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MCQ 1.1

The common emitter forward current gain of the transistor shown is F = 100 .

The transistor is operating in (A) Saturation region (C) Reverse active region

SOL 1.1

If transistor is in normal active region, base current can be calculated as following, By applying KVL for input loop, 10 IC (1 # 103) 0.7 270 # 103 IB = 0 IB + 270 IB = 9.3 mA, ` IC = IB IB ( + 270) = 9.3 mA IB = 9.3 mA = 0.025 mA 270 + 100 In saturation, base current is given by, 10 IC (1) VCE IE (1) = 0 10 = I C (sat) 2 IC (sat) = 5 mA IB (sat) = IC (sat) = 5 = .050 mA 100 Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

IC - IE VCE - 0

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MCQ 1.2

The three-terminal linear voltage regulator is connected to a 10 load resistor as shown in the figure. If Vin is 10 V, what is the power dissipated in the transistor ?

SOL 1.2

In the circuit

We can analyze that the transistor is operating in active region. VBE (ON) = 0.6 volt VB VE = 0.6 6.6 VE = 0.6 VE = 6.6 0.6 = 6 volt At emitter (by applying KCL), IE = IB + IL IE = 6 6.6 + 6 - 0.6 amp 1 k 10 VCE = VC VE = 10 6 = 4 volt Power dissipated in transistor is given by. PT = VCE # IC = 4 # 0.6 ` IC - IE = 0.6 amp = 2.4 W Hence (B) is correct option.

MCQ 1.3

Consider the transformer connections in a part of a power system shown in the Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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figure. The nature of transformer connections and phase shifts are indicated for all but one transformer Which of the following connections, and the corresponding phase shift , should be used for the transformer between A and B ?

SOL 1.3

a Equal Phase shift of point A & B with respect to source from both bus paths. So the type of transformer Y-Y with angle 0c. Hence (A) is correct option. The incremental cost curves in Rs/MWhr for two generators supplying a common load of 700 MW are shown in the figures. The maximum and minimum generation limits are also indicated. The optimum generation schedule is :

MCQ 1.4

(A) Generator A : 400 MW, Generator B : 300 MW (B) Generator A : 350 MW, Generator B : 350 MW (C) Generator A : 450 MW, Generator B : 250 MW (D) Generator A : 425 MW, Generator B : 275 MW

SOL 1.4

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PA + PB = 700 MW For optimum generator PA = ? , PB = ? a From curve, maximum incremental cost for generator A = 600 at 450 MW and maximum incremental cost for generator B = 800 at 400 MW minimum incremental cost for generator B = 650 at 150 MW a Maximim incremental cost of generation A is less than the minimum incremental constant of generator B. So generator A operate at its maximum load = 450 MW for optimum generation. PA = 450 MW PB = (700 450) = 250 MW Hence (C) is correct option.

MCQ 1.5

Two regional systems, each having several synchronous generators and loads are inter connected by an ac line and a HVDC link as shown in the figure. Which of the following statements is true in the steady state :

(A) Both regions need not have the same frequency (B) The total power flow between the regions (Pac + Pdc) can be changed by Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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controlled the HDVC converters alone (C) The power sharing between the ac line and the HVDC link can be changed by controlling the HDVC converters alone. (D) The directions of power flow in the HVDC link ( Pdc ) cannot be reversed

SOL 1.5

Here power sharing between the AC line and HVDC link can be changed by controlling the HVDC converter alone because before changing only grid angle we can change the power sharing between the AC line and HVDC link. Hence (C) is correct option. Considered a bundled conductor of an overhead line consisting of three identical sub-conductors placed at the corners of an equilateral triangle as shown in the figure. If we neglect the charges on the other phase conductor and ground, and assume that spacing between sub-conductors is much larger than their radius, the maximum electric field intensity is experienced at

MCQ 1.6

SOL 1.6

We have to find out maximum electric field intensity at various points. Electric field intensity is being given by as follows

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From figures it is cleared that at point Y there is minimum chances of cancelation. So maximum electric field intensity is at point Y. Hence (B) is correct option.

MCQ 1.7

(A) a voltage source with voltage (B) a voltage source with voltage

rV R1 < R2 r < R2 V R1

r < R2 V (C) a current source with current c R1 + R2 m r (D) a current source with current c R2 mV R1 + R2 r This is a voltage-to-current converter circuit. Output current depends on input voltage.

SOL 1.7

Since op-amp is ideal v+ = v- = v1 By writing node equation. v1 v + v1 0 = 0 R1 R2 v1 c R1 + R2 m = V R1 R1 R2 v1 = V c R2 m R1 + R2 Since the op-amp is ideal therefore iL = i1 = v1 r Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE

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MCQ 1.8

(A) Stable (B) Unstable (C) Conditionally stable (D) Stable for input u1 , but unstable for input u2

SOL 1.8

System response is

(s 1) (s 1) (s + 2) H1 (s) = = (s 1) 1 (s + 3) 1+ (s + 2) (s 1) Poles of the system is lying at s = 3 (negative s -plane) so this is stable. For input u2 the system is (u1 = 0)

System response is 1 (s 1) (s + 2) H2 (s) = = (s 1) (s 1) (s + 3) 1+ 1 (s 1) (s + 2) Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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One pole of the system is lying in right half of s -plane, so the system is unstable. Hence (D) is correct option.

MCQ 1.9

Let a signal a1 sin (1 t + ) be applied to a stable linear time variant system. Let the corresponding steady state output be represented as a2 F (2 t + 2). Then which of the following statement is true? (A) F is not necessarily a Sine or Cosine function but must be periodic with 1 = 2 (B) F must be a Sine or Cosine function with a1 = a2 (C) F must be a Sine function with 1 = 2 and 1 = 2 (D) F must be a Sine or Cosine function with 1 = 2 For an LTI system input and output have identical wave shape (i.e. frequency of input-output is same) within a multiplicative constant (i.e. Amplitude response is constant) So F must be a sine or cosine wave with 1 = 2 Hence (D) is correct option. The frequency spectrum of a signal is shown in the figure. If this is ideally sampled at intervals of 1 ms, then the frequency spectrum of the sampled signal will be

SOL 1.9

MCQ 1.10

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SOL 1.10

The spectrum of sampled signal s (j) contains replicas of U (j) at frequencies ! nfs . Where n = 0, 1, 2....... 1 fs = 1 = = 1 kHz Ts 1 m sec

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MCQ 1.11

Divergence of the vector field t is t + (sin z2 + x2 + y2) k V (x, y, z) = (x cos xy + y) it + (y cos xy) j (A) 2z cos z2 (B) sin xy + 2z cos z2 (C) x sin xy cos z (D) None of these Divergence of a vector field is given as Divergence = 4: V In cartesian coordinates t t+ 2 t j+ 2k 4= 2i 2x 2y 2z So 4: V = 2 6 (x cos xy + y)@ + 2 6(y cos xy)@ + 2x 2y 2 (sin z2 + x2 + y2) @ 2z 6 = x ( sin xy) y + y ( sin xy) x + 2z cos z2 = 2z cos z2 Hence (A) is correct option.

