8 200 1.75 5.5

10 250 2 6.5

12 300 2.65 8.5