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65 visualizações5 páginasfault classification

Mar 02, 2014

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fault classification

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fault classification

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Dept.of Electrical & Electronics Manipal Institute of Technology urpavan009@gmail.com

Dept.of Electrical & Electronics Manipal Institute of Technology chaitanya.karanam1992@gmail.com

Under the Guidance of Mrs R.C.Mala Dept.of Electrical & Electronics Manipal Institute of Technology mala.rc@manipal.edu

Abstract The fault diagnosis of Electric Power System is a process of discriminating the faulted system elements by protective relays and subsequent tripping by circuit breakers. Specially, as soon as some serious faults occur on a power system, a lot of alarm information is transmitted to the control center. Under such situation, the operators are required to judge the cause, location, and the system elements with faults rapidly and accurately. Thus, good fault diagnosis methods can provide accurate and effective diagnostic information to dispatch operators and help them take necessary measures in fault situation so as to guarantee the secure and stable operation of the Electric power system. More than 50% of the faults occur in a transmission line. Hence it is important that suitable fault detection methods be employed to reduce faults in a transmission line. Keywords Fault Index, Wavelet Transform, Mother Wavelet

I. INTRODUCTION In recent years, concern over the quality electric power has been increasing rapidly since poor electric power quality causes many problems for affected loads, such as malfunctions, instabilities, short life time and so on. Poor quality of electric power is normally caused by power line disturbances such as impulses, notches, glitches, momentary interruptions, wave faults, over voltages, under voltages and harmonic distortion. In order to improve power quality, the sources and causes of such disturbances must be known before appropriate mitigating action can be taken. However, in order to determine the causes and sources of disturbances, one must have the capability to detect and localize those disturbances and further identity (classify) the types of disturbances. A fault occurs when two or more conductors come in contact with each other or ground in three phase systems. Faults are classified as single line-to-ground faults, double line-to-ground faults, line-to-line faults and three phase faults. Therefore, in such instances, the power system components are subjected to greatest stresses from excessive currents. These faults give rise to serious damage on power system equipment. Fault occurring on transmission and distributing line not only effect the

equipment but also the power quality. So, it is necessary to determine the fault type and the location on the line and clear the fault as soon as possible in order to avoid such damages. Flashover, lightning strikes, birds, wind, snow and ice load lead to short circuits. The wavelet multi-resolution analysis is a new and powerful method of signal analysis and is well suited to traveling wave signals. Wavelets can provide multiple resolutions in both time and frequency domains. The windowing of wavelet transform is adjusted automatically for low and high-frequencies i.e., it uses short time intervals for high frequency components and long-time intervals for low frequency components. Wavelet analysis [7] is based on the decomposition of a signal into scales using wavelet analysing function called mother wavelet. The temporal analysis is performed with a contracted, high frequency version of the mother wavelet, while the frequency analysis is performed with a dilated, low frequency version of the mother wavelet. Wavelets [2] are functions that satisfy the requirements of both time and frequency localization. The necessary and sufficient condition for wavelets is that it must be oscillatory, must decay quickly to zero and must have an average value of zero. In addition, for the discrete wavelet transform considered here, the wavelets are orthogonal to each other. Wavelet has a digitally implementable counterpart called the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The generated waveforms are analysed with wavelet multiresolution analysis to extract sub-band information from the simulated transients. Daubechies [1] wavelets are commonly used in the analysis of traveling waves. They were found to be closely matched to the processed signal, which is of utmost importance in wavelet applications. Daubechies wavelets are more localized i.e., compactly supported in time and hence are good for short and fast transient analysis and provide almost perfect reconstruction. However, there are some other wavelets show a good correlation with the transient signals and may be used in the analysis. Several wavelets have been used in this thesis. The comparison is

presented in section. Due to the unique feature of providing multiple resolutions in both time and frequency by wavelets, the sub-band information can be extracted from the original signal. When applied to faults, this sub-band information is seen to provide useful signatures of transmission line faults, so that the fault location can be done more accurately. Then, the aerial mode signal is analysed using wavelet transform. From the different decomposed levels, only one level is considered for the analysis. This level has the highest energy level output and the dominant frequency of the transient. II. WAVELET TRANSFORM Waveforms associated with the traveling waves are typically non-periodic signals that contain localized high frequency oscillations superimposed on the power frequency and its harmonics. DFT was found to be not adequate for decomposing and detecting these kinds of signals because it does not provide any time information. On the other hand, the STFT takes the time dependency of the signal spectrum into account. However, the time-frequency plane cannot give both accurate time and frequency localizations. The Wavelet transform allows time localization of different frequency components of a given signal like the STFT but its transformation functions called wavelets which adjust their time widths to their frequency in such a way that higher frequency wavelets will be narrow and lower frequency ones will be broader. Wavelets time frequency resolution provides a useful tool for decomposing and analyzing fault transient signals. Given a function x (t), its Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) is defined as follows:

the lower end of the frequency spectrum however with progressively shorter bandwidths. Conversely, the first scale will have the highest time resolution. Higher scales will cover increasingly longer time intervals III. COMPARISON BETWEEN WAVELET TRANSFORM AND FOURIER TRANSFORM The wavelet transform is often compared with the Fourier transform. Fourier transform is a powerful tool for analyzing the components of a stationary signal (a stationary signal is a signal where there is no change in the properties of signal). For example, the Fourier transform is a powerful tool for processing signals that are composed of some combination of sine and cosine signals (sinusoids). The Fourier transform is less useful in analyzing non-stationary signal (a nonstationary signal is a signal where there is change in the properties of signal). Wavelet transforms allow the components of a non-stationary signal to be analyzed. Wavelets also allow filters to be constructed for stationary and non-stationary signals. The Fourier transform shows up in a remarkable number of areas outside of classic signal processing. Even taking this into account, we think that it is safe to say that the mathematics of wavelets is much larger than that of the Fourier transform. In fact, the mathematics of wavelets encompasses the Fourier transform. The size of wavelet theory is matched by the size of the application area. Initial wavelet applications involved signal processing and filtering. However, wavelets have been applied in many other areas including non-linear regression and compression. An offshoot of wavelet compression allows the amount of determinism in a time series to be estimated. The main difference is that wavelets are well localized in both time and frequency domain whereas the standard Fourier transform is only localized in frequency domain. The Short-time Fourier transform (STFT) is also a time and frequency localized but there are issues with the frequency time resolution and wavelets often give a better signal representation using Multi-resolution analysis. IV. WAVELET DETAILS SELECTION Wavelet analysis has been used to determine the TWs that arrive at the relaying point as the result of faults and switching operations. This can be achieved through the analysis of details of fault index of current travelling wave signal. The optimum level of wavelet detail coefficients is selected based on its fault index over an window interval of twice the transmission line travel time and is defined as

) (1)

The transformed signal is a function with two variables b and a, the translation and the scale parameter respectively. (t) is the mother wavelet, which is a band-pass filter and (t)* is the complex conjugate form . The factor is used to ensure that each scaled wavelet function has the same energy as the wavelet basis function. It should also satisfy the following admissible condition:

(2)

The wavelet coefficients (WTC) of the signal are derived using matrix equations based on decomposition and reconstruction of a discrete signal. Actual implementation of the DWT involves successive pairs of high-pass and lowpass filters at each scaling stage of the DWT. This can be thought of as successive approximations of the same function, each approximation providing the incremental information related to a particular scale (frequency range). The first scale covers a broad frequency range at the high frequency end of the spectrum and the higher scales cover

(3)

Where, di is the 3rd level detailed coefficient of the transient signal under observation at that particular instant of time. M to M+40 is time interval under observation.

V. PROPOSED SOLUTION A typical simple transmission line is taken and is analyzed. This transmission line is subjected to different faults at different time instants. The fault location techniques are proposed and analyzed through wavelet transform & Stransform methods. The simulation is carried on MATLAB/SIMULINK. The output waves of currents obtained from scope are analyzed. The type of fault can be identified by looking at the current waves obtained. If for instance, there is a AG fault in the system, the waves obtained show abrupt increase in current during the fault cycle. The other two phases have lower currents than the faulted phase. Thus fault index values are taken as a discriminating factor in detecting the type of fault.

Fig.2 Ground fault connection. Fig. 2 shows the SLG fault condition at a phase line. The fault location is at m distance from substation A and (1-m) distance from substation B where m is in per unit (p.u.). Fault resistance, RF, fault voltage, VF and m distance are unknown parameters. When a fault occurs at any point at the transmission line, currents from both substations will flow toward the fault point and return back to the substations through the ground path. So, fault current, IF is the combination of current from both substations. Where m = 1, 2... Line length (in per unit) Z1 = Positive sequence impedance Z2 = Negative sequence impedance Z0 = Zero sequence impedance VA = Phase to ground voltage seen from substation A VA1 = Positive sequence component of fault voltage VA2 = Negative sequence component of fault voltage VA0 = Zero sequence component of fault voltage VF = Phase to ground fault voltage IA0 = Zero sequence component of phase current from substation A IB0 = Zero sequence component of phase current from substation B ZF = Fault impedance Phase to ground fault voltage, VF seen from both substations can be written as