SOL 1.11

MCQ 1.12

x = 8x1 x2 g xn B is an n-tuple nonzero vector. The n # n matrix V = xxT (A) has rank zero (B) has rank 1

T

(C) is orthogonal

SOL 1.12 MCQ 1.13

Hence ( ) is correct option. A single-phase fully controlled thyristor bridge ac-dc converter is operating at a Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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firing angle of 25c and an overlap angle of 10c with constant dc output current of 20 A. The fundamental power factor (displacement factor) at input ac mains is (A) 0.78 (B) 0.827 (C) 0.866

SOL 1.13

(D) 0.9

Hence (A) is correct option. Firing angle = 25c Overlap angle = 10c so, ` ` I 0 = Vm [cos cos ( + )] Ls 20 = 230 2 [cos 25c cos (25c + 10c)] 2 # 50Ls

3 = 2 # 230 2 cos 25c 2 # 3.14 # 50 # 4.5 # 10 # 20 3.14 3.14

MCQ 1.14

A three-phase, fully controlled thyristor bridge converter is used as line commutated inverter to feed 50 kW power 420 V dc to a three-phase, 415 V(line), 50 Hz ac mains. Consider dc link current to be constant. The rms current of the thyristor is (A) 119.05 A (B) 79.37 A (C) 68.73 A (D) 39.68 A P = 50 # 1000 W Vd = 420 P = Vd # Id

SOL 1.14

Given that

So

Id = 50 # 1000 = 119.05 420 RMS value of thyristor current = 119.05 = 68.73 3 Hence (C) is correct option.

MCQ 1.15

In a transformer, zero voltage regulation at full load is (A) not possible Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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(B) possible at unity power factor load (C) possible at leading power factor load (D) possible at lagging power factor load

SOL 1.15

In transformer zero voltage regulation at full load gives leading power factor. Hence (C) is correct option. The dc motor, which can provide zero speed regulation at full load without any controller is (A) series (B) shunt (C) cumulative compound (D) differential compound

MCQ 1.16

SOL 1.16

The shunt motor provides speed regulation at full load without any controller. Hence (B) is correct option.

MCQ 1.17

The probes of a non-isolated, two channel oscillocope are clipped to points A, B and C in the circuit of the adjacent figure. Vin is a square wave of a suitable low frequency. The display on Ch1 and Ch2 are as shown on the right. Then the Signal and Ground probes S1, G1 and S2, G2 of Ch1 and Ch2 respectively are connected to points :

(A) A, B, C, A (C) C, B, A, B

(B) A, B, C, B (D) B, A, B, C

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Since both the waveform appeared across resistor and inductor are same so the common point is B. Signal Probe S1 is connecte with A, S2 is connected with C and both the grount probes G1 and G2 are connected with common point B. Hence (B) is correct option. A single phase full-wave half-controlled bridge converter feeds an inductive load. The two SCRs in the converter are connected to a common DC bus. The converter has to have a freewheeling diode. (A) because the converter inherently does not provide for free-wheeling (B) because the converter does not provide for free-wheeling for high values of triggering angles (C) or else the free-wheeling action of the converter will cause shorting of the AC supply (D) or else if a gate pulse to one of the SCRs is missed, it will subsequently cause a high load current in the other SCR.

MCQ 1.18

SOL 1.18

Single phase full wave half controlled bridge converter feeds an Inductive load. The two SCRs in the converter are connected to a common dc bus. The converter has to have free wheeling diode because the converter does not provide for free wheeling for high values of triggering angles. Hence (B) is correct option. The electromagnetic torque Te of a drive and its connected load torque TL are as shown below. Out of the operating points A, B, C and D, the stable ones are

MCQ 1.19

(A) A, C, D (C) A, D

SOL 1.19

(B) B, C (D) B, C, D

From the given characteristics point A and D are stable Hence (C) is correct option. Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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Six MOSFETs connected in a bridge configuration (having no other power device) must be operated as a Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). This statement is (A) True, because being majority carrier devices MOSFETs are voltage driven. (B) True, because MOSFETs hav inherently anti-parallel diodes (C) False, because it can be operated both as Current Source Inverter (CSI) or a VSI (D) False, because MOSFETs can be operated as excellent constant current sources in the saturation region.

SOL 1.20

If we connect the MOSFET with the VSI, but the six MOSFETs are connected in bridge configuration, in that case they also operated as constant current sources in the saturation region so this statement is false. Hence (D) is correct option.

MCQ 1.21

The input signal Vin shown in the figure is a 1 kHz square wave voltage that alternates between + 7 V and 7 V with a 50% duty cycle. Both transistor have the same current gain which is large. The circuit delivers power to the load resistor RL . What is the efficiency of this circuit for the given input ? choose the closest answer.

SOL 1.21

This is a class-B amplifier whose efficiency is given as = VP 4 VCC where VP " peak value of input signal VCC " supply voltage here VP = 7 volt, VCC = 10 volt so, = # 7 # 100 = 54.95% - 55% 10 4 Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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MCQ 1.22

A, B, C and D are input, and Y is the output bit in the XOR gate circuit of the figure below. Which of the following statements about the sum S of A, B, C, D and Y is correct ?

(A) S is always with zero or odd (B) S is always either zero or even (C) S = 1 only if the sum of A, B, C and D is even (D) S = 1 only if the sum of A, B, C and D is odd

SOL 1.22

In the circuit output Y is given as Y = [A 5 B] 5 [C 5 D] Output Y will be 1 if no. of 1s in the input is odd. Hence (D) is correct option.

MCQ 1.23

1-x The differential equation dx dt = is discretised using Eulers numerical integration method with a time step 3 T > 0 . What is the maximum permissible value of 3 T to ensure stability of the solution of the corresponding discrete time equation ? (A) 1 (B) /2

(C)

SOL 1.23 MCQ 1.24

(D) 2

Hence ( ) is correct option The switch S in the circuit of the figure is initially closed, it is opened at time t = 0 . You may neglect the zener diode forward voltage drops. What is the behavior of vout for t > 0 ?

(A) It makes a transition from 5 V to + 5 V at t = 12.98 s Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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(B) It makes a transition from 5 V to + 5 V at t = 2.57 s (C) It makes a transition from + 5 V to 5 V at t = 12.98 s (D) It makes a transition from + 5 V to 5 V at t = 2.57 s

SOL 1.24

In the circuit the capacitor starts charging from 0 V (as switch was initially closed) towards a steady state value of 20 V. for t " 3 (steady state) for t < 0 (initial)

So at any time t , voltage across capacitor (i.e. at inverting terminal of op-amp) is given by vc (t) = vc (3) + [vc (0) vc (3)] e vc (t) = 20 (1 e ) Voltage at positive terminal of op-amp v+ vout v+ 0 =0 + 10 100 v+ = 10 vout 11

-t RC -t RC

Due to zener diodes, 5 # vout # + 5 So, v+ = 10 (5) V 11 Transistor form 5 V to + 5 V occurs when capacitor charges upto v+ . So 20 (1 e - t/RC ) = 10 # 5 11 1 e - t/RC = 5 22 17 = e - t/RC 22 t = RC ln ` 22 j = 1 # 103 # .01 # 10 - 6 # 0.257 17 = 2.57 sec Voltage waveforms in the circuit is shown below

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MCQ 1.25

A solid sphere made of insulating material has a radius R and has a total charge Q distributed uniformly in its volume. What is the magnitude of the electric field intensity, E , at a distance r (0 < r < R) inside the sphere ? Qr Qr (A) 1 (B) 3 3 40 R 40 R3 (C) 1 Q 40 r2 (D) 1 QR 40 r3

SOL 1.25

From gauss law = Q enclosed = # D : ds = Q enclosed 3 Q 4 3 Qr Q enclosed = 4 3 # 3 r = 3 R 3 R Qr3 R3 Qr3 Qr or D # 4r2 = 3 = 1 3 4 0 R R a D = 0 E So,

# D : ds

MCQ 1.26

The figure below shows a three phase self-commutated voltage source converter connected to a power system. The converters dc bus capacitor is marked as C Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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in the figure. The circuit in initially operating in steady state with = 0 and the capacitor dc voltage is equal to Vdc0 . You may neglect all losses and harmonics. What action should be taken to increase the capacitor dc voltage slowly to a new steady state value.

