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Glossary of grammatical terms (English-Chinese) Adjectiv An adjective is used to add extra information to a noun - an experienced worker a !

eautiful girl a !lack cat" #n Chinese$ y%ge y&u j'ngy(n de g)ngr*n y%ge pi(oliang de g+niang y,-h' h.i m/o " As can !e seen in the examples a!ove the Chinese adjective is often followed !y de when used to modify a noun" #n some Chinese grammar !ooks some Chinese adjectives are called stative ver!s !ecause the adjective indicates the state of the su!ject and the Chinese e0uivalent of the ver! !e is not used" 1or more information see the note on Be" 2 he is tired 3 t/44l5i le 44 2 these students are very intelligent 3 -h5xi. xu*sheng 44 h6n c)ngming 44 Adver! An adver! is used to add extra information to a ver! an adjective or another adver! - to walk slowly extremely satisfied 0uite fre0uently" #n Chinese$ h6n m(nde -&u f.ich7ng m8ny, xi/ngd/ng p%nf7n " 9hen used to modify a ver! the Chinese adver! is often followed !y de " Auxiliary ver! An auxiliary ver! is a ver! such as !e do have which is used to form a particular tense or grammatical function of another ver! or to form an interrogative negative or imperative sentence" :ere are some English examples$ it is raining; did you see him<; she didn=t come; he has left; don=t go>" Comparative ?he comparative as its name indicates is the form of the adjective or adver! which ena!les us to compare two or more nouns or pronouns" #n English this is usually done !y putting more less or as !efore the appropriate adjective or adver! or !y changing the !ase form to the comparative form ending in -er" Chinese adjectives and adver!s do not have comparative forms" ?he comparison is usually indicated !y !@ the Chinese e0uivalent of than as can !e seen in the following examples$ 2 my mother is more patient (than my father) 3 w& m/ma (!@ w& !(!a) n(ix'n () 2 he has less money (than # have) 3 t/de 0i7n (!@ w&de) sh8o () 2 ?om is taller (than his father) 3 ?/ngmA (!@ t/ !(!a) g/o !()" 2 he walked more slowly (than my mother) 3 t/ (!@ w& m/ma) -&u de m(n ()# 2 he is as tired as # am 3 t/ h* w& y%y(ng l5i $ Bote that when the comparison is implied that is when !@ (3 than) is not used the Chinese adjective has a sense of comparison !y itself as in the example !elow"

2 A$ Cf you two who is older< 3 n@men li8 r*n sh*i d(< %< 2 D$ #=m older 3 w& d( % 2 C$ Ees" #=m younger 3 du, w& xi8o & #f the sentence descri!es the state or condition of the su!ject and no comparison is implied it is necessary to add the adver! h6n (3 very) !efore the adjective as in the example !elow" Ctherwise the sentence has a sense of comparison" 2 she is tall 3 t/ h6n g/o " Conditional A conditional sentence is one in which the statement contained in the main clause can only !e fulfilled if the condition stated in the su!ordinate clause is also fulfilled" ?his condition is usually introduced !y if in English and rFgu& '( in Chinese" 2 #f it is fine tomorrow we=ll go to the seaside 3 rFgu& m%ngti/n ti/n0, h8o w&men jiG 0G h8i!i/n '())* +, 2 # would go travelling if # had lots of money 3 rFgu& w& y&u h6n du) 0i7n w& jiG 0G lHx%ng '(. +,/0 Conjunction A conjunction can !e either (i) a word like and or !ut which is used to join words or simple sentences together or (ii) a word like when although if where which is used to form a complex sentence" Bote that and is not translated into Chinese when it joins two simple sentences or two ver!al phrases" Iee the following examples$ 2 (i) Dritain and China 3 E'ngguJ h* Kh)ngguJ 1$2 2 he is tired !ut happy 3 t/ h6n l5i d(nsh, h6n g/ox,ng 34" 2 # went to Deijing and she went to Ihanghai 3 w& 0Gle D6ij'ng 44t/ 0Gle Ih(ngh8i ,56 44,72 she went to the shop and !ought some apples 3 t/ 0G sh/ngdi(n 44 m8ile y,xi. p%nggu& ,8944( 2