200kms

ES ER

Fault

Fig.1 One-line Diagram of Single circuit transmission model. Table1. Table showing various parameters used in the SIMULINK model Sl.no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Entity Source Source System Transmission line Transmission line System 3 Phase Fault Circuit Breaker Parameter Phase-to-Phase rms voltage (Vs) Phase-to-Phase rms voltage (Vr) Frequency Zero sequence component Positive sequence component Samples per cycle Fault transition times(s) Circuit breaker transition times Value 400e3 400e3 at angle 30 50Hz 96.45+j335.26

(4) (5)

9.78+j110.23 40 [4/50 6/50] [5/50] Applying for m Zero sequence components of phase currents from both substations are equal to

(6) (7)

(8)

The above formula gives us the Fault Location.

Wavelet decomposition is then performed on these signals to obtain approximate and detailed coefficients. A carrier of DB5, level 3 is selected as mother wavelet during the decomposition.

Fig.3 Simulink model of the transmission line system Simulink model shown in (Fig.3) is simulated by selecting a certain fault at a particular location on the transmission line. The current transients for AG fault are shown below for illustration. Fig.6 plots of approximate & detailed coefficients. The obtained coefficients of current signals are then analyzed to detect the occurrence of fault. Fault index value is computed also tabulated, and if it is above certain threshold value, Fault is detected. Type of fault is also classified depending on those values. Table2. Fault index values during the Fault.

Sl. no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

From table2 it can be observed that the fault index values of faulty phases are quite high compared to those of healthy phases. So a suitable threshold value is taken and if the fault index value exceeds that value, then that particular phase is considered to be faulty. Fault location can be calculated using (8) .from the results a max error of 12% and min error of 0.6% is noted in location of fault.

The mother wavelet is used in db5 signal at level 3, Fault index values were calculated using detailed coefficients through the proposed algorithm as shown above. Fault index values during and before the faults were tabulated and suitable analysis is carried out, the discriminating factor being the fault index values. This was done with the help of the wavelet toolbox and also an m file. Wavelet transform have future scope in analysing various faults. They are a dependable tool and accurate tool for detection also. It has high scope for future research as lot must be done in this area. Fault analysis is a nascent area, although lot of research has been done, further research work can be carried out. In this work, we have considered single-circuit transmission line. This work can be extended for doublecircuit transmission lines also. REFERENCES

[1] Subhransu Ranjan Samantaray, A new approach to Power system protection using Time frequency analysis and Pattern recognition, 2007. [2] Shaik Abdul Gafoor, P.V. Ramana Rao, Wavelet based fault detection, classification and location in transmission lines, First International Power and Energy conference, PEC, 2006. [ [3] Benemar S., Fault locator for Distribution System using Decision rule and DWT, Engineering system conference, Toranto, pp 63 -68, 2003. [4] M. H. Idris, Effective Two-Terminal Single Line to Ground Fault Location Algorithm, IEEE International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference, 2012. [5] Abdelsalam Mohamed Elhaffar, Power Transmission line Fault location Based on current Travelling Waves, 2008. [6] Sunusi. Sani Adamu, Sada Iliya, Fault Location and Distance estimation on Power Transmission lines using Discrete Wavelet Transform, International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov 2011. [7] M.Geethanjali, K.Sathiya priya, Combined Wavelet Transforms and Neural Network (WNN) based Fault detection and classification in transmission lines, 2008. [8] M. Sushama, G. Tulasi Ram Das, Detection and Classification of Voltage swells using Adaptive Decomposition Wavelet transforms, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 2005-2008 JATIT, 2008.

Fig.7 Result window displaying the fault index values, Fault type and location. In the result window shown above are the fault index values before the fault occurrence and the fault index values during the fault. These values are analyzed and necessary fault index value is calculated for detection of fault. A fault is detected when the fault index value obtained is higher than the proposed threshold value. Depending upon the values of fault indices of three phases fault type is classified. VIII. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK The SIMULINK model of proposed transmission line system has been developed and fault analysis has been carried out. Different waveforms were observed using SIMULINK. The transient signals have been analysed using wave menu in wavelet toolbox.1D wavelet is selected for this purpose. The transient signals were synthesized using Discrete Wavelet transform (DWT). Approximate & Detailed coefficients were obtained. M file was developed for calculating fault index values and also obtaining respective plots.

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