(A) Make positive and maintain it at a positive value (B) Make positive and return it to its original value (C) Make negative and maintain it at a negative value (D) Make negative and return it to its original value

SOL 1.26

To increase capacitive dc voltage slowly to a new steady state value first we have to make = ve than we have to reach its original value. Hence (D) is correct option. The total reactance and total suspectance of a lossless overhead EHV line, operating at 50 Hz, are given by 0.045 pu and 1.2 pu respectively. If the velocity of wave propagation is 3 # 105 km/s, then the approximate length of the line is (A) 122 km (B) 172 km (C) 222 km (D) 272 km

MCQ 1.27

SOL 1.27

Given that .045 2 # 50 1 1 Suspectance of Line = 1.2 pu & C = 2 # 50 # 1.2 Reactance of line = 0.045 pu & L = Velocity of wave propagation = 3 # 105 Km/sec Length of line l = ? We know velocity of wave propagation VX = l LC l = VX LC .45 1 1 l = 3 # 105 2 # 50 # 2 # 50 # 1.2 l = 172 Km Hence (B) is correct option.

MCQ 1.28

Consider the protection system shown in the figure below. The circuit breakers numbered from 1 to 7 are of identical type. A single line to ground fault with zero fault impedance occurs at the midpoint of the line (at point F), but circuit breaker 4 fails to operate (Stuck breaker). If the relays are coordinated correctly, a valid Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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(A) 1, 2, 6, 7, 3, 5 (C) 5, 6, 7, 3, 1, 2

SOL 1.28

(B) 1, 2, 5, 5, 7, 3 (D) 5, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7

Due to the fault F at the mid point and the failure of circuit-breaker 4 the sequence of circuit-breaker operation will be 5, 6, 7, 3, 1, 2 (as given in options) (due to the fault in the particular zone, relay of that particular zone must operate first to break the circuit, then the back-up protection applied if any failure occurs.) Hence (C) is correct option A three phase balanced star connected voltage source with frequency rad/s is connected to a star connected balanced load which is purely inductive. The instantaneous line currents and phase to neutral voltages are denoted by (ia, ib, ic) and (Van, Vbn, Vcn) respectively, and their rms values are denoted by V and I . R V 1 1 WR V S 0 3 3 W Sia W S 1 1 S W Sib W , then the magnitude of If R = 8Van Vbn Vcn B 0 S 3 3 WS W S 1 W Sic W 1 0 WT X S S 3 W 3 T X of R is (A) 3VI (B) VI (C) 0.7VI (D) 0

MCQ 1.29

SOL 1.29

R V 1 1 W S 0 3 3WR S iaV S 1 1 W Si W R = [Van Vbn Vcn] S 0 bW S 3 3 WS W S 1 W SicW 1 0 WT X S S 3 W 3 T X By solving we get R = ;Van (ib ic) + Vbn (ic ia) + Vc (ia ib)E 3 3 3 Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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MCQ 1.30

Consider a synchronous generator connected to an infinite bus by two identical parallel transmission line. The transient reactance x of the generator is 0.1 pu and the mechanical power input to it is constant at 1.0 pu. Due to some previous disturbance, the rotor angle ( ) is undergoing an undamped oscillation, with the maximum value of (t) equal to 130% .One of the parallel lines trip due to the relay maloperation at an instant when (t) = 130% as shown in the figure. The maximum value of the per unit line reactance, x such that the system does not lose synchronism subsequent to this tripping is

SOL 1.30

Here P1 " power before the tripping of one ckt P2 " Power after tripping of one ckt P = EV sin X Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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Since `

Pmax = EV X P2 max = EX , X2

To find maximum value of X for which system does not loose synchronism P2 = Pm (shown in above figure) EV sin = P ` m 2 X2 as Pm = 1 pu, E = 1.0 pu,V = 1.0 pu 1.0 # 1.0 sin 130c = 1 X2 & X2 = 0.77 & (0.1 + X) = 0.77 & X = 0.67

MCQ 1.31

SOL 1.31

Suppose we define a sequence transformation between a-b-c and p-n-o variables as follows : R V VR V R S fa W S 1 1 1W S fp W 2 S fb W = k S2 1W S fn W where = e j 3 and k and is a constant S S W W S fo W S fc W WS S 2 1W VR V R V R V R R V T X XT X T Sia W SVp W S0.5 0 0 W Sip W SVa W Now, if it is given that : SVn W = S 0 0.5 0 W Sin W and SVb W = Z Sib W then, S S S W WS W S W Si0 W W S 0 0 2. 0 W Sic W SVo W SVc W XT X R T X TV X VT X T R S 1.0 0.5 0.75 W S1.0 0.5 0.5 W (A) Z = S0.75 1.0 0.5 W (B) Z = S0.5 1.0 0.5 W S S W W S 0.5 0.75 1.0 W S 0. 5 0. 5 1. 0 W X V X T R T R V 1 . 0 0 . 75 0 . 5 1 . 0 0 .5 0.5 W W S 2S (C) Z = 3k2 S 0.5 1.0 0.75 W (D) Z = k S 0.5 1.0 0.5 W 3S W S W S0.75 0.5 1.0 W S 0.5 0.5 1.0 W X X T T Given that ...(1) FP = KAFS Rf V Rf V S aW S pW where, Phase component FP = SfbW, sequence component FS = SfnW S S W W SfcW SfoW T X T X R 1 1 1V S W and A = S2 1W S S 2 1W W T X

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` and

...(2) ...(3)

R0.5 0 0 V S W where Zl = S 0 0.5 0 W S S 0 0 2.0W W T X We have to find out Z if VP = ZIP From equation (2) and (3) VP = KAZl [IS ] VP = KAZlb A l I p K VP = AZlA 1 I p R 1 1 1V W S ` A = S2 1W S W S 2 1W X T Adj A 1 ` A = A R 2V S1 W Adj A = S1 2 W S W S1 1 1 W T X A =1 3 R 2V S1 W A 1 = 1 S1 2 W 3S W S1 1 1 W T X From equation (5) R 1 1 1VR0.5 0 S WS Vp = 1 S2 1WS 0 0.5 3S S 2 1W S0 0 WS T X R 1 0.5 0.T 5V W S Vp = S0.5 1 0.5W I p S W S0.5 0.5 1 W X T By comparison of equation (5) and (6) R 1 0.5 0.5V S W Z = S0.5 1 0.5W S S0.5 0.5 1 W W T X Hence (B) is correct option. Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE

1

...(4)

...(5)

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MCQ 1.32

Consider the two power systems shown in figure A below, which are initially not interconnected, and are operating in steady state at the same frequency. Separate load flow solutions are computed individually of the two systems, corresponding to this scenario. The bus voltage phasors so obtain are indicated on figure A. These two isolated systems are now interconnected by a short transmission line as shown in figure B, and it is found that P1 = P2 = Q1 = Q2 = 0 .

