Você está na página 1de 33

Power System Analysis ELE 371

10:52 AM 1

Instructor: Ayman El-Hag


Office No. EB1-237 Phone No. 515-2965 E-mail: aelhag@aus.edu

10:52 AM

Course References

H. Saadat, Power System Analysis, 3rd edition. PSA Publishing LLC, 2010. J. D. Glover, M. S. Sarma and T. Overbye, Power System Analysis and Design, 5th edition. PWS Publishing Company, 2011.. Course notes (iLearn)
3

10:52 AM

Marking Scheme

Quizzes and homework Course Project Two Midterms Final Total

15% 15% 40% 30% 100%

10:52 AM

Home work:

4-5 assignments 1-2 weeks will be given for each homework No late homework will be accepted.

Quizzes

4-5 quizzes will be given. The topic of the quiz will be from the homework.

10:52 AM

Project:

Deadline of the project is: 19.05.2014 Exam 1: 26.03.2014, during class time. Exam 2: 14.05.2014, during class time The final will be on Monday, May 26 at 8:0010:00 a.m..

Midterms:

Final

For more details, kindly refer to the course syllabus posted in iLearn.
6

10:52 AM

Course Outline

Model and analyze equivalent circuit representation of different components of a power system:

Synchronous generators Transformers Transmission lines (short, medium and long)

10:52 AM

Course Outline

Analyze the steady-state operation of a power system.

Load flow analysis

Analyze the transient operation of the power system.


Short circuit analysis Transient stability


8

10:52 AM

Power System Basics

All power systems have three major components: Generation, Load and Transmission. Generation: Creates electric power. Load: Consumes electric power. Transmission: Transmits electric power from generation to load.

10:52 AM

Power system

Generation

Transmission

Loads

10:52 AM

10

Power system

10:52 AM

11

Generation (in Dubai)


ELECTRICITY ** Installed Capacity MW 2005 3,833 2006 4,599*

Gas Turbines Steam Turbines

MW MW

2,660 1,173

3,026 1,173

10:52 AM

12

GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE

10:52 AM

13

STEAM TURBINE

10:52 AM

14

Transmission

Goal is to move electric power from generation to load with as low of losses and cost as possible. P V I or P/V I Losses are 3*I2 R (for three phase) Less losses at higher voltages, but more costly to construct and insulate.

10:52 AM

15

Transmission

69 kV transmission line 500 kV transmission line


10:52 AM

132 kV transmission line


16

Transmission and Distribution

Typical high voltage transmission voltages are 500, 345, 230, 161, 138 and 69 kV. Transmission tends to be a grid system, so each bus is supplied from two or more directions. Lower voltage lines are used for distribution, with a typical voltages of 13.8, 11 and 6.6 kV.

10:52 AM

17

Transmission and distribution Lines (Dubai)

10:52 AM

18

Loads

Can range in size from less than a single watt to 10s of MW. Loads are usually aggregated. The aggregate load changes with time, with strong daily, weekly and seasonal cycles.

10:52 AM

19

Loads (Dubai)

System Peak Demand (MW) 2011 ____ 2012 ____

System Peak Demand (MW) 2005 ____ 2006 ____

10:52 AM

20

Loads (Dubai)

10:52 AM

21

Basics of Power System Analysis

10:52 AM

22

Single-line Diagram

Most power systems are balanced three phase systems. A balanced three phase system can be modeled as a single (or one) line. Single-lines show the major power system components, such as generators, loads, transmission lines. Components join together at a bus.
23

10:52 AM

Example: Single-Line Diagram


Bus 2
200 MW 100 MVR -17 MW 3 MVR 17 MW -3 MVR

Bus 1
1.00 pu

Generator

1.00 pu 100 MW 2 MVR

AGC ON 150 MW 114 MVR AVR ON

-33 MW 10 MVR 33 MW -10 MVR

-17 MW 5 MVR 17 MW -5 MVR 1.00 pu 100 MW 50 MVR

100 MW

Bus 3

Load

Bus
10:52 AM

AGC ON 150 MW 35 MVR AVR ON

Circuit Breaker
24

Power Balance Constraints

Power flow refers to how the power is moving through the system. At all times the total power flowing into any bus MUST be zero! This is know as Kirchhoffs law. And it can not be repealed or modified. Power is lost in the transmission system.
25

10:52 AM

Basic Power Control

Opening a circuit breaker causes the power flow to instantaneously(nearly) change. No other way to directly control power flow in a transmission line. By changing generation we can indirectly change this flow.

10:52 AM

26

Transmission Line Limits

Power flow in transmission line is limited by a number of considerations. Losses (I2 R) can heat up the line, causing it to sag. This gives line an upper thermal limit. Thermal limits depend upon ambient conditions. Many utilities use winter/summer limits.

10:52 AM

27

Overloaded Transmission Line


Bus 2
359 MW 179 MVR -152 MW 37 MVR 154 MW -24 MVR

Bus 1
1.00 pu

104%
1.00 pu

104%

Thermal limit of 150 MVA


89 MW -24 MVR -87 MW 29 MVR 1.00 pu 179 MW 90 MVR AGC ON 150 MW 102 MVR AVR ON

343 MW -49 MVR 100 MW

AGC ON 150 MW 234 MVR AVR ON

-57 MW 18 MVR 58 MW -16 MVR

Bus 3

10:52 AM

28

Reactive Power

Reactive power is supplied by:


generators capacitors transmission lines loads loads transmission lines and transformers
29

Reactive power is consumed by


10:52 AM

Voltage Magnitude

Power systems must supply electric power within a narrow voltage range, typically with 5% of a nominal value. For example, wall outlet should supply 120 volts, with an acceptable range from 114 to 126 volts. Voltage regulation is a vital part of system operations.
30

10:52 AM

Reactive Power and Voltage

Reactive power and voltage magnitude are tightly coupled. Greater reactive demand decreases the bus voltage, while reactive generation increases the bus voltage.

10:52 AM

31

Voltage Regulation

A number of different types of devices participate in system voltage regulation


generators: reactive power output is automatically changed to keep terminal voltage within range. capacitors: switched either manually or automatically to keep the voltage within a range. Load-tap-changing (LTC) transformers: vary their offnominal tap ratio to keep a voltage within a specified range.
32

10:52 AM

History of power system (war of current)

Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison became enemies due to Edison's promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the alternating current (AC) advocated by Tesla. Which system you think is better and why?

10:52 AM

33