(ii) he has agreed to help me even though he is !usy 3 su'r7n t/ h6n m7ng d(n t/ tJngy, !/ng-hG w& :; 3< = when # was a!out to go out the telephone rang 3 w& -h5ngy(o ch+0G de sh%hou di(nhu( l%ng xi8ng le >?@, A Leterminer A determiner is used !efore a noun in order to identify more precisely what is !eing referred to" :ere are some examples$ 2 the !ook 3 -h5!6n sh+ B 2 my !ook 3 w&de sh+ 2 that !ook 3 n(!6n sh+ CB 2 these !ooks 3 -h5xi. sh+ 2 some !ooks 3 y,xi. sh+ Bote that the English determiner a is usually translated into Chinese as a numeral plus an appropriate nominal measure word$ 2 a !ook 3 y,!6n sh+ B Exclamation An exclamation is a word or phrase conveying a reaction such as surprise shock disapproval indignation amusement etc" #n !oth English and Chinese it is usually followed !y an exclamation mark" 2 Excellent> 3 :8o j% le> *> 2 9hat nice weather> 3 Lu)me h8o de ti/n0, a> .*)> #mperative An imperative sentence is used to indicate an order command prohi!ition suggestion etc" 2 come here 0uickly 3 ku(i l7i D 2 don=t go out 3 !i* ch+0u @, 2

let=s go 3 -7nmen -&u !a #nfinitive ?he infinitive is a form of the ver! which has no indication of person or tense" #n English it is often preceded !y to as in to walk to run to read to receive" #n Chinese there is no word like to or any change of form to indicate the infinitive" Measure word N Bominal measure word Oer!al measure word Bominal measure word #n Chinese a numeral cannot 0uantify a noun !y itself" #t has to !e accompanied !y the measure word that is appropriate for the noun that is !eing used" Each noun has a specific measure word or set of measure words that can !e used with it" ?here is often a link !etween the measure word and the shape of the o!ject" #n expressions of 0uantification the numeral comes first followed !y the measure word and the noun" 9hen the determiner this or that is used an appropriate measure word is also re0uired" As can !e seen in the examples !elow we have put the numeralPdeterminer and the measure word together as one word in pinyin to correspond to the numeral or the determiner in English" Bote that some nominal measure words can also !e used as ver!al measure words" (1or a list of common nominal measure words and examples of their use see the section on Measure 9ords) 2 a computer 3 y,t7i j,su(nj' EFG 2 four dictionaries 3 s,!6n c%di8n HBIJ 2 this student 3 -h5ge xu*sheng 2 that river 3 n(ti7o h* CK Boun A noun is used to identify a person an animal an o!ject an idea or an emotion" #t can also !e the name of an individual a company or an institution" 2 student 3 xu*sheng 2 dog 3 g&u L 2 ta!le 3 -hu)-i M 2 plan 3 j,hu( 2

happiness 3 x,ngfF NO 2 Qeter 3 D@d* P# 2 America 3 M6iguJ Q Bum!er A num!er as a part of speech refers to numerical figures such as five twenty thousand etc" or words indicating 0uantity" As a grammatical concept it refers to the state of !eing either singular or plural" Bouns in English usually change to their plural forms !y adding -s to the end$ a ta!le two ta!les" Chinese nouns usually do not change to form singular and plural" 2 a ta!le 3 y,-h/ng -hu)-i M 2 two ta!les 3 li8ng-h/ng -hu)-i M Cccasionally -men - can !e attached to the end of a noun to mark the plural form !ut it is optional and applies only to nouns referring to animate entities$ 2 students 3 xu*sheng(men) () 2 workers 3 g)ngr*n(men) () C!ject ?he o!ject of a sentence is the word or group of words which is immediately affected !y the action indicated !y the ver!" #n the following English sentence the word child is the su!ject !roke is the ver! and a cup is the o!ject" Iimilarly in the Chinese translation -h5ge h7i-i RM is the su!ject d8pRle ST is the ver! and y%ge ch7!.i UV is the o!ject" 2 the child !roke a cup 3 -h5ge h7i-i d8pRle y%ge ch7!.i RMSTUV ?here may !e two kinds of o!ject in a sentence a direct o!ject and an indirect o!ject" #n the example a!ove a cup and y%ge ch7!.i UV are strictly direct o!jects" :owever in the following English sentence he is the su!ject gave is the ver! the child is the indirect o!ject and a cup is the direct o!ject" Iimilarly in the Chinese translation t/ is the su!ject g6ile is the ver! -h5ge h7i-i RM is the indirect o!ject and y%ge ch7!.i UV is the direct o!ject" #n general terms the indirect o!ject indicates the person or thing which =!enefits= from the action of the ver! upon the direct o!ject" 2 he gave the child a cup 3 t/ g6ile -h5ge h7i-i y%ge ch7!.i RMUV Qhrasal ver! A phrasal ver! is a ver! com!ined with a preposition or an adver! and having a particular meaning" 1or example to run away meaning to flee and to see to something meaning to ensure that something is done are phrasal ver!s" #f you look up to run