The bus voltage phase angular difference between generator bus X and generator bus Y after interconnection is (B) 25c (A) 10c (C) 30c

SOL 1.32

(D) 30c

Given that the first two power system are not connected and separately loaded. Now these are connected by short transmission line. as P1 = P2 = Q1 = Q2 = 0 So here no energy transfer. The bus bar voltage and phase angle of each system should be same than angle difference is Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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MCQ 1.33

The Octal equivalent of HEX and number AB.CD is (A) 253.314 (B) 253.632 (C) 526.314 (D) 526.632

SOL 1.33

First convert the given number from hexadecimal to its binary equivalent, then binary to octal. Hexadecimal no. AB. CD 1 0 10 S 1 0 11 $ 1 10 11 0 1 Binary equivalent S A BB B0 CS C A B D To convert in octal group three binary digits together as shown 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 11 $ 11 0 0 11 0 1 0 SSSSSS 5 2 3 6 3 2 So, (AB.CD) H = (253.632) 8 Hence (B) is correct option.

MCQ 1.34

If x = Re [G (j)], and y = Im [G (j)] then for " 0+ , the Nyquist plot for G (s) = 1/s (s + 1) (s + 2) is (A) x = 0 (B) x = 3/4 (C) x = y 1/6 (D) x = y/ 3 Given function is. 1 G (s) = s (s + 1) (s + 2) 1 G (j) = j (1 + j) (2 + j) By simplifying j 1 j 2 j 1 1 G (j) = c 1 # # # m c m c j j 1 + j 1 j 2 + j 2 j m j 1 j 2 j 2 mc 1 + 2 mc 4 + 2 m j (2 2 j3) = 2 (1 + 2) (4 + 2) = c j (2 2) 32 + 2 (1 + 2) (4 + 2) 2 (1 + 2) (4 + 2) G (j) = x + iy = x = Re [G (j)] " 0 = 3 = 3 1#4 4

+

SOL 1.34

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MCQ 1.35

The system 900/s (s + 1) (s + 9) is to be such that its gain-crossover frequency becomes same as its uncompensated phase crossover frequency and provides a 45c phase margin. To achieve this, one may use (A) a lag compensator that provides an attenuation of 20 dB and a phase lag of 45c at the frequency of 3 3 rad/s (B) a lead compensator that provides an amplification of 20 dB and a phase lead of 45c at the frequency of 3 rad/s (C) a lag-lead compensator that provides an amplification of 20 dB and a phase lag of 45c at the frequency of 3 rad/s (D) a lag-lead compensator that provides an attenuation of 20 dB and phase lead of 45c at the frequency of 3 rad/s

SOL 1.35

Let response of the un-compensated system is 900 H UC (s) = s (s + 1) (s + 9) Response of compensated system. 900 HC (s) = G (s) s (s + 1) (s + 9) C Where GC (s) " Response of compensator Given that gain-crossover frequency of compensated system is same as phase crossover frequency of un-compensated system So, (g) compensated = (p) uncompensated 180c = +H UC (jp) 180c = 90c tan 1 (p) tan 1 a p k 9 J + p N p 1 K 9 O 90c = tan K 2 O K1 p O 9 P L 2 1 p = 0 9 p = 3 rad/sec. So,

(g) compensated = 3 rad/sec. At this frequency phase margin of compensated system is PM = 180c + +HC (jg) 45c = 180c 90c tan 1 (g) tan 1 (g /9) + +GC (jg) 45c = 180c 90c tan 1 (3) tan 1 (1/3) + +GC (jg) R 1 V 3 + S 3 W 45c = 90c tan 1 S + +GC (jg) 1 W 1 3 W S b 3 lW S Brought to you by: Nodia and Company Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in X T PUBLISHING FOR GATE

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45c = 90c 90c + +GC (jg) +GC (jg) = 45c The gain cross over frequency of compensated system is lower than un-compensated system, so we may use lag-lead compensator. At gain cross over frequency gain of compensated system is unity so. HC (jg) = 1 900 GC (jg) =1 2 2 g g + 1 g + 81 GC (jg) = 3 9 + 1 9 + 81 900 = 3 # 30 = 1 900 10 in dB GC (g) = 20 log b 1 l 10 = 20 dB (attenuation) Hence (D) is correct option.

MCQ 1.36

Consider the discrete-time system shown in the figure where the impulse response of G (z) is g (0) = 0, g (1) = g (2) = 1, g (3) = g (4) = g = 0

SOL 1.36

(D) [ 1 2 , 2]

2

z+1 z Kz K For system to be stable poles should lie inside unit circle. Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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z #1 z = K! K!

K2 + 4K # 1 2

K2 + 4K # 2

MCQ 1.37

Which among the following gives the fundamental fourier term of x (t) ? (B) cos ` t + j (A) 4 cos ` t j T 4 4 2T 4 (C) 4 sin ` t j (D) sin ` t + j T 4 4 2T 4 Given signal has the following wave-form

SOL 1.37

Function x(t) is periodic with period 2T and given that x (t) = x (t + T) (Half-wave symmetric) So we can obtain the fourier series representation of given function. Hence (C) is correct option.

MCQ 1.38

If the loop gain K of a negative feed back system having a loop transfer function K (s + 3) / (s + 8) 2 is to be adjusted to induce a sustained oscillation then (A) The frequency of this oscillation must be 4 3 rad/s Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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(B) The frequency of this oscillation must be 4 rad/s (C) The frequency of this oscillation must be 4 or 4 3 rad/s (D) Such a K does not exist

SOL 1.38

Characteristic equation for the given system, K (s + 3) =0 1+ (s + 8) 2 (s + 8) 2 + K (s + 3) = 0 s2 + (16 + K) s + (64 + 3K) = 0 By applying Rouths criteria. s2 s1 s0 1 16 + K 64 + 3K 64 + 3K 0

For system to be oscillatory 16 + K = 0 & K = 16 Auxiliary equation A (s) = s2 + (64 + 3K) = 0 & s2 + 64 + 3 # ( 16) = 0 s2 + 64 48 = 0 s2 = 16 & j = 4j = 4 rad/sec Hence (B) is correct option.

MCQ 1.39

with Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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(A) X = c0 s + c1, Y = 1/ (s2 + a0 s + a1), Z = b0 s + b1 (B) X = 1, Y = (c0 s + c1) / (s2 + a0 s + a1), Z = b0 s + b1 (C) X = c1 s + c0, Y = (b1 s + b0) / (s2 + a1 s + a0), Z = 1 (D) X = c1 s + c0, Y = 1/ (s2 + a1 s + a), Z = b1 s + b0

SOL 1.39

From the given block diagram we can obtain signal flow graph of the system. Transfer function from the signal flow graph is written as c 0 P + c1 P s s2 T.F = a Pb a 0 2 0 Pb1 1+ 1+ 2 s s s s (c 0 + c1 s) P (s2 + a1 s + a 0) P (b 0 + sb1) (c 0 + c1 s) P 2 ^s + a1 s + a 0h = P (b + sb1) 1 2 0 s + a1 s + a 0 from the given reduced form transfer function is given by T.F = XYP 1 YPZ = by comparing above two we have X = (c 0 + c1 s) 1 Y = 2 s + a1 s + a 0 Z = (b 0 + sb1) Hence (D) is correct option.

