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# Power System Analysis ELE 371

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## Instructor: Ayman El-Hag

Office No. EB1-237 Phone No. 515-2965 E-mail: aelhag@aus.edu

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Course References

H. Saadat, Power System Analysis, 3rd edition. PSA Publishing LLC, 2010. J. D. Glover, M. S. Sarma and T. Overbye, Power System Analysis and Design, 5th edition. PWS Publishing Company, 2011.. Course notes (iLearn)
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Marking Scheme

## 15% 15% 40% 30% 100%

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Home work:

4-5 assignments 1-2 weeks will be given for each homework No late homework will be accepted.

Quizzes

4-5 quizzes will be given. The topic of the quiz will be from the homework.

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Project:

Deadline of the project is: 19.05.2014 Exam 1: 26.03.2014, during class time. Exam 2: 14.05.2014, during class time The final will be on Monday, May 26 at 8:0010:00 a.m..

Midterms:

Final

For more details, kindly refer to the course syllabus posted in iLearn.
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Course Outline

Model and analyze equivalent circuit representation of different components of a power system:

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Course Outline

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## Power System Basics

All power systems have three major components: Generation, Load and Transmission. Generation: Creates electric power. Load: Consumes electric power. Transmission: Transmits electric power from generation to load.

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Power system

Generation

Transmission

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Power system

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## Generation (in Dubai)

ELECTRICITY ** Installed Capacity MW 2005 3,833 2006 4,599*

MW MW

2,660 1,173

3,026 1,173

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## GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE

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STEAM TURBINE

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Transmission

Goal is to move electric power from generation to load with as low of losses and cost as possible. P V I or P/V I Losses are 3*I2 R (for three phase) Less losses at higher voltages, but more costly to construct and insulate.

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Transmission

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## Transmission and Distribution

Typical high voltage transmission voltages are 500, 345, 230, 161, 138 and 69 kV. Transmission tends to be a grid system, so each bus is supplied from two or more directions. Lower voltage lines are used for distribution, with a typical voltages of 13.8, 11 and 6.6 kV.

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## Transmission and distribution Lines (Dubai)

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Can range in size from less than a single watt to 10s of MW. Loads are usually aggregated. The aggregate load changes with time, with strong daily, weekly and seasonal cycles.

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## Basics of Power System Analysis

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Single-line Diagram

Most power systems are balanced three phase systems. A balanced three phase system can be modeled as a single (or one) line. Single-lines show the major power system components, such as generators, loads, transmission lines. Components join together at a bus.
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## Example: Single-Line Diagram

Bus 2
200 MW 100 MVR -17 MW 3 MVR 17 MW -3 MVR

Bus 1
1.00 pu

Generator

100 MW

Bus 3

Bus
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Circuit Breaker
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## Power Balance Constraints

Power flow refers to how the power is moving through the system. At all times the total power flowing into any bus MUST be zero! This is know as Kirchhoffs law. And it can not be repealed or modified. Power is lost in the transmission system.
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## Basic Power Control

Opening a circuit breaker causes the power flow to instantaneously(nearly) change. No other way to directly control power flow in a transmission line. By changing generation we can indirectly change this flow.

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## Transmission Line Limits

Power flow in transmission line is limited by a number of considerations. Losses (I2 R) can heat up the line, causing it to sag. This gives line an upper thermal limit. Thermal limits depend upon ambient conditions. Many utilities use winter/summer limits.

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## Overloaded Transmission Line

Bus 2
359 MW 179 MVR -152 MW 37 MVR 154 MW -24 MVR

Bus 1
1.00 pu

104%
1.00 pu

104%

## Thermal limit of 150 MVA

89 MW -24 MVR -87 MW 29 MVR 1.00 pu 179 MW 90 MVR AGC ON 150 MW 102 MVR AVR ON

Bus 3

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Reactive Power

## Reactive power is supplied by:

generators capacitors transmission lines loads loads transmission lines and transformers
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## Reactive power is consumed by

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Voltage Magnitude

Power systems must supply electric power within a narrow voltage range, typically with 5% of a nominal value. For example, wall outlet should supply 120 volts, with an acceptable range from 114 to 126 volts. Voltage regulation is a vital part of system operations.
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## Reactive Power and Voltage

Reactive power and voltage magnitude are tightly coupled. Greater reactive demand decreases the bus voltage, while reactive generation increases the bus voltage.

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Voltage Regulation

## A number of different types of devices participate in system voltage regulation

generators: reactive power output is automatically changed to keep terminal voltage within range. capacitors: switched either manually or automatically to keep the voltage within a range. Load-tap-changing (LTC) transformers: vary their offnominal tap ratio to keep a voltage within a specified range.
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## History of power system (war of current)

Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison became enemies due to Edison's promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the alternating current (AC) advocated by Tesla. Which system you think is better and why?

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