away for example you will see that the phrasal ver!s !eginning with the word run are listed after all the other meanings of the word run in a lpha!etical order of the following adver! or preposition" Qinyin Lesigned in the Qeople=s Sepu!lic of China during the mid-TUVWs pinyin is a phonetic system of the Chinese language" #t adopts the roman alpha!et to represent phonemic sounds in Mandarin Chinese" #n this dictionary all Chinese headwords translations and examples are given first in pinyin and then in Chinese characters" Qreposition A preposition is a word such as under !eside across in which is usually followed !y a noun in English" #n Chinese the preposition often consists of two parts such as -(i """ xi(mian W """ XY(3 under) and the noun is placed !etween them as in the examples !elow" 2 under the ta!le 3 -(i -hu)-i xi(mian WMXY 2 !eside the road 3 -(i lG p7ng!i/n WZ[ 2 in the garden 3 -(i hu/yu7n l@ W\] Most preposition X noun groups indicate movement 2 he ran towards the house 3 t/ ch7o n(-uR f7ng-i p8o0G ^C_`M, position 2 your !ooks are on the ta!le 3 n@de sh+ -(i -hu)-i shang WM7 or time 2 #=ll !e there at Y o=clock 3 w& s, di8n-h)ng hu, d(o n(r HabC Qronoun A pronoun is used instead of a noun in order to avoid repeating it unnecessarily" ?here are the personal pronouns # you he she it we you (plural) they; the possessive pronouns mine yours his hers its ours yours (plural) theirs; the interrogative pronouns used in 0uestions who which what; the demonstrative pronouns this that these those; the relative pronouns used in relative clauses who which whose; and the reflexive pronouns myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves" ?o find the Chinese e0uivalents of these pronouns please look them up in the English-Chinese side of the dictionary" Seflexive pronoun N Qronoun Selative pronoun N Qronoun Iu!ject

?he su!ject of a sentence is often the word or group of words which performs the action indicated !y the ver!" #n the sentence Zohn laughed Zohn is the su!ject of the ver! laughed" Cf course the ver! doesn=t necessarily express an action as such" 1or example in the sentence Zohn is tall Zohn is the su!ject of the ver! is" #n the Chinese sentence Eu.h(n xi(o le cd Eu.h(n c is similarly the su!ject of the ver! xi(o le d and in the sentence Eu.h(n h6n g/o c" Eu.h(n c is the su!ject of h6n g/o "" Iuperlative ?he superlative is the form of the adjective or adver! which is used to express the highest or lowest degree" #n English the adjective or adver! is usually preceded !y most or least" Iome adjectives and adver!s (usually of one sylla!le) have their own form$ !est worst !iggest smallest fastest slowest etc" #n Chinese the superlative is formed !y putting -u, e !efore the adjective or adver!" 2 most important 3 -u, -hRngy(o ef? 2 least important 3 -u, !F -hRngy(o egf? 2 most carefully 3 -u, -@x, eh 2 least carefully 3 -u, !G -@x, egh 2 smallest 3 -u, xi8o e& ?ense ?he tense of a ver! expresses whether the action takes place in the past present or future" [nlike English ver!s Chinese ver!s do not have any particular form to express tense; the time of the action is usually indicated !y the adver! or in the context" Qresent tense 2 he is telephoning his friends 3 t/ -(i g6i t/de p*ngyou d8 di(nhu( WijS Qast tense 2 # didn=t go 3 w& m*i 0G , 1uture tense 2 they will come tomorrow 3 t/men m%ngti/n l7i ) ?one Qlease see the section on ?ones in Mandarin Chinese"

Oer! ?he ver! propels the sentence along telling us what is happening" Bote these examples$ 2 Qaul !ought a new car 3 D8oluJ m8ile y%li(ng x'n ch. kl 2 ?he flood caused a lot of damage 3 shu@-/i -(och*ngle h6n d(de sAnh(i mno%p Iometimes of course the ver! doesn=t descri!e an action !ut rather a state of affairs$ 2 :e has a pro!lem 3 t/ y&u y%g5 w5nt% 2 ?he damage appears 0uite serious 3 sAnh(i k(nl7i xi/ngd/ng y7n-hRng pqf 2 # am ill 3 w& !,ng le r Bote that the ver! am in the sentence # am ill is not translated into Chinese" 1or more information and examples of this type of sentence see the note on De" Iee also the entry on Adjective in the glossary a!ove" Oer!al measure word Oer!al measure words are generally used to indicate the num!er of times an action or state occurs" As in the case of nominal measure words the numeral and ver!al measure word are spelled together as one pinyin word in this dictionary" ?he numeral X measure word unit is preceded !y the ver! and is usually followed !y the o!ject if there is one (i"e" if the ver! is transitive)" 1or a list of common ver!al measure words and examples of their use see the section on Measure words" 2 #=ve !een to :ong \ong twice 3 w& 0Gguo li8ngc, ]i/ngg8ng ,stu 2 he nodded his head several times 3 t/ di8nle j@xi( tJu aX