MCQ 1.40

-1 C

where C # (1 dz + z2)

SOL 1.40

Hence (A) is correct option. Given # dz 2 = # (z + idz ) (z i) 1+z C C Contour z i = 1 2 P(0, 1) lies inside the circle z i = 1 and P (0, 1) does not lie. 2 So by Cauchys integral formula 1 (z i) # dz 2 = 2i lim z"i ( z + i ) (z i) 1 + z C = 2i lim 1 z"i z + i

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= 2 i # 1 2i =

MCQ 1.41

A single-phase voltages source inverter is controlled in a single pulse-width modulated mode with a pulse width of 150c in each half cycle. Total harmonic distortion is defined as 2 2 THD = V rms V 1 # 100 V1 where V1 is the rms value of the fundamental component of the output voltage. The THD of output ac voltage waveform is (A) 65.65% (B) 48.42% (C) 31.83% (D) 30.49%

SOL 1.41

2

Pulse width is 150c 150 V = 0.91V s 180 l s V1 = Vrms(fundamental) = 0.4Vs sin 75c = 0.8696Vs # 2 (0.91Vs) 2 (0.87Vs) 2 THD = = 31.9% (0.87Vs) 2 Hence (C) is correct option Here

MCQ 1.42

Vrms = b

A voltage source inverter is used to control the speed of three-phase, 50 Hz, squirrel cage induction motor. Its slip for rated torque is 4%. The flux is maintained at rated value. If the stator resistance and rotational losses are neglected, then the frequency of the impressed voltage to obtain twice the rated torque at starting should be (A) 10 Hz (B) 5 Hz (C) 4 Hz (D) 2 Hz

Hence ( ) is Correct Option A three-phase, 440 V, 50 Hz ac mains fed thyristor bridge is feeding a 440 V dc, 15 kW, 1500 rpm separately excited dc motor with a ripple free continuos current in the dc link under all operating conditions, Neglecting the losses, the power factor of the ac mains at half the rated speed is (A) 0.354 (B) 0.372 (C) 0.90 (D) 0.955 Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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When losses are neglected, 3 # 2 # 440 cos = K 750 # 2 m# 60 Here back emf with is constant = V0 = Km m 440 = Km # 1500 # 2 60 Km = 2.8 cos = 0.37 at this firing angle Vt = 3 2 # 440 # (0.37) = 219.85 V Ia = 1500 = 34.090 440 Isr = Ia 2/3 = 27.83 p.f. = Hence (A) is correct option Vt Is = 0.354 3 Vs Isr

MCQ 1.44

A single-phase, 230 V, 50 Hz ac mains fed step down transformer (4:1) is supplying power to a half-wave uncontrolled ac-dc converter used for charging a battery(12 V dc) with the series current limiting resistor being 19.04 . The charging current is (A) 2.43 A (B) 1.65 A (C) 1.22 A (D) 1.0 A

SOL 1.44

Hence (D) is correct option. Vs = 230 = 57.5 4 Here charging current = I Vm sin = 12 1 = 8.486 = 0.148 radian Vm = 81.317 V = 12 V There is no power consumption in battery due to ac current, so average value of charging current. 1 Iav (charging) = [2Vm cos 1 ( 21)] 2 # 19.04 1 [2 V cos 1 12 ( 21)] = 2 # 19.04 # m # = 1.059 /A A three-phase synchronous motor connected to ac mains is running at full load and unity power factor. If its shaft load is reduced by half, with field current held Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

MCQ 1.45

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constant, its new power factor will be (A) unity (C) lagging

SOL 1.45

When the 3- synchronous motor running at full load and unity power factor and shaft load is reduced half but field current is constant then it gives leading power factor. Hence (B) is correct option. A 100 kVA, 415 V(line), star-connected synchronous machine generates rated open circuit voltage of 415 V at a field current of 15 A. The short circuit armature current at a field current of 10 A is equal to the rated armature current. The per unit saturated synchronous reactance is (A) 1.731 (B) 1.5 (C) 0.666 (D) 0.577 Given star connected synchronous machine, P = 100 kVA Open circuit voltage V = 415 V and field current is 15 A, short circuit armature current at a field current of 10 A is equal to rated armature current. So, Line synchronous impedance open circuit line voltage = 3 # short ckt phase current 415 = 100 # 1000 3 #c 3 # 415 m = 1.722 Hence (A) is correct option. A three-phase, three-stack, variable reluctance step motor has 20 poles on each rotor and stator stack. The step angle of this step motor is (A) 3c (B) 6c (C) 9c (D) 18c Given 3- , 3-stack Variable reluctance step motor has 20-poles Step angle = 360 = 6c 3 # 20 Hence (B) is correct option.

MCQ 1.46

SOL 1.46

MCQ 1.47

SOL 1.47

MCQ 1.48

A single-phase, 50 kVA, 250 V/500 V two winding transformer has an efficiency of 95% at full load, unity power factor. If it is re-configured as a 500 V/750 V autotransformer, its efficiency at its new rated load at unity power factor will be (A) 95.752% (B) 97.851% Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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(C) 98.276%

SOL 1.48

(D) 99.241%

Given 1- transformer P = 50 kVA , V = 250 V/500 V Two winding transformer efficiency 95% at full load unity power factor.

Efficiency

95% =

50 # 1 # 1 50 # Wcu + Wi

MCQ 1.49

A 230 V (Phase), 50 Hz, three-phase, 4-wire, system has a phase sequence ABC. A unity power-factor load of 4 kW is connected between phase A and neutral N. It is desired to achieve zero neutral current through the use of a pure inductor and a pure capacitor in the other two phases. The value of inductor and capacitor is (A) 72.95 mH in phase C and 139.02 F in Phase B (B) 72.95 mH in Phase B and 139.02 F in Phase C (C) 42.12 mH in Phase C and 240.79 F in Phase B (D) 42.12 mH in Phase B and 240.79 F in Phase C Given that, 230 V, 50 Hz, 3- , 4-wire system P = Load = 4 kw at unity Power factor IN = 0 through the use of pure inductor and capacitor Than L = ?, C = ? a IN = 0 = IA + IB + IC Network and its Phasor is being as

SOL 1.49

...(1)

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Here the inductor is in phase B and capacitor is in Phase C. We know P = VI 3 So Ia = P = 4 # 10 = 17.39 Amp. 230 V From equation (1) IA = (IB + IC ) ` ` IA =c IB # IA = 3 IB = 3 +I 3 C # 2 2 m 3 IC a Ib - Ic

IB - IC = 17.39 - 10 Amp 3 Now and &C XC = V = 230 - 23 10 IC XC = 1 2fC 1 = 1 = 2 # 50 # 23 2fXC = 139.02 F XL = V = 230 - 23 10 IL &L So = 2fL 23 = XL = = 72.95 mH 2 2f # 100

MCQ 1.50

The state equation for the current I1 in the network shown below in terms of the voltage VX and the independent source V , is given by

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(A) dI1 = 1.4VX 3.75I1 + 5 V dt 4 (C) dI1 = 1.4VX + 3.75I1 + 5 V dt 4 By writing KVL for both the loops V 3 (I1 + I2) Vx 0.5 dI1 = 0 dt V 3I1 3I2 Vx 0.5 dI1 = 0 dt in second loop 5I2 + 0.2Vx + 0.5 dI1 = 0 dt

SOL 1.50

...(1)

Put I2 from eq(2) into eq(2) V 3I1 3 :0.04Vx + 0.1 dI1 D Vx 0.5 dI1 = 0 dt dt 0.8 dI1 = 1.12Vx 3I1 + V dt dI1 = 1.4V 3.75I + 5 V x 1 4 dt Hence (A) is correct option

MCQ 1.51

...(2)

If u (t), r (t) denote the unit step and unit ramp functions respectively and u (t) * r (t) their convolution, then the function u (t + 1) * r (t 2) is given by (A) 1 (B) 1 2 (t 1) u (t 1) 2 (t 1) u (t 2) (C)

1 2

(t 1) 2 u (t 1)

SOL 1.51

Given Convolution is, h (t) = u (t + 1) ) r (t 2) Taking Laplace transform on both sides, H (s) = L [h (t)] = L [u (t + 1)] ) L [r (t 2)] We know that, L [u (t)] = 1/s L [u (t + 1)] = es c 1 s2 m (Time-shifting property) and L [r (t)] = 1/s2 L r (t 2) = e - 2s c 1 s2 m

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(Time-shifting property) H (s) = ;es ` 1 jE;e - 2s c 1 s s2 mE H (s) = e - s c 1 s3 m Taking inverse Laplace transform So h (t) = 1 (t 1) 2 u (t 1) 2 Hence (C) is correct option.

MCQ 1.52

Hence ( ) is correct Option X (z) = 1 3z - 1, Y (z) = 1 + 2z - 2 are Z transforms of two signals x [n], y [n] respectively. A linear time invariant system has the impulse response h [n] defined by these two signals as h [n] = x [n 1] * y [n] where * denotes discrete time convolution. Then the output of the system for the input [n 1] (A) has Z-transform z - 1 X (z) Y (z) (B) equals [n 2] 3 [n 3] + 2 [n 4] 6 [n 5] (C) has Z-transform 1 3z - 1 + 2z - 2 6z - 3 (D) does not satisfy any of the above three Impulse response of given LTI system. h [n] = x [n 1] ) y [n] Taking z -transform on both sides. H (z) = z - 1 X (z) Y (z) Z a x [n 1] z - 1 x (z) We have X (z) = 1 3z - 1 and Y (z) = 1 + 2z - 2 So H (z) = z - 1 (1 3z - 1) (1 + 2z - 2) Output of the system for input u [n] = [n 1] is , y (z) = H (z) U (z) Z U [n] U (z) = z - 1 So Y (z) = z - 1 (1 3z - 1) (1 + 2z - 2) z - 1 = z - 2 (1 3z - 1 + 2z - 2 6z - 3) = z - 2 3z - 3 + 2z - 4 6z - 5 Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

SOL 1.53

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Taking inverse z-transform on both sides we have output. y [n] = [n 2] 3 [n 3] + 2 [n 4] 6 [n 5] Hence (C) is correct option.

MCQ 1.54

A loaded dice has following probability distribution of occurrences Dice Value Probability 1 1/4 2 1/8 3 1/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/4

If three identical dice as the above are thrown, the probability of occurrence of values 1, 5 and 6 on the three dice is (A) same as that of occurrence of 3, 4, 5 (B) same as that of occurrence of 1, 2, 5 (C) 1/128 (D) 5/8

SOL 1.54

Probability of occurrence of values 1,5 and 6 on the three dice is P (1, 5, 6) = P (1) P (5) P (6) = 1#1#1 8 4 4 = 1 128 In option (A) P (3, 4, 5) = P (3) P (4) P (5) =1#1#1 8 8 8 = 1 512 In option (B) P (1, 2, 5) = P (1) P (2) P (5) = 1#1#1 8 8 4 = 1 256 Hence (C) is correct option. Let x and y be two vectors in a 3 dimensional space and < x, y > denote their dot product. Then the determinant < x, x > < x, y > det =< y, x > < y, y >G (A) is zero when x and y are linearly independent (B) is positive when x and y are linearly independent (C) is non-zero for all non-zero x and y

MCQ 1.55

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SOL 1.55

Hence (D) is correct option. x$x x$y det >y $ x y $ yH = (x : x) (y : y) (x : y) (y : x) = 0 only when x or y is zero The linear operation L (x) is defined by the cross product L (x) = b # x , where T T b = 80 1 0B and x = 8x1 x2 x3 B are three dimensional vectors. The 3 # 3 matrix M of this operations satisfies R V Sx1 W L (x) = M Sx2 W S W Sx3 W T X Then the eigenvalues of M are (A) 0, + 1, 1 (B) 1, 1, 1 (C) i, i, 1 (D) i, i, 0 Hence ( ) is Correct Option In the figure, transformer T1 has two secondaries, all three windings having the same number of turns and with polarities as indicated. One secondary is shorted by a 10 resistor R , and the other by a 15 F capacitor. The switch SW is opened (t = 0) when the capacitor is charged to 5 V with the left plate as positive. At t = 0 + the voltage VP and current IR are

MCQ 1.56

SOL 1.57 MCQ 1.58

(B) very large voltage, very large current (D) 5.0 V, 0.5 A

Hence ( ) is Correct Option IC 555 in the adjacent figure is configured as an astable multi-vibrator. It is enabled to to oscillate at t = 0 by applying a high input to pin 4. The pin description is : 1 and 8-supply; 2-trigger; 4-reset; 6-threshold 7-discharge. The waveform appearing across the capacitor starting from t = 0 , as observed on a storage CRO is

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SOL 1.58

In a 555 astable multi vibrator circuit, charging of capacitor occurs through resistor (RA + RB) and discharging through resistor RB only. Time for charging and discharging is given as. TC = 0.693 (RA + RB) C TD = 0.693 RB C But in the given circuit the diode will go in the forward bias during charging, so the capacitor will charge through resistor RA only and discharge through RB only. a RA = RB So TC = TD Hence (B) is correct option. In the circuit of adjacent figure the diode connects the ac source to a pure inductance L.

MCQ 1.59

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SOL 1.59

MCQ 1.60

The circuit in the figure is a current commutated dc-dc chopper where, Th M is the main SCR and Th AUX is the auxiliary SCR. The load current is constant at 10 A. Th M is ON. Th AUX is trigged at t = 0 . Th M is turned OFF between.

SOL 1.60 MCQ 1.61

Hence ( ) is correct option. In the circuit shown in figure. Switch SW1 is initially closed and SW2 is open. The inductor L carries a current of 10 A and the capacitor charged to 10 V with polarities as indicated. SW2 is closed at t = 0 and SW1 is opened at t = 0 . The current through C and the voltage across L at (t = 0+) is

(A) 55 A, 4.5 V (C) 45 A, 5.5 A Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE

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At t = 0+ , when switch positions are changed inductor current and capacitor voltage does not change simultaneously So at t = 0+ vc (0+) = vc (0) = 10 V iL (0+) = iL (0) = 10 A The equivalent circuit is

by applying KCL vL (0+) vL (0+) vc (0+) + = iL (0+) = 10 10 10 2vL (0+) 10 = 100 Voltage across inductor at t = 0+ vL (0+) = 100 + 10 = 55 V 2 So, current in capacitor at t = 0+ iC (0+) = vL (0+) vc (0+) 10 = 55 10 = 4.5 A 10

MCQ 1.62

The R-L-C series circuit shown in figure is supplied from a variable frequency voltage source. The admittance - locus of the R-L-C network at terminals AB for increasing frequency is

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SOL 1.62

Impedance of the given network is Admittance Z = R + j b L 1 l C 1 Y = 1= Z R + j L 1 b C l R j b L 1 l C 1 = # R + j b L 1 l R j b L 1 l C C R j b L 1 l C = 2 R 2 + b L 1 l C j b L 1 l C R = 2 2 R 2 + b L 1 l R 2 + b L 1 l C C = Re (Y) + Im (Y) By varying frequency for Re (Y) and Im (Y) we can obtain the admittance-locus.

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MCQ 1.63

In the figure given below all phasors are with reference to the potential at point ''O'' . The locus of voltage phasor V YX as R is varied from zero to infinity is shown by

SOL 1.63

In the circuit

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VX = V+0c Vy 2V+0c + (Vy) jC = 0 R Vy (1 + jCR) = 2V+0c Vy = 2V+0c 1 + jCR VYX = VX VY 2V = V 1 + jCR R " 0 , VYX = V 2V = V R " 3, VYX = V 0 = V Hence (B) is correct option.

MCQ 1.64

A 3 V DC supply with an internal resistance of 2 supplies a passive non-linear 2 resistance characterized by the relation VNL = INL . The power dissipated in the non linear resistance is (A) 1.0 W (B) 1.5 W (C) 2.5 W (D) 3.0 W

SOL 1.64

The circuit is

Applying KVL 2 = VNL 3 2 # I NL 2 2 3 2I NL = I NL 2 = 3 & INL = 1 A 3I NL VNL = (1) 2 = 1 V So power dissipated in the non-linear resistance P = VNL INL = 1#1 = 1 W Hence (A) is correct option.

MCQ 1.65

Consider the feedback system shown below which is subjected to a unit step input. The system is stable and has following parameters Kp = 4, Ki = 10, = 500 and = 0.7 .The steady state value of Z is

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SOL 1.65

For the given system Z is given by Z = E (s) Ki s Where E (s) " steady state error of the system Here sR (s) E (s) = lim s " 0 1 + G (s) H (s) Input R (s) = 1 (Unit step) s 2 G (s) = b Ki + K p le 2 s s + 2s + 2 o H (s) = 1 (Unity feed back) So, R V sb 1 l S W s Wb Ki l Z = lim S 2 s"0S K W s i S1 + b s + K p l (s2 + 2s + 2) W T X K i = lim 2 s"0 >s + (Ki + K p s) 2 H (s + 2s + 2) = Ki = 1 Ki

MCQ 1.66

A three-phase squirrel cage induction motor has a starting torque of 150% and a maximum torque of 300% with respect to rated torque at rated voltage and rated frequency. Neglect the stator resistance and rotational losses. The value of slip for maximum torque is (A) 13.48% (B) 16.42% (C) 18.92% (D) 26.79% Given a 3- squirrel cage induction motor starting torque is 150% and maximum torque 300% So Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

SOL 1.66

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TStart = 1.5TFL Tmax = 3TFL Then TStart = 1 2 Tmax TStart = 2S max Tmax S2max + 12 from equation (1) and (2) 2S max = 1 2 S2max + 1 S max2 4S max + 1 = 0 So S max = 26.786% Hence (D) is correct option

MCQ 1.67

...(1) ...(2)

The matrix A given below in the node incidence matrix of a network. The columns correspond to branches of the network while the rows correspond to nodes. Let V = [V1V2 .....V6]T denote the vector of branch voltages while I = [i1 i2 .....i6]T that of branch currents. The vector E = [e1 e2 e3 e4]T denotes the vector of node voltages relative to a common ground. R1 1 1 0 0 0 V S W S 0 1 0 1 1 0 W S 1 0 0 0 1 1W S W S 0 0 1 1 0 1 W T X Which of the following statement is true ? (A) The equations V1 V2 + V3 = 0,V3 + V4 V5 = 0 are KVL equations for the network for some loops (B) The equations V1 V3 V6 = 0,V4 + V5 V6 = 0 are KVL equations for the network for some loops (C) E = AV (D) AV = 0 are KVI equations for the network In node incidence matrix b1 b 2 b 3 R n1 S 1 1 1 n2S 0 1 0 n 3S S 1 0 0 n 4S 0 0 1 T In option (C) E = AV

SOL 1.67

b 4 b5 b6 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0

V 0W 0W 1W W 1W X

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R V S1 1 1 0 0 0W S 0 1 0 1 1 0 W T = V1 V2 V6BT e e e e S 1 0 0 0 1 1W8 1 2 3 4 8 B S W S 0 0 1 1 0 1 W X R R V T V Se1W S V1 + V2 + V3 W Se2W S V2 V4 + V5W Se W = S V V V W which is true. 5 6W S 3W S 1 Se 4W S V3 + V4 + V6W T X T X Hence (C) is correct option.

MCQ 1.68

An isolated 50 Hz synchronous generator is rated at 15 MW which is also the maximum continuous power limit of its prime mover. It is equipped with a speed governor with 5% droop. Initially, the generator is feeding three loads of 4 MW each at 50 Hz. One of these loads is programmed to trip permanently if the frequency falls below 48 Hz .If an additional load of 3.5 MW is connected then the frequency will settle down to (A) 49.417 Hz (B) 49.917 Hz (C) 50.083 Hz (D) 50.583 Hz

SOL 1.68

Maximum continuous power limit of its prime mover with speed governor of 5% droop. Generator feeded to three loads of 4 MW each at 50 Hz. Now one load Permanently tripped ` f = 48 Hz If additional load of 3.5 MW is connected than f = ? a Change in Frequency w.r.t to power is given as drop out frequency f = # Change in power rated power = 5 # 3.5 = 1.16% 15 = 1.16 # 50 = 0.58 Hz 100 System frequency is = 50 0.58 = 49.42 Hz Hence (A) is correct option. Which one of the following statements regarding the INT (interrupt) and the BRQ (but request) pins in a CPU is true? (A) The BRQ pin is sampled after every instruction cycle, but the INT is sampled after every machine cycle. (B) Both INT and BRQ are samped after every machine cycle.

MCQ 1.69

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(C) The INT pin is sampled after every instruction cycle, but the BRQ is sampled after every machine cycle. (D) Both INT and BRQ are sampled after every instruction cycle.

SOL 1.69 MCQ 1.70

Hence ( ) is correct Option A bridge circuit is shown in the figure below. Which one of the sequence given below is most suitable for balancing the bridge ?

(A) First adjust R4 , and then adjust R1 (B) First adjust R2 , and then adjust R3 (C) First adjust R2 , and then adjust R4 (D) First adjust R4 , and then adjust R2

SOL 1.70

To balance the bridge (R1 + jX1) (R 4 jX 4) = R2 R 3 (R1 R 4 + X1 X 4) + j (X1 R 4 R1 X 4) = R2 R 3 comparing real and imaginary parts on both sides of equations R1 R 4 + X1 X 4 = R 2 R 3 X1 R 4 R1 X 4 = 0 & X1 = R 1 X4 R4

...(1) ...(2)

from eq (1) and (2) it is clear that for balancing the bridge first balance R 4 and then R1 . Hence (A) is correct option

A three phase squirrel cage induction motor has a starting current of seven times the full load current and full load slip of 5%

MCQ 1.71

If an auto transformer is used for reduced voltage starting to provide 1.5 per unit starting torque, the auto transformer ratio(%) should be Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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SOL 1.71

Given 3- squirrel cage induction motor has a starting current of seven the full load current and full load slip is 5% ISt = 7I Fl S Fl = 5% TSt = ISt 2 x2 S bTFl l # # Fl TFl 1.5 = (7) 2 # x2 # 0.05 x = 78.252% Hence (C) is correct option.

MCQ 1.72

If a star-delta starter is used to start this induction motor, the per unit starting torque will be (A) 0.607 (B) 0.816 (C) 1.225 (D) 1.616

SOL 1.72

Star delta starter is used to start this induction motor So TSt = 1 ISt 2 S # b 3 TFl I Fl l # Fl = 1 # 72 # 0.05 3 TSt = 0.816 TFl Hence (B) is correct option.

MCQ 1.73

If a starting torque of 0.5 per unit is required then the per unit starting current should be (A) 4.65 (B) 3.75 (C) 3.16 (D) 2.13

SOL 1.73

Given starting torque is 0.5 p.u. So, TSt = Isc 2 S b I Fl l # Fl TFl 0.5 = b Isc l # 0.05 I Fl

2

Per unit starting current Isc = 0.5 = 3.16 A 0.05 I Fl Hence (C) is correct option.

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A 1:1 Pulse Transformer (PT) is used to trigger the SCR in the adjacent figure. The SCR is rated at 1.5 kV, 250 A with IL = 250 mA, IH = 150 mA, and IG max = 150 mA, IG min = 100 mA. The SCR is connected to an inductive load, where L = 150 mH in series with a small resistance and the supply voltage is 200 V dc. The forward drops of all transistors/diodes and gate-cathode junction during ON state are 1.0 V

MCQ 1.74

SOL 1.74

Here, Vm = maximum pulse voltage that can be applied so = 10 1 1 1 = 7 V Here 1 V drop is in primary transistor side, so that we get 9V pulse on the secondary side. Again there are 1 V drop in diode and in gate cathode junction each. I g max = 150 mA So 7 R = Vm = = 46.67 Ig max 150 mA

MCQ 1.75

The minimum approximate volt-second rating of pulse transformer suitable for triggering the SCR should be : (volt-second rating is the maximum of product of the voltage and the width of the pulse that may applied) (B) 200 V-s (A) 2000 V-s (C) 20 V-s (D) 2 V-s We know that the pulse width required is equal to the time taken by ia to rise upto iL so, Vs = L di + Ri (VT . 0) dt

SOL 1.75

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ia = 200 [1 e t/0.15] 1 Here also t = T, 0.25 = 200 [1 e T/0.5] T = 1.876 # 10 4 = 187.6 s Width of pulse = 187.6 s Magnitude of voltage = 10 V Vsec rating of P.T. = 10 # 187.6 s = 1867 V-s is approx to 2000 V-s Hence (A) is correct option. ia = iL = 0.25

An inductor designed with 400 turns coil wound on an iron core of 16 cm2 cross sectional area and with a cut of an air gap length of 1 mm. The coil is connected to a 230 V, 50 Hz ac supply. Neglect coil resistance, core loss, iron reluctance and leakage inductance, (0 = 4 # 10 - 7 H/M)

MCQ 1.76

SOL 1.76

Inductance is given as N2 A L = 0 l 4 # 10 7 # (400) 2 # (16 # 10 4) = (1 # 10 3) = 321.6 mH V = IXL = 230 ` XL = 2fL 2fL 230 = 2 # 3.14 # 50 # 321.6 # 10 3 = 2.28 A Hence (D) is correct option.

MCQ 1.77

The average force on the core to reduce the air gap will be (A) 832.29 N (B) 1666.22 N (C) 3332.47 N (D) 6664.84 N Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

GATE EE 2007

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Energy stored is inductor E = 1 LI2 2 E = 1 # 321.6 # 10 3 # (2.28) 2 2 Force required to reduce the air gap of length 1 mm is F = E = 0.835 3 l 1 # 10 = 835 N Hence (A) is correct option.

Cayley-Hamilton Theorem states that a square matrix satisfies its own characteristic equation. Consider a matrix 3 2 A == 2 0G A satisfies the relation (B) A2 + 2A + 2I = 0 (A) A + 3I + 2A - 1 = 0 (C) (A + I) (A + 2I)

SOL 1.78

MCQ 1.78

For characteristic equation 3 2 > 1 0 H = 0 ( 3 ) ( ) + 2 = 0 ( + 1) ( + 2) = 0 According to Cayley-Hamiliton theorem (A + I) (A + 2I) = 0 Hence (C) is correct option. or

MCQ 1.79

SOL 1.79

According to Cayley-Hamiliton theorem (A + I) (A + 2I) = 0 or A2 + 3A + 2I = 0 or A2 = (3A + 2I) or A 4 = (3A + 2I) 2 = (9A2 + 12A + 4I) = 9 ( 3A 2I) + 12A + 4I = 15A 14I 8 A = ( 15A 14I) 2 = 225A2 + 420A + 196 = 225 ( 3A 2I) + 420A + 196I Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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= 255A 254I A = 255A2 254A = 255 ( 3A 2I) 254A = 511A + 510I Hence (A) is correct option.

9

Consider the R-L-C circuit shown in figure

MCQ 1.80

For a step-input ei , the overshoot in the output e0 will be (A) 0, since the system is not under damped (B) 5 % (C) 16 % (D) 48 %

SOL 1.80

System response of the given circuit can be obtained as. 1 bCs l e 0 (s) H (s) = = 1 ei (s) bR + Ls + Cs l 1 H (s) = 2 LCs + RCs + 1 1 b LC l H (s) = s2 + R s + 1 L LC Characteristic equation is given by, s2 + R s + 1 = 0 L LC Here natural frequency n = 1 LC 2n = R L Damping ratio = R LC 2L =R 2 Here C L

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1 2

# 100

2

MCQ 1.81

# 0.5

If the above step response is to be observed on a non-storage CRO, then it would be best have the ei as a (A) Step function (B) Square wave of 50 Hz (C) Square wave of 300 Hz (D) Square wave of 2.0 KHz

SOL 1.81

The associated figure shows the two types of rotate right instructions R1, R2 available in a microprocessor where Reg is a 8-bit register adn C is the carry bit. The rotate left instructions L1 and L2 are similar except that C now links the most significant bit of Reg instead of the least significant one.

MCQ 1.82

Suppose Reg contains the 2s complement number 11010110. If this number is divided by 2 the answer should be (A) 01101011 (B) 10010101 (C) 11101001 (D) 11101011

Hence ( ) is Correct Option. Such a division can be correctly performed by the following set of operatings (B) L2, R1, R2 (A) L2, R2, R1 (C) R2, L1, R1 (D) R1, L2, R2

SOL 1.83

MCQ 1.84

A signal is processed by a causal filter with transfer function G (s) Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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For a distortion free output signal wave form, G (s) must (A) provides zero phase shift for all frequency (B) provides constant phase shift for all frequency (C) provides linear phase shift that is proportional to frequency (D) provides a phase shift that is inversely proportional to frequency

SOL 1.84

Output is said to be distortion less if the input and output have identical wave shapes within a multiplicative constant. A delayed output that retains input waveform is also considered distortion less. Thus for distortion less output, input-output relationship is given as y (t) = Kg (t td ) Taking Fourier transform. Y () = KG () e - jt Y () = G () H () H () & transfer function of the system So, H () = Ke - jt Amplitude response H () = K Phase response n () = td For distortion less output, phase response should be proportional to frequency. Hence (C) is correct option.

d d

MCQ 1.85

G (z) = z - 1 + z - 3 is a low pass digital filter with a phase characteristics same as that of the above question if (A) = (B) = (C) = (1/3) (D) = (- 1/3) Hence (A) is correct option. G (z) z = e = e j + e 3j

j

SOL 1.85

Page 56

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Answer Sheet

(D) (B) (A) (C) (C) (B) (D) (D) (D) (D) (A) (*) (A) (C) (C) (B) (B) (B)

19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.

(C) (D) (B) (D) (*) (B) (A) (D) (B) (C) (A) (C) (B) (A) (B) (B) (D) (A)

37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

(C) (B) (D) (A) (C) (*) (A) (D) (B) (A) (B) (C) (B) (A) (C) (*) (C)

55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71.

(D) (*) (*) (B) (C) (*) (D) (A) (B) (A) (A) (D) (C) (A) (*) (A) (C) (B)

73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85.

(C) (C) (A) (D) (A) (C) (A) (C) (*) (*) (*) (C) (A)

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